Vol. XXXVI JANUARY, 1916 No. 1
     The inequalities of social life in this world are a favorite theme with social reformers, who, more often than not, bitterly inveigh against such an unjust, unchristian, and unnatural state of things, and suggest the most drastic and revolutionary reforms in order to equalize the possession of the so-called "good things" of this world among the "People." But few-some even among New Church people-appear to realize that far greater are the inequalities of social life in the world to come, as revealed in Swedenborg's works. Between the life of the myriads of angels in the Heavens and the comparatively living death of the myriads of inhabitants in the Hells, the differences are so appalling that earth contains nothing approaching to it; in fact, the most vivid
imagination cannot possibly grasp the transcendent glory of the one and the horrific depths of degradation and wickedness of the other. In awful contrast to the surpassing magnificence and exquisite luxury of so many heavenly societies, we are told that "in the hells. . . they appear indeed clothed with garments, but such as are ragged, squalid and filthy, each according to his insanity; nor can they wear any others." (H. H. 182.) In fact, their whole environment is inexpressibly foul and disgusting. Thus "all for each and each for all" is certainly not applicable to the inhabitants of the spiritual world, for what is heaven to some is as it were hell to others and vice versa. As each spirit is free to choose his associates and place of abode, the law of like to like is there universal.

     Certain spirits . . . when the heat of heaven breathed upon them, began to be tormented in a direful manner wherefore they cast themselves downwards, swearing that to enter heaven, unless they were in the light and heat of heaven, was to them hell. (A. E. 865)

     Of course our future life entirely depends upon our life in this world.

     Every man after death enters into the world of spirits and takes away with him altogether the same nature that he had in the natural world. . . . The world of spirits is so full of subtle wickedness that it may be compared to a pool of water replete with the spawn of frogs. (T. C. R. 120.)

     "All for each and each for all" is an altruism dangerously misunderstood and misinterpreted, for although "Heaven is a communion of goods," (H. H. 268), yet the degree of perception and reception of these goods entirely depends on personal character, which differs in each individual angel, whereas in the hells where the love of self reigns supreme, "to everyone is done that which he would do to another." (A. R. 762.) While in this world slavery has among so-called civilized nations been abolished, it is not so in the next world, for we are told: "After infestations they afflict him with cruel punishment until he is reduced to a state of slavery," (H. H. 574), alluding to the experiences of a newcomer into the abodes of evil and falsity. "The reason why the Lord permits torments in the hells is that evils cannot otherwise be restrained and subdued." (H. H. 581.) "The fear of punishment is the only means of restraining the violence and fury of those who are in the hells. . . . There are no other means." (H. H. 543) Yet in spite of all this, evil spirits enjoy and have delight in their dire environment, "and the delight of evil, perceived as good, is hell." (D. P. 93.)

     Neither does "all for each and each, for all" mean equality in rank and class.

     Because the whole heaven is distinguished into Societies according to the affections which are of love and because all wisdom and intelligence is according to those affections, therefore each Society has a peculiar respiration distinct from the respiration of another Society, and similarly a peculiar and distinct heartbeat.


No one therefore is able to enter from one Society into a more distant one, neither can anyone descend from a higher into a lower heaven, or ascend from a lower into a higher, because the heart then labors and the lungs are oppressed. Least of all can anyone ascend from hell into heaven, for if he makes the attempt he pants like one in the agony of death, or like a fish taken out of water into the air. (D. W. vii.)

     Nothing is more certain than that unless heaven is within us here on earth and predominates, we shall never be in heaven hereafter. The converse is equally true, that unless hell is within us here on earth and predominates, we shall never be in hell hereafter; but it must infallibly be one or the other.

     That the hells have not only communication but conjunction with such things on earth, may be concluded from this, that the hells are not remote from men, but are around them, yea, are in those who are in evil because the spiritual world is not in space, but it is where there is a corresponding affection. (D. L. W. 343.)

     Then the antipathy is so overwhelming between the evil and the good that "an evil spirit when only looked at by the angels, falls into a swoon and loses the appearance of a man." (H. H. 231) Even any intercourse between the intermediate states in the heavens is impossible as "the angels of the Celestial kingdom and those of the Spiritual kingdom do not dwell together, nor associate with one another," (H. H 27); for "an angel of one heaven cannot enter among angels of another heaven." (H. H. 35.) Yet from one standpoint "all for each and each for all" is a fact, but it wholly depends on the individual capacity of reception, for "they who are in the inmost heaven and in the midst of it, diffuse their sphere through the whole of heaven, and hence there is a communication of all in heaven with every one and every one with all." (W. H. 49.) And "Heaven is a communion sharing all it has with each one and every one receiving all he has from this communion. . . . In proportion as man receives heaven, he also is such a recipient, a heaven and an angel." (H. H. 73)


This communion is discrete and not, as it were, personally cognizable; subjective but not objective; for "a society of a higher heaven has no communication with a society of a lower heaven except by correspondences." (H. H. 207.)

     It is most carefully provided that no angel of a higher heaven should look down into a society of a lower heaven and speak with anyone there; for if this be done the angel is deprived of his intelligence and wisdom. (H. H. 208.)

     The wisdom of the angels of a higher heaven exceeds that of the angels of a lower heaven, in the proportion of a myriad to one. This also is the reason why the angels of a lower heaven cannot speak with the angels of a higher one; and even when they look toward them they do not see them. (H. H. 209.)

     If the inequalities of condition in the world of causes is so great, how futile and impossible to expect anything different in the world of effects, for "nothing whatever exists in the natural world that does not draw cause and therefore origin from the spiritual world . . . from both heaven and hell." (D. L. W. 339.)

     Besides innumerable class distinctions, there are an endless variety of ranks and orders.

     In the Heavens as on Earth there are distinctions of dignity and pre-eminence, with abundance of the richest treasures; for there are governments and forms of government, and thus a variety of ranks and orders, of greater and lesser power and dignity. Those, too, who discharge the supreme authority, have palaces and courts, which for magnificence and splendor far exceed those of emperors and kings on earth, and they are surrounded with honor and glory from the multitude of courtiers, ministers and guards in magnificent apparel. (T. C. R. 735.)

     There are not only angelic guards but innumerable angels who are servants.

     A similar government [in heaven] is also in least form in every house. There is the master and there are servants; the master loving the servants, and the servants loving the master, so that they serve each other from love. (H. H. 219: also T. C. R. 740, 747)


     Common ownership of all the land, capital, and means of production is frequently advocated by Socialists, including many Christian ministers and clergymen, in spite of the fact that if all capital and land be confiscated by the State, it would be impossible to compensate the owners or avoid breaking the Seventh Commandment. Compulsory confiscation, under the circumstances could mean nothing else. Swedenborg considered capital superlatives important and useful, for he says:

     No man of sound mind can condemn riches or wealth, because in the body politic they are like blood in the animal body. (T. C. R. 403.)

     And in regard to private ownership and possession of riches, the Writings furnish many instances expressing direct approval of both, not only in this world but in the next.

     A man may acquire riches and accumulate wealth provided that it be not done with craft and fraud; that he may eat and drink delicately provided that he does not make his life to consist in such things; dwell in magnificence according to his rank. . . nor need he give his goods to the poor, except so far as affection leads him. . . . These things do not hinder his admission into heaven provided he thinks interiorly in a becoming manner about God and deals sincerely and justly with his neighbor. (H. H. 358)

     Large fortunes are also permissible and not undesirable in both worlds.

     The lot of the rich in heaven is such that they excel the rest in opulence. Some of them dwell in palaces in which all things are refulgent as with gold and silver. (H. H. 361.)

     Both the good and evil are in dignities and wealth dignities and riches or honors and wealth, are either blessings or curses . . . blessings to the good, curses to the evil. . . . There are both rich and poor, both great and small in heaven and also in he1l. . . . There are dignities and wealth in heaven as in the world there is also commerce there and hence wealth. . . . They who have greater love and wisdom than others have greater dignities and wealth, and they are those to whom dignities and wealth had been blessings in the world. . . . Persons who are in dignity there are indeed in magnificence and glory like that of kings on earth. (D. P. 217.)


     The following quotations will cause a shock in this ultra democratic age, but I take it Swedenborg knew what he was writing about.

     Emperors, Kings, Dukes and all such as are born and educated to the exercise of dominion, if they humble themselves before God, are sometimes less influenced by the love of dominion grounded in the love of self, than others who are of mean extraction, and who seek pre-eminence and distinction from pride or self-conceit. (T. C. R. 405.)

     Neither is the millennium to be approached-as so many hope and expect-by an all-pervading bureaucracy.

     Many who were engaged in trade and commerce in the world and became rich by their employments, are in heaven, but fewer of those who were in stations of honor and became rich by their offices. The reason is, that the latter by the gains and honors bestowed upon them as dispensers of justice and equity, and also by conferring posts of profit and honors on others, were induced to love themselves and the world. (H. H. 359.)

     And in the following, who is right, the Divine Providence or the Communist?

     The Lord never leads man away from seeking honors or from gathering wealth, but He leads him away from the cupidity to seek after honors for the sake of eminence alone, or for the sake of himself; so, too, from gathering wealth for the sake of opulence alone, or for the sake of power. (D. P. 183)

     I would now refer to a much quoted and misunderstood text as to the rich and the poor. Many Christians "suppose that it is as difficult for the rich to enter heaven as for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle; and that it is easy for the poor because they are poor. But they who know anything of the spiritual sense of the Word, think otherwise. They know that heaven is for all who live the life of faith and love, whether they are rich or poor; but who are meant in the Word by the rich and the poor, will be shown. It has been given me to know certainly that the rich come into heaven as easily as the poor; and that no man is excluded from heaven because he lives in abundance, and that no one is received into heaven because he is poor.


There are both the rich and the poor, and many of the rich in greater glory and happiness than the poor. (H. H. 357)

     The poor come into heaven, not on account of their poverty, but on account of their life.... There is no peculiar mercy for the one more than for the other;. . . besides, poverty seduces and draws men away from heaven as much as wealth. There are very many among the poor who are not contented with their lot; who seek for many things, and believe riches to be blessings. They are angry therefore if they do not receive them and think ill of the Divine Providence. They also envy others the good things which they possess, and also defraud them when they have the opportunity; and they also live as much in sordid pleasures. (H. H. 364)

     From these things it may be clear that the rich come into heaven as much as the poor, and the one as easily as the other. It is believed that the poor are admitted easily, and the rich with difficulty, because the Word when it speaks of the rich and poor has; not been understood. By the rich in the Word are meant in the spiritual sense those who abound in the knowledges of ... good and truth and by the poor, those who are destitute of those knowledges, but yet desire them (H. H. 365.)

     In spite of the Word and in direct contradiction to the Writings, there have been, and I believe still are, a certain number of New Church people, who advocate the abolition of private capital, with common ownership of all land and means of production, but how they dare lend themselves to such propaganda after the clear teaching and revealed arcana in the Writings, passes all understanding.

     In the same way as "All for each and each for all" is often misinterpreted, I think that the real signification of "Our neighbor" is frequently misunderstood. The Writings contain many references as to our duty to our neighbor and enlighten us as to his quality and attributes. In the next world our neighborly environment entirely depends on mutual sympathy and somewhat similar characteristics and uses, and though in this world our neighbor has, in a sense, a wider signification, still, according to the Writings, the limits are relatively well defined and are by no means so universal as is generally supposed.


For instance, "every individual man is the neighbor whom we ought to love, but according to the quality of his good." (T. C. R. 406.) It is distinctly laid down that everybody is not our neighbor and that even among those who we may recognize as such, our reciprocal duties to each other vary considerably and are by no means based on a general equality.

     He who loves the neighbor from charity connects himself with the good of the neighbor and not with his person, except so far and so long as he is in good.... But he who loves another from friendship only, connects himself with his person, and at the same time with his evil.... The man who is in charity searches carefully and discerns, by means of truth, what ought to be loved, and in loving and conferring benefits, regards the quality of the other's use. (DOCT. FAITH 21.)

     For satanic spirits have power through those in the spiritual world who are in works alone, but none without them, for they draw them into connection with themselves provided any one of them says, "I am thy neighbor and on this account good offices ought to be extended to me;" on hearing which they accede, and give him assistance without enquiring who or what he is; because they are without truths, and it is only by truths that one can be distinguished from another. (A. R. 110.)

     Thus to recognize our neighbor a good deal of discriminating judgment is called for, although in many cases certain glaring negative characteristics render judgment easier.

     Love to the neighbor is the love of obeying the Lord's Commandments, which are chiefly those contained in the Second Table of the Decalogue. . . . He does not love his neighbor who desires to steal and plunder his goods. (A. R. 356)

     On this showing, if the State forcibly pooled all capital, seized all landed property, and communized all the means of production, it would be committing criminal and un-neighborly acts of spoliation, whether brought about by instalment or otherwise. Not only has the State no right to arbitrarily deprive owners of their lawful goods, but by the confiscation of capital as well, any form of compensation would be impossible. To do evil that a suppositious good may result is cynical casuistry.


     What is love to our neighbor but not to do him evil, according to the precepts of the Decalogue? And so far as man will not to do evil to his neighbor, so far he wills to do him good. (A. R. 571.)

     To forcibly confiscate our neighbor's possessions by the irresistible power of the State, is that showing him evil or good?

     Every man ought to be loved in proportion to the quality of the good which is in him; therefore good itself is essentially our neighbor. . . . It is evident that there are genera and species and also degrees of love towards our neighbor which degrees ought to be regulated by love towards the Lord, consequently by the proportion in which the Lord is received by our neighbor. (T. C. R. 410.)

     He who loves good because it is good, and truth because it is truth, pre-eminently loves his neighbor. (T. C. R. 419)

     Compulsory equality and community of property would be traversing our duty to our neighbor, as then the evil as well as the good would receive the same treatment. True charity to our neighbor is not robbing Peter to pay Paul for then we are grossly uncharitable and unneighborly to Peter. True charity is not so easy of attainment even in almsgiving.

     Eleemosynary acts of charity consist in giving to the poor and relieving the indigent, but with prudence.... It is a prevailing notion that charity consists solely in giving to the poor, relieving the indigent, providing for widows and orphans, etc.... Many things of this sort have no proper connection with charity, but are extraneous to it. Those who make charity to consist in such actions, must of necessity consider them meritorious. (T. C. R. 425.)

     It is difficult to remove such ideas [personal merit] from those who believe charity to consist in giving alms and assisting the indigent: in doing these works of charity, the doer at first openly and afterwards tacitly, desires reward and contracts notions of merit and desert. (T. C. R. 442.)

     This may seem a hard saying and must be taken as a serious warning, but considering the source of Swedenborg's information, we cannot but acknowledge its truth, more especially that the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION was his last work and to a large extent epitomized his spiritual philosophy.


On the subject of indiscriminate equality in State-charity, I would make one more quotation from the same work to prove its unwisdom.

     Those who have done eleemosynary acts of charity from the impulse of a blind undistinguishing charity, are found in another life equally compassionate to the wicked and the good; the consequence of which is, that the wicked are assisted in their disposition to do wickedly, and to turn the kindnesses they receive into means of injuring the good, so that such bestowers of kindnesses are ultimately the cause of mischief to the good. To bestow a favor on a wicked person is like giving bread to a devil, which he turns into poison . . . by using the kindnesses he receives as allurements to draw others into evil. (T. C. R. 428.)

     Thus to selfish people, the possession of dignities and wealth-even the communistic minimum-might be a curse and not a blessing. To sum up: "The love of dignities and riches for the sake of uses, is the love of uses, which is the same as the love of the neighbor." (D. P. 214) "This love is heavenly." (D. P. 215)

     I have already quoted H. H. 364 where in alluding to the poor it is stated: "They also envy others the good things which they possess. The last two Commandments in the Decalogue refer to this deadly sin of envying or coveting that which belongs to others." The Writings frequently refer to it. The socialist political doctrine of common ownership of all land, capital, and means of production, is largely based on envy and covetousness. It is so easy and politically popular in this world, to be philanthropic and generous with other people's property, especially when the owners are in a political minority, for "minorities must suffer!" But what says New Church doctrine as to this?

     So far as anyone does not covet what is his neighbor's, he wishes his neighbor happy in the enjoyment of his possessions. (T. C. R. 330.)

     Here is no condemnation of individual rights of property, quite the contrary.

     "Thou shalt not covet," and when a man does not covet what belongs to his neighbor, he then learns good-will towards him. (T. C. R. 456.)


     The converse must be equally true, that if a man does covet another's possessions, he then learns ill-will towards him.

     Man is wholly possessed by two kinds of love, the love of ruling over all, and the love of possessing the wealth and property of all. (T. C. R. 498.)

     And these are hereditary from his parents. Only the regenerate can overcome these natural inclinations. If they are not overcome, we still abide in these sins. Thus, lust of dominance and cupidity can be national as well as individual, as in German Kultur and in other modern psychological movements nearer home. What a man loves, this he continually covets.... By not coveting a neighbor's house, is understood, not to covet his goods, which in general are possessions and wealth; and not to appropriate them to ourselves by evil arts. This concupiscence is of the love of the world. (A. E. 1021.)

     Man is born into every evil as to the will and wills good to himself alone . . . he desires to appropriate to himself the goods of all others, whether they consist of honors or riches. (H. H. 424.)

     Although he [the merely natural man] does nor steal, yet he covets the goods of others and regards fraud and evil arts as not contrary to civil law; in intent, he is continually acting the thief.... We are not ... to covet the goods of others. (H. H. 531.)

     It is noteworthy that three out of the Ten Commandments directly refer to this lust of possession, which is evidently a peculiarly subtle temptation and sin.

     These two Commandments [ninth and tenth] relate to all the preceding Commandments, teaching and enjoining that evil's are not to be done or even lusted after ... for the lust of evil, notwithstanding a forbearance from the outward commission, constitutes an act. (N. J. 54.)

     That a man live according to the Precepts of the Decalogue by abstaining from those evils which are there forbidden. . . from coveting the possession and property which belongs to others. . . .


The Lord cannot enter into man and lead him so long as these evils are not removed as sins: for they are infernal, yea, are hell with man. . . The Ninth Precept, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, contains also a requirement not to desire to possess and appropriate to ourselves the goods of others against their will. (A. E. 934)

     These Laws . . . were the first fruits of the Word in summary the complex of all things of religion, and so holy that nothing could be more holy. (N. J. 54.)

     The Precepts of the Decalogue are the Lord with man. (A. E. 981.)

     The foregoing amply prove the danger of envying and coveting the possessions of others, whether individually or politically, for given the power, such thoughts and feelings become actual, and then, not only are the ninth and tenth Commandments broken, but also the seventh. Common ownership of all the land, capital, and means of production, by and through a political majority in the State, means nothing else. The Writings are very definite as to this.

     Thou shalt not steal. By stealing, man understands stealing, defrauding or taking away from the neighbor his goods tender any pretext. (S. S. 67)

     He does not love his neighbor who desires to steal and plunder his goods. (A. R. 356.)

     With the exception of, what I should call, the bedrock principles of the Socialistic program, i. e., "All for each and each for all," and "Common ownership of all the land, all the capital, and all the means of production," I have refrained from quoting from any of the voluminous literature voicing modern socialism, which differs somewhat in realization and degree, but I think the above principles embrace their fundamental propaganda. I suggest, that the above somewhat lengthy and detailed quotations from the Writings, condemn these principles with no uncertain voice, and thus render them conscientiously untenable. Beyond all others, we have an infallible Witness as to the right or the wrong of most modern social movements, both dogmatically and vigorously enunciated, and not once or twice, but with detailed reiteration, so that there is no valid excuse for ignorance or misconception.


The only barrier to a reasonable assimilation, are those preconceived opinions which are so apt to render their possessors deaf, blind, and unwilling to read, mark, learn and inwardly digest such momentous truths, so clearly revealed. Surely any attempt to boycott these and other New Church Truths, which, after all, are a living part of the New Jerusalem descending out of Heaven from God, having the glory of God, whose light is like a stone most precious, clear as crystal, (Rev. xxi:10, 11 ), is at, least on the part of Believers-in-the-Writings-when-it-suits-them, a very questionable and risky proceeding. Our Lord, out of His loving Providence, through His Servant and Prophet Swedenborg, has cast this bread upon the waters; of a surety, whatever its past or present rejection, He will find it after many days. To the Writings I appeal and by the Writings must judgment be given. "And they whether they will hear or whether they will forbear . . . yet shall know that there hath been a prophet among them."




     "The thief cometh not but for to steal, to kill, and to destroy; I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly." John 10:10.

     There are in the Word of God three general classes of truths, namely, civil truths, moral truths, and spiritual truths.

     Civil truths are the truths of the civil state, commonly called laws, or the civil law, which include not only the enactments of the law-making power and the decisions of judges, but all the modes by which government is maintained and supported, by which justice is administered, by which business is conducted and all natural uses performed. The state is organized for the sake of these truths, for their active operation among men, for the protection of men in their operation, and to restrain the violence of those who would destroy them, or who would destroy the order which these truths have established.

     Moral truths, considered as distinct from civil truths, are those which teach the relation of the life of man with his neighbor, which life is called charity. The goods of moral life, or its uses, have relation in general to justice and equity, to sincerity and uprightness, to honesty, to chastity, to temperance, prudence, good-will, and to other virtues which are commonly recognized as the virtues of moral life, and by which society, or the moral state, or the moral kingdom, is safe-guarded and protected. For, as in the civil state, it is necessary that the moral life, or charity, should be protected from violence. For the moral virtues have their opposite evils, or their enemies, which enter and invade the moral kingdom, to steal, to kill, and to destroy. These enemies also have their names, by which they are known, or may be known; such as injustice, inequity or unfair dealing, insincerity and fraud, cheating, lying, lasciviousness, intemperance, cunning, enmity, hatred, revenge, ill-will,-including all that is immoral and that tends to break the bonds of society and the relation of man with man. This moral kingdom is maintained and supported by the civil state on the one hand, and by the spiritual state, or the Church, on the other, and also by an intermediate tribunal which is called public opinion, and which has its moral standards of judgment, by which men are either approved or condemned, and rewarded or punished.


     Spiritual truths are those which the Word or Divine Revelation teaches concerning God,-namely, that He is one God, that He is the Creator of the universe; that He is Infinite, Eternal, Omnipotent, Omniscient, Omnipresent, and All-provident; that God the Creator and the Lord Jesus Christ the Redeemer are one and the same Divine Person; that He is not only Creator and Redeemer, but He is also the Regenerator and the Savior; that He is the Lord God of heaven and earth; that He is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom; that He is good itself, truth itself, and life itself; that everything of love, charity, and good will, and everything of wisdom, faith and truth, is from Him, and nothing at all of them from man; and therefore that no man has any merit because of any love, charity, or good, or because of any wisdom, faith or truth, that may be with him as his; consequently that the Lord God alone is to be worshiped, since He alone is, and was, and will be, Almighty. The spiritual truths of Divine Revelation also teach that the Word is holy and Divine, and Divinely inspired in every syllable; that there is a life after death, a heaven and a hell; a heaven for those who live well while in the world, and a hell for those who live wickedly; these, with other things which pertain to doctrine from the Word, and to the Church formed from the Word, and according to it,-these and many similar things are spiritual truths; and when they are received, they form a spiritual state, or a kingdom in the world, which is called the Church. These also have their enemies, which are false doctrines, and enemies which are evils of life, which the Church has to resist, and from which the Church must protect itself.

     It will thus be seen that there are three kingdoms in the world, formed by truths from the Word, the civil kingdom, the moral kingdom, and the spiritual kingdom. And now this general proposition is to be added, that by these three classes of truth from the Word the Lord is approached and conjunction effected with Him; and that then the Lord performs uses by them, or by those truths, through men.


     How approach is made, or how man draws near to the Lord, is plain, for it is a matter of continual teaching; and so it may only be remarked here in general, that man draws near to the Lord, and is conjoined with Him, by means of these three classes of truths, when he lives according to them, and shuns as sins against God the falsities and evils that are opposed to them, and are their enemies. When this is done, the Lord also draws near to man and performs uses through him; and He makes a heaven after death of those who are in such a state.

     It may be well also to add a remark as to the reason why it is necessary to approach the Lord first of all, or before one can really perform uses, or the Lord through him. It is simply because before this he does good or use from himself which is neither good nor use except in the outward form. Man can do nothing from himself that is good in itself, but he can do good from the Lord that is good in itself. Since therefore he cannot do good which is use from himself, but only from the Lord, it follows that every use that is good is done by the Lord by means of man.

     This may be illustrated by things which exist in the world. The general of an army is said to fight a battle or gain a victory, which has been done by the instrumentality of his officers and soldiers, who have worked for the success with all their might. The head of a manufactory or business establishment is said to make or produce certain things, which has been done by the instrumentality of his employees. A farmer is said to make a crop, whether of hay or grain or other farm produce, which has been done by the instrumentality of his laborers. The general, the manufacturer, the farmer, exhibit the active force in the work done, and the workers, the reactive or co-operative force. The soldier, or the laborer when he has agreed to or entered into a contract to do a given work, labors as of himself, but the inspiring cause is not with him, but with another who is set over him and for whom he labors.

     This illustrates in some feeble way how it is that the Lord does uses through or by means of man, and how no one can perform use which is use or good from himself. And it shows also why it is necessary for man to approach the Lord, to draw near to Him, to enter into covenant with Him, before he is in a position to perform use that is use in itself.


This is true, whether the uses are civil, moral, or spiritual. They are all done by the Lord by means of man; and truths, civil, moral, and spiritual, are the means by which man is to draw near to the Lord, in order that he may do the goods or uses of those truths, not from himself but from the Lord. Not only are the goods from the Lord, or the uses, and not only are they done by the Lord through man, but the truths also, whether civil, moral, or spiritual,-these are all from the Lord in His Word, revealed to enlighten us that we may approach Him and be wise, that we may approach Him and do uses, that we may approach Him and be saved,-saved by wisdom and use.

     Now let us return for a moment to a consideration of the three classes of truth, and their distinction, namely, civil truth, moral truth, and spiritual truth, and let us see how the subject is illustrated in the words of the text. The text opens with the idea of a thief, and suggests the commandment, Thou shalt not steal. Not to steal, as a civil truth, is not to take away covertly or by force the goods or property of another; and the civil law punishes the man who so does; for the security of the state is dependent on the right and privilege of every man to enjoy in freedom the legitimate fruits of his labor, without fear or danger of loss through theft or fraud.

     Not to steal as a moral truth is that a man must act with sincerity, honesty and justice, in all his dealings with his neighbor, and that he is not to take away that which is his neighbor's by cheating, fraud, cunning, or deceit. For there are men who violate the moral truth of this commandment, and yet who are to all outward appearance good citizens of the state; and yet who are willing to obtain the goods of another by fraud but who would nor openly steal, as does a burglar, the goods of another. A man may therefore be an honorable member of the civil state, but not at the same time an honorable member of the moral state or kingdom.

     Not to steal as a spiritual truth is not to take away aught from the Lord and attribute it to oneself, which is done by all who ascribe truth to themselves and their own intelligence, and who assume merit to themselves for the good which they do.


There are many men who are honorable members of the civil state and at the same time honorable members of the moral state, observing all civil and moral laws strictly in the outward form, who are yet spiritual thieves, who do not observe or keep the spiritual law, because they ascribe all truth and all good to themselves, and if not to themselves still to man, and take them away from the Lord, to whom only do they belong, and from whom only are they derived with man.

     It may thus be seen that the civil kingdom, and even the moral kingdom may continue to exist, while the spiritual kingdom is destroyed. This was the state of the Jews, and for the most part of the world in general, when the Lord came into the world. There was no spiritual kingdom, and the moral kingdom, yea, even the civil kingdom was in jeopardy. These two kingdoms may continue for a time, after the spiritual kingdom is dead, but in the end they also will perish; and they would have perished, if the Lord had not come into the world and restored the spiritual kingdom. There was already a civil and a moral kingdom, even though in greater danger of destruction, and the Lord did not come to establish a new civil and moral kingdom. Hence He said, "My kingdom is not of this world." His kingdom was to be a spiritual kingdom, or a church, which was to be the soul and thus the renewer and preserver of all the other kingdoms in the world.

     As it was with the Jews, so it is now in the Christian world. The civil kingdom appears to be firmly established, and the moral kingdom has its place, and has never wholly ceased to exist. But the spiritual kingdom is gone, and hence it becomes necessary for the Lord to come again into the world, and re-establish His spiritual kingdom or establish a new spiritual Church, which called the New Jerusalem in prophecy. For the civil and the moral kingdoms are constantly in danger of destruction if there be no spiritual kingdom. But the spiritual kingdom of the Lord is now to be made permanent and secure, and is to last forever. For this reason, the moral and civil kingdoms will also be secure, and can never be overturned, even though they may at times, and for a time, be threatened with destruction; and so the establishment of a new spiritual kingdom is what is meant by making all things new.


     What is here said about a spiritual kingdom illustrates the subject of the Ten Commandments, and their miraculous promulgation on Mt. Sinai. As we have said, when the Lord came into the world, the spiritual kingdom was dead, but the civil and moral kingdoms were still in existence though threatened with destruction; and the Lord came to re-establish the spiritual kingdom, that the other kingdoms also might be preserved and continue to exist.

     Now the preparation for the establishment of a spiritual kingdom in the world began thousands of years before the actual coming of the Lord. This preparation and foreshadowing of a spiritual kingdom was most marked in the giving of the Decalogue on Mt. Sinai. The civil and moral kingdoms already existed and all nations in the world knew the commandments as civil and moral truths; every man knew that it was wrong to from his neighbor, or defraud him of his goods by cunning and deceit; and so with the other commandments. But it was not known that the commandments interiorly considered are also spiritual laws, and that by these laws a spiritual kingdom is to be established among men, in which the Lord alone is King; that the commandments interiorly teach that man is not to appropriate to himself, and claim as his own, that which belongs to God, nor is he to destroy that which is from God, or that which is spiritual, among men.

     Another thing is involved in the giving of the commandments in so miraculous a manner, in giving by a stupendous miracle, what men already knew as civil and moral laws. There is involved not only what is purely spiritual, that man is not to appropriate to himself what belongs to God, or to take merit to himself for anything that he does, or in any way to destroy the spiritual truth of the Word, or spiritual good among men; but also there is involved a thing that had become utterly unknown, namely, that the commandments, even when considered as civil and moral laws, must be kept and observed from a spiritual origin, that not only is order to be preserved in the civil and moral state, but men are saved, by keeping them, by shunning the evils forbidden in them,-not only as offences against the state, and detriments to society, but because they are also sins against God.


When this is done, the commandments are kept not only from a natural but from a spiritual origin, not only for the sake of natural life in the world, but for the sake of spiritual life in heaven. This was new in the world then, and is new in the world now.

     He, who is a spiritual man, he who keeps the commandments in their spiritual sense, he who acknowledges the Lord and takes no merit to himself for the truth which he thinks and the good which he does,-he also is a moral man, and a civil man, because he has sincere love of the moral and the civil law; for to begin with he has sincere love of the spiritual law. And since he loves the spiritual law, he will honestly and sincerely keep the moral and civil law. It is the spiritual that gives life to the moral and civil; and without the spiritual, the moral and the civil are like a body without a soul, that soon becomes corrupt and dead. It is the spiritual man, therefore, or he who is beginning to become spiritual, who acknowledges God, and who shuns the idea that life is self-derived, who claims nothing to himself that belongs to God, who shuns the thought of merit for what he thinks and does, ascribing all merit to the Lord,-it is such a man that keeps the commandments truly and sincerely both in their moral and civil senses, who shuns the evils forbidden in them as sins against God.

     The commandments were given on Mt. Sinai, therefore, in order that the spiritual might be in the moral and the civil, that a spiritual kingdom might be established in the world to be within the moral and the civil kingdoms; and the Lord came to make this an ever enduring certainty in the life of the world. Hell had risen up and destroyed the spiritual kingdom, and was fast destroying the moral and the civil kingdoms, and at the same time all the spiritual, moral, and civil life of men; but the Lord came to put an end to this work of destruction, and to bring back the life that was ebbing away from the world. This is what is meant by the words, which have been presented for your consideration today, "The thief cometh not, but for to steal, to kill, and to destroy; I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly."


     The spiritual thief is especially meant here, who takes away or destroys spiritual life by destroying a true idea of God, a true idea of the life after death, a true idea of life in the world that prepares for a life after death. When these are destroyed spiritual death reigns, and moral death will follow, and after this will come civil death, the death of all social and civil order, and then the extinction of the human race. But this is not possible, because the Lord has come into the world, the way for which had been prepared by Moses and the prophets, and by the Jewish Church,-the Lord has come into the world to establish a true spiritual kingdom, a true spiritual church by which all may be saved who are willing to believe in Him and obey His commandments.

     A thief therefore in the spiritual sense is one who would deprive another of his faith, and thus of his spiritual life. And as the loss of faith is spiritual death, or is at the same time the taking away of spiritual life, hence it is said that the thief cometh, not only to steal, but also to kill; and; as spiritual death is also damnation it is therefore said that the thief cometh not, but for to steal, to kill, and to destroy,-indicating a total destruction of what is good and true, which is the object or end which the spiritual thief has in view.

     Stealing in the celestial sense has already been indicated. The celestial sense always has reference to the Lord, and the spiritual sense to the neighbor. We have just seen that stealing in the spiritual sense is to deprive another of his faith, and so of his spiritual life. But stealing in the celestial sense is to deprive the Lord of that which is His, and appropriate it to oneself. All who are in the pride or conceit of their own intelligence do this. They attribute to man what is of the Lord; for it is in general the same whether they attribute to themselves or to other men what belongs to the Lord. It is from this source that-all-pervading worship of human intelligence comes which exists at this day. It is found everywhere in-modern literature and science, and it is the gravest danger that the Church has to meet at the present time; for it is the most active agent of draconic spirits in destroying faith in the Lord, and in Divine Revelation.


     It is the pride of human intelligence that is signified by the dragon in the Apocalypse; and in whatever form it takes, in whatever form it comes, whether in the form of a false theology, a false philosophy, or a false science, still it comes as a thief, a murderer, and a destroyer. It is the serpent of Genesis, it is the dragon of Revelation, it is Satan, it is Apolyon, the Destroyer of souls; and were it not for the Divine Power in ultimates, brought down even into natural human life by the Incarnation and Glorification of the Lord, there would be no hope for the salvation of men. "The thief cometh not, but for to steal, to kill, and destroy." But the words of consolation follow, "I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly."

     These words literally translated are, "I am come that they might have life, and that they might have abundance." Men are to have from the Lord, all men who receive Him in His coming,-they are to have life, and they are to have abundance. They are to have not only the life of heaven, but the abundance of that life. The life of heaven is love, and use from love, and the abundance of heaven is truth, or wisdom, or spiritual riches.

     The Lord in His Second Coming reveals the life of heaven, and its abundance, in the revelation which He has given of the internal sense of His Word; and He has come to establish, by means of His Word so revealed, a spiritual kingdom such as never existed before, and which is to endure forever,-a kingdom into which the thief cannot enter to steal, to kill and to destroy, for the Lord God will be in it to protect and to defend all who come to Him with humble hearts, from true repentance of life. To all such He will give life, and He will give abundance, in this world, and in heaven forever.




     The writer of this article has not the least intention of claiming ability to settle the discussions, sometimes amounting to disputes, on the relation that the Writings bear to the Word as previously known to mankind; or on the exact value of the Scientific writings of Swedenborg in confirming, or upholding, the Inspired Revelation afterward given to the world through him.

     Neither does he desire to convince enquiring minds as to the exact shape of the spiritual body, except by referring them to the books whence alone every enquiring mind must get the information; and warning them that without a knowledge of Influx, Discrete Degrees, and Correspondence, no clear understanding of anything above the plane of man's natural life can be had.

     He is writing simply to suggest that among those voluminous works, a considerable amount of advice is given as to the attitude that is most becoming to students desirous of investigating interior truths of doctrine to Which all are invited and urged; and to adduce some words of warning to those who wish to explore some particulars that the Lord has not seen fit to reveal, and some passages in which Swedenborg refers to his own experiences and limitations, which may perhaps induce some to hesitate before making hasty deductions from incomplete, or possibly misunderstood, premises.

     For the desire to make deductions from the knowledges we gather is inherent in us all, and we see it in children and youths long before they come into any rational faculty of their own, and when we have deduced some ingenious conclusion from the premises, it seems as if there was something of our own personality in it, and that we had discovered something that persons of less intelligence had overlooked; and in this way our selfhood is flattered and we feel elevated above our fellows. The same elevation of self above the neighbor, and appeal for his admiration, is seen in those stories we hear around us everywhere; of what he said to me and I said to him, and how adroitly I got the best of the argument.


     But how much better is the modest form used by the greatest man the world has yet seen, who so often says in his narrations, "It was given me to reply." That is the true attitude, for in every case we may be quite sure that if we speak the truth in refutation of falsity, both the will and the power have been given to us; while in the greatest of all examples, that of the Lord Himself, we have the simple statement, "It is written," in answer to the subtle persuasions of the hells.

     Certainly we cannot at once, in our prior states, confine ourselves to the Yea, yea; Nay, nay, of the Celestial man, or heaven, but we are not left in ignorance that arguments and reasonings about truths belong to the lower planes of spiritual life; and the state and condition of the man who is entering upon the use of his own first rational faculty, is described at length in the ARCANA in the story of Ishmael, where we read that the rational when it is only in truth but not yet adjoined to good, "is morose, contentious, looks upon every one as in falsity, is ready to rebuke, to chasten, and to punish; has no pity, does not draw near to others and study to bend their minds; . . . its common delight or reigning affection is to conquer; and when it conquers, it glories in the victory."

     We all have been, or are still, going through this state, which in one aspect it is a phase of the love of the world, when we are seeking admiration and applause; and in the lower, worse, aspect, the love of dominion, it is the love of self-the devil; and we all know the pleasure of glorying-in victory when our arguments cannot be answered; but the drawing near to others by showing how our truths will lead to good and to heaven, is of another spirit.

     There are three subjects that just now are causing much discussion and argument throughout the Church, namely, the relation of the Scientific works of Swedenborg to the Divine Revelation given through him to the world in his later life; the exact shape, substance and locality of man's spiritual body after he passes out from his corporeal tenement of flesh and bones; and the long-drawn-out controversy as to the relation that the New Revelation, to which we owe all we have and are, bears to the Divine Word which previously we so little understood, and which now we see to be infilled with the Divine Presence and the light and glory that makes heaven, now made visible just to the extent that our spiritual eyes are opened by the adoption of the Divine Will in place of our own.


     It is not, as above hinted, the intention of the present writer to fill pages with extracts chosen and collated with the end in view of proving some proposition that seems true to him, and must therefore be so, but respecting the first of these three themes, as to the Scientific Works, I wish to present only such statements as Swedenborg makes regarding himself and the various states he passed through in his preparation for the great work of his life on earth, and, respecting the other two, some general truths from the Writings, particulars of which can be filled in by the reader from his rational faculty.

     We too often forget that general truths should be first learned and that then particulars and singulars can be arranged in their true order. Possibly the important general truth that covers the whole subject of discussions such as the above is that every one of us can only see any truth, above the natural plane, according to his own spiritual advancement in the regenerate life. All things change as man progresses,-the Lord, Heaven, the Word, Charity, Faith,-all of these take on different meanings to every man as he advances, away from his own self, and into the Lord's kingdom of mutual love.

     The advancement of Swedenborg through the stages of regenerate life through which he had to pass was the same as with every other man; we find in his SPIRITUAL DIARY, as well as in the ADVERSARIA, and also scattered through the theological works themselves, numerous notes as to his mental condition and the progress of his enlightenment,-for progress, although not predicable of the Divine, belongs to all things finite, where all things have to progress from their origin to their destined end.

     That his preparation began very early in childhood he asserts several times, nor need we be surprised at this, for some day it will be common knowledge that spiritual events are prefigured and foreshadowed by their natural precursors just as the human embryo passes through successive states, known as the worm, the fish, the marsupial, and the anthropoid ape,-forms, which foretell his development through the sensuous, the scientific, and the natural rational, to the human,-a simple fact which that blind leader of the blind, Haeckel, reading it all backwards from effect to cause, as he supposed, led to perhaps the worst mistake of his lifetime, and a fruitless search for missing links that never existed.


Every one of us has his preparation in childhood, but we fail to recognize it, though sometimes in old age we wonder and praise the Lord for the way We has led us.

     In the Writings we read much concerning the necessity for media between successive states, to serve for communication, and in the ADVERSARIA and WORSHIP AND LOVE OF GOD we may perhaps note the transition stage between the Scientific and the Theological works. But the term "scientific" here rather obscures our view and leads to confusion. Those works represent the exercise of the first or natural rational, for the progress of the natural mind is through the sensuous to five years of age, through the scientific or learning stage to the twentieth year, during which period man borrows a rational faculty; while at the twentieth year he opens or begins to use his own rational. And unless regenerated by the Lord he has no other but that, which, from the description given above, as having no pity, desiring to conquer, and boasting of victory, at once accounts for all wars, and the evils of political parties, and communal discord generally. In Swedenborg's case the preparation granted him softened these asperities within bounds; but nevertheless we know that in early life he looked upon many persons as opponents and enemies; we know that in his youth he longed for place and power; that he believed in the tri-personal doctrine even when writing the ADVERSARIA, and that he had many doubts and states of fluctuations even after he had some insight into the spiritual world.

     But the simplest and easiest way of comparison is to note the results of summing up of his own attainment in that chief object that he set before him,-the search after the soul and its condition after death; and to admit his lack of real knowledge of the fundamental doctrine on which the New Church is founded,-that of the Divine Humanity and its corollary, the human form, as the form of forms and type of all below it.


     Of the soul he says, in the work ON THE SOUL, n. 498: "What the soul is has been defined above, namely, that it is immaterial, without extension, motion, or parts, hence it contains in itself nothing that will perish.... Except from analogy one cannot avoid, in the above definition, the idea of nothing. Hence we betake ourselves to the form itself of the soul, since it is said that the form of the soul is spiritual and that in the spiritual form those things are infinite which are finite in inferior forms." Then follows much discourse but nothing definite as to what the spiritual form really is, but a great deal as to what it is not.

     Taking Swedenborg's summing up of the state of the soul after the death of the body, in the ensuing chapter, we find what should be the most convincing proof possible that these so-called "Scientific" works belonged to the first rational period, for man's natural rational knows nothing from its own intelligence concerning the nature of the soul after death, even though it has been the universal belief of all nations in all ages that man continues to live after death: but the idea invariably has been that of a natural life, requiring the same weapons, tools, and cooking utensils that he had here, and therefore they were buried with him.

     Perhaps this will be sufficient to show that in the climax and conclusions, where results of all the previous pages of acute reasonings show themselves in light, there was as yet no real entrance into the larger spiritual conceptions of the Writings; pages could be filled with extracts from the various inspired books that would substantiate the fact that a part of Swedenborg's preparation was a passing through the old erroneous concepts in their order so that he might have a clearer idea of them from their opposites. For instance, in T. C. R. 76: "I said I meditated on the creation of the universe for a long time but to no purpose; but afterward when I was admitted by the Lord into your world, I perceived," etc.

     In the SPIRITUAL DIARY, as one might expect, much is said as to his own varying conditions, from obscurity to clarity of perception, by which we can see that, though no change is ever possible with the Divine Love and Wisdom, which is infinite and eternal, much fluctuation and mutation of state occurs with its receptacles, to whom liberty and rationality have been given to accept or to deny the Divine proceeding.


     It is well to bear in mind that Swedenborg was but a mortal man who required the same, or possibly more severe, temptations to enable him to see that he of himself was nothing but a form of evil; he says in S. D. 3904, "Although one is in the light of knowledge, yet, if his life is repugnant, he does not love the things confirmatory of faith against life, but he loves rather the things confirmatory of life against knowledges; and when there is such a conflict, it follows that he will be in obscurity and ignorance into which state I was myself reduced before it was granted me to speak with spirits and angels."

     In one of the most important passages in the DIARY, bearing on this point and showing a kind of regret at the time spent in writing the books on the ANIMAL KINGDOM and the ECONOMY OF THE A. K., he says, on date of November 30, 1748: "From what has been said we are at liberty to conclude that it is better to be ignorant of all these matters, and simply to believe that the life of the Lord flows into all and singular things, than to suffer oneself to be absorbed in such speculation. It is better, I say, to be ignorant; for if men covet this kind of knowledge, they must necessarily launch out into a boundless field; just as in my own case, when I wished to know in what manner the actions of the muscles were ordered in their representative relations to the ideas of the thoughts, and how the endeavors and forces of the will conspired to the effect, I spent many laborious years in investigating the appliances in the lungs in each of their functions... and so on; when yet after all the action was dependent on other laws, to explore all of which were the labor of many years, and still scarcely even the most general things could be known. Therefore it is better simply to know that the will flows in ... far more is this expedient in those things to which pertain the influx of the Lord's life and of His Providence. These things were thought with spirits, through spirits, from the angels."


     In a different vein is this assurance, written later, in S. D. 6101: "It is not my work but the Lord's, who wished to reveal the nature of heaven and hell, and the nature of man after death, and concerning the Last Judgment, and also that theological things do not transcend the understanding of man."

     It is submitted that all the preceding, (a very small part of what might be adduced), goes to show that Swedenborg wrote what are known as his "Scientific" works during his progress through the first or natural rational, and that his enlightenment was a gradual process and took place together with his regeneration through the three degrees of the spiritual mind, as with other men, but in a manner and state of enlightenment that no other man of this earth has experienced since the Golden Age,-and this in order that he might prepare the way and lay the foundation for what are termed his Theological Writings, but which he says are the Lord's.




     After sixteen centuries of "Christian" preaching the idea of three gods has become so deeply rooted in the faith of the Old Church-Protestant as well as Catholic-as to be altogether ineradicable. Yet so cunningly has this monstrous idea hidden itself in the folds of theological terms that every "orthodox" Christian will indignantly deny that he believes in three gods.

     "There are three persons in the Godhead; each one is God; and yet there is only one God!" Every one will admit that this is a mystery, inexplicable to the human understanding, and therefore to be believed blindly, by taking the understanding "captive" in obedience to faith. What power is there in this mystery that has captured the entire Christian world? Falsity alone cannot have such power, for truth alone has power. The truth is that there is a Trinity in God. This is a universal and fundamental truth, clearly proclaimed by Sacred Scripture and instinctively accepted by human reason which in all things perfect recognizes a trine. In every operation there is the trine of end, cause and effect; in every created thing the trine of substance, form and use. Why not then a trine in God, the author of all things perfect?

     Surely, to deny the Trinity in God would be unreasonable, unscriptural and unchristian. There is the Divine Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, but how is this truth to be understood? Since it is a truth it must be in some way explicable, reasonable, and intelligible. But is it reasonable, is it intelligible, is it scriptural to think of the Divine Trinity as consisting of three persons, each one of whom is a God?

     A person is a man: three persons are three men. God is a Divine Person, the Divine Man. Three Divine Persons would make three Divine men,-three gods! Turn it and twist it as you may, the idea of three Divine persons results in the idea of three gods. But where in the Scriptures do we read of "the Holy Spirit" revealing itself as a separate person? Christ breathed upon His disciples and said: "Take ye the Holy Spirit."


Was the breath or spirit of Christ a person distinct from Christ Himself? Certainly not! And where in the Scriptures do we read of "the Father" revealing Himself in His own Person? In the Old Testament the Father always revealed Himself mediately through angels, but no one ever saw Jehovah Himself, for no one could see the face of God and live. And the Lord said: "No one hath at any time seen the Father. The only-begotten Son, he hath made Him manifest." The only Divine Person ever revealed, ever seen by human eye, is Jesus Christ Himself, our Lord, "in whom dwelleth the fulness of the Godhead bodily." (Col. 2:9.)

     The simplest elements of logic should convince every sane being that three Divine persons make three gods, and in fact an indefinite number of gods. Every one is acquainted with this syllogism:


     Compare with this syllogism the logical conclusion of the "orthodox" conception of the Divine Trinity:

God=Three Divine Persons.
Each Divine Person=God.
Each Divine Person=Three Divine Persons.

     In other words: there must be not only three but nine Divine Persons! And if each one of these is God, and God = three persons, then each of the nine must consist of three persons: in other words, 27 persons and 27 gods, who by the same simple rule of logic and arithmetic may be multiplied into an endless number of persons and gods. The syllogism is unanswerable.

     But, if there are not and cannot be any three persons in the Godhead, what is the true explanation of the mystery concerning the Divine Trinity? The answer is as simple and self-evident as Truth itself. God made man in His own image and likeness. Each man is one person, not three persons, because the Lord our Creator is one Divine person, not three persons. The Divine Trinity is not a Trinity of persons, but a Trinity of Divine Essentials in the One Divine Person, the Lord Jesus Christ, who is our Creator, our Redeemer and our Regenerator.


     As in man, the image of God, there is the essential trine of soul, body, and operation, so in God there is the essential trine of Divine Soul, Divine Body and Divine operation. The Divine Soul is what is called "the Father," who is Infinite Love and Infinite Wisdom. The Divine Body is what is called "the Son," the Glorified Human of Jesus Christ, who is One with the Father, even as the human body is one with the soul. And the Divine Operation is what is called "the Holy Spirit," the Spirit of Truth, the Spirit of our Lord who by His Divine teaching works for the salvation of every one who turns to Him.

     A simple illustration will make this supposed "mystery" very plain. "The Father" may be compared to a monarch enthroned in a dark room; no one had at any time seen His face, but from most ancient times His voice had been heard and His Being made manifest. Thus "the Father" is the Divine Esse or Being. "The Son" may be compared to this same monarch opening a window in the room and showing His face and form; this "window" is the Word of God, and the face shown is the face of Jesus Christ. Thus "the Son" is the Divine Existere, the Divine Standing-forth. And "the Holy Spirit" may be compared to this same monarch opening the door of His room and going forth to teach and lead His people forever. Thus the "Holy Spirit" is the Divine Proceeding. And the whole of this Divine Trinity is One in the Lord our Savior, Jesus Christ.

     We need not dwell further on this subject in the present paper, the special object of which is to furnish indubitable proofs, by means of ocular demonstration, of the fact that the idea of Three gods reigns universally in the faith of the Old Christian Church. It is the history of Christian Art that will furnish this evidence against "Orthodox" Theology,-an Art that has been inspired, directed and molded by this orthodoxy and stamped with its complete ecclesiastical approval.*


The monstrosities thus produced by Christian Art are revolting to the devout mind; the eye shrinks from the sight of them, but it will be useful, nevertheless, to reproduce some of them here, in order to strike conviction to the soul of the awful fact that the whole Christian Church-ever since the Council of Nicaea in the year 325-has actually been worshiping THREE GODS!
     * It was laid down at the second Council of Nicaea, in the year 787, that "a picture is not to be fashioned after the fancy of the painter, but according to the inviolable traditions of the Holy Catholic Church. It is the Holy Fathers who are to invent and direct; artists have but to execute their behests."

     The most ancient representation of a tri-personal trinity is probably the following one from Christianity, of all religions that ever were, is and is supposed to be Monotheistic. Christ Himself certainly taught the other God than Him, for Paul states in unmistakable words that doctrine of One God and One God only; His disciples knew no "in Jesus Christ dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead bodily," and John utters this grand confession and solemn warning: "We abide in the Truth in Jesus Christ. This is the true God and life eternal. Little children, keep yourselves from: idols." (I. John 5:20, 21.)

     How, then, did this monstrous notion of three persons in the Godhead creep into the early Christian Church? The answer is indisputable: It crept in from the various systems of heathen religions then existing. With the exceptions of the first few converts from the Jews, all the early Christians came from polytheistic and idolatrous nations, and each one carried with him something of the old and false religions when entering the new church that was being established.

     All of the ancient pagan systems were nothing but perverted forms of the one and true primeval religion, the fundamental precept of which was faith in the One personal God, and in Him the trine of end, cause, and effect,-of soul, body and operation,-Love, Wisdom, and Use,-essential Being, forth-standing Manifestation, and proceeding Spirit of Divine Work. These three essential relations of the One God were well known and clearly understood in primeval times, but in the course of ages the human race became more and more external and sensual, and men found it necessary to visualize these Divine essentials by various representative forms. At first they knew what these forms represented, but gradually they lost the knowledge and began to worship the representative forms as so many different gods. This was the origin of all idolatry and polytheism.


     In each nation the worship of many gods began with the worship of three gods, and in each heathen system ancient artists have depicted the corrupt faith of their priestly instructors in forms which bear a striking resemblance to the pictures representing the "Christian" conceptions of the Divine Trinity. In every one of the mythological systems the gods are arranged in trines or triads, and though with some nations we find hundreds of gods, they are all so many different names and aspects of the three original conceptions.

     Babylon, which was the cradle of all idolatry and polytheistic corruption. It represents the triad of Ea, Bel, and Marduk, (or Merodach), and is not one whit worse than some of the "Christian" representations of the Trinity.

     [Fig. 1 - Drawing.]

     Our next figure is a three-headed monster of Phoenician origin. The people of Tyre and Sidon never had any Art, (except the art of making money), but it is evident that the early Christian artists borrowed ideas even from this degraded people which expressed their supreme religious devotion by the burning of little children in the glowing statues of Moloch. (Fig. 2.)


     Monstrosities such as the one depicted below are never found in the religious art of the ancient Greeks and Romans, for with all their polytheism and idolatry they possessed too much rational sense and artistic perception to indulge in such profanations of what is divinely human and beautiful. It was only after the classical spirit had been completely stamped out by barbarian nations that Greek and Roman artists, inspired by Catholic priests, produced images of a three-headed "Christian" god for the worship of "Christian" people.

     [Fig 2 and 3 Drawings.]

     How widespread was the notion of a tri-personal deity among the pagan nations may be seen from the adjoined figure of "Trimurti" or tri-union of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, as adored by the Brahmans of India. (Fig. 3.)

     But it was in ancient Egypt that the heathen doctrine of three Divine persons received its fullest development and its most complete representation. Here all the gods-and there were some six or seven hundred of them-were arranged in carefully defined triads, each triad consisting of a family of father, mother and son, and representing originally the trine of Love, Wisdom and Use. We reproduce here one of these triads, that of Amen-Ra, Maut, and their son Khonso. (Fig. 4.)


     Divine trials, like the one below, were depicted in gigantic figures on every temple-wall in Egypt, and from the constant sight of them for thousands of years the idea of three essential persons in the Godhead became ineradicably fixed in the Egyptian mind. And it was from Egypt, more than from any other source, that the Theology of the Christian Church became imbued with the fatal error of Tritheism.

     [Fig. 4 Drawing.]

     Christianity was planted in Egypt even in the time of the Apostles and here it made astonishing progress. In less than two centuries half of Egypt had been Christianized, and many persons of the old heathen priestly families entered the Christian ministry. It was here that the first Christian theological schools were opened and Christian Theology first developed into a science. And it was here, finally, that the term "person" was first applied to each of the three Divine Essentials of Divine Esse, Divine Existere and Divine Proceeding, which in the figurative language of the Scriptures are termed "Father," "Son," and "Holy Spirit."


     Just before the Council of Nicaea a bitter controversy broke out between Arius and Athanasius, two leading theologians in Alexandria. Both of them held that there were three distinct persons in the Godhead, but Arius contended that the Father alone was completely Divine, while the other two Persons were less Divine and therefore of a different substance from the Father. Athanasius, on the other hand, maintained that the three persons were equally Divine and therefore if the same substance. After scandalous fights which embroiled the whole Christian Church, the view of Athanasius was established as the "orthodox" Christian dogma by the Council of Nicaea in the year 325, and the Christian Church was henceforth committed to the worship of Three Gods.

     [Fig. 5. Drawing.]

     Christian Art, so-called, had its rise in the darkest of the Dark Ages, after the Christian Church had become thoroughly corrupted through the wholesale "conversion" of the rich and the mighty, when Christianity was declared the "State Religion." Then, when the world, the flesh, and the devil ruled over the Church of Christ, magnificent temples arose, adorned with rich sculptures, gorgeous paintings and garish imagery supposedly representing profound and essential Christian truths.


The ancient classical spirit of Art was dead, but the Christian artists, driven by the Catholic priests, searched among the heathen ruins for Ideas by which to represent the "mysteries" of the new religion.

     The results of these efforts-as far as concerns the Medieval representations of the Trinity-are extremely painful as well as ludicrous to behold, but the wretched artists had before them the impossible task of reconciling, in imagery, "Christian Verity" with the "Catholic Religion." According to the Athanasian Creed these two would seem to be at hopeless variance with one another, for it states that "Like as we are compelled by Christian verity to acknowledge each person by himself to be God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the Catholic Religion to say there be three Gods and three Lords."

     [Fig. 6 Drawing.]

     From the contradiction and confusion thus induced upon the mind, what could result but the monstrosities depicted by the artists according to the insane inventions of their priestly mentors? And let it be distinctly understood, the religious insanities underlying the medieval representations of the Trinity, as here produced, are not confined to the Dark Ages nor to the Roman Catholic Church, for they reign supreme to this day in the Protestant Churches as well.


The Reformation cleaned only the outside of the cup and platter; it left Untouched the great fundamental falsity of Tritheism established at Nicaea, and whenever modern Protestant artists try to represent the "Christian Trinity," they fall back upon the same old medieval monstrosities.

     [Fig. 7 Drawing.]

     The most common personal representations of the Trinity show only two persons-the Father and the Son, with a dove hovering above or between them, as in the illustration, (Fig. 5) from a fresco in the convent on Mount Athos in Greece.


     Fig. 6, (p. 38), represents this "strictly orthodox" conception of the Greek Catholic Church, that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father through the Son," according to the original Greek text of the Athanasian Creed.

     The next illustration, (Fig. 7), exhibits the Roman dogma, that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father and the Son," according to the Latin version of the Athanasian Creed,-one wing of the Dove proceeding from the mouth of the Father, and the other wing from the mouth of the Son. The Romans changed the words "through the Son" to "and the Sea" (filioque), a proceeding which caused the great schism between the Greek Church and the Roman. There is no other doctrinal difference between the two Churches, but neither the one nor the other has the slightest rational understanding of the absurd dogma.

     [Fig. 8 Drawing.]

     Prompted by a feeling that a dove is not a person and that a more distinctly tri-personal representation was needed, some of the ecclesiastical artists have depicted the Trinity by three heads on one body, as in the next illustration, taken from an Italian engraving of the fifteenth century. (Fig. 8.)


     Others again, striving to express a still closer unity of the three supposed persons, have represented the Trinity by a combination of three faces on the one head of one person,-with results that would be ludicrous were they not so monstrously profane,- as witness the one below. (Fig. 9.)

     [Fig. 9 Drawing.]

     The next illustration may be called the supreme effort of Old Church Theology to represent the tri-personal dogma. It is a very popular one, even in modern churches, and exhibits one person with three combined and similar faces. In the corners are symbolic figures representing the four Evangelists, and in the middle an ingenious device containing an inscription which, if read from the corners towards the center, runs thus "the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God," but, if read from corner to corner, it states that "The Father is not the Son, the Son is not the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit is not the Father," etc. (Fig. 10.)


     [Fig. 10 Drawing.]

     We need not multiply the illustrations. These pictures are authentic and testify conclusively that every effort of Christian art to visualize the central doctrine of the Christian Church has resulted only in exposing the fact that this Church is worshiping Three gods,-not the One and Only God, our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916


     The Rev. Frank Sewall passed to his eternal home on December 7th. In our next issue we hope to present an account of the life and work of this distinguished scholar, author and New Church minister.
Title Unspecified 1916

Title Unspecified              1916

     Under the title of "The Psychology of Obedience'' we were somewhat surprised to find the sermon on "Simeon," (printed in the LIFE for 1904, p. 8), published in NYA KYRKANS TIDNING, the Swedish monthly, edited since the year 1876, by the Rev. C. J. N. Manby. The translation is from the hand of the Baroness Alma von Cedda, who, it seemed to us, had vastly improved upon the English original.

     Again we read of "Union Thanksgiving Services" being held in various places, where "Swedenborgians" join with Unitarians, Universalists, Jews, and other "Anti-trinitarians." Can you think of anything more incongruous than such a religious company, addressing prayers and thanksgivings to Whom? or What?

     The Rev. Norman O. Goddard, at the recent meeting of the Kansas Association of the New Jerusalem, reported that he had "started his church on an upward move again, and is gradually closing up the gap between his church and the other churches of Pretty Prairie." When this New England New Church minister has quite succeeded in "closing up the gap," we shall hear more of the once promising New Church Society of German ex-Mennonites at Pretty Prairie.

     The Dutch translation of the DOCTRINE OF FAITH, (De Leer van het Nieuwe Jeruzalem over het Geloof), is the most recent production from the untiring hand of our friend, Mr. Geritt Barger, of The Hague.


This completes the translation of "The Four Leading Doctrines." From private letters we learn that Mr. Barger has been instrumental in interesting a Chinese gentleman, connected with China's legation at The Hague, and that the latter is now anxious to be employed in translating some of the New Church Writings into Chinese. For a start in this work we would suggest THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY, as likely to appeal eminently to a nation nurtured upon the teachings of Confucius.

     Perhaps the last literary contribution from the pen of the late Rev. Frank Sewall, is a paper on "Germany's part in the Growth of the New Church," published in the MESSENGER for December 15th, 1915. In a most interesting way Mr. Sewall here reviews his early association with Prof. Immanuel Tafel, at the University of Tubingen, the work of Rudolph and Louis Tafel, the amazingly successful missionary work of the Rev. Arthur O. Ericknian, and the remarkable rise and progress of numerous German New Church societies in the United States and Canada. It seems to us, nevertheless, that "Germany," as a continental country, has contributed a very small part, indeed, to the Growth of the New Church. In Germany itself the New Church has had a most precarious and famishing existence, from the beginning and up to the present day. On the other hand, it is wonderful to contemplate the number of native Germans who have received the Heavenly Doctrine, and have brought up large and loyal families in the New Church faith, when transplanted to freer countries and removed from the oppressive spheres of German autocracies, State Churches, official paternalism, militarism, etc. The reception of the Heavenly Doctrines by Germans in America is, indeed, a most hopeful omen for the future of the New Church in Germany itself, when, as we firmly believe, a more liberal spirit will establish itself after the conclusion of the present War of Vastation.



VIEW FROM AFAR              1916

     Our wide-awake contemporary, THE NEW AGE, of Sydney, N. S. W., in its issue for November, offers the following comments on a recent interesting occurrence in the Church:

     "NEW CHURCH LIFE (September), contains a remarkable communication, notifying the withdrawal 'from the General Church and the whole Swedenborgian body' of Miss Lillian Beekman. Her reason is that she considers that the Swedenborgian body is institutionally founded upon 'an explicit denial and rejection of any such reality in God as the Christian Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit-before the Creation of the world and the Incarnation.' In the letter in which Bishop Pendleton accepts the resignation he states that Miss Beekman also 'rejects her former faith in the truth that the Lord has made His Second Coming in the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.' As a matter of fact, the Lord makes His Second Coming in 'the clouds of heaven,' i. e., in the letter of the Divine Word. The misunderstanding seems to be one of words and phrases, rather than of realities. Can anyone seriously maintain that the Divine Being was at any time incomplete? Expressions in the Writings which might be held to convey that impression seem to be merely concessions to the limited power of the human intellect."

     * * * *

     "Miss Beekman's difficulty seems to be connected with one that was mentioned in THE NEW AGE some years ago. In the mind of the present writer, it is removed by the consideration that, although God, the Divine Man must, as to His Being, be ever Infinitely perfect, and thus unchangeable, still as to manifestation He adapts Himself to the varying states of His Church-yea, and to those of every member of His Church. When those states demanded manifestation in the flesh for the purpose of overcoming the infernal powers which held man in slavery, that manifestation was duly made and the work accomplished. To the Unchangeable it could add nothing, but to man's conception of the Unchangeable, it made-and makes-all the difference between redemption and bondage."


     Many others have, with Mr. Spencer, supposed that "the misunderstanding," on the part of Miss Beekman, was "one of words and phrases, rather than realities," but the future will show that it was of a very real, substantial and dangerous character.

     Mr. Spencer's comments on the Unchangeable nature of the Divine exactly express our own understanding of the subject. The Incarnation and Glorification could add nothing to the Unchangeable Infinite, "but to man's conception of the Unchangeable it made-and makes-all the difference between redemption and bondage." That which was added by the Glorification was not a new Divine Substance, but a new form of The WORD, a new accommodation and manifestation of the Divine Truth, by which the Divine took unto itself a new power to save all men willing to be saved.


     In the minds of many in the Church, especially the isolated, and also those living widely scattered in metropolitan centers, Many difficulties arise as t, the acceptance of the teaching printed upon the cover of NEW CHURCH LIFE, that we ought to have a social life distinct from that of the former church. Some even go further, and ask whether Social life, belonging specially to the sensual plane, into which we must descend for all recreation, is really an inseparable part of the Church. Is it in any way intrinsically different inside the Church from that which is formed outside?

     It is easy to recognize the practical difficulties of the isolated, and also of certain urban congregations, among whom are many who regard each other as socially "impossible," because their habits of life, their manners, and their tastes and interests on the natural plane, are so heterogeneous At first it would hardly be expected that such a straggling collection, as some of our societies are, recruited from every walk of life, should make in one generation a well knit social unit. But it is wonderful what the General Church has already accomplished, here and there, in the direction of social coherence and neighborly happiness therefrom.


The measure of our success in the past, and what has been accomplished thereby in the promotion of marriages within the Church, compares very favorably with the conditions elsewhere. It has been a case of sheer sacrifice, on the part of some, on the natural plane, for the sake of a principle, and in order to insure the preservation and perpetuation of the Church in the midst of a spiritually deadening and destructive environment. In the pursuit of this policy, however, we seemed to fall into something of the Jewish spirit of exclusiveness, which in itself is bigoted and intolerant. It tends to the taking away of freedom, because it was regarded as wrong to have anything at all to do socially, with those outside the visible Church, and this in spite of the teaching that "friendliness with anyone, for the sake of various external uses, does no harm." What is forbidden is "the friendship of love" with anyone, without first scrutinizing his ends. And since the mutual love of spiritual ends cannot but be present and qualify even the social intercourse upon the external plane, it seems evident that we must have centers where a distinctive social life of our own can be maintained. The Church must grow from such centers. It is too weak, as yet, and the surrounding seductions are too insidious, to make it possible for the Church to grow, and especially to propagate itself by means of marriages within the Church; and to grow by bringing up the young in the sphere of our persuasions, (for persuasion must needs precede faith), unless we do have such centers, and a strong and delightful sphere there into which the young and also novitiates can be drawn. Still, we do not wish to return to the Jewish spirit of exclusiveness. Our distinctiveness must have a different spirit and a spiritual, not a merely natural and selfish end. The question now before us is, therefore: Is it possible to preserve freedom and humility, and yet maintain a policy of distinctiveness, as to our social life' Can we otherwise preserve the Church, our distinctive charity, our peculiar faith, and, last but not least, the ideal of love truly conjugial, without real, living, social ultimates? Is a strong but narrow persuasion the only alternative? Even that would be better than total extinction.

     So much at least is clear,-indiscriminate intimacies (the friendships of love with anyone) we are warned against.


This, as well as the teaching concerning the early Christian Church, and the benefits it derived from its frequent love feasts and its brotherhood, imply the need of a similar relation among those who share the ends and ideals of the New Church. But at the same time there is nothing inherently wrong in associating, for various external reasons, with those outside the pale of our own ideals.

     There remains, however, one more consideration which seems to call for emphasis at this time. In the face of unusual need, men make unusual provisions, and also sacrifices. In such circumstances we surely find ourselves today; and it seems that unless we voluntarily renounce something of our rightful freedom, in the matter of outside pleasures, the Church in some of our centers cannot but starve and die socially.

     No one can serve two masters, and those who have what satisfies them socially, elsewhere, make but a sorry lot of polite pretenders when they are called together for anything in the Church. They are not hungry. The feast has little charm for them. It is duty, more than pleasure, thus forced, and is not spontaneous; and in the end, so far as it depends upon such, it must come to nothing.

     The horse is a false thing for safety;-the understanding or faith alone will not save us. We must have a warm sphere of affection as well. No amount of harmony as to theological "views," will build a consistent and strong church, able to house our spirits, nurture the loves of heaven among us, and protect us from the invading influences of the Dragon, unless we have also the other element-the conjugial mate of this,-the intense activity of some common love, which must ultimate itself even in the good of the external, where alone dwell fulness, holiness and power, the power of use and reproduction.     



IRREVERENT USE OF THE WORD              1916

     One or the most common evils of the world in which we live is the irreverent use of the Word of God by professed Christian people. In thousands of homes the big "family Bible" does indeed occupy a place of honor on the parlor table, but is never opened except when some new data are to be entered on the family tree. In the meantime anything and everything is slammed down on the sacred volume,-hats, newspapers, sewing baskets, etc;-and quite often the Bible is placed on a chair, and stepped upon when anyone wishes to reach for a book on one of the higher shelves of the book case. Things 1ike these are often done quite thoughtlessly, but we may be sure that such treatment of the Word does not implant "remains of holiness" with children and young people.

     Worse than this are the jokes and puns from and concerning the Word, which fill the air in the Christian world. We meet them on every side,-in the daily papers, in the comic sections of the Sunday editions, in works of fiction, and especially in the vaudeville theaters. Whenever a writer or actor wants to be "real funny," he connects his cheap jokes with some Scriptural phrase or Biblical character, for he knows that this will always be appreciated by his audience. Scriptural terms and sayings, applied in jokes or light talk, have indeed become so common that most people no longer remember that they were originally taken from the Bible.

     Nor is this evil habit confined to vulgar people or to cheap literature alone, for the "higher classes" also indulge in it, in a more refined manner, perhaps, but for the same purpose, i. e., to add "spice" to their talk by a bit of profanity. After-dinner speakers, lawyers pleading at court, political orators, etc., are especially guilty of this evil, and any "funny" reference to the Bible is sure to evoke shouts of laughter. The Word, and marriage,-these two most holy things in human life are the things most exposed to profanation in the Christian world.

     And those who of all men are most guilty of this form of profanation are the preachers in the Old Church.


It is well known that they fill their empty sermons with all kinds of funny anecdotes, in which the holy things of the Word are used in an irreverent manner. "Billy Sunday" is an extreme example of such blasphemers, but he is only a little more "advanced" than the rest of his ecclesiastical confreres. The term "Preachers' jokes" has become a by-word. Once, on an ocean liner, we overheard a sample of clerical wit. Four reverend gentlemen assembled in the smoking room to exchange anecdotes, and never in our life have we heard such foul ideas garbed in the language of Sacred Scripture.

     Bishop Benade and the other fathers of the Academy were strenuous in their preaching against this evil, with the result that the practice was pretty well rooted out among those who followed them. To mention this fact may seem like praising ourselves for conscious virtue, but surely, the knowledge that certain gross evils are discouraged among us, should not be charged against our heavy burden of communal self-conceit. External decency and reverence for holy things must be prerequisites for life in the New Church, for they constitute the ultimate basis of spiritual order and progress.

     As one of the early converts to the "Academy" way of thinking, we hope to be pardoned for bringing personal testimony as to the impression made upon our youthful mind by the treatment of the Word in the Academy families. The sacred repository for the Word in each home,-the reverence with which it was named and handled,-the gentle suggestion, (rather than reproof), when once in class we rested an elbow on the Word,-the silence among jovial young men whenever any stranger tried to be "funny" by the use of Scriptural language,-all this was new and startling, and made a life-long impression. We are happy to state that this manner of treating the Word is still one of the characteristics of external life in the General Church, and we suppose it is the same in all other parts of the New Church.

     As far as we know, the teachings of the Writings on this subject have never before been collected and published, and we therefore take pleasure in presenting them here. They are of the utmost practical value.



TEACHINGS              1916

     "'Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain,' signifies that all' and single things which belong to the worship of God are not to be contemned, still less blasphemed and contaminated with filthy things." A. C. 2009.

     "By 'taking the name of God in vain' is signified blasphemy, which is committed when those things which are of the Word, or of the Doctrine of faith,-thus the things which are holy-are held in derision and are debased to unclean earthly things and thus defiled." A. C. 8882.

     "To 'take the name of God in vain' means to take anything from what the Church teaches out of the Word, and by means of which the Lord is invoked and worshiped, and use it in vain talk, falsehoods, lies, curses, sorceries and incantations, for this also is to revile and blaspheme God and thus the name of God." T. C. R. 298.

     "Divine Truth, or the Word, is profaned when its holiness is denied, which is done when it is despised, rejected, and treated with opprobrium." A. E. 960:14.

     "The first kind of profanation is committed by those who make jests from the Word and about the Word and the Divine things of the Church. This is done by some from a bad habit, in taking names or expressions from the Word and mixing them with remarks which are hardly becoming and sometimes foul. This cannot be done without being joined with some degree of contempt for the Word, when yet the Word in all and single things is Divine and holy, for each and every word therein conceals in its bosom something Divine, and by it has communication with heaven. But this kind of profanation is lighter or more grievous according to the acknowledgment of the holiness of the Word and according to the indecency of the talk into which it is introduced by those who jest concerning it." D. P. 231.

     "Those who make jokes from the Word do not regard it as holy, and those who joke about it hold it in no esteem. And yet the Word is the very Divine Truth of the Lord with men, and the Lord is present in the Word, and likewise heaven; for every single thing of the Word communicates with heaven and through heaven with the Lord; therefore, to jest from the Word and about the Word is to bespatter the holy things of heaven with the dust of the earth." A. E. 1064.


     "When such a man comes into the other life, holy things adhere to profane things in every idea of his thought. He cannot there bring forth a single idea of what is holy without bringing forth at the same time the adherent profane things. Profanation exists in each thing that he thinks; and, as heaven abhors profanation, he cannot but be thrust down into heir." A. C. 1008.

     "There are spirits who, while in the life of the body, had despised the Word; and there are those who had abused the things of the Word by introducing them into jokes. There are those who had supposed the Word to be of no account except that it might serve to keep the common people in restraint; there are those who had blasphemed the Word, and there are those who had profaned it. The lot of all such persons is miserable in the other life, with each one according to the kind and degree of the contempt, derision, blasphemy and profanation. For, as has been said before, in the heavens the Word is so holy that it is as it were heaven itself to them; and since in heaven there is a communication of the thoughts of all, such spirits cannot possibly be together with the angels, but are separated." A. C. 1878.

     "Those who debase spiritual things to unclean earthly things correspond to unclean excretions. Such spirits came to me and brought with them filthy thoughts, from which they spoke filthy things, and also warped clean things to unclean things and turned them into such. Many of this kind had belonged to the lowest orders, but some also to people of higher station in the world, who during their bodily life had not indeed so spoken in company, but still had so thought; for they had refrained from speaking as they thought, lest they should come to shame and lose friendship, gain, and honor. Nevertheless, among their like, when in freedom, their conversation had been like that of the lowest orders, and even fouler, because they possessed a certain intellectual capacity which they misused to defile even the holy things of the Word and of Doctrine." n. 5390.


     "Some persons from common practice, and others from contempt of the Word, have contracted that evil habit of using statements of the Holy Scripture as matters of laughter, or for jokes, supposing that thus they are joking in an elegant manner. But holy things are thereby So adjoined to corporeal and filthy ideas, that in the other life they are a source of great detriment to these persons; for such holy things, by habit immersed in worldly and corporeal ideas of various kinds, must be separated in the other life, and this is usually effected by various methods of discerption, [tearing apart], which I have witnessed. Let men beware, therefore, how they mix holy things with things profane, thereby profaning holy things; for in the other life similar ideas return: when worldly ideas occur the holy things mixed with them occur also; and when holy ideas occur the profane things also occur in connection with them, and therefore these things must be separated from one another. Let this suffice for a warning, for these things can scarcely be cured except by painful methods." S. D. 1304.

     "Profanations of the Word produce a kind of callosity which obstructs and absorbs the goods and truths of remains. Let man beware, therefore, of profaning the Word." A. C. 571.

     "Let all, therefore, beware of injuring the Word in any way; for they who injure it do injury to the Divine itself." A. C. 9430.


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. At present Bryn Athyn lies buried under a deep mantle of snow, which has aided and abetted a bad epidemic of the grippe. Almost all the children, and many of the young people and older folks, have suffered from it. The Synnestvedts had eleven sick in bed at one time, the Odhners nine, and so on. We regret to say that Mr. Pitcairn, after twelve weeks of most serious illness, is still confined to his room, but we learn that the crisis seems to have passed, and that there is now hope of recovery. The sympathy of the whole Church goes forth to "Uncle John."

     On November 26th, after a lapse of three years, another "fair" was held. It was found that although fairs involve a great deal of work, they nevertheless "raise money" and, what is more important, provide an opportunity for many to do something for their beloved Church. The recent fair was a great success, financially, as well as socially. The program was skillfully arranged by Mr. Fred. Finkelday, who converted the auditorium to a veritable oriental market place. Many came in brilliant oriental costumes. Five oriental dances and a selection of music from the Orient were followed by a little farce, representing a mock trial, based on the recent "borough trial," composed by the lively wit of Mr. Donald F. Rose.

     November 27th and 28th were made historical by an important meeting of the Joint Council of Clergy and Laity. Rev. F. E. Waelchli, Hugo Odhner and Richard Roschman came from Berlin, Ont.; Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, Mr. S. S. Lindsay and Jacob Schoenberger from Pittsburgh, Mr. Seymour Nelson and Paul Carpenter from Glenview, Ill.; Rev. T. S. Harris from Baltimore, and Mr. Walter C. Childs from New York. It was almost like an Assembly; the purpose of the meeting was to discuss "the State of the Church," as affected by the teachings of Miss Beekman and others on the nature of the spiritual world, the spiritual body, and the doctrine concerning the Holy Supper.


A great many letters were read from various parts of the Church; beside some documents of great doctrinal and historical importance. The long discussion that followed was very frank and earnest, but a friendly tone prevailed throughout in spite of some apparently irreconcilable doctrinal differences. Many of those attending left with a feeling of great encouragement and hopefulness, for it is becoming more and more manifest that the Lord Himself is leading His Church out of the internal temptations through which she has been passing during recent years.

     The "Philadelphia District Assembly" was held in connection with the meetings of the Joint Council, the fair taking the place of the usual banquet. The two following evenings were devoted to verbal reports of the visiting ministers and to a discussion on "the evidences that the New Church will be established in Christendom."

     On December 3d the congregation witnessed a very beautiful wedding. The fair bride was Miss Greta Odhner, and the happy bridegroom, Mr. Otho W. Heilman. The chapel, decorated with brilliant chrysanthemums, was filled to overflowing with the relatives and friends of this popular young couple. Though the editor of the LIFE will frown upon these details, I know that the ladies and young people among the readers will be interested in them. The dress of the bride was white embroidered "Organdy" in "Empire" style; the veil decorated with lilies of the valley. The bridesmaids were attired in the same general style, Miss Hilda Glebe, the maid of honor, in lavender, and the other fair maids-Miss Winfrey Glenn, Miss Agnes Lindsay, and Miss Flora Waelchli-in citron-yellow and purple, these being the "colors" of the senior class, which the bride has forsaken for the matrimonial estate. The two little sisters of the bride, Renee and Ione, were flower girls, while little Ormond trotted up as the page. Bishop W. F. Pendleton officiated, and his magnificent chasuble, of brocaded white velvet, added ecclesiastical beauty to a beautiful scene. A pleasant surprise to the parents of the bride was the rendering by the orchestra of the same old Swedish wedding march, which was sung by Schools at the wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Odhner, in 1889.


At the reception, which followed nearly four hundred friends, old and young, offered their congratulations. It was a very happy occasion, gay and free, and not over-loaded with many long speeches. The music was unusually fine, and the dances many. The newly married couple have made their first nest in "the Brown Study."

     On the following evening a native of Greece, ("Mike" Dorizas, Otho's friend and successor as heavy-weight wrestler at the Penn), gave us a very interesting lecture on the Balkan situation and especially on the little-known country of Persia, where he had spent two years. The lecture was illustrated by more than a hundred lantern slides. After the talk he was entertained as the guest of the Younger Generation Club at a "smoker" in the "Dutch Kitchen."

     On Sunday afternoon, December 12th, the Civic and Social Club gave a musical, which proved a very pleasant occasion. It will be followed by a series of musicals. K. R. A.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. Since our last report two interesting incidents have occurred. The first, in order of time, was the "fair," which more than equaled our hopes and expectations. About 75 of our people were present, filling our old hall to its greatest capacity. Booths, decorated in brilliant colors, and costumes suggestive of the Harvest Home, brightened the scene and engendered a jovial spirit, which went far to loosen the purse strings. The articles for sale rapidly dwindled, as the coffer filled and finally overflowed the $100.00 mark.

     On Sunday, December 5th, we reaped the first-fruits of our long and patient efforts to obtain a permanent place of worship of our own. A simple but impressive ceremony, attended by nearly all the members of the society, signalized the laying of the corner-stone of our new Church building, which is situated at Wyalusing Ave. and 54th St., in West Philadelphia. The presence of Bishop N. D. Pendleton added much to the sphere of the occasion. The foundations of the building have now been laid and the work will progress rapidly to its completion.


     It has been a pleasure to entertain a number of guests and visitors from Bryn Athyn, and we hope to see more of our "country" friends. The regular activities of the Society have been well sustained, and we have settled down in earnest to the work of the winter. A. E. S.

     CHICAGO, ILL. Lest our long silence should give our friends in the General Church the impression that we have fallen into "innocuous desuetude," in the absence of a regular correspondent a casual contributor here ventures to make an effort at filling the gap in the record.

     These reminiscences will only go back to our summer vacation, which began in August. This was the signal for a general flight from crowded and noisy city streets to the serene and peaceful solitudes of the Michigan woods. Gentle winds and waves carried us at different times to the friendly shelter of South Haven, Refreshed by the invigorating breezes of our inland sea, the pilgrims continued their way overland to the leafy solitudes of Palisades Park and Covert. That goal once reached, how restful to be lulled to sleep by the restless rolling of the waves upon the sandy shore and the gentle soughing of the sentinels of the forest realm!

     In due course our brief stay drew to a close and before long all set their faces toward their city homes. Church and Sunday School services, the latter under Mr. Klein's able leading, were resumed, and on October 13th we greatly enjoyed the presence of our Bishop at the Wednesday evening supper and class at the Pollock house. October 17th a joint service with communion in connection with Mr. Headsten's congregation was held in our hall in the Fine Arts Building, the Bishop preaching.

     Our little flock has enjoyed the visit of Mrs. Schroeder, from Denver, who has spent the fall months in Chicago. On the other hand, we much regret the departure for the East of our friend, Miss Klein, who has so long attended her sorely tried brother's family.


     One event of the near future, which will be launched on December 1st, at present engages the close and. laborious attention of the Ladies' Auxiliary, who have for a long time worked like beavers to make the Bazaar a success. We hope they will meet with the success they so richly deserve.

     As a society we are leading a somewhat precarious existence, no accessions being recorded for a long time, which makes the building up of a flourishing society in the busy center of American activity so difficult. Still, our little flock is clinging together and we fully realize "how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity." J. W. M.

     GLENVIEW, ILL. Building activities and interest in the growth of our new buildings have nearly superseded social functions proper. Already the walls are up sufficiently to give one an idea of how well the finished product is going to look amid the rural surroundings of the park. There are building committees and sub-committees of various kinds, so that many meetings have to be held, leaving few evenings free for our usual functions. The Philosophy Class, which has been carried on for several years, has been omitted. We still manage to have the indispensable Friday evening supper and class and the regular services in temporary quarters. As we have waited for twenty years for a real church building our excitement and enthusiasm are pardonable and natural.

     Sunday, the seventh of November, was a memorable day in our history, for on that day the corner-stone of the church was laid with appropriate exercises. The usual service was held in the temporary building and just before the last hymn the pastor gave a short, but interesting, address; the stone is of unhewn granite,-the gift of one of the members. The correspondence of the stone, and of the east and the south, was given. The address was an excellent preparation for the ceremony that followed. The pastor, bearing the WORD in his hands, led us in solemn procession through the paths of the park to the building site. The weather was apparently made for the occasion, as warm and sunny as a day in spring.


It was inspiring to look back and see so many of our people, marching together with the same end in view. The one hundred and twenty who took part made a long procession with here and there a gap caused by the lagging of little feet or those of old age.

     Soon all gathered in sight of the southeast corner. Suitable passages from the Word were read, a hymn was sung, and then four of the young men lowered the stone to its proper position. After another hymn had been sung the pastor invoked the Divine Blessing upon the Church, the people and the building. The congregation then dispersed feeling that this work, that means so much to us, had been begun under right and orderly conditions.

     We also enjoyed having a bazaar this month. A play was given by the young folks and a large and attractive stock of useful and ornamental articles were sold with the result of making a considerable addition to the building fund.

     The second Wednesday of December witnessed a postponed "steinfest" to which the ladies were invited. The subject discussed (with pleasure and profit) was the general subject of "Waste." The particular parts of the subject spoken to were waste of material, of energy, of emotion, of time, and of opportunity.

     Among the minor items is the purchase of an automobile by one of our young men. He has a nice little garage to lock it up in at night. Night is the only time it is in danger of being stolen; nobody would steal it by daylight.

     STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. When the summer holidays had come to an end, the Circle assembled again with eagerness, planning for the coming winter. We had finally received a leader and minister after two years of waiting and expectation, and we now all felt that the little Circle was to leave its privacy and step into publicity. Two things we had to consider to begin with: To procure a suitable place for the public worship and our meetings and to discuss how our Circle could, in the best way, become a congregation, recognized by the State. On several successive meetings we discussed the name of the intended congregation and the statutes which are to accompany our application.


We found that we could procure the necessary number of fifteen persons (who had left the Old Church and were baptized into the New Church) to sign the application, and thus everything is arranged, though the application is not yet handed in.

     The Circle has finally found a suitable home in a former school room, large and well lighted, on Artillerigatan 60, on the ground floor, quite in the neighborhood of our former rooms, which we left with some regret. The hall itself has been repaired, but according to the rigorous restrictions of the authorities in this country, it is not allowed to hold more than sixty persons. The spacious and cheerful cloak-room we have partly re-arranged as a room where our little library and other things are housed.

     Since the beginning of October we have had regular public services every Tuesday, at 11:30 a. m. Classes are held on Wednesdays, at 7 a. m., when Mr. Baeckstrom lectures, at present on the subject of the Spiritual World, discussion being allowed afterwards. The attendance at the services has been fairly good, never less than twenty persons, and at the Wednesday classes about thirty persons. We all feel very thankful, indeed, to the General Church, that our minister, through its generosity, is in a position to devote his time exclusively to the work for the Church. This will, we hope, give more strength to it and increase the progress, though it cannot perhaps be as rapid and great in a country where there is still an established religion and where, consequently, it is a great enterprise to leave the State Church. Some who have quite privately in some way or other taken an interest in the Writings have found their way to us, and now it is to be seen if their interest is strong enough to continue to visit our classes. The first Sunday, when a service was held at Artillerigatan, a little baby, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Liden, was baptized, and we accepted this as a good omen for the future. Now we have three married couples and six children in the Church, which is not so bad to begin with.

     The first festivity in our new room was the marriage of Mr. Gustaf Baeckstrom and Miss Greta Wahlstrom, Pastor Bronniche, from Copenhagen, officiating.


The hall was in festive array, decorated with palms and flowers and lights in tall silver candelabra and was to the last place filled with a happy crowd. After the hymn, "O Lord, Thy love through heavenly spheres descending," (of course translated into Swedish), was sung, the glorious tones of Beethoven's song, "The Praise of God in Nature," filled the room. Then followed, "Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah," during which the minister entered and opened the Word. To the strains of a wedding march by Soderman the bridal couple slowly marched in, preceded by four little girls in pink dresses with white flowers on their culls and in their hands. The ritual for the wedding was according to the Liturgy of the General Church. Immediately after the ceremony the bridal couple received the communion. Then the congregation sang "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts," the newly married pair leaving the room, their path being strewn with flowers by the little bridesmaids. After another solo the feast had come to an end. The whole ceremony made a deep impression upon all those present, among whom were a number of friends not connected with the Church. It was the first time any wedding like this was seen in Sweden. Members of the Circle and a few others were afterwards invited to the home of the bride, where an animated supper ended the day. SOPHIE NORDENSKJOLD.

     LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND. The Rev. G. J. Fercken, on a card dated November 22d, states that on November 14th he "wrote a long letter, from which I know you will draw some very interesting news for the readers of the LIFE." This letter has never reached us, and it is to be feared that it has been lost, like several other foreign communications, owing to the chaotic conditions in Europe. But from letters received by Bishop N. D. Pendleton, we draw some encouraging particulars concerning Dr. Fercken's newly established mission in the French- speaking part of Switzerland.

     Having safely settled in the neighborhood of Lausanne, Dr. Fercken at once established connection with the little colony of New Church people from Mauritius,-his former parishioners. There were nine or ten of these, but he found quite a number of other persons interested. A suitable hall was secured and regular services instituted, with an average attendance of twenty-two persons.


In all, there are about thirty persons in Lausanne actively interested in the Doctrines of the New Church. Five of these are now members of the General Church. The minister is supported by the Extension Fund of the General Church, while the congregation pays for the hall and current expenses. A doctrinal class, attended by eighteen persons, is held every Friday evening, and is at present studying the work ON THE LAST JUDGMENT. The little tract, entitled "The Testimony of the Writings," is doing effective work in convincing the people that the Writings are indeed the Word of the Lord in His Second Coming.

     A new field seems to be opening in the old Calvinistic strong-hold of Geneva. Dr. Fercken states that "Madame D., of Geneva, continues her very interesting correspondence with me. She is busy gathering 'des personnes d'elite' as a nucleus for New Church work in that city. I think you will soon hear very happy news about this new field."

     MR. BOWERS' MISSIONARY WORK, The usual fall tour on my little circuit, in the great missionary field of the world, began on September 17th. The first place visited was Berlin, Ont., where I was invited to preach on Sunday, September 19th The Rev. F. E. Waelchli, pastor of Carmel Church, being now employed as visiting pastor in the use of Church Extension, the Rev. H. L. Odhner, the assistant minister, is efficiently carrying forward the work of the Church in Berlin.

     Services were held on Sunday, September 26th, at the home of Mr. Ferd. Doering and family near Milverton, Ont. Sermon and administration of the Holy Supper to six persons. Three members of the circle were absent on account of rain-storm that day.

     On Sunday, October 3d, our meeting was at the residence of Dr. Edward Cranch and family, in Erie, Pa. The attendance was twenty-one adults and three children. When my first visit was made in Erie, in November, 1879. Dr. and Mrs. Cranch were the only people in that city, known to be believers in the New Church, as a body distinct from the Old Church. There were a few also in the country.


     On Sunday, October 10th, services were held at the home of Mr. Solomon Renkenberger, at Youngstown, O. All of those present except the writer, six persons, were members of the family.

     Near Columbiana, O., on Sunday, October 17th, I preached at the home of Mr. Jacob Renkenberger and family, to a circle of seven persons.

     It was to me an enjoyable experience to be able to attend the Pittsburgh District Assembly, October 22-25.

     In the city of Kokomo, Ind., five days were given to a visit with Mr. Isaac M. Martz and family. Mr. Martz has long been a most diligent reader of the Writings. He believes in them as the Word of the Lord. On Sunday, November 14th, we held service, seven persons being present.

     The next place visited was Bourbon, Ind., 95 miles east of Chicago. Here our little circle consists of three married couples. Our meeting was held on. Sunday evening, November 21st, at the home of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Fogle. The sermon aroused a warm sphere, and an interesting conversation followed.

     Having returned to Ontario, we had a service at the home of Mr. F. E. Woofenden and family, at Mull, Kent county, on Sunday, November 28th. The six children of the family and five adults formed the congregation.

     On December 1st I again arrived at Berlin and Waterloo. As Mr. Waelchli was away over Sunday, the 5th, and Minister Odhner just returned on Saturday from Bryn Athyn, where he had been at the meetings of the Joint Council, my giving the sermon was again acceptable.

     Besides the places mentioned above, sixteen others were visited on this trip. And I much regret that on account of limitations of time and space, my calls at those places cannot be more fully spoken of here. But it must suffice to say that at Warren, Greenford, Waverly, Columbus, Madison county, in Ohio, and at all the other places just above referred to, kind and earnest New Church friends gave me a cordial welcome, as ever. And our talks as to the Church and the Doctrines were pleasant and useful, as in many former years. J. E. BOWERS.



LOVE OF COUNTRY       Rev. F. E. WAELCHLI       1916


VOL. XXXVI FEBRUARY, 1916          No. 2
     (Read at the Ontario District Assembly, Jan. 1st, 1916.)

     In the New Church all things are to be made new by means of the new doctrine now revealed. Upon every relation of man to his fellow-men, that doctrine sheds its light, and the man of the Church who desires to enter into a new and truer life as to any one of those relations, will turn to that doctrine to learn its teachings. He is not willing to rest satisfied with what the world can give him in the way of principles and theories, but longs for the light of heaven. When, therefore, his mind turns to the question of his relation to his country, he seeks for the truths relating thereto as given in the Heavenly Doctrines. And as the mind of everyone is in these days occupied with this question, it may be of use to present and consider some of the passages bearing upon it.

     "One's country is the neighbor more than a society, because it consists of many societies and consequently the love toward it is broader and higher; and beside, to love one's country is to love the Public welfare. A man's country is the neighbor, because it is like a parent; for there he was born; it has nourished and still nourishes him, it has protected and still protects him from injury. Men should do good to their country from love, according to its necessities, some of which are natural and some spiritual. Natural necessities regard civil life and order, and spiritual necessities regard spiritual life and order. That one's country is to be loved, not as a man loves himself but more than himself, is a law inscribed on the human heart; hence what has been affirmed by every just man has been declared, that if ruin threatens one s country from an enemy or other source, it is noble to die for it, and glorious for a soldier to shed his blood for it.


This is a common saying, because one's country should be loved so much. It is to be known that they who love their country, and do good to it from good will, after death love the Lord's kingdom; for this is the country there; and they who love the Lord's kingdom love the Lord, because the Lord is the All in all of His kingdom." (T. C. R. 414)

     "He who loves his country, and has such an affection toward it as to find a pleasure in promoting its good from good-will, would lament if this should be denied him, and would supplicate that the opportunity of doing good to it might be granted, for this is the object of his affection, consequently the source of his pleasure and blessedness. Such a one is also honored and exalted to posts of dignity, for these to him are means of serving his country, although they are called rewards. But those who have no affection for their country, but only for themselves and the world, are moved to action on account of honor and wealth, which also they regard as ends. Such persons prefer themselves to their country, or their own good to the common good, and are respectively sordid; and yet they are above others desirous to make it appear that they do what they do from a sincere love. But when they think privately about it, they deny that anyone does this, and wonder that anyone can. They who are such in the life of the body with regard to their country, or the public good, are such also in the other life with regard to the Lord's kingdom, for every one's affection or love follows him, since affection or love is the life of every one." (A. C. 3816.)

     In these words of doctrine we note three things: (1) that it is a law inscribed upon the human heart that one's country is to be loved, not as a man loves himself, but more than himself; (2) that there are those whose perception of this law has perished because of their regarding only their own advantage in their pretended love of country; (3) that such as men are in regard to their country, such they are also in the other life in regard to the Lord's Kingdom.


     The law of the love of country is inscribed upon the human heart because, as the doctrine states, the country is as a parent, providing the place of birth and giving nourishment and protection. As the love of parents is inscribed on the heart, so is the love of country, unless selfishness blot it out. This love may be merely natural or it may be spiritual; or, to use other terms, it may be merely natural good or it may be spiritual good. As merely natural good it may exist with the unregenerate man; but as spiritual good only with him who is regenerating. If it be merely natural good, it lacks the quality which is necessary in order that after death it may become love of the Lord's Kingdom; but if it be spiritual good it has this quality and will become that eternal love.

     Man is born with natural good. It is a gift from the Lord, bestowed in order that he may become receptive of spiritual good. Unless there were natural good, there would be no possibility of remains coming into any activity and leading into spiritual good. To illustrate: how could there ever be any entrance into spiritual good with a man who is devoid of natural kindness, sympathy, good-will, gratitude, honesty, justice and uprightness. So, although this good in itself does not have in it eternal life, yet but for it there could be no attainment of that life. And so it is with the love of country, which is of natural good; it cannot become the eternal love of the Lord's Kingdom, but it can serve as the means of entrance into that love of country which is of spiritual good, and which does become love of the Lord's Kingdom. The Lord inscribes upon the human heart the law that the country is to be loved not as oneself but more than oneself, in order that that law from being merely natural may become spiritual, and thus eternal; for in all things the Lord regards what is eternal. And when the state of men is such that that law is in danger of perishing, He provides or permits such events among men as may serve as means for calling it into renewed life. Of one of these means we shall speak later.

     But though the Lord seeks to keep the love alive, He does not take away from man the freedom to destroy it, if he will. He destroys it, when he permits his selfish ends to rule to such an extent that the love of country becomes a mere pretense, used for the attainment of those ends.


And yet that pretense may become so much a second nature to him, that he does not realize that it is a pretense, but believes that he genuinely loves his country. This is illustrated by the case of Charles XII, of Sweden, who believed that he was acting from love of country, when in reality he was only seeking to carry out his obstinate will. Concerning him we read: "When Charles XII lived in the world, and lost his country and all who were in it, he said that he wished well to the country; he was not willing to see that such was not the case, but that he most obstinately remained in the purpose never to desist, before he was brought to such extremity that nothing remained. This was shown, and, also, that in itself it was diabolical: he believed, however, that this must be the glory of his country; but it was shown that he ought to be considered as insane." (S. D. 4741.)

     No natural good is pure. Back of it and entering more or less into it there is always something of selfishness, something of self-satisfaction and of the desire for recognition and credit. It is, therefore, also thus with the love of country which is of natural good. Selfishness is ever seeking to inject itself into it, and will do so unless there be combat against it. To this there is no exception. The combat may be carried on from merely moral principles, or it may be carried on from spiritual-moral principles. If from the former, the selfishness can be held in check, but not put away. And yet such combat is of use, indeed, of great and important use, for by it the natural good is preserved in a state relatively pure, and thus capable at any time of becoming the means whereby spiritual good may be attained. Spiritual good is attained when the evil of selfishness is combated from spiritual-moral principles, that is, because it is a sin against God. Then the evil is not merely held in check, but is rendered powerless; and the truly genuine love of country will find its place in the heart, a love of country which after death becomes the love of the Lord's Kingdom. That genuine love of country is none other than such as is capable of becoming the love of the Lord's Kingdom is evident from the following teaching:


"Those were explored who had not any charity towards the neighbor-not those who are unmerciful, and of such a disposition; for these are at once seen to be infernal-but they who do not appear so in words and in outward form, and yet are so in heart and internally. They are those who say they are for their country and its good, and likewise act and speak as if they were for it, and yet are not; for those who are for the good of their country have charity towards the neighbor-for the good of their country is the neighbor, and more the neighbor than a fellow citizen is. These were explored by the following criterion, namely, as to whether they wished well to the Lord's Kingdom, thus to heaven; for they who wish well to their country also wish well to the Kingdom of the Lord; for after death this is their country; in the other life no other country is recognized." (S. D. 5399.)

     Genuine love of country is attained only by regeneration, and this because in it are included all things of the life of charity; and the life of charity is not possible without regeneration. That all things of charity are included in the genuine love of country is because this love is the love of the common good, which good man has at heart when he is a form of charity, performing his daily duties from the love of promoting the good of the neighbor, individually and collectively. To become such a form of charity man must be regenerated, that is, he must look to the Lord and shun his evils as sins. Only he who is such a form of charity can truly love the neighbor, and consequently his country; for the country is in an eminent sense the neighbor. We read:

     "Not only man as an individual is the neighbor, but also man in plurality; for a society larger and smaller, a man's country, the church, the Lord's Kingdom, and above all the Lord-these are all the neighbor, to whom good is to be done from charity. 'These also are ascending degrees of neighbor; for a society of many is neighbor in a higher degree than an individual; a man's country in a higher degree than a society; in still higher degree is the church; in yet higher degree the Lord's Kingdom; but in the supreme degree the Lord. These ascending degrees are like the steps of a ladder, at the top of which is the Lord." (A. C. 6819.)


     Let us note that it is here said that these ascending degrees are like the steps of a ladder. We mount to the higher steps by the lower; only thus can we, attain them. He who is not in charity to the individual neighbor, cannot be in charity to a society; and he who is not in both of these, cannot be in charity towards his country, that is, in the genuine love of country.

     True love of country, or, what is the same, true patriotism consists in the faithful performance of use for the sake of the common good, with love to the Lord entering into it all. This appears from the following teaching:

     "To perform use is to desire the welfare of others for the sake of the common good; and not to perform use is to desire the welfare of others not for the sake of the common good, but for the sake of self. The latter are they who love themselves above all things, but the former are they who love the Lard above all things. Thus it is that they who are in heaven act as one, and this not from themselves, but from the Lord, since they look to Him as the Only One, from whom are all things, and to His Kingdom as the common weal to be cared for. They who in the world love their country's good more than their own, and their neighbor's good as their own, are those who in the other life love and seek the Lord's Kingdom; for there the Lord's Kingdom is in the place of country." (H. H. 64.)

     What are the uses that are to be performed for the common good, is indicated, in a general way, in one of the numbers adduced above (T. C. R. 414), where it is said: "Men should do good to their country from love, according to its necessities, some of which are natural and some spiritual. Natural necessities regard civil life and order, and spiritual necessities regard spiritual life and order." We do good to our country in what regards spiritual life and order when we fulfill our duties towards the Church. Everything done for the promotion of the cause of the Church, if from a true motive, is in an eminent sense an act of patriotism.

     The doctrines do not, however, leave us with only a general statement of the manner in which we can promote the good of our country, but point out definitely in particulars how this is to be done.


In presenting these teachings, it will be useful to divide them into two parts, namely, (1) those which relate to patriotism in times of peace, and (2) those which relate to patriotism in times of war.

     A state of peace is the normal condition of a country, in which it is possible for ah to work together in an orderly and tranquil manner for the common good. The most effective work that each one can do to this end is the faithful, sincere and upright performance of the duties of his employment or calling. How this is to be done, and how thereby the common good is promoted, is told in regard to a large number of employments, in the Doctrine of Charity (158-172). The teaching there given is that of genuine patriotism. Time will permit us to quote but a few lines from what is said in regard to one of the employments, so that this may serve as an example of what is taught in regard to all. In the section on "Charity in the Man of Business," we read:

     "He loves the common good while loving his own good; for that lies hidden within it, as the root of a tree, which conceals itself in the earth; from which, nevertheless, it grows, and blossoms, and bears fruit. Not that he gives to it of his own beyond what is due; but the fact is that the public good is also the good of his fellow-citizens, whence indeed it arises, whom he loves from the charity of which he is a form." (167)

     Besides the faithful performance of use, other duties of patriotism mentioned in the Writings are obedience to the laws and the paying of taxes from good will. Concerning the latter we read:

     "They who are spiritual pay tribute and taxes with one disposition of heart, and they who are merely natural with another. The spiritual pay them from good will, because they are collected for the preservation of their country, and for its protection and that of the church, also for the administration of government by officials and rulers, to whom salaries and stipends are to be paid from the public treasury. Therefore they to whom their country and also the church are the neighbor, pay them with a ready and favorable will, and regard it as iniquitous to deceive and to prevent their collection. But they to whom the country and the church are not the neighbor, pay them with a reluctant and repugnant will, and at every opportunity they defraud and steal; for with them their own house and their own flesh are the neighbor." (T. C. R. 430.)


     In every country there must be those who administer civil affairs, and to these it is given to serve their country in a higher degree than others do. They who seek such positions should be actuated by a high and pure love of country, and besides should be intelligent in the laws of what is just and right. If they have these two qualities, the love and the intelligence, they, will continue in such uses in heaven; for we read:

     "In heaven those are engaged in civil affairs who in the world loved their country and its common good in preference to their own, and did what is just and right from the love of what is just and right. As far as they from the eagerness of love have investigated the laws of what is just and thereby become intelligent, so far they are in the faculty of administering offices in heaven, and administer them in that place or degree in which their intelligence is, this intelligence being in equal degree with their love of use for the common good." (H. H. 393)

     While intelligence in what is just and right is a most necessary qualification for those who fill or desire to fill public offices, it is also of great value to every citizen; for such intelligence will ennoble the love of country, in accordance with the law that every love is perfected by the intelligence which pertains to it.

     Love of country is not genuine if it be mere love unaccompanied by intelligence. Such love runs wild. Love to be genuine must be intelligent. This is indicated by the teaching in the Doctrine of Charity (83) that one's country is the neighbor according to its good, spiritual, moral and civil. In bestowing our love, we must estimate the quality of the object loved, estimate its good; for good is the neighbor that is to be loved. If our country is lacking in good, spiritual, moral, or civil, we cannot love it in the same degree as we would if there were not that lack. And yet, whatever be the shortcomings of one's country, one's allegiance is due to it, and its good is to be promoted by every effort in one's power. It would be wrong, in case some other country excelled our own in good, to love that country and to promote its good more than our own; as is plainly told in these words of doctrine:


     "To love another kingdom more, by doing more to promote its use, makes against the good of the kingdom in which one dwells. For this reason one's own country is to be loved in a higher degree. For example: if I had been born in Venice or in Rome [in Catholic Italy], and were a Reformed Christian, am I to love my country, or the country where I was born, because of its spiritual good? I cannot. Nor with respect to its moral and civil good, so far as this depends for existence upon its spiritual good. But so far as it does not depend upon this I can, even if that country hates me. Thus I must not in hatred regard it as an enemy, nor as an adversary, but must still love it; doing it no injury, but consulting its good, so far as it is good for it, not consulting it in such a way that I confirm it in its falsity and evil." (D. CHAR. 85, 86.)

     This teaching clearly shows us that although we must love our country above all other countries, and be true and loyal to it, yet we must not close our eyes to its shortcomings, and still less love its falsities and evils. These we must oppose and seek to correct, even though the result should be that our country hate us. By such an attitude, when it is necessary, true patriotism is exercised.

     Concerning one's attitude towards another country we have this further teaching: "The human race is my neighbor in the widest sense; but as it is divided into empires, kingdoms, and republics, any one of them is neighbor according to the good of its religion and morals, and according to the good that it performs to one's own country, and makes to be one with its own good." (D. CHAR. 87.) The same teaching is stated in another part of this number, in these words: "[Another country] is my neighbor, according to the good of its religion and morals, and according as it wills to do good to my country and to itself."

     We have considered what should be the quality of patriotism in times of peace. Let us now see what its quality should be in times of war. In general, this is the same as in times of peace. So far as conditions permit, there is to continue the faithful performance of use, obedience, the payment of taxes from good will, the doing of what is just and right, and the good of intelligence in the laws pertaining to what is just and right.


But besides all this, there is in times of war the duty, a duty which should be performed from love, of making unusual sacrifices for the sake of one's country, even to the offering up of one's own life. The teachings of the Writings in regard to this have already been given in some of the passages quoted. In times of war the destruction of one's country threatens, and this impending danger causes one to realize how precious it is to us. Patriotism is aroused as at no other time, and there is manifested that love of country which is greater than the love of oneself. And herein we may see one of the reasons why, in the Divine Providence, wars are permitted, namely, in order that the love of country, upon which the eternal welfare of men so much depends, may not die out. At this day of the world, in a state of long continued peace, men's affections and thoughts center more and more upon themselves; even their country they think of from no other standpoint than the benefit they themselves can derive from it in the way of honor or gain; to love their country's good above their own they regard as a fanciful, a merely poetic idea. If such a state, from long continuance; should become permanent with a nation, it would be fatal to the hope of salvation for that people. The love of country must, as we have seen, exist, in order that by its becoming spiritual, there may be the eternal love of the Lord's Kingdom. When, therefore, it threatens to cease to be, the Lord provides that it may be revived, even though for this the permission of the calamity of war be necessary. For this calamity, dreadful as it is, can in no wise compare with that most fearful of all calamities, the loss of the hope of salvation with the greater part of the people of a nation or of a number of nations.

     What should be the attitude towards a country with which one's own country is at war, is told in these words:

     "Since charity consists in wishing well and so acting well, it follows that it is to be exercised toward a society in almost the same manner as toward an individual; but in one way to a society of good men, and in another to a society of wicked men. To the latter, charity is to be exercised according to natural justice; to the former, according to spiritual justice." (T. C. R. 413.)


     What is here said of a society, applies also to a country. In time of war the enemy country is to us as a wicked man, for it seeks a wicked end, which is the destruction of our country. We are fold that the charity to be exercised towards it is the same as that which would be exercised towards a wicked man. Let us see what is said concerning this exercise of charity, and, as we read, have in mind a country instead of an individual:

     "To love the neighbor is not merely to will and do good to the relative, friend, and good man, but also to the stranger, enemy, and bad man. But charity is exercised toward the latter in one way, and toward the former in another; toward a relative and friend by direct benefits; toward an enemy and wicked man by indirect benefits conferred by exhortation, discipline, punishment, and so by correction. This may be illustrated thus. . . . If one repels an insulting enemy, and in self-defense strikes him or delivers him to the judge, so as to prevent injury to himself, yet with a disposition to befriend the man, he acts in the course of charity. Wars that have for their end the defense of one's country and the church, are not contrary to charity; the end in view shows whether there is charity or not. Since, therefore, charity in its origin is to have good will, and as this has its seat in the internal man, it is manifest that when one who has charity resists an enemy, punishes the guilty, or chastises the wicked, he does so by means of the external man; therefore after he has done it, he returns to the charity that is in the internal man; and then, as far as he can, and it is useful, he wishes him well, and from good will does good to him. They who have genuine charity have zeal for what is good; and that zeal in the external man may seem like anger and flaming fire, but the flame is extinguished and it is quieted as soon as the adversary returns to reason. It is otherwise with those who have no charity; their zeal is anger and hatred; for from these their internal is heated and inflamed." (T. C. R. 407, 408.)

     This passage and also others which have been quoted bring before us clearly the fact that whatever phase of the subject of the love of country we consider, we have before us the doctrine of charity. The love of country is a part of the life of charity, yea, as we have seen, it includes all things of charity.


Therefore do the doctrines give us such abundant teaching concerning it. And this teaching they present to us as drawn from the Word in the Letter, yea, as drawn from the Decalogue itself, so that we may know that this love is enjoined upon us as a Divine Command. In the True Christian Religion, in the exposition of the Fourth Commandment, we read: "In the broadest [natural] sense by this commandment is meant that men should love their country, because it supports and protects them, and is therefore called fatherland [patria] from father [pater]. But to their country . . . honor must be rendered by parents, and by them implanted in their children" (305).

     And this truth thus comes to us in all its power, in order that by the application of it to life, we may attain unto eternal citizenship in the Lord's Heavenly Kingdom. The things of this world pass away. Today they are, tomorrow they are not. Kingdoms and empires rise and flourish; they have their day; they fall; they disappear. And yet there is something that pertains to them that lives forever,-the love towards them on the part of those dwelling therein. If that love be genuine love of country, it continues to eternity as love of the Lord's Kingdom.

     This truth, that genuine love of country endures forever as love of the Lord's Kingdom-a truth stated again and again, in nearly every passage of the Writings that speaks of the love of country-is unknown today, save in the New Church. To those to whom it is granted to know it, patriotism becomes a duty as it is to none others. Upon them rests the responsibility to be genuine patriots as it rests upon none others. But there is given unto them also a delight in the fulfilling of the duty and the responsibility, such as none others know.



SABBATH, A DELIGHT       Rev. W. B. CALDWELL       1916

     "If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy desire an, my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable; and shalt honor Him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own desire, nor speaking a word, then thou shalt delight thyself in, the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy Father; for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." (Isaiah 58:13, 14.)

     The internal sense of these words treats of the celestial state of regeneration, the culmination and crown of the regenerate life, signified by the "sabbath" as the seventh day of "rest in the Lord." For the celestial state is one of complete renunciation of the desire and pleasure of the proprium, and complete reliance upon the Lord from delight in being led by Him alone; This state is a "rest in the Lord,"-the holy sabbath of rest from the conflict of spiritual temptations, a state of innocence and peace, attended with inmost delight of the soul,-delight in the Lord,-and with all derivative delights of mind and body. It is attended with celestial beatitude, spiritual happiness, and natural pleasure, thus with the fulness of heavenly joy and felicity. This threefold series of delights is the reward of him who attains to the celestial sabbath of peace and rest by his progress in regenerate life, and is meant by the words of the text, "Then thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob."

     That the term "sabbath" in the text, and throughout the Word, signifies the celestial man and the celestial state, is evident from the institution of the sabbath recorded in Genesis, as the day of rest following the six days of creation. The works of the Creator ascribed to six days, wherein the series of the world was perfected, describe in the internal sense the series of states through which the man of the church passes in the regeneration, the series of Divine acts in regenerating a man to the spiritual degree.


This is what is involved in the 1st Chapter of Genesis; but in the Second Chapter we read of the seventh day of rest, of the perfected garden or paradise, and of the man who was placed therein to enjoy all the blessings of the completed world. And by this man is meant the man of the Most Ancient Church when he had been regenerated by the Lord even to the celestial degree.

     When we are told that "God rested on the seventh day from all his work which He had created and made," we are not to understanding that the Divine activity in creative operations then ceased. For the completion of the world and all its kingdoms by the acts ascribed to six days regarded as an end its preparation to bring forth uses in a perpetual new creation, even by a continued Divine presence in and conjunction with this work of His hands, that it might live from Him, and bring forth uses forever, the chief and crown of which is an angelic heaven from the human race. And this great end is fulfilled in the regeneration or new creation of man, his formation by the Lord into an angel, his preparation to enter into the heavenly paradise as an angel of the Lord's celestial kingdom. The state of this man is one of conjunction with the Lord and total submission to Him, a state of rest in the Lord, and of the Lord's resting or abiding in man, to increase blessedness of life in him forever. This, then, is what is signified by the sabbath, which in the text is called a "holy delight in the Lord."

     This was what was understood by the sabbath in the Nest Ancient Church, and in the Ancient Church after it, for which reason the sabbath was instituted as the most holy observance of the Jewish Church, wherein all things were representative. The same, therefore, is meant by the 3d Commandment as by the days of creation. The progressive states of regeneration with the spiritual man, signified by the six days of labor, are states of temptation combat against evil from an end of good, and by victory in this combat he is introduced finally into the fulfillment of the end on the seventh day, when the trials of temptation cease, and he enters the rest and peace of heavenly felicity. "Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work, but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God; for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and rested on the seventh day; I wherefore the Lord blessed the seventh day and hallowed it."


     The Jews were held to a strict observance of the sabbath on penalty of death, which represented the spiritual death of those who do not attain to some degree of holy love for the Lord, to that innocence and peace of rest and trust in the Lord, which is the inmost state of every angel of heaven, and without which no one can enter heaven. ("Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.") As the Jewish observance was merely representative, it was abrogated when the Lord came into the world, when He raised up a church that was to be in the state of the sabbath as the ancient churches had been, as the Jews were not,-a state of holy delight in the Lord. And still more is this to be the case in the New Christian Church, wherein, as we are taught, the sabbath day is to be a day of rest from labors for the sake of instruction in Divine things and meditation in the things of salvation and eternal life; also a day for the exercise of love to the neighbor; as signified by the teaching and healing- done by the Lord Himself on the sabbath day. (T. 301.) And these central uses of the sabbath in the New Church make one with the spiritual meaning of the word; for the reward of the spiritual labors of temptation is a new light of perception and instruction in Divine things, and also a new state of mutual love or charity from love to the Lord. This is the reward of victory over the evil of the natural man during the labors of the week, and a result of man's renouncing the proprium and his reliance upon the Lord, who then gives spiritual rest, together with new light, new instruction, and a new delight in all the uses of charity. In this manner the Lord "blesses the sabbath day, and hallows it."

     With the regenerating man, when engaged actually in his works of use, there arises a conflict between the internal and external man. The internal delights of use, springing from love to the Lord and the neighbor, are then in the endeavor to go forth and express themselves in act. But on the way out they encounter the opposing delights of the external man,-the delight of self love, the delight of the world as gratifying to self; in a word, the higher loves of the internal man find obstructions in the external man, and these are to be removed by resistance and combat from a genuine love of use, until the opposing delights are overcome, that there may be victory, attended with peace within and tranquility without.


Man may be said to enter into this state on the sabbath, or, rather, this state is the sabbath of rest from spiritual labor and trial whenever he experiences it,-a rest of peace and delight, delight of the soul, and thence a new delight of mind and body. Into this he comes especially during the acts of worship and states of piety which belong to sabbath observance, not as sad and compulsory things, but as heavenly delights from love to the Lord.

     In the supreme sense the sabbath signifies the union of the Divine and Human in the Lord, which was effected by temptation combats against the hells and victories over them: the result of which was rest and peace in both worlds, the conjunction of the Lord with the human race, and this from the union of the Woman with the Divine in the Lord. "For the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath day." But the word "sabbath," as we have shown, also signifies the regenerate man, who enters into the image and likeness of this Divine victory by overcoming the evils of the proprium,-the desires of the natural; who by this is conjoined to the Lord in the eternal sabbath of heavenly rest and peace.

     That this renunciation of the natural by the regenerating man, and the reward thereof, is what is treated of in the text, will be evident from the particular expressions, which we will now

     'If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath" is to shun the natural, to shun merely natural states, to turn them away, that they may not invade and disturb, or defile and destroy the holy spiritual state of rest in the Lord and conjunction with Him. It means the same as the command to Moses at the bush, "Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standeth is holy ground."

     "Not to do one's own pleasure, one's own will, on His holy day," is not to will and do what favors the cupidities of self love and love of the world, for these are of the unregenerate will of man.


     "Not to follow one's own way" is to turn away from that which favors the falsity of evil; thus to shun evil in thought as well as in will and intention. For "ways" in the Word have reference to the thoughts of the understanding. The Lord's "ways" are Divine Truths, which become man's ways when he thinks them, and removes the falsities that are contrary. Hence "Not to follow one's own way" is to turn away from the falsity of evil, from thinking evil, that the Lord's way may be followed.

     "Nor to find one's own desire" is not to five according to the delights of those natural loves; for delight is of desire, and to find one's natural desire is to live according to evil delight. "And not to speak a word" is not to think such things, for the speech proceeds from the thought, and represents it. Thus silence may be called one of the ultimates of the state of trust in the Lord,-the silence of mute astonishment at the wonders of the Divine greatness, a silence that is essential to instruction from the Lord in the state of the sabbath rest,-a quiescence of the natural man, that the spiritual may be in its activity and delight. "The Lord is in His holy temple; let all the earth be silent before Him."

     All of these forms of renunciation are willingly made by the man who loves the Lord, and this is the end for which he makes them. He shuns the natural for the sake of the spiritual and celestial, for the sake of love to the neighbor and conjunction with the Lord. And because he makes this sacrifice from love he "calls the sabbath a delight," the "holy of the Lord, honorable;" honoring the Lord and not self. For the very state from which mail resists in temptation is a peace and rest of the soul, a holy state of delight in Divine and heavenly things. For the protection and preservation of this he fights against all that would invade and destroy. And by victory he is introduced into that which was already with him potentially,-a delight in the Lord, and confidence in Him.

     We are taught that all heavenly delights and felicities are present in the soul of man from his birth, though unconscious to him until by regeneration those inmost and imperceptible delights are brought forth into the mind and body, there to be felt and perceived more and more.


And this can only take place in the measure that the way is opened by instruction of the mind, and by its adapting itself to receive influx from the soul, especially by the removal of opposing delights in the natural; thus by temptation combats and victories. And so it is a truth that after temptations man comes fully and consciously into that which was already with him obscurely. For it is said in the text, that "if man turn away from his own desire and way" then he will "delight himself in the Lord." He is then elevated from the unhappy states of the self-life to a renewed delight in the Lord, who blesses him with heavenly wisdom and felicity. He is uplifted by the Lord and given to experience the exalted states of the angelic life. For the Lord "causes him to ride upon the high places of the earth," instructs him continually out of the bounty of His Divine storehouse, and "feeds him with the heritage of Jacob."

     The inheritance of Jacob was the land of Canaan, which blossomed as a fruitful garden so long as the Israelites observed the commandments of the Lord. This land fully represented heaven and the Lord's Divine Human, from whom are all the goods and truths that sustain the spiritual life of regenerating man, who thus is "fed with the heritage of Jacob." Jacob, in special, represents the Lord's Divine Natural, as Isaac the Divine Spiritual, and Abraham the Divine Celestial. To "feed the regenerating man with the heritage of Jacob," therefore, is to receive the Lord in His Divine Natural, who feeds with the bread of heaven forever all who enter the heavenly sabbath union with Him in eternal life. "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh; and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day." (John 6:53.)

     The analysis we have made of the text brings to view what we are to do if we would spiritually "keep the sabbath holy," and "call it a delight,"-if we would protect from harm, and thus preserve that holy internal state of remains which is the Lord's abiding-place with us,-the heavenly sabbath from which we begin, and to which we return, in every state of life.


And it is clear from the teaching of the text that this holy internal is preserved by resistance to its opposite in the natural man,-not by reserving our delight in the Lord for special states of piety, into which we come at stated periods, but by permitting these states to pervade our daily labors, and all the walks of our life,-providing that this may be the case by turning away from that which offends and defiles it, as from that which is unholy and profane, that the natural man itself may be purified, and thus prepared to receive the gift of a genuine delight from the Lord.

     This is set before us as a choice in the text, which reads, "if thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, doing not thine own will, thine own way, seeking not thine own desire, then thou shalt call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord,-then thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord." This choice is to be made in freedom, consequently from will, love, affection, and delight, for these alone are free. The celestial man is the one who has most fully exercised this choice, this opportunity set before him, who from love to the Lord has been willing to undergo the conflict of resistance to all opposing loves. This love to the Lord is the celestial in every man, and from it as an inmost end he meets and conquers the obstacles that arise in his everyday life, the obstacles in his natural man. These overcome, he is introduced by the Lord into rest, peace, and delight of heaven.

     The sabbath state, then, is a holy internal of love and worship of the Lord, a state of innocence and peace and infantile trust, which abides and persists through all the storm of temptation conflict, providing all power of resistance to earthly loves, and gifting man in the end with the reward of the heavenly sabbath. "If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy desire on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable; and shalt honor Him; not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own desire, nor speaking a word; then thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it."




     A STUDY

     In making plans for the church building that is now under construction in Bryn Athyn, the subject of Decoration naturally forced itself upon our attention. It was evident that the noble structure ought not to be left altogether plain and bare within. The bareness of Protestantism must he avoided as carefully as the gaudiness of Romanism. Unless the Church could offer suggestions to the architects, the latter would be sure to follow their own devices, some of which might embody ideals very different from those of the New Church. Some effort, therefore, must be made to embody the heavenly principles of the New Church in corresponding external forms,-to produce something distinctive, if not in the architecture itself, then, at least, in the way of correspondential decoration.

     Mistakes have been made in the past when New Church people have attempted to apply the Science of Correspondences to the externals of worship; these mistakes have come, sometimes, from an imperfect understanding of the "Science of Sciences," and sometimes from a lack of good taste and artistic judgment; and the misguided efforts have produced, with many, a fear of making any attempts whatever in the application of correspondences. A feeling has grown up that correspondential forms must come from a spontaneous and unconscious growth in the course of ages, (which is indubitably true), and that in the meantime we must either do without any distinctive symbolism or else use that of the Old Church.

     But no ardent New Churchman can possibly rest content in supine an attitude. The mistakes of our brief past have been neither many nor fatal. A new internal demands and will create for itself something new in the external, by which to speak out, and the past failures simply teach us that there must be more careful study and more consultation, on the part of the theologians, with architects, artists, and practical people. Granting that the newly revealed Science of Correspondences is to us like an uncharted ocean where venturesome mariners may be lost, are we on that account to lose courage when we know that the compass of genuine Doctrine is on board!


The science was given to us for a purpose. It was meant to be used, most especially in the worship of the Lord, and we now propose to use it, at least in a few timid little excursions to the right and left of our harbor.

     Ecclesiastical Symbolism has become almost a science in the Old Church; many books have contributed to it, but all that we have examined are disappointing to a New Church investigator, for they are filled mostly with dead bones,-stereotyped, hackneyed, inartistic forms of Mediaeval and Roman origin, for the most part expressing purely historical and personal traditions. Or else, where really embodying an inner meaning, the symbols are often the outgrowth of horrible falsities, such as tritheism, salvation by faith alone, the vicarious atonement by the bloody sacrifice on the cross, and so on. A very few pure symbols have survived from the age of primitive Christianity, but even these have been so surrounded by the formalism of a dead church that they can be used by us only very guardedly. Nevertheless the study of Old Church symbolism brings to us many suggestions as to what might be done in the New Church, and, more especially, what ought not to be done!

     But Old Church Symbolism forms but a small part of our study. The held before us is world-wide, for it includes the whole Word of the Lord in the Book of Nature, the whole Word of the Lord in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, and finally the whole Word of the Lord in the Revelation given to the New Church. In our present study we can only skim the surface of this vast held in a rapid review, noting as we pass such correspondences as might be embodied in our ecclesiastical symbols. Afterwards comes the work of eliminating all that may seem unsuitable or impracticable, and finally a few surviving ideas may be placed before the artists who will make the actual designs. We think there will be no danger of the building being overcrowded with decorations and symbols, but the more we have to chose from, the better will be the final result. The Committee on "Symbolism" desires to enlist the sympathetic interests of all the members of the Church, in order to obtain from all quarters suggestions which may be of service not only to the temple in Bryn Athyn but to the whole Church.


     As an introduction to this work we propose to review first the leading correspondences in the animal and the vegetable kingdoms. Incidentally, our study may be of use to New Church students and educators.

     Taking up, first, the correspondences in the Book of Nature, we see that the whole of creation is divided into four great kingdoms, according to the following diagram:


1. The Animal Kingdom = Affections.
2. The Vegetable Kingdom = Thoughts.
3. The Mineral Kingdom = Knowledges of good and truth.
4. The Elemental Kingdom = The goods and truths themselves, as proceeding from the Lord.



     The subjects of the Animal Kingdom, all of which correspond to the living affections of spiritual beings, are divided into three classes:

1. Beasts = Affections of good, or celestial affections.
2. Birds = Affections of truth, or spiritual affections.
3. Fishes, (including Reptiles and Insects) = Affections of knowing goods and truths; natural affections.

     In each of these classes there are certain animals, which in themselves correspond to evil affections, but which nevertheless, on account of various external qualities, are able to represent things good and true, on account of which they can be used in Ecclesiastical Symbolism.


     Beasts of a good correspondence are mostly domestic beasts, and are divided into two classes: 1. Beasts of the Rock and herd, corresponding to the voluntary things of the celestial degree; and 2. Beasts of Burden, corresponding to the intellectual things of the celestial degree,--according to the following diagram:


     Domestic Beasts,

Voluntary Things.           Intellectual Things.
Sheep.                         Horses, (also Elephants).
Goats and kids.               Mules.
Bullocks, cows, calves     Asses, (also Camels).               (See A. C. 2781.)

     The Sheep ranks the highest, as to correspondence, of all the subjects of the Animal Kingdom, and may be used either singly or in flocks, for mural decorations or in windows, to represent the Most Ancient Church and the Celestial Heaven. They should be used in eastern or southern quarters.

     The Ram, as the father and defender of the flock, signifies the Fatherhood of the Divine Love, and his horns signify the power of this love. The artist should carefully study the Egyptian sphinxes with rams' heads. The twisted horns of the ram, in the Egyptian style, may be used very effectively in various decorations.

     The Lamb, throughout the Scriptures,-from the Pascal lamb of the Exodus to the Lamb upon the throne in the Apocalypse,-is the supreme representative of the Divine Innocence of the Lord's Divine Human. It may be represented either standing, or lying down upon a throne, with a nimbus about the head or about the whole body.

     The Goat has an evil name in Ecclesiastical Symbolism, and in an evil sense it does signify "faith alone," etc. But in itself it is a useful and harmless animal, and corresponds to "the exterior celestial," when the sheep correspond to the "interior celestial," (A. C. 4005). The he-goat signifies the truth of good; the she-goat, the good of truth; and the kid, the exterior of the good of innocence. Goats signify especially "those who are in natural good and thence in truths, such as are the angels who are in the ultimate heaven." (A. E. 817:12.)

     Bullocks, Cows and Calves correspond to celestial-natural things, affections of natural good; the cows, natural good itself; the bullock, the truth of natural good; and the calves, the innocence of genuine natural good.


The Egyptians used these forms very extensively and sometimes with strong effect. The Assyrian bulls, used as cherubim or guardians of gates, are fine examples of strength.

     The Horse family, consisting of Beasts of burden, corresponds to the intellectual faculty in general, which carries the things of the will,-that is, celestial affections of truth.

     The Horse is the highest animal symbol of celestial intelligence,-swift, strong, beautiful, spirited yet obedient. He does not appear in the history of the Most Ancient Church, nor in the Ancient Church itself, but first appears in the later history of Assyria and Egypt, and is especially prominent in Greek Mythology and Art, where we find the fiery horses of the Sun-god, the winged horse, Pegasus, the horses of Neptune, and the horse-heads on the helmet of Pallas Athene. As an ecclesiastical symbol the horse-head would seem to fit best in connection, with interior decorations representing the entering, intellectually, into the mysteries of faith, or outside, above gates and portals, to represent "Nunc Licet."

     The Mule and the Ass represent the lower degrees of the intellectual faculty,-the natural rational and the scientifics,-and may, in the hands of an intelligent artist, be represented in subordinate places.

     The Elephant has a very high correspondence, both on account of his great size and strength and on account of his remarkable intelligence and his ivory teeth. From numerous causes,-various suggestions in the Writings,-we believe the elephant corresponds to the rational in general, and his tusks to the highest rational truths in the letter of the Word. Elephant tusks and trunks may be used effectively in outside decorations, especially on towers, and Hindu architecture may be studied for this purpose.

     The Camel corresponds to the scientific in general, i. e., the faculty of the memory as a whole, being the greatest carrier of all beasts of burden in the Orient. The head of the Camel may be used with nice decorative effect, and may be used in lowly places. A big camel in front of an impossibly small gate may teach a very useful lesson.


     Of the wild animals the Deer has perhaps the highest and noblest correspondence as well as the most graceful form.

     "Naphtali is a hind let lose; he giveth words of eloquence." (Gen. 49:21; A. C. 3928) These words suggest fitting and beautiful forms for the base of the pulpit in the Church.

     Of the Beasts which have an evil correspondence but a good representation, there are especially the Lion and the Dog. The Lion, as a fierce and terrible beast of prey, corresponds to the evil love of dominion, but on account of his tremendous strength and majestic aspect he represents the Divine Omnipotence of the Lord. His symbolic character is self-evident, but, being merely representative, his image should not be used as an inmost: symbol, like the Lamb. The Lamb can be used in most internal representations, but the Lion should be used as a somewhat more external symbol of Divine Protection,-on screens, guarding the entrance to the most holy place. Compare the lions guarding the throne of Solomon, and the winged lions guarding the entrance of the Assyrian palaces.

     The Dog, on account of his watchfulness and faithfulness, represents obedience and protection, although he corresponds to various filthy lusts. In the World of Spirits every gate to heaven is seen guarded by dogs, and in our church buildings the heads of dogs-some gentle, some fierce,-may be used in place of the dragons and monsters used as gargoyles in the Old Church.


     The Birds of the Scriptures, or of Nature, are not so easily classified as the Beasts. Their different uses are not so distinct, and the key to their classification in the Writings is not so clear to us. As a whole, the kingdom of Birds corresponds to spiritual affections, the affections of truth, the whole realm of human thought, as compared with the realm of celestial affections, represented by the mammals.

     We would suggest the following tentative diagram.


     Celestial = Domestic Birds.                Spiritual = Wild Birds.
Pigeon family: doves and turtle doves.     Song Birds.

                                                  Bird of Paradise.
Peacock, and the Hen family.           Birds of Plumage.
                              Quail family: quails, etc.
Duck family: swan, goose, duck.          Water Birds: ibis, flamingo, pelican, etc.

     The Dove, including all pigeons, turtle-doves, etc., clearly represents the purity and innocence of the celestial affections of truth. In the highest sense it is the fitting symbol of the Holy Spirit, for it was as a Dove that the Holy Spirit was seen descending upon the Lord at His baptism. As a bird it is the symbol of the Divine Proceeding, and on account of its gentleness, beauty and purity it corresponds to the Holy Spirit. In the early Christian Church it was customary to represent the Holy Spirit by a silver dove above the altar.

     As a bird of celestial correspondence the dove was associated with the olive leaf in the story of Noah, and it was thus come to stand, in the common perception of man, as the symbol of peace--the peace that ensues after temptations. And on account of the monogamous habits and conjugal fidelity of this bird it is the chief correspondent of conjugial love in its celestial degree. It would be highly appropriate to have a silver dove, with beak, eyes, and feet in crimson, suspended by a silver chain over the altar in our church, as a representative of the Holy Spirit at Baptism and in general, and as a symbol of love truly conjugial at our wedding ceremonies. Nothing could be more beautiful.

     The Bird of Paradise figures in the Writings as the representative of conjugial love in its spiritual degrees. (C. L. 2702; See also D. L. W. 374; A. R. 757) And in the Coronis 30, the spiritual man, as to advancement in spiritual things is likened to a Bird of Paradise and also to a Peacock. The latter has always been associated with the idea of the rainbow and was hence called "the bird of June."


This goddess represents the Ancient Church, the Church of Noah, to whom the rainbow was given for a sign of the regeneration of the spiritual man. (A. C. 1042.) Hence the Peacock may be used to represent the Ancient Church, the Spiritual Heaven, and the spiritual man in general. Birds of Paradise and Peacocks would form beautiful combinations, especially in mural paintings.

     The Cock, as a Christian symbol, has been used to represent vigilance, on account of his crowing at various periods throughout the night, and as a symbol of resurrection,, as the herald of light after the night of death. To us he represents especially the Last Judgment on account of his crowing at midnight, that is announcing "the last state of the Old Church and the first state of the New Church. (A. C. 6073; A. E. 9; T. C. R. 571.) Compare the words of the Lord to Peter: "Before the cock crow, thou shalt have denied me thrice."

     It is on account of his vigilance that the cock has been used as a weather-vane on church-spires,-though in our prolific communities a stork might be a more fitting symbol.

     The Hen, sheltering her chicks under her wings, is used by the Lord Himself as a symbol of His merciful love, protection, and Providence.

     The Swan is the only member of the duck family that can well be used for decorative purposes. As a water bird of the greatest grace, beauty and cleanness, the swan is used in the Writings to represent conjugial love in its natural degree. (C. L. 279.)

     The Quail signifies "the good of the external or natural man, which is called delight," (A. C. 8431, 8452), but may not make a striking symbol. Other water birds, such as the Ibis, the Flamingo, and the Pelican, may be used with better effect. "A man who has religion in spiritual things is like a pelican feeding its young with its own blood." (Coronis 4.) A pelican feeding its young could be used to represent the Church as a whole in its character of "Alma Mater." It is very commonly represented in ecclesiastical symbolism.

     The Ibis was used by the Egyptians as the special emblem of the god Thoth, to represent the understanding of the Word in its literal sense.


Among the birds with an evil correspondence but a good representation there is chiefly the Eagle, which is, among the birds, what the Lion is among beasts. It represents Divine Intelligence, and as such may be used above the pulpit, rather than as a lectern for the Word, as is so often seen in the Old Church. It also represents Divine Watchfulness and Providence, and could be used on top of the tower--say, an eagle crowning each of the four corners. An eagle's nest is the noble and self-evident symbol of Education in the New Church.


     Among fishes the Writings include all animals to whom water is the element of life, and we must include also all cold-blooded animals such as amphibia, reptiles and insects. All of them correspond to the affections of knowing,-knowledges of spiritual, natural and sensual things. We would suggest the following classification:

     Knowledges of Good.                Knowledges of Truth.
Aquatic mammals: seals, whales      Reptiles.
Fishes with scales.                    Amphibia.
Fishes without scales.                Insects.

     Of the aquatic mammals none seems suitable for decorative purposes except the graceful Dolphin, which figures largely in Greek Mythology, and which, like the Whale, corresponds to "general scientifics" of the highest order,-probably cognitions of good, or celestial knowledges, on account of their warm blood and oily flesh. The dolphin may be used at the base of columns, or in other lowly places.

     In the symbolism of the Old Church the Whale stands for the Resurrection of the Lord, on account of His comparing His death and resurrection to the sign of the prophet Jonah. But the whale, in this connection, really represents hell in general and the temptations from which the Lord emerged victorious.


     FISHES, and especially scaly fishes, may be used to represent the lowest or natural heaven, the inhabitants of which appear at a distance like fishes in the sea, when viewed from the higher heavens. The fish is, indeed, a fitting symbol of the Christian Church, out of which the New Heaven, (which is a Natural Heaven), was formed after the Last Judgment.

     It is a remarkable coincidence--or, rather, the evidence of providential symbolism,--that the Fish from the earliest times was chosen as the chief historic symbol of the primitive Christian Church. It was the secret sign of recognition or passport among the early Christians and is found by the side of the cross, on all kinds of monuments, in the catacombs, on graves, etc. It may have been chosen in remembrance of the fact that the Lord chose His first disciples from among the fishermen of Galilee, or from the fact that the letters in the Greek word for "fish"-[Greek]-(Ichthys)-as an acrostic form the initials of the words "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior."

[Greek] = [Greek]
[Greek] = [Greek]
[Greek] = [Greek]
[Greek] = [Greek]
[Greek] = [Greek]

     In ancient church buildings the symbol of the fish was often seen in mosaic on the pavements,-sometimes two fishes, one on each side of a cross or an anchor. The Fish was used, also, as a symbol on baptismal fonts, and may well be used on our own baptismal font,-two fishes, one on each side of a cross-to represent the introduction into the Church by means of the knowledge of good and truth (fishes) and the consequent temptations, (the cross).

     Of the REPTILES none can be used for symbolic purposes except possibly the Serpent, not by itself, but as the brazen serpent on the cross, to represent the Lord's Divine Sensual.

     The INSECTS are too small to be used for symbols except possibly the Butterfly, to represent Resurrection. The Scarabaeus might be used, in the Egyptian style, to represent human life in ultimates and inmosts.


Bees correspond to the good of the natural rational, on account of the honey; and locusts correspond to the most external or sensual scientifics.


     Some of these may be taken from the Word, and others from the Mythologies. A representation of the "Four Beasts before the Throne" could be fittingly pictured in mosaic on the pavements or in screens before the altar.

     The Cherubim were unquestionably Sphinxes of Egyptian origin.

     The Phoenix could be used by us, as by the ancients, to represent Resurrection. It could also represent THE NEW CHURCH, arising out of the ashes of all the past Dispensations.




     While working, last year, on the Chronological List of Swedenborg Documents I came across a remarkable article printed in a Swedish work and hitherto unnoticed in our literature. The Work is by C. Eichorn and entitled NYA SVENSKA STUDIER, (New Swedish Studies), Stockholm, 1881, and contains some original testimo6y by Count Carl Gustaf Tessin on Swedenborg and the Queen of Sweden. I cannot do better than give an English translation of the entire article which ably analyzes the its relation to the known versions. (See Doc. no. 275.)

     In order to procure the original testimony at first hand I decided to look up Tessin's Diary and was informed by Count Stenbock, of the Royal Library, that it was at Akero castle, formerly the residence of the great statesman and now in the possession of Fru Enderlein. Baron LGvenhielm, of the State Archives, kindly gave me an introduction to this lady who invited me to visit Akero, where I was graciously received into the stately marble-hailed abode of one of Sweden's greatest statesmen, son of Nicodemus Tessin, the famous architect who built the present Royal Castle of Stockholm. It would be out of place here to describe the really wonderful old mansion with its tapestried and painted walls, its fine old portraits, its beautiful situation by a lake to which terraces 1ead down in a gradual descent, the old birch which was said to have materially aided in the education of King Gustaf III., who had Tessin to thank for many a lesson in virtue, etc., etc. The room in which I slept was formerly the King's bedchamber, and the ancient gilded rococo mirror had probably reflected many a powdered wig and courtly scene.

     When the estate was sold it was stipulated that the old Tessin library should remain permanently at Akero castle. Its greatest treasure is the Diary of this remarkable genius, Carl Gustaf Tessin, consisting of twenty-nine folio volumes where he wrote down, day after day, reflections and events, accounts, etc., never forgetting a note each day about the quality of the weather.


All of these I went over carefully and extracted everything relating to Swedenborg.      CYRIEL LJ. ODHNER.


     BY C. EICHORN.*

     Swedenborg's life and peculiar personality is still one of the most interesting objects of Swedish research; Since recently Fryxell** has devoted particular attention to this subject and a lively controversy has arisen on account of his treatment of the subject, it may not be considered out of the way to present here something which may contribute to the formation of an opinion of the seer or more correctly, to the knowledge of how one of his most famous contemporaries regarded him. We have long known a passage in Tessin's Diary [March 5, 1760], where he relates in detail a conversation he had with Swedenborg concerning the latter's religious and philosophical views. [See TESSIN OCH TESSINIANA, P. 355, et seq.]*** It has been supposed that this is all there was, but we have by chance come across a few more extracts from the Diary, made by Fred. Sparre,**** Tessin's nephew, among which there are several relating to Swedenborg, and one especially of great interest because it gives us the only absolutely authentic account of Swedenborg's famous conversation with Louisa Ulrica concerning her dead brother,-that testimony to his gift of seer-ship which seemed most difficult of explanation, since it has been testified to by so many persons, although in different versions. By this means we are also in a position to illustrate Fryxell's conception and critique of this occurrence.
     * Translated from Nyo Svenska Studier, by C. Eichorn, Stockholm, 1881, pp. 62-67.
     ** Aenders Fryxell, the Swedish historian, who wrote a very hostile account of Swedenborg.
     *** Doc. II., p. 398.
     **** Frederic Sparre, the last Lord High Chancellor of Sweden. He succeeded Tessin as owner of Akero Castle.

     We find Swedenborg first mentioned by Tessin on the 28th of March, 1759.*


He says there, that "the Councillor of Mines, Swedenborg, is a living instance among us, of the height to which the vapors may rise in a man's head and imagination. He lives, I am told, in a garden-conservatory, regards himself as the most fortunate of all living beings, and is so, too; for through an intimate intercourse with a future world, he believes that he sees and can speak with all the dead, both known and unknown." Tessin then gives a very brief account of Swedenborg's views as to spirits and immediately afterwards relates the incidence-included in TESSIN AND TESSINIANA-of how Polhem walked in his own funeral procession at the side of Swedenborg and asked whose burial it was, upon which the latter informed him that it was Polhem's own.** Then follows the account of Tessin's visit to Swedenborg in 1760, which is given in full in the work just referred to. Under the same date we read as follows concerning the book DE COELO ET EJUS MIRABILIBUS, which Tessin looked through: "Among all the visionaries Herr Swedenborg is probably the one who has written most explicitly. He discusses, quotes writings, adduces arguments and causes, etc. The whole edifice has a kind of connection and is, with all its queerness, erected with studied thought; the book, moreover has so many new and unexpected turns that it may be read without tiring. What he says in n. 191 et seq.: "De spatio in coelo" is a well-reasoned dream. Throughout the entire work we recognize Bishop Swedberg's son, who is dreaming with far greater profundity than the father." After giving an account of the introductory chapters Tessin adds: "All this may be read with the same cyedulence that we may give to Mahomet's Alkoran." And, under March 26, Of the same year, he states that he has read with delight the DE NOVA HIEROSOLYMA ET EJUS DOCTRINA: "If the pure seed were separated from the tares, it would be both useful and edifying," he adds further; and on June 26 of the same year he gives a list of the six works of Swedenborg then published which, according to the Swedish rate of exchange, cost 446 "dalers in copper."
     * By a mistake in writing, the date in the extract is given as 1760, which is, of course, incorrect. [C. E.]
     ** See S. D. MINUS, 4773, and J. POST. 323.


     On June 30, 1760-4 days after the last entry-Tessin again writes: "After dinner, I and my dear wife, in company with my brother-in-law, my sister-in-law, Countess Carl Fersen, and their children, went to visit Assessor Swedenborg in his pretty garden and philosophically arranged house at Hornsgatan. He told me that my deceased sister-in-law, Countess Hedvig Sack, had often visited him. She was now (these were his very words) quite well and has testified that everything he had written about the future life was true. I do not know whether I ought to call happy or unhappy an unbalanced person who finds pleasure in his imagination. He gave me his book DE CEREBRO,* published at Amsterdam in 4:0. Someone ought to write a work (ON BRAIN CURE, which this otherwise very kind-hearted man is in need of."
     * Probably the ANIMAL KINGDOM or the ECONOMY. Swedenborg never published any work "On the Brain."

     There remains now only one more extract, but this is the most remarkable of all since it has to do with the conversation with Louisa Ulrica mentioned above, and was written down a few days after the occurrence. Fryxell (33, 185 et seq.) describes the various accounts given by Thiebault, Tuchsen's [Tuxen], the Saxon Minister, Springer and Nordin of this remarkable incident, and he himself inclines decidedly to the version rendered by Nordin, since this is founded upon "stated witnesses,"-none of them, however, eye-witnesses. According to this version, Louisa Ulrica wrote to her younger brother, Ferdinand, a letter which was to have been kept secret; but he says that the Councillors Hopken and Tessin nevertheless persuaded a chamberlain, M. Falkenberg, to procure for them this letter, which they read before it was sent off. This [he says] was the letter concerning whose contents the queen afterwards asked Swedenborg, and the two Councillors secretly communicated the same to Swedenborg, upon which he aroused the queen's amazement by repeating it. The whole of the account is clearly a tissue of improbabilities, most likely further amended by Nordin, whose well known scepticism everywhere scented substitutions, deceptions and intrigues.


However, since Tessin was mixed up in this remarkable story, it would seem to be sufficient to refute it by what he himself relates. And since, moreover, his account very closely coincides with the two original versions,-the one originating from the queen, the other from Swedenborg,-it would seem that there can be no doubt of its veracity, especially as current reports and several eye-witnesses further testify to the event. Tessin writes as follows in his Diary under November 18, 1761:

     "A remarkable report is being circulated, which has caused me to ask Assessor Swedenborg himself about the connection of the matter. This is his own account: About 3 weeks ago he was engaged in a long conversation with their Majesties at the Palace, on which occasion he also requested gracious permission to present copies of his published books; during the conversation he related many more things which are not particularly in place here, except as confirming his system of angels and heavens, etc. Her Majesty ended by requesting him, in case he saw her brother, the Prince of Prussia, to tell her something from him.

     "Three days ago, (which was last Sunday), he again presented himself and, after having delivered his various books, requested an audience with the queen, and he then told Her Majesty something privately, which he was bound to keep secret from everyone else. The queen thereupon turned pale and took a few steps backwards as if she were about to faint, but shortly afterward she exclaimed, excitedly, 'That is something which no one else could have told, except my brother!'

     "The assessor expressed regrets at having gone so far, when he noticed Her Majesty's intense consternation.

     "On his way out he met Councillor Von Dalin in the antichamber and requested him to tell Her Majesty that he would follow up the matter still further so that she would be comforted thereby.


     "'But I shall not venture to do so,' he added to me, 'until after some 10 or 12 days; for if I did it before, it would have the same terrifying effect and perhaps still more intensely, upon Her Majesty's mind.'

     "However remarkable this may appear, as well as other things which he said to me during an hour and a half, I nevertheless feel all the more safe in putting it down as Her Majesty's obvious consternation is unanimously testified to by all those who were in the room, and among others by Councillor Baron Carl Scheffer.

     "The queen, also, tells it very nearly in the same way, adding that she was still in doubt as to what to believe but that she has put Assessor Swedenborg to a new proof; if he managed in this, she would, be convinced that he knew more than others.

     "Perhaps this was what he referred to when mentioning his intention to say more in 10 or 12 days.

     "For all that we can see, this statement is so clear, and confirmed by so many testimonials, that it must needs be regarded as reliable. As to how an explanation would look, we do not, for the present, venture to state. This much seems certain to us, that Swedenborg's condition of mind must have been a highly remarkable mixture of penetration, indeed even divination, and of unrestrained imagination, one of these exceedingly uncommon characters that will always be a puzzle to investigators, without necessarily, on that account, having to lie beyond the bounds of possibility and comprehension."

     In immediate connection with this, Tessin relates the story of the widow of Marteville, the Dutch Ambassador, although with the express reservation that he is only repeating current reports, since he has neither asked the lady herself, nor Swedenborg, about it. "Madame Marteville," he says, "was asked to pay a sum of money, which she knew had been paid, but could not find the receipt. She therefore requested Herr Swedenborg, in case he saw her husband, to ask him about it;

     "The following night, while asleep, it seemed to her that she saw M. Marteville, who mentioned the place where she was to seek, and where the receipt was actually found.

     "The following morning Assessor Swedenborg wrote to her that any further statement from him was so much the less necessary as her own husband had undoubtedly related to her the previous night what she requested to know."

     This occurrence evidently has been trimmed up; it may be true in its general outlines, without having to be at war with hitherto known laws of psychical operation.


Even Tessin, moreover, considers this story improbable, for he states as his conclusion: "In order to believe all this, there is needed a faith as strong as that which the Assessor himself seems to possess, and of which it is said that it moves mountains." One thing, however, appears unquestionable from what we have here brought out, namely, that Tessin and his contemporaries regarded Swedenborg as in part mentally deranged, or suffering from monomania. In this respect, later investigators have been unwilling to agree with his contemporaries; it is only recently that such views have begun tot make their influence felt again, although, of course, in a much milder form. We have every occasion to believe that an impartial judgment of Swedenborg will be more and more inclined to this opinion, even if, as we mentioned above, there must always be the reservation that in the case of this remarkable figure we are not dealing with any ordinary monomaniac, but with the ruins of a colossal genius which in its heaven-storming strivings shattered the weak corporeal vessel in which it was contained.

ADDITIONAL EXTRACTS              1916

     A few more extracts from Tessin's Diary, not quoted by Eichorn, are here appended as they are typical of Tessin's estimate of Swedenborg. The first is taken from the year 1760, when, on March a5th, after having read through the NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, His Excellency makes the following observations:

     "To the healthy, all is healthy.

     "I doubt whether my patience would permit the further perusal of the large work: DE ARCANIS COELESTIBUS. Herr Swedenborg with much excellent material has erected a huge edifice upon drift-sand.

     "I remain in my old faith and conviction, 1st, Epistle to the Corinthians, Chap. 2, Verse 9: 'But it is written: Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered inter the heart of pan, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him."

     The next day, March 26th, Tessin wrote the following Fable in French. (The Diary, as a whole is written in Swedish, with Latin sentences interspersed):


     The Fable of the Man, and the Pendulum Clock.

     "A Man, hearing for the first time a Pendulum Clock striking, says, in his surprise: 'Ha! Ha! Since you possess the talent of speech, repeat a little of what you are saying.' The Clock, deaf to these orders, replied: 'Friend Man, the case is the same with my clockwork as with your brain; to produce a sound it is necessary that that which strikes me be within reach, [soit a ma portee].

     "We all have in us some sensitive string; as soon as this is touched, our Clock strikes.

     "Take, for example, Herr Swedenborg. He speaks intelligently on all other subjects, but as soon as the word 'revelation' is mentioned the Alarm goes off."

     The next extract is dated September 26th, 1760, when Tessin notes that he has

     "Received as a present from Herr Assessor Swedenborg:

     1. DE EQUO ALBO, etc.

     2. DE ULTIMO JUDICIO, etc.




     "I have before this expressed my thoughts concerning the Author and his Works. An Enthusiast Swedenborg is and remains. If he believes everything he writes he has many a contented hour; whereas if not, he is both wicked and unhappy. To mock with God's Word is a perilous game. Faith is the holiest thing of all, into which Reason is not given permission to enter."





     The organic beginning of the New Church in Philadelphia took place just a hundred years ago, and it is of interest in connection with this fact to reproduce in our pages some early documents which indeed have been published before, but in rare and inaccessible volumes, and not generally known to the people of the present generation.

     The Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem was first announced in Philadelphia on June 5th, in the year 1784, by James Glen, a native of Scotland, who had settled at Demerara in British Guiana. Mr. Glen himself had received the Doctrine from a sea-captain while making a journey to London, in 1781, and in London he became acquainted with Robert Hindmarsh and his associates. Returning to South America, he decided to plant the seeds of the New Gospel in the newly United States of North America, and landed first in Philadelphia. Here he inserted an advertisement in the daily newspapers and delivered a lecture on "The Science of Correspondences" at Bell's bookstore and auction room on Third Street, near Market Street.

     The first lecture, of June 5th, was well attended, and Mr. Glen therefore delivered two other lectures, on June 11th and 12th. The majority of his hearers went away mystified, but a few became interested, among them Mr. Francis Bailey, a printer and publisher, and John Young, a lawyer. Mr. Glen soon afterward visited Boston, where he lectured in the "Green Dragon Tavern," and then returned to Demerara. It is to be noted that these lectures constituted the first public proclamation of the Heavenly Doctrine, by a living voice, in America or anywhere else in the world,-four years before the first New Church sermon was delivered in London.

     A few months later a box of New Church books arrived in Philadelphia, addressed to Mr. Glen by Robert Hindmarsh. The whereabouts of Mr. Glen being unknown, the books were sold at public auction and were bought by Francis Bailey and a few other interested persons, who now began to meet at the house of Mr. Bailey in order to read the Writings and converse concerning their wonderful teachings.


     In 1787 Mr. Bailey published A SUMMARY VIEW OF THE HEAVENLY DOCTRINES,-the first New Church book printed in America,-and in 1789 an edition of THE TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. In 1792 the Rev. Ralph Mather, a former Methodist but now New Church preacher, settled in Philadelphia and began to conduct the meetings of a little circle of receivers until the year 1797, when he removed to Baltimore. In the meantime the circle had strengthened by the advent of the Rev. Jacob Duche, the famous Episcopal clergyman who had read the prayer at the opening of the Continental Congress in 1774. He Subsequently went over to the Tories and had to flee to England, where, through the Rev. John Clowes, he became an ardent Newchurchman. After his return to Philadelphia he opened his hospitable home to the little circle of New Church friends, among these the Hon. Jonathan Condy, an eminent lawyer, and the Rev. William Hill, an English New Church minister who, on June 2nd, 1797, married a beautiful and ardent New Church lady, Miss Esther Duche, the daughter of Jacob Duche.

     Mr. Hill remained the leader of the unorganized New Church circle in Philadelphia until his death, in the year 1804. He left behind him a lasting memorial in the first English translation of the APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED. For a few years after his death nothing is known of the history of the New Church in Philadelphia, but in the year 1809 the circle of receivers began to hold meetings for conversation in the school-room of Mr. Johnston Taylor.

     It is at this point that we connect with the first document giving a connected account of the organic beginnings of the New Church in Philadelphia. This document is in the form of a letter to THE NEWCHURCHMAN, (vol. I. pp. 162-167), published by the Rev. Richard De Charms, in 1841, and is from the pen of Condy Raguet, Esq., a Philadelphia banker and an eminent member of the New Church, being at that time the president of the "Central Convention," a body founded on what are now known as "Academy principles." The letter follows:



     When I became convinced of the truth of the doctrine of the New Church; which was in 1811, as nearly as I can recollect, about a year after I began to read,-for I found great difficulty in receiving the memorable relations,--I frequented the meetings of the small society existing at that time in Philadelphia, which were then held in the school room of Mr. Johnston Taylor, a classical teacher, in the second story of a building still standing at the head of, and facing, Beaver Court, which runs north from Cherry Street above Fourth Street, between the houses now numbered 37 and 39. This building, from having once been a stable, had been converted into a school room, without reference, however, to the new use to which it was applied. The meetings at this room commenced, as I have reason to believe, as far back as 1808; but as there is possibly no person now living who can designate the precise period of their commencement from recollection, it cannot be ascertained, unless some members of the Church are in possession of letters, written about that period, in which it was mentioned.

     At the time of my first attending these meetings, I found the following individuals generally or occasionally present:

     Capt. ROBERT GILL, an aged and respectable retired ship-master.

     DANIEL THUUN, an aged gentleman, a native of Germany, and at one period of his life an extensive merchant in Philadelphia. He was married to the daughter of Mr. John Eckstein, also a native of Germany, a receiver of the doctrines of the Church, a distinguished sculptor, and who has left behind him a well executed bust of Swedenborg, copied from an engraved likeness, at the request of the late William Schlatter.

     JONATHAN W. CONDY, counselor at law, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, who had received the doctrines as early as about 1797, through a Mr. Hawkins, a musical instrument maker. He died in 1828.

     JOHNSTON TAYLOR, a native of Ireland, and a man of great amiability of manners and of highly respectable attainments. He had received the doctrines in the neighborhood of Abingdon, Virginia, from some member of the family of Campbell, several years before. He died in Missouri, many years ago.


     JOHN H. BRINTON, a gentleman of fortune, retired from the profession of the law.

     FREDERICK ECKSTEIN, a native of Germany, son of John Eckstein, a merchant, and now residing in Kentucky.

     THOMAS SMITH, a native of England, book keeper in the first bank of the United States, and now living in Philadelphia, in comfortable retirement.

     MASKELL M. CARLL, principal of an academy for young ladies, subsequently ordained a minister of the New Church, and, since the decease of Mr. John Hargrove, the senior minister of the Church in the United States--now residing at Cincinnati.

     JOHN K. GRAHAM, a merchant, still living in Philadelphia.

     DANIEL LAMMOT, a merchant, now residing in the vicinity of Philadelphia.

     Of these ten gentlemen the first named five have been deceased a number of years since, and these are all that I can distinctly call to mind at the period referred to. The meetings were held on Sunday evenings, and were not attended by any ladies. The services consisted in reading, by some of the members, a portion of the Word and a selection from Swedenborg's writings, accompanied by the Lord's prayer, and closed by conversation. In this room the meetings continued to be held until the beginning of the year 1815, when it was resolved to have service in the day time, for the benefit of females as well as males. A room was accordingly rented for the purpose, in Norris's Alley, running east from Second Street above Walnut Street, in the second story of a brick house still standing on the north side, at the distance of about a hundred feet from Second Street, and every Sunday afternoon service was performed by Mr. Carll as a lay reader, there being at that period no minister in the United States but Mr. Hargrove at Baltimore. The form of worship was that of the Episcopal Church, with alterations designed to make the doctrines conform to those of the New Church as nearly as could be.

     In the beginning of 1816, the meetings were transferred to a more commodious and central situation, being Mr. Carll's school room, back of No. 229, on the north side of Arch Street, between Sixth and Seventh Streets.


At this room service was Performed in the morning of every Sunday, and the meetings continued to be held there until the New Jerusalem temple, at the south-east corner of Twelfth and George Streets, was consecrated, which was on the 1st day of January, 1817.

     It is proper to observe here, that, at the same time that public service was performed in the day time at the places referred to, the Sunday, evening meetings were also kept up at Mr. Taylor's school room, up to the end of 1815. A few additions only were made to our numbers, one of which was that of the late WILLIAM SCHLATTER, an extensive importing merchant, and an intimate friend, from infancy, of the writer, and who became a receiver in 1814 or thereabouts. The important uses performed to the Church; by this gentleman merit an especial notice in THE NEWCHURCHMAN, and will, I hope, some day receive it. Another addition was in Mr. WILLIAM KNEASS, who, at the time of his decease in 1840, was engraver of the Mint of the United States.

     It was towards the close of the year 1815 that the society, although few in numbers, but Strong in zeal, resolved to organize itself into a regular association for propagating the doctrines of the Church. The date of that organization was the 25th of December of that year, under the title of "THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR DISSEMINATING THE DOCTRINES OF THE NEW-JERUSALEM CHURCH." At the first annual election for officers, which was held on the first day of January, 1816, the following gentlemen were chosen, viz:

President, Jonathan W. Condy.
Vice President, William Schlatter.
Treasurer, Daniel Thuun.
Secretary, William Kneass.
Corresponding Secretary, Condy Raguet.

     The first act performed by this body, was to issue a public Notice, under date of January, 1816, addressed to "The Readers of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg in the United States," announcing to them the existence of this society, and inviting from them communications calculated to assist in the promotion of its views.


This notice was published in all the daily papers of Philadelphia, between the first and fifth of January, and may be found at large, with two circulars, under date of 5th of January, and 1st of March, 1816, in the NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY for January, 1817.

     During the year 1815 the late FERDINAND FAIRFAX, of Virginia, brother of Thomas, the present Lord Fairfax, now residing near Alexandria, in the District of Columbia, who is also and has for many years been a receiver of the doctrines, visited Philadelphia, and urged very strenuously upon the society the expediency of building a temple for worship. The pecuniary means of the members, however, not warranting such an undertaking, Mr. Schlatter, with a liberality indicative of his ardent zeal in the cause, resolved, in the year 1815, to undertake the construction of such an edifice out of his own private funds. A suitable lot was accordingly obtained upon ground rent, situated at the south-west corner of Twelfth and George Streets, [now called Sansom Street], the latter street being near to Chestnut Street, one of the most public and frequented streets of the city, and on that lot the corner stone of a temple was laid on the sixth day of June, 1816. The ceremonies attending this act are described in the NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY for January, 1817.

     Having thus made preparation for public worship in a house dedicated to the Lord for that exclusive purpose, a committee was appointed to prepare a Liturgy for the use of the society, which, having been approved, was printed in 1816, under the title of "The Liturgy of the New-Jerusalem Church, being chiefly compiled from a Liturgy now in use in Great Britain, and respectfully recommended to the use of the Societies of the New Church in the United States." It was comprised in a small volume of 101 pages 18 mo., with a collection attached of 175 hymns, mostly selected from the hymn books of various Christian sects.

     On the fifteenth of October, 1816, a prospectus was issued for the publication of a magazine, to appear quarterly, commencing on the first of January, 1817, under the title of THE NEW-JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY," being the first periodical,-with the exception of a few numbers of a paper published by Mr. Hargrove at Baltimore,-issued in the United States, exclusively devoted to the advancement of the principles of the New Church.


This work was continued to the last quarter of 1818, when it was discontinued for want of pecuniary support.

     On the thirty-first of December, 1816, Mr. Maskell M. Carll was ordained a priest and teaching minister, in the temple at Philadelphia, and on the first of January, 1817, the temple was consecrated, as above related. On this last mentioned day, the members of the Church assembled at Philadelphia from different parts of the United States, resolved to call a convention of receivers, "for the purpose of consulting upon the general concerns of the Church," to be held in that city on the fifteenth of May, 1817, which was accordingly held, being the first General Convention held in the United States.

     Having thus, Mr. Editor, brought down the history of the Church in Philadelphia from 1810 to 1817, I leave it for the present. From the last mentioned period to the present time, there are in the REPOSITORY, in the Journals of the various Conventions that have been since held, and in the records of the Philadelphia societies, sufficient materials for continuing the same, without the necessity of relying upon mere memory or tradition, and I doubt not that some one who has leisure to undertake the task will at some future day accomplish it.
     Your Brother in the Lord,
          CONDY RAGUET.


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916



     In the October number of THE HEART OF INDIA the overly modest editor states that he "feels particularly unpleasant at the necessity of presenting for the most part a single man's work and vagaries before his readers. He dislikes this so much that he has decided to suspend the magazine if the Committee [of the Hindi Swedenborg Society] cannot make better arrangements for carrying it on."

     It would be a thousand pities should the movement in India be deprived of its only means of teaching and communication. The New Church in the rest of the world feels very different from Prof. Bhatt, for they would like to hear more, not less, from him. As yet he is the only one able to carry on this work, but it is evident that the movement is making progress. In the number before us the editor states that, "Some time ago there was only one English-knowing man among the students of the Writings in this country. At present there are several, for which THE HEART OF INDIA is profoundly grateful to the Divine mercy of the Lord."

     We learn that "a Reading Circle has been established at Santa Cruz, near Bombay, which promises to be very fruitful." And the editor reports that "though the sale of books [in Bombay] is slow, some of the younger members are showing greater activity and interest than what I had ventured to expect. The list of new members given above contains a name which is significant of much. I have not yet personally met Mr. Blaise Alexander D'Sylva, of Bandra, but he is the first Indian Christian gentleman to join us. A very earnest and interesting correspondence has commenced between us, and the results are likely to be far-reaching."


     There is one note in the issue before us that is deeply touching: "O that a New Church Minister were here! The New Church in England knows our great need, and the ministers know. But nothing can be done while the War is going on."

OUR PECULIAR TREASURE       H. S       1916

     Love truly conjugial, such as existed in the Golden Age, such as is promised to the New Church, is solely a matter of the worship, in thought and in life, of the Lord Jesus Christ alone.

     No adoration of a divided Trinity, no worship of an invisible Father, can provide the conditions that make this love possible. And still less can religious atrophy provide it.

     Abundant provision has been made for other loves that will serve for the maintenance of orderly external marriage relations upon earth and for the provision of offspring thereby. But these are intrinsically mediate loves, lesser loves, serviceable (in themselves) only until "death do us part" as the old service reads.

     Not that the feeling which takes possession of lovers in their first state is different from the consciousness from Conjugial Love, far this inflows in some means into all at that time,-a true sacramental gift of a foretaste of those celestial joys which it is the will of our all-loving Creator to bestow upon us eternally. But with some this first love lives and grows by the aid of processes that depend upon the steadying action of an enlightened intelligence I while with others, lacking this interaction of the intelligence upon the feelings, there is a wastage and often a burning out of the fires of love, leaving only ashes and, at best, a few embers behind.

     With those still under the magic spell of the first love there is a ready affirmation of the teaching that love is eternal, high and holy above all other things in heaven and on earth. But to older minds, there come grave doubts, and at last denial. The "foretaste" passes, and is set down with a sigh, among the vain illusions and dreams of youth,-beautiful while they lasted, but unreal.


     Here is where the New Church begins to make a big difference, for it teaches most particularly, as a revelation from God out of heaven, that the "youthful dream" is indeed the reality, the ultimate goal, of which such a foretaste is given only to initiate us into the gradual realization of heavenly joys, by a life of conquest over the love of self and the love of the world. This knowledge alone, even as a matter of faith, is certain to make a most far-reaching difference. It gives us the ever present feeling of a terra irredenta, of which we have had a vision and a foretaste, a holy land that is ours by right and only awaits the actual conquest. It is, indeed, our Land of Promise, a land "flowing with milk and honey," and greatly does this Gilead state exalt and ennoble all that is connected with married life, and its duties.

     But this love, so beautifully described in the Writings, as it is also in our Marriage service, is something new, something distinct from that which is understood and thus appropriated by the children of this age. It is offered, indeed, to all. It is sensed fleetingly by all; but it cannot be realized, and thus appropriated, without the help of the Lord, through the Word of Revelation, and a life in accordance thereto. This is a very practical matter, of daily effort, struggles, and resistance to all those influences that detract and destroy this holiest love, and that perfect union of minds which it demands and promotes.

     Let us never cease to seek it as the greatest of all possessions, both here and hereafter. In childhood we must seek it by clean habits; in youth by "shunning wandering lusts as the pools of hell;" in adult age, by choosing one who has come into the realization of the same spiritual ideals and who is likely to join in the pursuit of the same goal. And in later age, even to the last, by the daily work of conquest, which is indeed but another name for the worship of our Lord, who, as the visible God-Man, can be present in the ideas of our thought, can be seen in all our prayers, our Lord who loves us and listens to us, and joins Himself to us in a bond of ever growing conjunction, which is not vague, distant, or unreal, but is the most real and vital influence in all our lives. Naught but this can truly make one mind out of two minds. What, therefore, God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.     H. S.



HEBREW LANGUAGE              1916

     A STUDY.

     (Concluded from NEW CHURCH LIFE, Oct., 1915.)

     8. CHARACTERISTIC SOUNDS OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE. In the spoken tongue the following chief peculiarities are to be noted:

     a) The predominance of guttural sounds, represented by the slender and scarcely perceptible throat-breathing in [Hebrew]; the decided aspirate [Hebrew], the sharp guttural [Hebrew], and the gurgling and at the same time nasal [Hebrew]. To these might be added [Hebrew], which was often rolled on the back of the tongue. The Hebrews employed these sounds more frequently than any other class of sounds, as is evident from the fact that in the Hebrew dictionary the four gutturals occupy considerably more than a fourth part of the whole volume. The reason for this predominance of gutturals may be found in the correspondence of the letter [Hebrew], (H), as signifying what is Divine, what is infinite and eternal," for H involves infinity, because it is only a breathing." (A. R. 38; A. 4594; DE VERBO 4.)

     b) The use of the very strong consonants [Hebrew], (tt), [Hebrew], (ts), and [Hebrew], (1), in the pronunciation of which the organ of speech is more compressed, and the sound is given forth with greater vehemence. These letters, also, are in frequent use.

     c) The aversion to clashing consonants without the interposition of some slight vowel sound. The Hebrews could not pronounce such English words as craft, crush, grind, strong etc., but would have said "keraft," "kerush," "gerined," "sterong."

     9. THE CONTINUITY OF THE SPEECH. This quality is another inheritance: from the language of Heaven.

     "Angelic speech is continuous; it has, indeed, terminations, but the antecedent sentences are there wonderfully connected with the succeeding, for the angelic ideas are very replete with things, and with innumerable things which are ineffable and incomprehensible to man when he is in the world. Hence the ends of preceding periods of speech are fully connected with the beginnings of following periods, and thus out of many series is formed one." (A. C. 7191.)


     "In the original tongue one series is not distinguished from another by interstitial signs, as in other tongues, but it appears as it were continuous from the beginning to the end. Those things which are in the internal sense are indeed similarly continuous and flowing from the one state of a thing into another state, but when one state terminates and another succeeds, which is a marked [change], it is indicated either by "it was" or "it became" [fuit, vel factum]; and a change of state less marked is indicated by "and," on account of which these words occur so frequently." (A. C. 4987.)

     In the original Hebrew of the Word, when written without vowels, "words of names were not distinguished by large initials [capital letters], nor was there any distinction by commas and similar things, which are in languages in which the sense of the letter is attended to." (S. D. 2631.)

     "It is to be known that the Word in its original tongue lacks signs of terminations [of sentences], wherefore, in their place were such expressions as 'JEHOVAH said,' 'JEHOVAH spoke,' and in place of the signs of smaller endings or distinctions was the word 'and,' wherefore this also occurs so frequently." (A. C. 7191)

     "The speech of the Celestial angel's is also without hard [duris] consonants, and rarely glides from one consonant to another consonant except by the interposition of a word which begins with a vowel. Hence it is that the little word 'and' is so many times interposed in the Word, as may be manifest to those who read the Word in the Hebrew tongue, in which that little word is soft [mollis], and from both sides sounds from a vowel." (H. H. 241.)


     "Every alphabetical letter in the Spiritual World signifies something, and the vowel, because it serves for the sound, signifies something of affection or love." (A. R. 29.)

     "Since each letter signifies a thing in the spiritual world, and thence in the angelic language, therefore David wrote Psalm cxix in order according to the letters of the alphabet, beginning with Aleph and ending with Tau, as may be manifest from the beginning of the verses there.


Something similar appears in Psalm cxi, but not so plainly." (A. R. 38.)

     See also Psalms xxv, xxxiv, xxxvii, cxii, cxlv, and Lamentations, i, ii, iii, iv.

     "It was given me to examine the Hebrew letters from the beginning [of the alphabet] to the end, and certain words, and they said that there is correspondence." (S. D. 5620.)

     "The Lord describes His Divinity and Infinity by Alpha [A], and Omega [D]; by which is signified that He is the All in all things of Heaven and the Church." (A. R. 38.)

     "The angel who was with me said that from the letters alone he comprehended all things that were written therein [on the paper], and that each letter contained some idea, even the sense of ideas, and he also taught me what [Hebrew], what [Hebrew], and what [Hebrew] it signified. But what the other letters signified, it was not permitted him to tell." (S. D. 4671.)


     "The angel explained to me what [Hebrew] and what [Hebrew] signify, separately and conjointly; and that [Hebrew], which is in Jehovah, and which was added to the name of Abraham and Sarah, signified the Infinite and the Eternal." (DE VERBO 4.)

     "Abram was called Abraham and Sarai Sarah, which was done in order that in Heaven by Abraham and Sarah these should not be understood, but the Divine as also it is understood. For H involves Infinity, because it is only an aspiration [a breathing]." (A. R. 38.)

     "Behold we have heard of Him in Ephrata, we have found Him," (Ps. cxxxii, 6); that these things are said of the Lord is manifest. We have heard of Him, and we have found Him, is in the original tongue expressed at the end [of these verbs] by the letter H, taken from the name JEHOVAH." (A. C. 4594.)


     "When the Word is read in the Hebrew text by a Jew or by a Christian, it is known in the third heaven what the letters themselves signify; for the angels of the third heaven have the Word written in such letters, and they read it according to the letters; they said that in the sense, extracted from the letters, the Word treats of the Lord alone." (DE VERBO 4.)


     "A paper, written in Hebrew letters, was shown to me, and there was a certain spirit with me, who told me what the single things therein signified; not what the sense of the letter was, nor what was the interior or spiritual sense, but what the inmost or celestial sense was. This he saw not from the words, but from the syllables and their flections and curvatures; thus, as was said, from the apexes and little horns." (S. D. 5578.)

     "I read something in the Hebrew language without roughness, and passing quickly by the vowels, as being only sounding, and from the syllables alone the angles in the inmost heaven formed a celestial sense and said that there was a correspondence. I read, in the Hebrew Tongue, Psalm xxxii, 2, without rough accent, and almost without vowels, and they then said that they understood what it was from the sound, namely, this, that the Lord is merciful to them, although they do evil." (S. D. 5622.)


     "They [the celestial angels] said that they do not pronounce certain consonant letters roughly [aspere], but smoothly [melliter], and that the rough [asperce] letters, such as [Hebrew] and [Hebrew] with the rest, do not signify anything with them, unless they pronounce them with a smooth sound, and that it is on this account that many rough [aspere] letters are pointed or punctuated within, which signifies that they are to be pronounced with a smooth [molli] sound." (DE VERBO 4.)

     "They do not express certain consonant letters roughly but smoothly [non asperae literae molliter enuntiatae fuerint], is that hence it is certain Hebrew letters are punctuated within, for a sign that they should be pronounced smoothly." (S. S. 90; T. C. R. 278.)

     "From experience, that the letters and syllables of the Hebrew Language in the Word correspond; also that the rough letters had been pronounced smoothly [aspera literae molliter enuntiatae fuerint], and that therefore they had a point in the middle." (INDEX S. D. MINUS, P. 46, ref. to S. D. 5620.) (INDEX S. D. MINUS, P. 46, ref. to S. D. 5620. See also S. D. 5620, DE VE1RBO 4.)




     I have been much interested in the recent discussion on the subject of sex in plants.

     A consideration of the following teachings of the Writings together with a consideration of certain undisputed phenomena of vegetative growth and reproduction may throw additional light on the subject.

     In CONJUGIAL LOVE, no. 32, we are taught: "The masculine on the male is masculine in the whole and in every part thereof; in like manner the feminine in the female; and there is conjunctiveness in all their singulars, yea even their veriest singulars." It is also known that the main function of sex is reproduction. In the light of these truths the fact that many, if not most, plants develop both oospheres and pollen grains in which are developed antherozoids, and the fact that much of their reproduction is vegetative--as when a strawberry runner Produces a new strawberry plant, or when a willow twig or grapevine cutting is planted and produces a new plant, or when a potato tuber produces new potato plants, or when pieces of begonia leaves are used to start new begonias--proves that though-there is an appearance of sexes in plants, there is really only one sex, the male, as stated in no. 585 of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, and that "the earth alone, or the ground, is the common mother." The fact that some seeds go through the whole of their life history without ever touching the ground merely indicates to me that the Newchurchman must consider the carbon dioxide, moisture, and other vapors, in the air, as part of the ground, or at least as among the "effluvia" from the ground so often mentioned in the Writings.

     It is well known now, though it was not known in Swedenborg's time, that most of the solid pare of plants is taken, not from the soil directly, but from the air. With animals, the seed is an offshoot of the soul of the father, clothed in a single cell, and all further clothing is from the mother; but with plants, the seed is an offshoot of the soul of the parent plant, but clothed in many cells-yet, as with the seed of animals all its further clothing, after it leaves the father plant, is from the mother or the ground and its effluvia.


In this connection it would seem that reproductive runners, tubers, leaves, etc., should be regarded, functionally at least, as seeds. The marvelous structural resemblance between the animal spermatozoon and the vegetable antherozoid and between the animal egg cell and the vegetable oasphere together with the apparently analogous phenomena of animal and vegetable hybridization, has led scientists to ascribe bi-sexuality to plants and nothing but Divine Revelation can show the fallacy of this ascription.

     Some of the illustrations in the Writings are taken from the false science of Swedenborg's time. The falsity of the illustration does not invalidate the truth of the doctrine so illustrated; but neither does the truth of the doctrine make the illustration true in itself. "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you they are spirit and they are life." John 6:63. The fallacious illustrations are vivified by the truths which they clothe as are such statements in the letter of the Word as that God is angry, repents, etc. For example, "the vegetation of cretaceous substances into corals in the depths of the sea" is given as evidence that minerals emulate plant forms. A. E. 1208. It is known now that corals are produced by animals, instead of by vegetation, as spoken of in A. E. 1208.


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. The celebration of "Founders' Day" eclipsed all other recent events. On the evening of January 14th all those organically connected with the Academy assembled in the auditorium to partake of a feast in commemoration of the day. The room was artistically decorated with cedars and fir trees, providing a soft back-ground for the many class banners. In the center of a hollow square of tables was the grand piano surrounded by palms and ferns, while at the end of the square stood a large Christmas tree, laden with "pointed" presents for some of the professors. The guests entered to the stirring strains of the "Academia March" and were all seated ready for the blessing ever the music ceased. The guests were delighted to find Prof. Odhner back in his time-honored role of toast-master, a task which he has steadily declined of recent years.

     The evening was in general divided into two halves; the first being devoted to "stunts" of a humorous nature,* the latter to a serious discussion of the "Mission of the Academy." First, its mission in general; second, to the New Church; third, to the Christian World, and, lastly, to the Gentiles. The responses were made by Messrs. Randolph Childs, W. H. Alden, Bishop W. F. Pendleton and L. E. Gyllenhaal. The speeches were all short, but nonetheless inspiring, surrounded as they were by lively song and spirit. Mr. Gyllenhaal, with great earnestness, brought home the problem of the duty of the Academy to our newly discovered friends, the Basutos.
     * The "presents" to the professors,-accompanied with appropriate verses,-evoked much laughter, as each represented some special hobby. For the toastmaster there was provided a coal-black doll baby, as a delegate from "the Gentiles."

     The only thing to mar the evening's joy was the absence of "Uncle John," who, though steadily improving, is still confined to his room.


It was the first time he was absent from one of the "Founders' Day" banquets, and as "Uncle Walter" remarked, "It was like Hamlet without the Prince." Our first and foremost Academy bard, the only Founder present, then produced the following song in honor of Mr. Pitcairn:

"Our hearts are stirred, our glasses brim
     As, each as all and all as one,
We pledge our grateful love to him,-
     Our Academia's honored son;
May heaven's peace within him rest
     Through all the ages rolling on!
Here's life and joy and all things best
     To him we love,-to "Uncle John!"

     This was sung repeatedly, as some small expression of the Academy's appreciation of "Uncle John."

     But to return to somewhat more ancient history. At our Christmas celebration the children entered the Auditorium singing and marching, which always brings Christmas thoughts to mind. Father Pendleton, assisted by the Rev. R. W. Brown, conducted the service. The representations this year portrayed the intended sacrifice of Isaac, the purchase of a burial place from the sons of Heth, the betrothal of Rebecca, Gabriel's message to Zacharias, the annunciation to Mary, and, finally, the scene at the manger.

     Then came the holidays, full of joy and gaiety. Bryn Athyn was glad to welcome again many of her migrated sons and daughters. The young folks had a dance on the 27th of the month, which was hailed as a great success. The room was converted into a veritable Christmas garden by red and green lighting effects, coupled with red and green streamers around the room. To the rhythmic strains of a four-piece orchestra the dancers glided around until the wee, wee hours. The evening was interspersed with various stunts, chief of which was a little skit by Don. F. R., portraying in a clever manner the life of the telephone central who handles Bryn Athyn's calls.

     On New Year's morning we held a service in the Chapel, together with a breakfast in the Auditorium, to welcome in the New Year.


Following the breakfast Mr. Frank Bostock favored us with a couple of violin selections, rendered, it seems to us, with actual genius. This paved the way for a series of four speeches on the various ideals with which childhood, youth, manhood, and old age look forward to the new year. The subjects were handled by Messrs. Raymond G. Cranch, Francis Frost, D. F. Rose and Bishop W. F. Pendleton, respectively. After the speeches the young folks danced to their heart's content. The affair was a pronounced success! K. R. A.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. At the Christmas service a special offering was made, to be used for the furnishing of the chancel in our new church building. The children's celebration was held in the afternoon of the same day, those who have been attending the Sunday School rendering a number of recitations and responses from the Word and also songs in Greek and Hebrew from the School Hymnal. In connection with the usual representation a picture of the town of Bethlehem was thrown on the screen, making a striking background. At the proper moment in the reading of the story from Luke the angel appeared in the sky over the stable. After the services each child was presented with a Christmas stocking filled with "goodies," and a toy. The story of "The Other Wise Man," in a shortened and adapted form, was then read and illustrated with beautiful slides. The celebration closed with the hearty singing of a Christmas carol.

     On the evening of Dec. 29th, Mr. Knudsen treated the Advent Club to a sumptuous banquet at his home. The occasion marked a new departure in the activities of the Club. The guests for the evening were the Rev. C. Th. Odhner, Mr. Randolph Childs, Mr. Richard de Charms and Mr. Karl Alden. Professor Odhner, the guest of honor, delivered a most interesting and instructive address on "The Study of History in the Light of the New Church." This was followed by a general discussion in which every member and guest present took part. Great enthusiasm was aroused by a song to the Advent Club, composed by Mr. Eric Nilson and set to the music of a stirring old Finnish air, (the "Bjorneborg March"), which especially touched Mr. Odhner's Scandinavian heart.


The climax of the evening was reached when, in response to a toast "To the Editor of the LIFE," all joined in a song-the product of local talent-to the Editor and his mighty pen.

     As, with a single exception, all of our young men are now married, we have been suffering of late from a lack of the baccalaureate element,-one "forlorn" bachelor to entertain about a dozen young ladies. Recently, however, this condition has changed, through the influx of a number of young men from Bryn Athyn and elsewhere, making the prospects of the social life more promising.

     GLENVIEW, ILL. Winter sports are now the fashion here; there are three favorite modes of recreation: skating, when there is smooth ice; sleighing, when there are smooth roads;-and all the time, no matter what the condition of ice and roads, looking at that classic, never-to-be-too-much-looked-at group of buildings in the center of the park. The slate roof is going on rapidly and the work inside is in such a forward state that the future beauty of the finished interior may be faintly estimated.

     There is no doubt that the trouble and work of the last year, the necessity of discussion, of comparison, of plans and details, and of work, have been both a responsibility and an opportunity the responsibility of seeing that the work was well done, for ourselves and for future generations, and a glorious opportunity for united work, for the cementing of friendship and the abolition of chronic grouches and the drawing together of the whole community in closer bonds of affection.

     We welcomed the New Year and bid good-bye to the old with appropriate ceremonies. At 9 P. M. we began with a sociable, with music, a play given by our local dramatic club, conversation and refreshments. Mr. Junge had charge of the arrangements; he arranged for four speeches, but owing to the epidemic of influenza, only two were able to fulfill their contract. Dr. King spoke on "Providence" and Mr. Seymour G. Nelson on "Increased Uses In Our New Buildings."

     We have had two "steinfests," one on "Waste" and one on "Conservation," both of which were well attended and of considerable interest.


     Occasionally when winds are west and ways are foul with a zero temperature we are compelled to omit a Friday class or a Sunday service owing to the difficulties of keeping our commodious barn-where our services are held ad interim-at a comfortable temperature. This inconvenience affords an excellent opportunity for the cultivation of patience, forbearance and other Christian virtues.

     CHICAGO, ILL. It is to be regretted that the Sharon, church has not been represented more frequently in the News columns of the LIFE. We are still on the New Church map, however, and in a reasonably prosperous and active condition. We start the new year with all current expenses paid.

     There are about fifteen children in regular attendance at the Sunday School, and an average of about twenty persons at the adult services, a number which is almost doubled when attendance is good, as on the first Sunday of the new year. The Rev. David Klein is a valued assistant in the Sunday School work.

     We have had a number of visitors recently, among whom we should mention Mr. and Mrs. S. Wm. H. Schroeder, of Denver; Miss Celia Bellinger, of Pittsburgh, and Mr. Harold Lindsay, also of Pittsburgh.

     Our children's Christmas service was held at the home of the Messrs. Pollock. Copies of the Word or of HEAVEN AND HELL Were presented to all members of the older Sunday School class, the books being provided by the Ladies' Auxiliary.

     In December the ladies put much industry and energy into a bazaar and reaped a corresponding success. There were many visitors from Glenview, the usually "immutable Steinfest" being postponed so that the gentlemen might have the privilege of attending; and there were present also several members of the North Side Convention parish, friends of Mrs. W. W. Espy Curtis, the president of our Ladies' Auxiliary. A Profit of over $150.00 was realized, which has been devoted to the beginning of a fund for a permanent church home. We rejoice in this as a first step toward the "localization" of our far-scattered society. If we could sell our old property on Carroll avenue, now no longer usable for worship, or if, like our neighbors in Glenview, we were to be favored with a fire, perhaps we also could soon start upon building operations in a fairer section of the city.


     Those who knew Mrs. David Klein will realize our sense of loss on account of her removal to the spiritual world. Although confined to her bed for a full year before her death, she still made her cheerful presence felt in our church life. She was zealous in every spiritual interest and social undertaking, often adding to the one by the expression of some thought, and to the other by some sparkling verse or song of local interest. She was the kind of person whom even her remoter friends hope to meet again on the other side. S. G.

     BERLIN, ONT. Notwithstanding the anticipation of the Ontario Assembly, a great deal of time and thought was spent in preparation for a very successful Christmas celebration.

     The Children's Service, on Christmas Eve, opened with the singing of a Processional, during which offerings were brought forward by young and old. The chancel was artistically decorated and prepared as a background for the presentation of tableaux from the Word. These Representations-which were appropriately chosen from the Old and New Testaments-formed, for the first time in our society, an actual part of the service, being introduced without delays between the singing of hymns by the children. The service was most impressive and created a profound sphere of reverence and worship. After the children had stopped to look at the table representation of the Lord's birth, all descended to the school room, where baskets of fruit were distributed, and the children presented their teachers with Christmas gifts.

     Although we had rather feared a slim attendance of visitors at the Ontario Assembly, owing to the stress of the war, we were quite agreeably disappointed the attendance at the banquet taxing the capacity of our building to the utmost.

     The Assembly banquet was a joyous and festive occasion. The banquet hall was appropriately decorated with flags, and tables were set in the hall and adjoining side rooms to accommodate the entire company.


Rev. F. E. Waelchli acted as toastmaster. After the banquet dancing was enjoyed until the stroke of twelve, when all joined hands in singing "Happy New Year to All." After greetings had been exchanged dancing continued until morning.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton's address on "The State of the Church" was, indeed, the central feature of the meeting. It seemed to bring a sense of comfort and relief and brought forth remarks of appreciation from almost all present.

     On Sunday a service was held in the morning and the Holy Supper was celebrated in the afternoon. In the evening we gathered at the school where an enjoyable "musicale" took place. This being the end of the Assembly, farewells were exchanged, and Mr. Craigie, of Toronto, on behalf of our visiting friends, offered a vote of thanks for an enjoyable treat, both spiritual and natural, and hoped he would see us all in Toronto next year. F. R.

     PITTSBURGH, PA. In our last report we tried to give some flavor of the District Assembly, but since then we have enjoyed another big success, namely, our Bazaar.

     Here, as elsewhere, in the General Church, there has been a lingering feeling against fairs or bazaars--partly on the ground that such methods of raising money are disorderly in themselves; partly on the ground of the glaring abuses that have attached themselves to such affairs in the world, chief among which are the gambling devices, the begging for donations, the importuning of victims, and the overcharging to complete the catalog of evils, attributable to Church Fairs, we might also mention the evil of undercharging, or selling valuable gifts or the products of much labor at prices far below their real value. In other words, as soon as the ruling idea becomes something other than the business-like one of converting values of various kinds into cash for the benefit of our church, we get into all the abuses that business itself is heir to. But it occurred to Father Pendleton, some fifteen years ago, that the abuse ought not to take away the use of a good, thing. Begging, importuning, gambling, and such disorders, are no more necessary adjuncts of a Church Fair than they are of any other kind of a Fair.


There remains, then, the fundamental question of the use of such an affair, and of the propriety of connecting it in any way with our Church.

     From time immemorial, Fairs and Bazaars have served the purpose of bringing together buyers and sellers wherever the facilities do not make possible the maintenance of more regular and permanent marts or stores. Incidentally, however, they came to serve a far higher use, in their social effect as centers of intercourse, and also of the dissemination of knowledge. Hence, in the Word, marts and merchants signify such interchange. As to the wider human and social uses of Fairs, we know that in Russia and other Eastern countries, they are veritable centers of their civilization. Nor can we believe that shopping was altogether absent from the yearly pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and later to Mecca and other shrines. It will thus be seen that the Fair, as a method of doing business, has most excellent precedents.

     There remains, then, the matter of the connection of such trading with the Church and its support.

     This connection is to be found legitimately, it seems to me, in the fact that, as in ancient times, many offerings consist normally and naturally of goods rather than money, and that there is more than the mere cash benefit in bringing the actual work of loving hands to the outer courts of the Church, as were the free-will offerings of old, and especially those offerings of materials of all sorts for use in the construction of the Tabernacle and its appurtenances.

     There are many places where simpler conditions of living still prevail, where the offerings whereby the minister is supported consist largely of food-stuffs and fuel. Even in cities, there are no more welcome gifts than those made or prepared by living and grateful hands. And here is where the use of "the Fair" comes in.

     Our Fair this year was probably different from any of the others in the Church. It was more quiet and more business-like, with a careful elimination of all items of unnecessary expense, that would do credit to the best housekeepers. On account of the confusion of having general entertainment concurrently with the other business, this feature was entirely eliminated and left for other occasions.


The people cannot do two things at once, and it is a mistake to line them up in the chairs, when they ought to be attending to the booths of lesser attraction,-while on the other hand, it detracts from the appreciation of the plays, and other public performances, to crowd them out of place, and make them feel as if they were side-shows or encumbrances. So we cut the gordian knot by doing one kind of things at a time. There was no admission fee, and for the rest only refreshments and the Fair itself. There were dainty girls in costume, each with a demonstration table, where desirable toilet and other articles, (obtained free or at special prices), were sold. There was a cake-and-candy counter, a fancy-work booth, a grocery department, and so on. Very business-like, as you see. Great care was taken to give good Value everywhere, and at the same time not to undersell real value, for this is as much an abuse as the other.

     So well pleased were those who patronized this bazaar that it is hoped that we may make it an annual affair. The net profits, for the benefit of our ancient Mortgage Fund, were also decidedly gratifying,-the total, so far, being nearly $300.00.

     But the greatest successful season was the Christmas Festival. Although the pastor seized this most inopportune time to indulge in an attack of the Grippe, the Rev. Walter Brickman took his place so acceptably, that the real spirit and most powerful effect of the Festival was not marred.

     The first Part consisted of the worship upstairs, where the chancel was beautifully decorated, and at one side was a very artistic Scene representing the town of Bethlehem and its environment. This scene represents much study upon the part of the ladies of the local Theta Alpha Chapter. For the second part, all marched down stairs, endeavoring so far as possible to preserve the sphere of worship. It was as if we had first been transported to the Holy Land, and had then been taken right into the place where the Incarnation took place. But I cannot undertake to describe the effect of these exquisitely beautiful tableaux. Mr. Robert Caldwell is a master artist, and he had certainly a most able corps of assistants. H. S.


General Assembly 1916

General Assembly              1916



     The Ninth General Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem will be held at Bryn Athyn, Pa., beginning Thursday, June 15th, and concluding Monday, June 19th, 1916.

     The Consistory will meet on Monday, June 12th, and the Council of the Clergy, June 13th and 14th.
     C. TH. ODHNER, Secr. Gen. Ch. N. J.




Vol. XXXVI, MARCH, 1916          No. 3

     "Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the silt of the world." John 1, 29.

     The Christian world at Easter is celebrating the Redemption effected by our Lord Jesus Christ, through the sacrifice of His blood upon the cross, whereby He is Said to have taken upon Himself our sins and suffered for us, in our place, in satisfaction of the debt we owed to the Divine Justice, by virtue of the Fall of Adam, and the consequent sinfulness of mankind. God the Father,-though filled with wrath toward the human race, was nevertheless willing that His only begotten Son should assume human nature and bring upon himself the full penalty of the Law, thus becoming a full satisfaction for all our sinfulness, in place of the many sacrifices offered before, which were only partial and very imperfect expiations of the Divine Wrath. But it is held that this means of reconciliation with the Almighty applies only in favor of those for whom the Son intercedes, who are said to be those who confess His merit and consequent power to secure the sinner's forgiveness and therefore petition God the Father in the name of His Son.

     The string of fallacies and falsities involved in this doctrine of a "vicarious atonement" is well-known to the New Church. In the first place, it is nothing less than blasphemous to conceive of our Heavenly Father as capable of such murderous wrath, or vindictiveness masquerading under the name of Justice, Revenge, or retribution, is no quality of Divine Justice, for God is Love itself,-most Human and ever compassionate,-not an inhuman monster of Vengeance.


Moreover, no one can be changed from a child of sin, fit only to dwell with the infernals, into a child of grace, fit to live forever in some society of angels, by any suffering or sacrifice inflicted upon another. We do not correct the evils of one son by chastising another one in his place. A change in the way of life is what is demanded, not a mere arbitrary excusing, a covering of the eyes, whereby a thoroughly bad person might be admitted into the eternal company of the good. Heaven would soon become intolerable at that rate.

     From this fundamental error as to how salvation is acquired--namely, by mere grace through faith alone, apart from one's own way of life,--there has arisen a most deadly security, even so that men omit even to search out the real evils of their spirit, and much less to shun them, and the result has been once more the night and death of the Church. Phariseeism is rampant. In the Old Church there is much concern for the tithes of mint and cummin, much broadening of phylacteries, much cleansing of the outside of the cup and the platter, and an ever increasing tide of lusts and all uncleanness, growing unchecked, unacknowledged on the inside.

     So true is this in general, that the Christian name or profession is no guarantee whatever of either honesty, sincerity, or chastity,--a shameful fact known not only to Christians but also to the Gentiles.

     But there are always exceptions, even in the Old Church, as we are taught: "He who reads these words, 'Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world,'-and from these words believes in simplicity that the Lord suffered the cross for our sins, and that by this and by His blood He redeemed us from hell, is not hurt thereby, for it is an apparent truth which does not harm those simple in heart and in faith. But it does hurt to make a first principle of this and to confirm it to such an extent that he believes God the Father was reconciled and will be reconciled by this, and that by faith alone in this reconciliation man will be justified and saved without the goods of charity which are good works. If he is in this false principle not only in doctrine but also in life, it cannot be forgiven." (A. E. 778.)

     If, then, the old idea of a bloody sacrifice, and the atonement and removal of our sins in that vicarious fashion, is only an appearance, which upon enlightened scrutiny will not square with the truth, it remains for us to examine more deeply into the matter, with the aid of our crowning Revelation, and find what is meant,-for it is evidently our Lord Himself who is here represented as our Deliverer.


     "Behold the Lamb of God, Who taken away the sins of the world." This was the promised Messiah, for whom John was preparing the way, and whom he thus announced to the world. Again and again the Lord is called a "Lamb," and those who follow Him are called His "sheep." What then is a Lamb?

     We are taught that animals of all kinds are nothing else than embodiments of certain affections, which they have in common with man. In other words, the soul of an animal is some affection existing among those human beings who are now living in the spiritual world, the region of causes. Everything that exists in this world has such an origin or essence or soul, by which it was shaped in the first place and through which it derives its continued existence in the same form or body, as long as it is not cut off from this spiritual source of all its vital force and quality. Men wonder what force is now driving the sap up into all the trees with such a headlong pressure. They are witnessing the effect, on the plane of dead matter, of a force inflowing from the Sun of the living world, acting through the ether, which is the medium of such well known phenomena as those of light and electricity. In the case of a lamb, however, the soul or essential portion or kind of life which is being embodied is the good of innocence, as is indeed evidenced by the creature's gentleness and docility, as well as by its usefulness and pleasantness to man. Evil and rapacious beasts have as their soul, we are told, some affection originating in hell. Now those animals which were used in worship as sacrifices all embodied, and thus signified, good affections of various kinds and degrees, such as would be pleasing to God. Some good animals, such as horses, were not used in sacrificial worship, because they are forms of the affections of the understanding rather than affections of the will.

     But in order to understand how a lamb could take away sins, if not as a price paid in substitution or atonement therefor, we must learn from the Heavenly Doctrines what is involved in the act of sacrificing them, in offering them upon the altar. The ancients, long before the time of Abram and his descendants,-indeed, from the time of Eber when such a mode of worship was first established, knew very well what they wished to symbolize and thus develop among themselves by these rites.


They knew all about: correspondences, or the relation of things in this world to their causes in the spiritual world. Those from whom they derived this knowledge were frequent visitors on the other side, and the angels frequently conversed with them. So they even knew at first hand the particular human affection embodied in each creature. Each animal is a form of some one affection, nor can it change essentially. It can only be modified externally in adaptation to its environment, while man embodies all affections, and can change himself from a lamb even to a wolf, or vice-versa.

     Now our source of information as to what is signified by each victim used in the ancient sacrifices is the same as theirs, namely, revelation through one who frequented the other world. In the latest and most excellent Revelation, all the wisdom of the Ancients has been restored and more besides. Thus we learn that an altar is a plane of reaction and thus of reception of Divine Influx and immediate operation out of heaven. The wood used as fuel signified merit. The victim, whether of flock or herd, was a form of the affection that was being laid before the Lord, for His love to act upon. The fire, kept ever burning, was the expression of the Divine love itself,-the fire of the Sun of Heaven; and the burning signified purification thereby, since it removed all impurities, and converted the tissues into higher, more volatile substances or spheres representing what is more acceptable to Jehovah.

     Thus the leading idea of a sacrifice was not the giving up on the part of the victim of its life in satisfaction for the sin of some other being, (a most unjust and useless procedure), but Purification-the removal of impurities, in the affection and thus the reception of the Divine life into it, and its adoption by Him! How crude, and merely natural, in the light of this teaching, is the substitutive or vicarious idea of the Jews and of the unspiritual men of the present day, who have stamped even the very word "Sacrifice" with the vicarious idea of an innocent victim giving himself up for the sake of another! Not by such sacrifice, therefore, but by the conjunctive power of the affection which it represented, was; a lamb able to take away sin.


     A lamb, as was said, signifies innocence, which, when purified, as is represented in temptations or sacrifice by, fire, is the Lord's Divinely provided means of taking away the sins of the world.

     Innocence is known to us mainly as it manifests itself in infants,-with whom, however, it is but a state or condition loaned to them from the highest heaven, until a beginning can be made toward acquiring something of rational good which can soften and finally displace the hard and wicked tendencies of their hereditary proprium. Meanwhile, the innocence of the child is his salvation; by it he is able to learn what is right and wrong, and to choose the one and refuse the other. Thus he is gifted, in time, with a free conscience and becomes capable of real charity.

     But there is a good even higher than charity, even as there is the celestial or highest heaven above the spiritual and the natural, and this is the good of mutual love in which there is the Innocence of Wisdom, directly from the Lord,-who is the Lamb or Innocence Itself! For true innocence is not merely the passive and ignorant docility of the infant, or of the lamb. These, upon the natural plane, do indeed represent it. But the soul or essence of Innocence is to be found in the quality of humility,-the acknowledgment that all power and all wisdom are not our own, but inflow each moment from the Divine. Those who make this acknowledgment must fully and unreservedly become so receptive of the Divine Innocence that they are said to follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.

     These are "the mighty ones" of the universe, and in some places in the Word they are even called "gods." Not because they have or claim any divinity to themselves! Quite the reverse! But their power and influence and work are beyond description. To say that they can pluck up mountains and cast them into the sea gives but a very external idea of their strength, The radiance of their beauty, moreover, is beyond description, while even the tone of their voice so melts the heart that even the hardest of good spirits is reduced to tears. It is like love itself speaking! And all this is from their innocence, because they dwell in fullest humility and therefore in the full sunshine of the presence and love of Him who is "the Lamb of God,"-He who in His Human did most completely humiliate himself as to every affection and every thought before the Father, the Infinite Love whose very essence is to love others outside of itself, to will to be one with them, and to make them happy from itself. Such is our Heavenly Father.


And the Human which He assumed in the world,-through the Purification which is represented by the fire and the sacrifice,-was finally made full partaker and being of the Divine Love itself, and thus One with the Father. No longer do we worship the unglorified human, the Son of Man, but God Man Himself, the very Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world.


     We are all familiar with the teaching that we are, even while in this world, associated together in societies in the spiritual world. We read in the Heavenly Doctrine that man in respect to his spirit is in societies in the spiritual world and that to them he is attached, as it were, with elastic cords which determine the space wherein he may walk. We are also taught that through these societies man walks free; but that he is led by the Lord, and that he takes no step into which and from which the Lord does not lead. The Doctrine further teaches that if man's affections are evil, he is conveyed through infernal societies, and that if he does not look to the Lord he is brought into these infernal societies more interiorly and deeply. And yet, we are taught, that the Lord leads him, as if by the hand, permitting and withholding as far as man is willing to follow in freedom.

     Another teaching is that if man looks to the Lord he is led forth from these societies and is brought by continual steps out of hell up towards heaven, and into heaven. (A. E. 1174.)

     Thus we may see from the Doctrine here given that this question of social life, or life in consociation with others, has regard to men as spiritual beings, for it is our spirits that consociate.

     We may also see that there are laws by which these consociations are regulated and that, as rational spiritual beings, it behooves us to know these laws, and to conduct ourselves accordingly. We can see, from the Doctrine quoted, that even at this time, while engaged in a social gathering here, we are sustaining certain definite relations with some society in the spiritual world;--that we are, in fact, being led by the Lord, as the Writings say, as if by the hand, as one might take a child by the hand and lead it.


     Now it appears to me that if we reflect for a moment, we will be able to see that if this subject is a living and active one in the spiritual world; it is worthy of our most careful thought in this world, and that we should trot be indifferent as regards the important question of forming friendships. The Lord leads as if by the hand, permitting and withholding, as far as man is willing to follow in freedom. Here, I think, we have something to seriously reflect upon, when considering the choice of friends, or when we are in the act of forming friendships, or when we are about to determine for ourselves the question of our social life. The Lord leads. He permits. He withholds. He never interferes with our freedom. In a word, while He leads, while He permits, while He withholds, yet we can freely make friends of whom we please and freely enter into social life with whom we desire.

     With this idea before us we may be able to realize the great responsibility which rests upon each one in his choice of friends. From the Doctrine quoted we can see that if our affections are evil we are led through infernal societies; and if we do not look to the Lord, we are brought more interiorly and deeply into these internal societies. We see from this that though the Lord leads us, yet the choice rests with each one to decide whether this leading is to be a leading of Providence to heaven, or a leading by Permission to hell; whether it is to bring him out of the infernal societies up towards heaven and into heaven, or whether he is coming more interiorly and deeply into the infernal societies.

     Now, I think, it is a fair and inevitable conclusion, that if we find ourselves seeking the social life which is available outside of the sphere of the Church, if we find ourselves forming friendships without regard to the teachings given plainly and clearly by the Church,--if we find ourselves doing these things, we may correctly conclude that we have as yet no grounds to think that we are making progress away from the infernal societies, out of hell, and up towards heaven and into heaven. But as to how we stand in respect to this, no one has a right to judge of another. Each one must judge as to his own case.


The Writings teach that no inference must be drawn concerning any one, from the appearances of marriages, nor from the appearances of the opposite, as to whether he has conjugial love or not. (C. L. 531.) This law applies to all social life; wherefore, Judge Not!

     In the Writings we are taught that all the thoughts and affections of man pour themselves forth into the spiritual world in every direction: spiritual thoughts, which relate to the Lord and to the truths and goods of heaven and the Church, pour themselves forth into heavenly societies, but merely natural thoughts, which relate to self and the world, and not at the same time to God, into infernal societies. (A. E. 1092.)

     Now, it remains for each one to decide for himself whether in the friendships which he is forming, or in the social life he is cultivating, he has regard to this law: that where there is a sphere of merely natural affections and thoughts, and not at the same time thoughts of God and spiritual affections, the associations in the spiritual world are with infernal societies.

     It is important that each one should pass judgment upon him- self, and it is likewise important that he have a clear conception of this truth in his mind: viz., that merely natural thoughts, which relate to self and the world, and not at the same time to God, pour themselves forth into infernal societies.

     We are taught that to shun evils as sins is to shun the infernal societies that are in them, and that man cannot shun these unless he actually repels them and turns away from them in ultimates as well as in internals. With regard to this, I think it is just to conclude that what is true of the societies in the spiritual world and the laws governing these and the individuals who comprise them, must also be true of our societies in the world; and that the law to shun certain societies, repel them and turn away from them, applies here as well as there.

     But, I repeat, we must all bear in mind that each one must see his duty in this respect for himself. Another cannot see it for him, and another should not attempt to do so. The charge has been made that this idea of distinctive social life has in it the evil of thinking one's self better than another, and for this reason shunning his society. Now the old contention that exclusiveness necessarily means thinking one's self better than another will not stand if investigated. A man may adopt principles of exclusiveness from various motives.


The Newchurchman can have but one. His exclusiveness must spring from a desire to shun his evils as sins. If he find himself seeking social life outside the sphere of the New Church, he will find at the same time that he cannot be in active antagonism to his own evils, and that a retrograde movement in his regeneration must ensue.

     When the sons of Israel asked Pharaoh to let them go three days' journey into the wilderness, Pharaoh asked, "Why go three days' journey? Worship here in Egypt." Moses replied, No, that they would thus worship, the abomination of the Egyptians. Now, it was not that the Israelites were better than the Egyptians that they must separate entirely from them, for three days meant an entire separation, but the truth to be drawn from this is that they were to be given a chance to become better.

     So it is with the state of the Old Church, and the state of the New Church; between them there must be an entire separation both internally and externally. Not that the man of the New Church is better, but he may become better. The act of separation is the New Churchman's acknowledgment of his own evils and of his own inability to come out of these within the old environment.

     In DIVINE PROVIDENCE 294, we are taught that when a man knows an evil and wills to shun it and desist from it, he is taken by the Lord from the society which is in that evil and is transferred into a society in which it is not.

     Now this doctrine of distinctive social life may have the appearance of selfish exclusiveness, but in the Newchurchman who is sincerely fighting against his evils it merely means that he cannot get the mastery of these under the old condition of things and in the old social life, where merely natural thoughts which relate to self and the world and not at the same time to God, prevail.

     There is that in a good hard fight against one's evils that removes all disposition on the part of the man to boast. It is a victory and a defeat. It is a victory for the spiritual man, and the spiritual man does not boast. It is a defeat for the natural man, and he doesn't boast, either,--over a defeat! We see then that a man must be progressive in shunning his evils, and if in this he find it necessary to shun a certain kind of society, it does not necessarily follow that he is selfishly exclusive.


     What we must dismiss from our minds is the idea that exclusiveness is in itself an evil. It depends altogether upon the conditions prompting the exclusiveness. As I have already stated, the Newchurchman may be exclusive, that is, may disassociate himself from worldly society on one ground only, viz., that the regenerative possibilities of his life may not be interfered with, and that unnecessary obstacles may not be placed in the way.

     The social life outside the sphere of the Church does interfere, and it does place obstacles in his way; and more, it obscures the truths by which he hopes for regeneration, by interposing a cloud. For we are taught that the angels of heaven cannot be attendant on man when, he dwells on earthly things; they then retire, and infernal spirits approach, who cannot be with him in heavenly things. (A. C. 5433)

     The delights of evil, which are hereditary in every man, make him susceptible to the contagion of wickedness.

     All evils are infectious. We are taught that the world of spirits is so full of subtle wickedness that it may be compared to a pool of water replete with the spawn of frogs. We are most thoughtful of ourselves in guarding against the contagion of bodily diseases, let us give ourselves the same tender care against the contagion of spiritual diseases. If we would not become infected we must take refuge in the Lord, for He says, "Abide in Me."





     Among the little group of Swedenborg's personal friends in Gothenburg, headed by Beyer and Rosen; there appears the name of AUGUSTUS ALSTROMER. Until recently we have known of his connection with the New Church only through a letter addressed to him by Swedenborg, (Doc. II, pp. 378-9), who sends through him "kindest regards to Drs. Beyer and Rosen and to all the rest who believe in our Savior." The following group of eight letters, found among the "Bergius Collection of Letters" in the Royal Academy of Sciences, throw a very pleasing light upon the character of this man.

     Augustus Alstromer was the second son of JONAS ALSTROMER, renowned as "the father of Swedish industry." He was an intimate friend of the Swedenborg family and at one time "had a great desire to take Emanuel with him to England to show him much that would be useful to the country." Jonas Alstromer is noted for having introduced skilled labor from abroad into Sweden; he improved the manufacture of silk and woolen goods, and was the first to introduce that great material blessing,-the potato-into Sweden. He was also one of the founders of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.

     Like his father, Augustus Alstramerwas a merchant, and he lived in Gothenburg.* In the year covered by our letters (1770), he was, a young man of 35 and he died three years later. His wife, Anna Margaretha, was the daughter of the wealthy merchant, Nicholas Sahlgren. Possibly she is the "Margaretha Ahlstrom" mentioned in Wargentin's list of Swedenborg's letters found in London addressed to various persons, which were "probably the last written by Assessor Swedenborg's own hand." (Doc. II, p. 785.)
     * It is interesting to note that Swedenborg, in 1756,-ten years before he became acquainted with Dr. Beyer,-wrote in his DIARY that "the good Swedes," (there were some) in the spiritual world were "consociated in a city which is like Gothenburg." (S. D. 5036) But in the Gothenburg of the natural world it seems to have been otherwise.-ED. LIFE.


     CLAS ALSTROMER, (1736-1794), was the third son of Jonas Alstromer. He continued his father's work of developing Swedish commerce and manufactures and was, in 1761, appointed Commissary in the College of Commerce. In 1770 he became assessor in the same Department, and afterwards Secretary in the Department of Justice and finally Councillor. During his foreign journeys he studied industry and farming and sent collections of seeds, fish, corals, etc., to Linneus, who, in return, immortalized his name by calling the lily Alstroemeria, Pelegrina after him. Clas Alstromer was a great patron of charities, devoting a large part of his fortune to public benefit. The one unfortunate incident of his career was connected with a plan to profit by the American Revolution, then raging, in order to enrich Swedish commerce. To this end he invested large sums of money in a mercantile enterprise, but owing to peace being declared unexpectedly the enterprise failed and he became involved in bankruptcy. Among other distinctions Clas Alstromer acted as President of the Royal Academy of Sciences. In 1778 he was ennobled, with the rank of Baron, bearing the lily on his coat of arms.

     In order to place our material in its proper historical setting it will be necessary to call to mind some of the chief features of the Controversy in the Gothenburg Consistory, where the faith of the New Church had gained two firm adherents and also many violent dragonistic opponents.*
     * For a complete discussion of this subject see the series of articles by Prof. C. Th. Odhner in the NEW CHURCH LIFE for 1910, pp. 153, 221, 618, 742.

     Dr. GABRIEL ANDERSSON BEYER, Swedenborg's intimate friend, a man whose sincere and gentle character is well illustrated in these letters, and Dr. JOHAN ROSEN, the brilliant professor of literature, were the two members of the Gothenburg Consistory who acknowledged the Divine light of the new Revelation. Dr. Beyer, too honest to keep silent with respect to the truths which he knew were given through Swedenborg for the salvation of the whole human race, introduced the new doctrines into his classes in the College. His lectures, on the evidence of some "Dictata" from a note book of one of the scholars, were branded as heresy, as was also a volume of SERMON-ESSAYS, published by him.


This caused a great stir in the Consistory, where Bishop Eric Lamberg and Dean Olof A. Ekebom vainly tried by ecclesiastical authority to strangle such an assertion of freedom and rationality within the folds of official religion. While the fight was raging in the Consistory a man of odious character named Peter Aurell fanned the flame from without by publishing the Minutes of the proceedings and thus making it a matter for the general public. Letters were received from excited parents who refused to send their children to a school where Swedenborgian heresies were being promulgated, and everything was done to heap disgrace upon Dr. Beyer. The climax came when Dr. Beyer printed a letter written to him by Swedenborg. (Doc. II, pp. 305-9) This letter contains a statement about Dr. Beyer's wife who had recently passed away; Swedenborg here accused two clergymen who had attended her on her deathbed, (one of whom was Ekebom himself), of exerting an evil influence upon her, and he describes the spirits working through these men as being "so filled with hatred against the Savior, and consequently against God's Word, and against everything belonging to the New Church, that they cannot bear to hear Christ mentioned." The matter was finally reported by Bishop Lamberg on Dec. 3d, 1769, to the Ecclesiastical Committee of the House of the Clergy,-one of the four chambers of the Swedish Diet,-where it was decided to refer the case to the Chancellor of Justice.

     JOHAN ROSIR, the Chancellor of Justice, or Chief Justice, has gone down in history as "a born Judge," being cool, laconic and astute. "His very appearance, thoughtful, serious, almost stern, seemed to bid the lawyer lay aside his artfulness, and the jester his wit; his pure and steady glance seemed to convey a doom upon crime." The Chancellor's decision resulted in a Royal Letter being sent to Gothenburg commanding the Consistory to report on the nature of Swedenborg's doctrinal teachings. Each member then submitted a statement of his views, those of Drs. Beyer and Rosen (Doc. 245) being couched in the strongest terms in defense of their faith, while Dr. Ekebom's declaration stubbornly and stupidly upheld the orthodox dogmas. The height to which the spirit of persecution at Gothenburg had reached is recorded in a letter from Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer (Doc. II, p. 352), where he expressed "surprise at the reports which have reached Gothenburg from Stockholm to the effect that you and Dr. Rosen are to be deposed, deprived of office, and banished from the country."


It was here Swedenborg's privilege to comfort Dr. Beyer in this distress with Divine messages of truth which have fortunately been preserved, and with the wish that bur Savior may sustain you in good health, preserve you from further violence and bless your thoughts." (Doc. II, p. 379.)

     The letters which now follow show that in the midst of the persecution there was a friendly influence secretly at work in Stockholm,-the influence of Clas Alstromer, who, as secretary in the Department of Justice, was intimately associated with Chancellor Rosir. Very likely it was owing to this influence that the Gothenburg Trial ended without more serious results, for it was decided to suspend judgment until the opinion of Theological Faculties such as those of Upsala, Lund and Abo, to whom the matter was referred, had been ascertained. Evidently these universities were unable to prove Swedenborg's writings either heretical or illogical for we have looked in vain for any trace of a final report from them. CYRIEL LJ. ODHNER.


     Feb. 14, 1770.

     . . . The information you gave me about public opinion concerning Swedenborg is not quite as complete as I had desired. Since the House of the Clergy is now occupying itself about his doctrine, and since letters on this subject have been sent to the King and the Chancellor of Justice, and from them to the Consistory, the authorities could not help becoming concerned about the matter. Still; it is sufficient if they do not press it, but take care to let the matter rest until the Consistory's report arrives, and [in the meanwhile] suspend all quarrels about this doctrine. I should like to be informed in some way as to whether there is any such disposition among the learned. In two weeks or so the Consistory here will probably deliver their report on the Swedenborgian doctrine, but the various members of the Consistory are of very diverging opinions. Their votes will be well worth reading.


It will then be seen who is in the right; this much I can say beforehand, that all those who have not read his writings condemn them, whereas on the other hand those who have had the patience to examine them, value them.


     Feb. 17, 1770.

     . . . Today, or in the course of some post-days, the Consistory's report on Swedenborgianism is expected to be sent off to His Majesty. Judging from the usual outcome of Clerical persecutions, and the zeal with which so-called Heresies are punished, I am afraid that Doctor Beyer, who it is said openly defends Swedenborg's doctrine in his Vote, may run some risks, which would indeed cause me sincere regret; for it is a conscientious conviction on his part that causes him to abstain from doing what he might very easily have done on such an occasion, namely, employing some dissimulation or Subterfuge in order to save himself. Were I up [at Stockholm] myself, I should try to induce a favorable disposition towards him on the part of the Authorities; as it is I must ask you to do it, in whatever measure you are able. As a further argument I may add that although this Clergyman [Dr. Beyer] has never been counted as an adherent to any political party, still I regard him as an orthodox "Hat;"* for I know his sentiments on the question of the Constitution, and that he considered the report of the three Deputations very prudent. For the rest, in general, he holds the gentlemen in power in high esteem, as those having the better class of the people on their side. All the rest of our Consistory members, on the contrary, I consider to be "Caps," and especially the Dean, who id Beyer's most zealous persecutor. It would be well if both the Chancellor of Justice, [Johan Rosir], and his son-in-law, Councillor Stockenstrom, were given this information so that they would have sympathy for his case. . .
     * At this time Sweden was divided into two political parties; the military party, desiring to continue Charles XII.'s policy of extending Sweden's foreign possessions, by going to war, were known as "Hats," while the pacifists were derisively called the "night-caps" or "Caps. Swedenborg himself, although not a member of either party, was an upholder of the pacific policy.



     Feb. 24, 1770.

     . . . Thank you for the report of your conversation with Stockenstrom. I had an idea he was acquainted with Swedenborg's writings, in which case he could not condemn them. A week ago the Consistory's report on this Doctrine was dispatched, and it included a statement of opinion from each member of the Consistory. If you have time it will repay you to secure these papers and read them through, and then you cannot escape seeing who is in the right, Beyer or his opponents. Beyer has never sought to occasion any disturbance or annoyance, but this has all been aroused by the bitter spirit in which those concerned have attempted to persecute him and therefore they are the ones to be blamed for the whole trouble. My own opinion is that they ought to be forbidden to quarrel about it any more, since considerable time will yet be required before it can be established whether Swedenborg's books are objectionable or not. I do not know what particular statements Beyer is bound to retract. To deny the Light which, he believes he has received from Swedenborg's works he would consider a cruel apostasy, and therefore, if there be no other way, he says he must sacrifice his worldly welfare, although he is a very poor man. You are quite right in saying that nothing so easily causes schisms in religions and sects as persecution; and what is more, they then become fanatical and [their tenets] are adopted without examination; whereas on the contrary, if a new doctrine is allowed to be promulgated quietly it can never win [adherents] unless it has reason and a holy Light as Guide, and then, whatever the effects, they will never be dangerous. I again refer to what I have previously written you with regard to this matter and Beyer's private person, and I beg of you to make the best use you can of it all, in order to put a stop to this war of the priests.


     March 3, 1770.

     . . . I again refer you to my previous communications on the Swedenborgian question. You may wonder at my taking so much interest in this case, but I do so from two principles.


One is for the sake of toleration, which I hope will be advanced,-and I know you are of the same opinion,-and the other is the fact that I know something of the works of this marvelous Author, and know that they do not deserve to be condemned, for his principles not only prescribe a sound Religion, but they also would produce the best and most useful citizens in a country, so that no country could ever be more happy than the one where his religious principles gained conviction among the people. But as things are going the public is concentrating all its attention upon his visions and do not look at what is the really essential.               


     March 17, 1770.

     . . . It makes me sad to see so little prospect of Beyer's retention [at the College], but I think, to begin with, that the situation might be helped in this way, namely, that Beyer, as a teacher of the young, be restrained from using Swedenborg's doctrine, and then that the matter be remitted to the Faculty for further examination. To speak more fully: neither Beyer nor Swedenborg denies the Trinity, but they say that the term "three persons" confuses the thought and in this contention the Symbolical-Books, [the Creeds], do not condemn them. In respect to the resurrection of the body, the resurrection of the flesh is indeed affirmed in the third Article of Faith, but in Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, which treats largely of the resurrection, it is plainly stated that they would arise in a Spiritual Body, and Paul calls him a fool who thinks otherwise. The Symbolical Books should, of course, be understood in the pray that the Scriptures explain and confirm them, and therefore we do not depart from them in believing in the Trinity and the Resurrection in conformity with the Scriptures. I wish Rosir had let you read the whole of Beyer's explanation and that of our Dean; then you would have been able to see the contrast between them. I quite agree that those concerned ought to be on their guard, for I have not forgotten what Sirenius did during the Diet of 1760, in regard to Councillor Reuterholm.


     [Undated, but later than March 21, 1770.]


     . . . Since I informed Beyer of the slim chances he has, he has been quite worried, poor man, on account of his many children.


He considers himself fortunate, however, under these circumstances, that he is a widower. To apostatize and deny a truth of which he is at heart convinced is never to be expected of him, but as I said before, he is obedient to the commands of his superiors, so that if Swedenborg's principles are forbidden, he will not introduce them in his official teaching. For the rest, I think it would be a transgression of Pars beneficia juris et processus, [the benefit of jury and trial], if Beyer should be convicted by the Council at the present time. The circumstances of the case are not such as to warrant the possibility of Beyer's being exiled from the country. In consequence of the ventilation of Swedenborg's works which has taken place, His Majesty has commanded the Consistory here to give an expression of their opinion of these writings. As a result of this command Beyer and Rosen, as well as the other members of the Consistory, have frankly stated their opinions according to their conviction. Would it be just to make this a criminal offense against them? In no wise I Rather, if His Majesty finds that they have been mistaken in their opinion, and if Swedenborg's writings are considered heretical, let this be a command for them to observe. If they offend after this, on the other hand, they do become criminal and the law defines their punishment; but the statement they have now made, at the King's command, can and ought not be looked upon as either a relapse from the pure Doctrine or the propagation of strange Doctrine. Hence, in trying to show the harmony of Swedenborg's Doctrine of the Trinity and the Resurrection with Scripture and the Symbolical Books, they act as impartial and rational judges should act, and they give evidence of having examined the case, whereas the other judges condemn without adducing reasons. I therefore consider it reasonable to expect that these two professors will not be convicted on account of the reports which they delivered at the command of the King. Against Beyer, however, there are two other charges. In the first place, in regard to his "Dictata," or lectures to the young, and secondly, in regard to his SERMON-ESSAYS. As to the first, although Beyer admitted that he derived a great deal of the condemned "Dictata" from a book by Swedenborg, nevertheless this does not prove that it is heretical.


A person may be adjudged a heretic in respect to certain things, but this does not say that he is so in all things; and therefore it may be quite conceivable that Beyer's lectures were entirely correct and not in the least degree worthy of condemnation. I make the same observation as regards the SERMON-ESSAYS. That there is some resemblance in them to something which can be traced to Swedenborg's works, cannot possibly condemn them.

     In view of all these considerations I hope no difficulty will arise either with the Chancellor of Justice or with the authorities in power, in the exercise of clemency towards Beyer, since such clemency will not prevent their compliance with the Clergy in the repudiation of the Doctrine.

     But if, contrary to all expectation, it should happen that, in spite of the view of the case which I have just presented, the same harsh attitude towards Beyer should prevail, then, at least, he ought to be informed of the accusations which are made against him in order that he may be given an opportunity to explain his position in regard to them.

     I have advised him to make a journey up [to Stockholm], but in the first place he has no money for travelling, though he might be helped in that respect,-and secondly, he cannot get leave of absence for it before Pentecost, on which account, if no other favor can be extended to him, it would at least be something gained if the case could be suspended until that time. When questioned as to the journey Beyer moreover replied that he had no patron to whom he could address himself, and that he would not know how to comport himself with the aristocratic gentlemen who have his fate in their hands, and therefore he puts his trust in Psalm XXXVII, verse 3, where it is said: "Trust in the Lord, and do good: so shalt thou dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed."


     March 24, 1770.

     . . . As regards Eeyer, whom I so often write about, I must beg of you to put in a good word for him to the Chancellor of Justice. An Assessor named Aurell has been constantly plaguing Beyer, and has recently entered a suit against him at the Inn of Court on account of a letter of Swedenborg's which has been printed and which Beyer is suspected of having put to the press.


In compliance with a letter from the Chancellor of Justice, the Court of Appeals has commanded the Inn of Court to make an investigation of the matter and the public prosecutor is ordered to conduct the case if Aurell,-who before this has acted as such,-would be the Public Prosecutor. Aurell seems willing to do so, yet he never appears in person, but empowers some other person as his proxy. Beyer insists that Aurell as Public Prosecutor should speak for himself and has no right to put another person in his place. This was also the decision of the Inn of Court, but Aurell now intends to put in an appeal against this decision to the Chancellor of Justice, and then it would be well if the resolution of the Inn of Court were sustained, since it would put a stop to a great deal of this miserable legal process, which is now being conducted by Aurell, in which he employs a method of serving warrants for witness to almost everyone he knows who speaks to and associates with Beyer, and puts a mass of questions to them which has no connection at all with the matter in hand. In a word: it would be a very good thing if this were to come to an end, for it is causing a great deal of annoyance.


     [Undated, but later than April 26th, 1770.]

     . . . I am pleased to hear that the report of the Chancellor of Justice on the Swedenborgian case is so moderately and impartially written, and I hope it will be regarded in the same way by the Council. From what you cite of the contents, I note the following point: that the Chancellor of Justice, following the majority opinion of the Consistory here, holds that Swedenborg's doctrine must be condemned. I did not know that the Chancellor of Justice was altogether obliged to adopt their decision and make it a law for himself, especially when he sees from the proceedings that most of those who condemn the works admit that they have not read them. How, then, can they be considered as having reliably examined them? I therefore consider the addition which the Chancellor of Justice made,-viz., requiring the opinion of the Theological Faculty of Upsala and of other Consistories,-a very necessary measure before the doctrine can be altogether condemned as heretical and to be rejected.


As concerns the SERMON-ESSAYS, I do not know whether the majority of the Consistory held that they must be repudiated, or were able to accuse them of heresy or not, although they called them dry and intricate,-that is to say they do not find them in the style of preaching which they themselves would have used. But they would never have been able to prevent their publication on any such grounds as that. Beyer and Rosen are forbidden to lecture on theology until the case is settled; but I think it would have sufficed if they had been forbidden to use Swedenborgian expressions such are not: to be found in the Symbolical Books. As concerns the anonymous letter, I do not wonder at all at the Chancellor of Justice receiving it, in view of the bitterness which is rife here among some of the people and which is in no wise characterized by any spirit of the Christian religion, although they pretend to be Orthodox and brand other pious people as heretics. Beyer does not hold any secret meetings whatsoever. He associates only with some of his relatives, and because these live together on confidential terms and perhaps think that he is in the right, such reports as this are spread abroad. As to how far Swedenborgianism has spread I cannot say, because I do not know more than a few persons who are acquainted with Swedenborg's doctrines; but even if people of a lower class have joined it, (which, however, I have neither heard nor observed), this could be attributed to no other cause than the quarrels which have arisen about it in the Consistory, and the Minutes published by Aurell. Nevertheless, I am rejoiced that you have been able to accomplish so much for Beyer's retention. I am well aware how delicate a subject this has been for the Chancellor of Justice, when we consider what clerical hatred means, and recall what Sirenius attempted to do to Councillor Reuterholm, in the Rutherstrom case. However, in the latter case such things as have to do with [political] party questions came into play, which do not exist in the present case. But I still believe that a most strictly orthodox person, if without preconceived opinions, must admit that there is much honey to be gathered from Swedenborg's writings, and that many difficult points in Theology, which [formerly] have been sustained only by a general imprisonment of the reason, are by him illustrated in a marvelous Light, and correlated through rational conclusions; and thus they win a foothold in our Faith.


The visions may repel people, but they may be set aside, as well as the method of his revelations. There is a great store of riches in his writings. What I have gained by reading them is this: First, A profound reverence for the Word, especially as concerns the interior understanding or spiritual sense which Swedenborg, in a marvelous way, has made manifest; Second, A confirmation and conviction of the genuine truths of Faith, so that instead of a Faith of the lips, a Faith of the heart is gained,-a Faith which is embraced by the understanding, and before which it need not stand blind and mute; Third, A horror of self-love and an examination of one's own heart; Fourth, A conviction that we must be of use in the world, and that insomuch as this is done, we fulfill the will of the Highest; Fifth, Thus a striving for Christian virtues as well as civil virtues, for Swedenborg considers the love of country as a duty imposed by God. Such teachings as these I have gathered, while passing by much in Philosophy and the like which has not a direct bearing upon Religion. I close with a general remark: To the good, all things are good, to the evil, just the opposite. From the same flower one insect gathers honey, another poison.


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916


     Attention is called to the announcement concerning the General Assembly to be held at Bryn Athyn, June 15th to 19th, 1916. It is hoped that there will be a large attendance inasmuch as two subjects of great importance will be brought up for consideration, viz., the choice of a Bishop, and the possible development of an Assembly of representative delegates.

     The "Bulletin of Church Statistics" for 1916 reports for the General Church of the New Jerusalem a membership of 1,213, with 38 ministers and 22 societies and circles, showing a gain of 42 members. The General Convention is credited with a membership of 8,500, which is a fictitious number, stationary from decade to decade. The Journal of the General Convention for 1915 reports a membership of 6,363, with 96 ministers and 74 churches, instead of Io9 ministers and 129 churches, as represented in this year's "Bulletin."

     The VACCINATION INQUIRER, Of London, in its January issue, publishes an excellent portrait and a brief but correct biographical sketch of Mr. John Pitcairn, the President of the National Anti-vaccination League of America.

     The Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, in the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY for Dec. 25th, calls attention to the celebration of "New Church Day," and makes the following suggestion: "The Nineteenth Day of June falls on Monday in the coming year, and I suggest that in all the churches Sunday the eighteenth be made a day of special commemoration of that new work in the spiritual world, with its connotation of missionary work in this world. We might lay special stress on that day upon the need of extending such work in non-Christian countries."


     THE YOUNG NEW CHURCH MAN for January published an additional list of twenty young members of the Church in Great Britain, who have recently fallen in battle. There is also an additional list of twenty-four "Casualties." The New Church in England is paying heavy toll, in proportion to its numbers, but what is lost by the Church on earth is gained by the Church in Heaven, and this will mean a stronger influx in times to come.

     Mr. John Henry Smith, of Washington, D. C., in the MESSENGER for Dec. 29th, speaks with a strong and clear voice on the subject of "Prohibition and the Holy Supper." To his mind the rejection of the Wine by the Catholic Church, and the modern substitution of grape juice by the Protestant churches, is an ultimate sign of the universal rejection of the Divine Truth in Christendom, and he concludes thus: "Prohibition means the elimination of wine from the Holy Supper and the destruction of the Sacrament; and it means the building up of the real New Church elsewhere in the world, far away from the infestations of Christians. 'What God hath joined together let not man put asunder.'"

     To those who have been long in the Church, or who have been born into it, there is always something inspiring in the enthusiasm of a new receiver. We quote the following from the MESSENGER for January 12th: "I read the book HEAVEN AND HELL, and human language is too poor to describe the full effect wrought in my mind by the perusal of this supreme book. Everybody in whom is Divine light must admit its Divine origin and unreservedly perceive by diligently searching its contents that following these doctrines is life eternal. I bless the hour when the Lord graciously transferred this work into my hand! It will be my greatest delight to widen the circle of readers of Swedenborg's Divine revelation. May the Lord bless His good work that you perform for Him. This one book [HEAVEN AND HELL] taught me more than hundreds of religious and philosophic books the vast studies of many languages and 36 years of life's experience." (Signed.) Wm. C. REITMANN.


     From the "New Church Press," of London, we have received a series of attractive looking pamphlets. Two of them treat of the all-absorbing subject of The War. The Rev. W. H. Claxton's booklet on THE LORD, THE CHURCH AND THE WAR is a reprint from the QUARTERLY, and on the whole sums up the situation very well, WHY CHRISTIANITY FAILED TO PREVENT THE WAR, by the Rev. S. J. C. Goldsack, plainly states that (the Old) "Christianity is dead and is to be discarded by men; to be succeeded by a new religion," and the author then, in positive terms; presents an outline of this new religion, which is that of the New Church.

     Mr. Goldsack also is the author of A RE-STATEMENT OF CHRISTIAN TRUTH, Where we notice the initial statement that "the new Dispensation! of Divine Truth is slowly but surely permeating the minds of men throughout the world." There may be some doubt about the "surely," but none about the "slowly." Mr. Goldsack makes frequent reference to the establishment of the former Churches and the analogical establishment of the New Church, but he does not face squarely the fact that Christianity never permeated the Jewish Dispensation, nor did the Church of Israel permeate the corrupted Ancient Church, nor did the Church of Noah permeate the Antediluvian crew. In every new Church the remnant saved itself only by an actual flight from the Old Church.


     From time to time we have come across vague references-both in the New Church and the secular press-to some kind of connection between Mr. Andrew Carnegie and the New Church. We dimly remember having seen a very friendly reference to Swedenborg and the New Church in a book written by Mr. Carnegie, and once we received a letter from a gentleman in Pittsburgh asking for information concerning Swedenborg, because "I have heard that Andrew Carnegie became so successful in life by applying Swedenborg's principles to his business."

     Quite recently the N. C. MESSENGER published an obituary notice of Mrs. Mary Green MacBrantney, describing the manner in which she had received the Heavenly Doctrine, and this part was copied in the N. C. WEEKLY of London.


It states that "at that time the mother and two aunts of Andrew Carnegie, the iron master, were living in Allegheny, Pa., in humble circumstances. One of the aunts, a Mrs. Hogan, utilized a room in the building occupied by them, in which to teach the truths of the New Church to all who would listen."

     Mr. Carnegie being an historical character, it may be of interest to place on record here the actual facts in respect to his early connection with the New Church, as stated to us by his cousin, Miss Maria Hogan, formerly of Pittsburgh, but now for many years a resident of Bryn Athyn, Pa., and as described further by Mr. John Pitcairn in a recent conversation.

     The story goes back to Dunfermline, in Scotland, where a young man named Andrew Aitken received the Doctrine of the New Church in the year 1540. He communicated the Light to his wife, Anna Morrison Aitken, who is affectionately remembered in Pittsburgh as "auld Auntie Aitken," who died in the year 1892. She and her husband came to America in 1840 and settled in Pittsburgh, where, on November, 16, 1841, they united with a few others in organizing the first Society of the New Church in that city, during a visit by the Rev. Richard de Charms.

     Mrs. Aitken, a few years later, introduced the New Church Doctrine to her two sisters, Katherine and Margaret, who had come over from Scotland. Katherine married Mr. Hogan, the father of Miss Maria Hogan and Mrs. Norris, while Margaret married Mr. Carnegie, the father of Andrew Carnegie. Mrs. Hogan and Mr. Carnegie became very earnest receivers, while Mrs. Carnegie,-though sometimes attending the services of the New Church--remained of a somewhat sceptical turn of mind.

     Of the three sisters Mrs. Aitken was the most active in the New Church, and it was she, (not Mrs. Hogan), who conducted (the New Church Sunday School mentioned in the obituary noticed above. Our informants do not know whether Andrew Carnegie was baptized into the New Church, like his brother, Thomas, but "Andy" attended this Sunday School all the years of his boyhood, and seemed so interested that "Aunty Aitken" often thought that he might become a New Church minister.


But worldly interests and a tendency to scepticism prevailed, and though Mr. Carnegie occasionally attended the services of the New Church during the ministry of Mr. Benade in Pittsburgh, and, as late as 1873, presented a fine organ to the Pittsburgh Society,-long before he began his universal distribution of organs and libraries,-he gradually drifted further and further away from the Church of his childhood. The facts related above comprise all that is known of his connection with the New Church.

REV. FRANK SEWALL              1916

     The name of Frank Sewall is one held in high honor throughout the New Church. His death, on December 7th, 1915, removes from the Church on earth one of its most devoted, intelligent and active servants. As President of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, he remained for eighteen years the chief link connecting the sphere of the General Convention with the sphere of the Academy. Not only on this account, but also because of his strong, broad and useful New Churchmanship, it is a pleasure to place on record here our appreciation of his character and services, and-from the few data before us--to give a brief outline of his life:

     Frank Sewall was born at Bath, Me., on September 24, 1837. His father was William D. Sewall, one of the founders of the New Church Society at Bath, a man of culture and wealth and one of the most active members in the early days of the Church. The family has been distinguished also in the political life of the country. Arthur Sewall, the brother of Frank, in 1896 was the Democratic candidate for the, office of Vice-President of the United States, and other members of the family have filled diplomatic offices.

     In the year 1858 Frank Sewall graduated from Bowdoin College, after which he spent five years of study in European universities, at Tubingen, at Berlin, and at the Sorbonne in Paris. At Tubingen he was intimately associated with that eminent father in the New Church, Prof. Immanuel Tafel, of whom he ever spoke with the greatest veneration and affection.


Immanuel Tafel was not only the greatest scholar in the Church, it was also a theologian of the soundest type, and there can be no doubt of his beneficent influence upon the mind of the ardent young student.

     Returning to America in 1863, Frank Sewall was ordained into the ministry of the New Church and served for seven years as minister of the society in Glendale, near Cincinnati, O. In 1870 he accepted the office of President of the Urbana University and pastor of the Urbana Society. Here he labored zealously for the establishment of a distinctly New Church institution of higher education. Many of his pupils became strong members of the Church, and a number of them entered the ministry; his most distinguished pupil is the present President of the General Convention. Urbana, however, always was a "mixed" school, with a great number of young people from the Old Church. Mr. Sewall's ideas of New Church education and of New Church distinctness differed in some respects from those of the founders of the Academy.

     His connection with Urbana terminated in 1886, when he accepted a call to the pastorate of the society in Glasgow, Scotland. Here he remained but one year, and then spent two years in Continental travel and study. In the year 1889 he accepted the pastoral office of the society in Washington, D. C., where he remained for twenty-six years, until the end of his earthly career. Here he was the chief instrument in building the present stately temple known as "the National New Church." In the year 1893 he was consecrated as General Pastor of the Maryland Association.

     Mr. Sewall was always deeply interested in Swedenborg's Scientific and Philosophical works. His interest in them may perhaps be traced to the fact that a "Swedenborg [Scientific] Association" was established in his home town, Bath, as early as 1845, and continued for several years to cooperate with Dr. Wilkinson's Association in London, in collecting funds for the publication of Swedenborg's Scientific and Philosophical works. (N. J. MAG., vol. 19, p. 76.) At Urbana Mr. Sewall introduced the study of the PRINCIPIA, and the Rev. Julian K. Smyth once told us that it was the enforced study of this work that first aroused his real interest in Swedenborg. In the General Convention Mr. Sewall labored for many years for a recognition of the inestimable value of Swedenborg's Preparatory works.


We owe to him the translation, and the two fine editions, of Swedenborg's work ON THE SOUL, Or THE RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, as it is also called, and he was striving with might and main to raise funds for a new edition of the PRINCIPIA when, in 1897, some of the members of the Academy joined with him and the Rev. L. P. Mercer and others in forming the present "Swedenborg Scientific Association."

     The first meeting of this body was held in New York, 1897, when Mr. Sewall was unanimously elected President, an office to which he was annually and always unanimously elected. It was at these annual meetings of the Swedenborg Scientific Association that many members of the General Church came to know and appreciate Mr. Sewall, his genial and charming personality, and his devoted, broad and unprejudiced New Churchmanship. It was a pleasure to meet him and listen to his presidential addresses, which were ways scholarly, philosophical and theologically sound. His enthusiasm for Swedenborg's Science and Philosophy, though actively shared by few in the General Convention, has not been without effects in that body, as is evident from the present membership of the Association.

     Mr. Sewall's pen was that of "a ready writer," and his contributions-for half a century-to the general literature of the Church have been almost innumerable, not only in the form of reviews, papers and notes on a great variety of subjects in the weeklies, monthlies and quarterlies, but also in the more individual form of tracts, pamphlets, and books. It may be of interest to enumerate here some of the more important of these volumes:




     Mr. Sewall's numerous works in the science and art of Liturgics constitute a special series, of which we may mention the following:

THE MAGNIFICAT. 1893 and 1811.

     Mr. Sewall was a firm believer in Ritual as the orderly expression of religious devotion, but with him it was not mere formalism, but a supreme and heavenly Art, without which the worship of the New Church would be a bare intellectualism.

     Outside the borders of the New Church Mr. Sewall was probably more widely known than any other member of the Church. His literary and philosophical interest caused him to connect himself with many professional clubs and associations, in which he always, courageously but suavely, stood forth as distinctly Swedenborgian. As such he became known as the literary representative of our faith, and was consequently called upon by editors of new encyclopedias, etc., to write the articles on Swedenborg and the New Jerusalem Church. It is a cause for thankfulness and congratulation that such has been the case in many recent works of this character, where accounts written by Mr. Sewall, (and other New Church authors), have replaced old accounts by ignorant or prejudiced writers.

     Theologically and ecclesiastically Mr. Sewall differed on some points from the positions of the Academy and the General Church, but he was always a fair and honorable opponent. These characteristics never showed to better advantage than in the attitude which he assumed as one of the trustees of the Kramph Bequest. Nor did he ever join in the "policy of silence" pursued for so many years in regard to the Academy and the General Church. When, for some years, he was the literary editor of the MESSENGER, it was his habit to mention our branch of the Church freely, criticize freely, praise freely.


This helped to produce an "era of good feeling," which, sad to say, came to an end in the year 1902.

     We desire to place on record also our individual obligation to Mr. Sewall for the sympathetic interest and active cooperation given by him in our work of compiling THE ANNALS OF THE NEW CHURCH. It was to him a matter of great regret that the publication of this work was discontinued in the year 1901, when we assumed the editorship of NEW CHURCH LIFE.


     In a communication to the LIFE for August, 1915, the Rev. E. E. Iungerich presented the suggestions that the Academy derived its "zeal for education," and the priesthood of the General Church a power of "apostolic succession," by way of the Moravian Church. These suggestions were by no means attractive to us, but we waited for many months in the hope that some other writer would subject the communications to critical examination in the pages of the LIFE. No one appeared, however, until we received a letter from Mr. James Waters, of London, from which we publish the following extract, dealing with this subject:

     In the paper, entitled "Spoiling the Egyptians," (N. C. LIFE, Aug., 1915), to my mind the whole body of the Church is nothing less than flouted, by being directed to the Moravian Church as a source and medium which confers upon the New Church gifts of power through apostolic succession. A section of the devastated Church "in arrogance and supereminence above all others," and holding "abominable concepts of the Lord's Human," conferring gifts of power upon the New Church! And, above all, by Apostolic succession! (See A. R. 802). And it seems that he would have the New Church arrayed in the filthy garments of the Babylonish Church. The Lamb's wife; to be polluted with the rags of the Mother of harlots, "from whom proceed the adulteration and profanation of every truth and good of the Word, and thence every holy thing of the Church"! (A. R. 729.)

     In the communication to which Mr. Waters refers, Mr. Iungerich writes, among other things, as follows:

     "It is noteworthy that since the New Church has introduced a reverent state of study of the Word in the Hebrew that there have not been wanting signs of a disintegration of Judaism unparalleled in the course of eighteen centuries.


Something similar appears to have occurred in the Moravian Church from the time when one of its bishops, a believer in the heavenly doctrines, ordained his son and; that son subsequently joining the New Church became a bishop there and inaugurated a new order of priests. This new priesthood has been characterized by unusual cohesion and singleness of purpose; and the Moravian Church, as if it had no further gifts to transfer, as if the providential purpose that had kept its shell alive since the Last Judgment had been fulfilled, has suffered in the corresponding period of time a real dissolution as to its distinctive doctrinal purposes. The obvious gift transferred was a zeal for education under ecclesiastic auspices. The disciple of the educational ideals of Comenius was able to see the educational implications in the doctrines and to develop thence a New Church plan of education. It is not improbable that other benefits may have been transferred as well, seeing that with those of the Moravian Church 'an image of the primitive Church had been preserved.' (S. D. 3492.) For instance, some ultimate priestly powers and fervor connecting through apostolic succession with the power conferred on the apostles when the Lord ordained them may also have been communicated."


     To quote the statement that with the Moravians "an image of the primitive Church has been preserved," without adducing anything further from the Writings, can hardly be called an adequate representation of the revealed teachings on this subject. The disclosures of the Doctrine concerning the Moravians fill eight columns in the SWEDENBORG CONCORDANCE and the Divine testimony against them is uniform and of a most frightful character. The single apparent exception is the statement quoted by Mr. Iungerich that "an image of the primitive Church has been preserved" amongst them, but it is self-evident that the meaning is that the Moravians claim to have preserved an image of the primitive Church.

     In the CONTINUATION CONCERNING TKE LAST JUDGMENT there is a very full account of the interior nature of the Moravians, but we have space only for a few extracts:

     With the Moravians, who are also called Hernhuters, I have spoken much. They appeared at first in a valley not far from the Jews, but after they had been explored and their nature exposed, they were taken away into uninhabited places. It was disclosed that they knew how to captivate minds cunningly, saying that they were the remains of the Apostolic Church, and on this account they salute one another as "Brethren," and as "Mothers" those who receive their interior mysteries.


They also said that they teach faith more than others and that they love the Lord because He suffered the cross, calling Him "the Lamb" and "the Throne of Grace," besides other like things, by which they induce the belief that the Christian Church itself is among them. (n. 56.)

     After it was made manifest that they regard the Lord in the manner of the Arians, that they despise the Word of the Prophets and the Evangelists, and that they hold the life of charity in hatred, they were adjudged antichrists and were cast outside the Christian world into a wilderness which is in the extreme of the southern quarter, near the Quakers. (n. 88.)

     This spiritual location of "The Brethren," brings to mind their natural stronghold at Bethlehem and other towns in Pennsylvania, not far from Quakertown, Philadelphia, and other early settlements of "The Friends." But to continue:

     The Moravians utterly deny the Divine of the Lord and they make His Human viler than the human of others, saying that His conception was spurious, that He did not rise again with the body, but was carried off by the disciples or others, and that when He was transfigured it was a vision induced by some spirits, and they deny, pervert and profane many other of the things which are mentioned about the Lord in the Word. These nefarious secrets they have been compelled to divulge: in order that I might know of what quality they are; and therefore they were told that they are devils and even worse than the infernals, for in hell all dent the Lord but not in so nefarious a manner-by acknowledging and profaning-and therefore those who have confirmed themselves in accursed things so nefarious, are worse than those who are in the hells. (S. D. 5958.)

     It is to be observed, however, that the Writings tell us that there were many simple good people among the Moravians who had not been initiated into the esoteric abominations of Zinzendorf and the other leaders. We are told, in fact, that one-third of the sect did not know of the nefarious doctrines or had not confirmed themselves therein, and these persons therefore could be saved. (S. D. 5989.) It is true also that the extreme fanaticism emanating from the headquarters at Hernhut-or, rather, from the "enthusiastic spirits" in the other world,-was more or less broken about a hundred years ago and, as far as we know, no longer characterizes the Moravian Church, which at this day is an unimportant and mostly hereditary and traditional denomination. We do not know if they still persist in calling the Lord their "Elder Brother," but they did so as late as 1856, when they were denounced on this account by Bishop Andrew Benade in his letter Of resignation. (Henry's HISTORY OF LEHIGH VALLEY.)


     When Swedenborg, in 1744, came into personal touch with the Moravians in London, they were at the height of their fanaticism, and later on he came to know their spirit still more intimately in the other world. It is of interest, in this connection, to quote the admissions of the late Bishop E. de Schweinitz, the editor of THE MORAVIAN, published at Bethlehem, Pa.:

     About the year 1745 there began to appear in the [Moravian] churches of Middle Germany a spirit of fanaticism, which spread to some other Moravian towns on the Continent, and even to Great Britain. Those in America were not affected. [!] It was a fanaticism which grew out of a one-sided view of the relation of believers to Christ. The Brethren spoke of him in a fanciful and antiscriptural style. A new religious phraseology, unwarranted by the Bible, gained the supremacy. The wounds of Jesus, and particularly the wound in his side, were apostrophized in the most extravagant terms. Images were used more sensuous than anything found in the Song of Solomon. Hymns abounded that poured forth puerilities and sentimental nonsense like a flood. This state of affairs, which, in Moravian history, is designated "the time of sifting," continued for about five years, reaching its climax in 1749. When Zinzendorf and his coadjutors awoke to a sense of the danger which was threatening the Church, they adopted the most energetic measures to bring back the fanatics to the true faith. By the blessing of God they succeeded. (McClintock and Strong, THEOL. CYCLOPEDIA, Vol. VI., P. 586.)

     Doctrinally and morally, there certainly is no basis for the claim of the Moravians that they have preserved an image of the primitive Christian Church. "They said that they were the remains of the Apostolic Church." But when confronted and examined by those who were actually of the primitive Christian Church, the latter "indignantly drove them away, calling them fanatics and not Apostolical." (L. J. POST. 294, 295.)


     Nor is there any real historical basis whatsoever for the claim of the "Moravian Brethren" that they are a remnant of the Apostolic Church or that their priesthood has preserved any so-called "Apostolic Succession." As a matter of fact their traditional and organic origin can be traced back to John Huss and no further.


     John Huss, the famous Bohemian reformer, was the rector of the University of Prague and pastor of the Bethlehem congregation in that city. Having embraced the doctrines of John Wickliffe, the English reformer, he began to preach against the corruption of the clergy and demanded the restoration of the Sacrament in both elements, and on account of these offenses he was burned to death by the Council of Constance in the year 1415. His numerous followers in Bohemia now, rose in arms and after many long and bloody wars forced the pope and the emperor to grant them the cup in the Holy Supper. But they had then split into two parties. The "Calixtines," or moderate party, gradually returned to the Catholic Church, while the "Taborites," or radical party, were overwhelmed by persecutions, and were either exterminated or forced to flee to other lands. One remnant fled to Lititz, in Moravia, where they reorganized under the name of "Unitas Fratrum," and here they remained as "a hidden seed" until 1722, when renewed persecutions forced them to flee to Saxony, where they found a protector in the powerful Count von Zinzendorf. Here they built the town of Hernhut and, aided by the wealth of their new patron, began an active and remarkably successful missionary propaganda, which soon extended itself to various parts of Germany, Sweden, Holland and England. Colonies were planted also in North America, where Bethlehem, Pa., became the stronghold of the sect.

     Their claim to "Apostolic Succession" in their episcopacy has been made to rest on the fact that two members of the Waldensian sect in the year 1434 secured ordination as bishops by Roman Catholic bishops at the Council of Basle,--a Council which was condemned and dissolved by the pope. In the year 1467 a successor of these Waldensian bishops consecrated three Bohemian Brethren as the first bishops of the "Unitas Fratrum," and from this source, in unbroken succession, are derived the consecrations of the Moravian bishops up to the present day.

     It will be seen, therefore, that the "Apostolic Succession" in the Moravian Church is of Roman Catholic origin, and not of any independent primitive Christian derivation. As such, it is based on nothing more substantial than the claim of the popes that Peter had been the first bishop of Rome, and that he had transferred "the keys" of heaven and hell to his successors, etc.


But no pope has ever been able to establish this claim by documentary or any other historical proofs. The records of the early bishops and popes of Rome are irrevocably lost, and there is not a shadow of evidence that peter ever visited Rome, or that he ever acted as bishop there, or that he ever ordained anyone as bishop there, or transferred to his successors a Divine power which he did not possess. The only evidence there is are the evident fabrications of Roman ecclesiastics in the Dark Ages.

     But even if it were possible to establish an unbroken succession of episcopal ordinations from the Apostle Peter down to Bishop Andrew Benade, of Bethlehem, Pa., how is it possible for any one in the New Church to suggest that through this or any other human source "some ultimate priestly Power or fervor connecting through apostolic succession with the power conferred on the apostles when the Lord ordained them," could have been communicated to the priesthood of the New Church? How is it possible to raise such a claim in the face of the distinct teaching of the Heavenly Doctrine that the Apostolic Succession is an invention of the love of dominion which is the devil (A. R. 802)?

     Ordination and Consecration, by the laying on of hands, does not mean a transferring of the Rely Spirit, for the claim of such a transferring Power is another invention of the love of dominion, which is the devil. (Ibid.) But Ordination, like Baptism, is essentially a setting apart into a discrete order, in the two worlds. In the natural world it is the actual introduction into the distinctive use of the order of the priesthood, with the consequent recognition thereof by the men of the Church. And it is, at the same time, a distinctive introduction into the order of priestly associations in the spiritual world,-societies of angels or spirits, who are in the priestly love, and this according to the three degrees of priestly uses,-the uses of teaching, of leading, and of governing.

     As the Baptism of the Old Church introduces a person into association with those in the spiritual world who are in the faith and the love of that Church, so Ordination into the priesthood of the Old Church will inevitably introduce him into association with the priesthood of the same Church in the other world.


As in the case of Old Church Baptism, so in the case of Old Church Ordination, a sincere receiver of the Heavenly Doctrine may be able to fight his way out of his natural and spiritual associations, but certainly the rites themselves are never to be recommended, for they are never helpful but are terrible hindrances and handicaps, a fact that is proved by the personal experience of hundreds, if not thousands of Newchurchmen, both ministers and laymen.

     It is evident, therefore, that if the ordinations in the priesthood of the New Church had been derived through any "Apostolic succession" from the Moravian Church, or the; Roman Catholic Church; or any other branch of the Dead Church, it would mean nothing else than a most undesirable association in the other world with the priesthood of the Old Church,--in other words, an organic spiritual as well as historical connection with the organized forces of the love of dominion which is the devil. But the Lord's New Church is a New Church, and her priesthood is a new priesthood; and the New Church was not born from any Union of the Dragon with the Harlot, but came down out of Heaven from God.


     In the earliest days of the New Church, when a new priesthood was to be inaugurated, the complete newness and distinctiveness of this Church were clearly recognized by the founders, both in England and in America In both countries the first candidates for the New Church ministry were former Methodist preachers,-James Hindmarsh in London, and John Hargrove in Baltimore,-but they and their associates insisted that their Old Church ordinations should not be recognized in the New Church, for they realized that the New Church was as distinct from the Old Church as the primitive Christian Church was distinct from the Jewish dispensation. They asked for no gifts or benefits or priestly power or fervor from the Old Church, but they knew that the Lord, in any new work of creation, inflows from inmosts into ultimates and thus builds up intermediates and therefore the New Church in London, in the year 1788, and the New Church in Baltimore, in the year 1798, acted with great wisdom when in each case they set apart twelve laymen who laid their hands upon the candidates for the new priesthood.

     It is from this entirely new and distinctive origin that the priesthood of the General Church of the New Jerusalem is derived,-in common with the priesthood of the General Convention,-and we most firmly repudiate any Moravian or Roman Catholic derivation.


John Hargrove ordained Adam Hurdus and others, and Adam Hurdus ordained Richard de Charms, and others, and Richard de Charms ordained William H. Benade, and Mr. Benade ordained William F. Pendleton and others. This line seems good enough for us for all doctrinal and practical purposes. No special virtue is claimed for this particular line except the accumulative inheritance of doctrinal acquisition, but we love to think that we are associated with spirits such as these and not with Moravian and Roman Catholic spirits.


     Nor is the "zeal for education" in the Academy and the General Church a gift from the Moravian Church. The latter is not the ONLY denomination that has been distinguished in the past by a zeal for education under ecclesiastical auspices. Every sect in the world cherished this kind of education, some fifty years ago. In the New Church, both in England and in America, the ideal of New Church Education was raised long before Mr. Benade and his associates were able to establish the first successful New Church schools. And in the Academy of the New Church the aims, principles and methods--nay, the very love for New Church Education-are derived from a study of The Heavenly Doctrine, and not from the personal or ancestral predilections of any one of the founders. Mr. Benade had no more use for the Moravian Church than for any other branch of the Dead Church, and never raised any such claims as have been presented by Mr. Iungerich. Nor did Mr. Benade alone establish the ideals and principles of Education in the Academy. He had many associates and councillors and has had many successors, all of whom have striven all these years to look to the Divine Revelation alone for guidance in all their work. This has been the secret of their "unusual cohesion and singleness of purpose." With the Divine help it will so remain as long as they do not look for inspiration from any other source.




     In commenting upon Dr. Frank Sewall's paper on "Germany's Part in the Growth of the New Church," as published in the MESSENGER for December 15, 1915, you make the following remark in your January issue: "It seems to us, nevertheless, that 'Germany,' as a Continental country, has contributed a very small part, indeed, to the Growth of the New Church," and you ascribe this fact to the "oppressive sphere of German autocracies, State Churches, official patriotism, militarism, etc."

     Permit me, Mr. Editor, to say that I believe the latter part of your statement, as here quoted, misleading and unfounded. In my early youth I spent three years studying in Germany, and found freedom of thought greater there than in any other country of which I know anything. The reason why New Church thought has not attracted any attention in the Fatherland of Kant, Schelling, Hegel, Strauss, Beck and others, simply is that Swedenborg, whether as a philosopher or a theologian, has never been presented to the German speculative mind in such a form as to be acceptable to or conformable to the German way of thinking. If this had been done in its proper time there cannot, to my mind, be the slightest doubt that New Church Philosophy and Theology would have been as firmly incorporated in German "Kultur" as the systems of the German thinkers just mentioned.

     Dr. Charles Byse, in his excellent work, LETTRE DU SYMBOLE, gives, among others, the following reason why Swedenborg has been ignored: "He was a Swede. And Protestant Theology was developed mainly in Germany, from whence it spread to England and later to the United States. Switzerland and France, no doubt, have done their share, but Germany has remained the headquarters until Holland took the lead in the movement, at least, so far as critique is concerned.


Thus the great Scandinavian was side-tracked for the simple reason that he was a stranger, and without personal relations to the German Theologians."

     I believe that this statement of the well known Swiss scholar hits the nail on the head. Swedenborg has shared the same fate as another great Swedish philosopher, Christopher Jacob Bostrom, whose system has never been given full recognition in Germany simply on account of lack of proper representation to German students. Not to mention other independent Swedish philosophers, none of whom has succeeded or even attempted to establish a school of followers in Germany-the Fatherland of Philosophy and Theology.
     Yours respectfully,

REPLY TO MR. GOSSETT       F. M. BILLINGS       1916

     In 1792 there were good and sufficient reasons why conservative folk should fear lawlessness, for the French Revolution had again shown that mobs are ruthless.

     But the propositions supported in Easter week of that year by members of the Conference of the New Church went too far. They affirmed that all Civil Power and Authority is delegated by the Lord to those whom He has been pleased to appoint to the Kingly Office as Representatives of Himself; and they denied to the People the selection or appointment of those in Authority.

     The article in the January NEW CHURCH LIFE, entitled "Some Aspects of Sociology in the Spiritual and the Natural World," appears to the present writer to go too far in its criticism of Socialistic teaching, or, rather, morals; for its aim appears to be to show that Socialism is covetous rather than incorrect.

     The article assumes that individual ownership is absolute. In Old Testament times social problems were less involved than they are now, for carpenters and builders then owned their own tools, and there were neither Nasmyth hammers nor wood-working machinery worth the worker's weight in gold.


     But what about the land! The laws of Moses interfered with its ownership, and in a way that would bring from the landlords of today cries of "spoliation." There was a Jubilee year. Every fifty years agricultural land reverted to the original holder or his living representative, and transfers were subject to this interference: Land was not private property, "for the land is Mine" is written in Leviticus XXV. 23.

     That is just what Socialists say about it; that ownership of land should not: be individual but collective; the State (in the larger sense of Country), in their wording, standing for the Lord or His Kingdom on earth; for they write from the economic and not from the religious side. It is otherwise in Leviticus, where the law for a people under Theocratic direction is stated. Under that law only the use, and not the ownership of land could be sold, and the duration, or term, of the sale of that use was only until the next Jubilee. One reason for this was to perpetuate the families who represented on earth the distinct functions of the church in the heavens; but on the economic side its effect was to extend the benefits of the land to a larger number, to restrain the covetousness of the rich and thus to hold somewhat in check the greed that was especially dangerous to the sons of Jacob. There are modern methods of interference with private property, which no longer arouse the criticisms of the wealthy, who now acquiesce in the innovations. The public school is such an interference. Countries or cities own trolleys and railroads; they supply gas, water, electricity; also breakfasts and dentists to the school children.

     The writer has heard and read statements by Socialists fully deserving the criticisms leveled at Socialism by Mr. Gossett, but he knows other and abler presentments that are, in my opinion, untouched by them. I know of advocates of political parties, of philosophic theories, and of church doctrines, who fall easily under similar condemnation. Economic thought demands a full measure of moral poise, of patient search, and deserves no accusation of greed or irreligion.

     In conclusion, let us turn to the peculiarly modern phase of the subject. Steam and water power have almost changed manufacture from a personal to a collective activity.


And between competing plants or factories a few easily out-distance the rest and take to themselves superiority, and thus the bulk of the profits of a business;

     In the SATURDAY EVENING POST of Jan. 22d some of the incidences of ownership are illustrated A millionaire iron-master has but one child, a daughter. He agrees to her marriage with a foreign nobleman on the condition that the workman and the business shall become their chief care and that of their children. This is agreed to by the young people. But after a year in Europe they return and refuse to settle down to the life of duty proposed by the iron-master. A week later they are called to his study, and securities which pay twenty dollars a week interest are handed to the young wife. The works have been put into the hands of trustees for the benefit of the workers, after a small allowance had been set apart for the former possessor.

     Ownership has duties, it implies them. As long as owners are just, they may be able to dispense their surplus more wisely than any Government could, but owners have been known to waste wealth at Monte Carlo or on Broadway, while the morale of their country is being broken by poor food, by dwellings that are a pest and a disgrace to our cities. Law is needed, not for the just, but to restrain the unjust, whether they are rich or poor. F. M. BILLINGS.


     The Secretary of the General Church, on August 22d, 1915, addressed a communication to the Rev. S. M. Mofokeng, of Liphiring, Basutoland; the NEW CHURCH LIFE was Ordered to be sent regularly to him and four of his assistant ministers, and: also to the Rev. D. W. Mooki, of Krugersdorf, Transvaal. This letter, and the sending of the LIFE, met with very prompt reply,-a whole series of replies,--in which we are sure our readers will be interested our African brethren evidently feel that they have found friends with whom they wish to keep in touch. The quaint English of these letters is of a quality which peculiarly appeals to the affections, and we would not spoil this effect by retouching the diction.


     From the Rev. D. W. Mooki we received a letter dated Oct. 21st, very gratefully acknowledging the receipt of the LIFE, and inviting further correspondence. The other letters are from the hand of Mr. Mofokeng:

     From the New Church, Liphiring, Nov. 6th, 1915
Dear Brother in Lord Jesus.
     I have received your letter of 22d Aug. 1915. Thanks for the books, . . . also the three NEW CHURCH LIFE. I have honor to inform you that Rev. F. E Gyllenhaal have visit us to see our work in Basutoland. I meet Mr. Gibson who handed me the NEW CHURCH LIFE, and he told me about the New Church, and he told about the Ancient Churches. He told me that the Lord made his second coming. I believe the New Church Creedings. I believe that unless the Lord had come again and established the New Church, no flesh could have been saved. Rev. 21:3. I believe the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. I believe that the New Church is the Crown of all Churches. About Rev. W. D. Mooki I know him, but I don't know about his work, he belonging to Transvaal, I belonging to Basutoland; is different countries.

     About establishing a library I can be very glad. I have call upon my white minister to come and help Basutos, taught them the truth of the New Church. I am weak in knowledge, so I have sent an application with my company to be governor by the General Church of the New Jerusalem and control by the said Church. Humble as I put the matter of the New Church in hands of Rev. Gyllenhaal to advise me. I wish you will be so kind to advise me.

     Special Meeting, Phuthiatsana, held at Nov. 30th, 1915.

     Brother.--We honor to be, Sir, we answer the letter of the 22d August. We real said to you we wish you to promote the New Church among us. We want you to help us in every sides. We humbly request you kindly to send us some one to come and make ordination from first and second degrees and to preside over the body. Please, we want to be under your Protection and Government. Humbly we want you to send one of your Bishops to come and preside over us. We thanks for your kindness to promise within your ability to promote the work of the New Church among Basutos, and we wish you to make any Books room in our country and printing press. We have translated the NEW CHURCH LIFE paper, [the "The New Church and the Gentiles," N. C. L., August, 1913], Mr. Mofokeng will forward it to you to be printed into Sesuto. We will be thankfully for Library, and we humbly request kindly to printe it.


We have no printings here, rich and poor, but we are the members of the New Church of the Lord.
          S. M. MOFOKENG, Minister, chairman.
          SOFONIA MOSUANG, Leader, secretary.
          BETHUEL T. SERUTLA, Minister.
          DAVID R. KHAILE, Minister.
          DAVID M. MONYAKE, Minister.
          Z. R. LIPALE, Minister.
          JONAS A. MPHATSE, Leader.
          PETROSE HAKANE, Chief, his x mark.
          AZAEL MPARA SEPOLI, Chief, his x mark.
          JOEL KOLOI, Steward, his x mark.
P. S.--Some of our ministers they were not present in meeting.

     Liphiring, Dec. 7th, 1915.
     Kindly you may be so kind to me that I have translate the paper which you sent it to me and I re-sent it to you to be printed in Sesuto. I am deeply interest to hear that your 22d August, 1915, you will promote the New Church in Basutoland. I am very weak in knowledge. I want the General Church of the New Jerusalem to appoint one of your minister or Bishop. Be so kind to send this letter to the Bishop N. D. Pendleton for my request. Come. Come, and help African in Lord's work in New Church. Caught my hands and lift me up. I will be interest if you can do So. I will try to translate some of this books and send it to you for printing. I want you to receive my petition. I want you to come to establish Theology School, and come teach Basutos. Receive me under your protection.

     Liphiring, Dec. 18th, 1915.
     Having examined our Bible you point out chapter and verse. We find chapter, we cannot find verse. Please be so kind, to send us a few of your English Bible.

     In the same letter ii; enclosed the following "Church News" for the LIFE:

     Please put this document in your NEW CHURCH LIFE. I started from Liphiring on Nov. 25th, 1915, and arrived at Maseru on the 26th. From Maseru I accompany Bro. D. Khaile to Tweespruit, Orange Free State, visiting the members of the New Church. We caught the train at 7 o'clock in morning. At 11 o'clock in our usually we open the Word. After singing Psalm 100 in Sesuto, I baptized 4 infants and 7 adults. After baptism, sermon by D. Khaile. Caught St. Matthew 4:16. ["The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow and death, light is sprung up"]. Gathered people were about 84. He preached saying that light of the New Church has sprung up in Africa, has spread his rays among Africans; he add saying the New Church is crown of all Churches.


At 3 o'clock afternoon 16 members attended Lord's Supper, conducting by me; benediction by me.

     I start from Phutheatsana where I held special meeting. I went to Bogate on horseback, arrived 6 o'clock in morning on 5th of Dec., 1915 At 7 o'clock in morning 36 members attend the Lord's Supper, conducting by me. At 11 o'clock our usually service take place, singing hymn 42 Sankey in Sesuto. The Word was open, prayer by me, first lesson was read, Psalm 96; second, Revelation 7:9. After singing Psalm 95, sermon, people sitting. Caught Revelation 21:3. Sermon by me. People gather, was about 99 from village to village. Benediction by me.

     I left Bogate to Liphiring, arrive on 9th inst. Invite the Rev. B. T. Serutla to come and conduct the Lord's Supper at 12th inst. At 7 o'clock in morning 46 members attended the Lord's Supper. 11 o'clock sermon by the Rev. B. T. Serutla. Caught I. Timothy 5:24. People gathered was about 100. S. MOFOKENG, Minister.


     The friends of the General Church in Ontario once more met together to usher in the New Year with, an Assembly. The abnormal conditions produced by the war had made it impossible to call such a gathering last year; but those interests common to Canadian Newchurchmen, which events have stirred, made us sense the need of mutual encouragement and refreshment; and the general character of the Assembly was, therefore, one of simplicity in externals but of richness in spiritual blessings. The consciousness of the true and original purposes of our meeting was thereby brought: forward and the sphere of contentment in our temporary trials, and a sincere hope of the final triumph ruled throughout the meetings,-hope for the victory of peace in the church and in the world.
     The meetings were held in Berlin, Ont., from December 31st, 1915, to January 2d, 1916. The attendance at the Assembly numbered about 150.


     The first session of the 11th Ontario District Assembly was opened with worship by Bishop N. Dandridge Pendleton, on Friday afternoon, Dec. 31st. Interesting reports were given by the ministers of the Ontario district.


     The Rev. E. R. Cronlund, having served as secretary of the Ontario Assembly for a number of years, submitted his resignation, and after this had been accepted and appreciation shown him for past work, the body requested the Bishop to appoint a successor. The Rev. H. L. Odhner was appointed.

     The Rev. E. R. Cronlund then read a paper, "ON THOUGHT." Discussion followed:

     Rev. F. E. Waelchli voiced his appreciation, of the able presentation of a subject so inclusive in its scope. He warned against the idea that life was thought, for thought was only the first effect of life. Life was love, thought only that which evidences love. The real love can be known by the internal, rather than the external, thought, for the internal thought makes one with the love. Especially when man is alone in meditation does the real life come out. In shunning evils we must shun not only evil acts but also evil thoughts for then the lust is deprived of its power and thus the root of evil can be removed by the Lord and resistance become instantaneous.

     Much of one's life is detained in the thought and does not come out into acts. Within the imagination the real love is active without restraint, and pictures the scenes and acts which would give it delight. And when the body dies the liberated spirit acts in the spiritual world as he had imagined in this world.

     Rev. H. L. Odhner regarded the thoughts as the mirror of man's whole life. What is most centrally present and most continually active in the thoughts is that which rules the life. (A. C. 8885.) The injunction to "remember the Sabbath day" is the command to keep the Sabbath state continually active in the thoughts, as a centre of one's life. The thought is a mental world and displays all the forces of the mind. The knowledge of the mind or the thoughts are necessary in order to have the knowledge of the universe and see the things of external and internal life as to their true value.

     Spiritual rational truth, or doctrine, alone reveals to us this all important knowledge. For it reveals that the power of thought comes from influx-from spiritual influx; and by this we have free will to govern our thoughts, and are not mere victims of circumstance. By forming a basis of thought we may choose our spiritual environment and attract to us the unseen companions in the spiritual world which are to govern us unconsciously and mold our character. When this free will to think truths instead of falsities has been cultivated, and even ultimates or the lowest of sensual degrees of the mind can be formed into a regenerate order; then man has become celestial in his character and the infestation of evil thoughts have lost all power to tempt him.



     On the evening of Friday we repaired to the school building. Tables had been arranged in four rooms on the lower floor, and after all had been safely installed in the somewhat crowded quarters, and the company had partaken of the plentiful provisions, the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, after a brief introduction, proposed the toast to the church, and the hall resounded with the strains of "Our Glorious Church."

     Mr. Waelchli noted that we are living in a time when the British Empire is passing through a period of grave trials,-one which is felt by the church; indeed, the General Church also is passing through the greatest trial it has ever known; But we are convinced that after the temptations have passed from both church and country, there will follow a state of greater order, prosperity and peace, with increased freedom and new illustration.

     The subject of the evening was suggested by a statement in the ARCANA COELESTIA, n. 6574 where states of temptation are spoken of: "The Lord Himself is present both immediately, and mediately by angels, with those who are in temptations, and resists by refuting the falsities of the infernal spirits and by dissipating their evil, so giving Refreshment, Hope and Victory."

     This, our gathering tonight, is an occasion of Refreshment from the anxieties of the past; an occasion of Hope for the restoral of peace; and a foretaste of the blessing of final Victory for the charity and faith of the Lord's New Church.

     The Toastmaster then proposed a toast to the Church and its Refreshment.

     Rev. J. E. Bowers, in speaking to the subject, remarked on the changes of state necessary in the life of a regenerating man, and especially on the functions of temptations. He compared them to the storms which must periodically clear the atmosphere when it becomes oppressive and laden with impurities. Such thunderstorms occur in the spiritual world when, judgments are there performed.

     The next toast was to "The Church and Its Hope;" after which the Assembly sung "O Lord, Our Help in Ages Past, Our Hope in Years to Come."

     Rev. H. L. Odhner brought out that hope was the mainspring of all progress. It is the character of youth to hope, and the New Church, now in its first youth, is cheered by hope to advance towards its final triumph.


Every church has been led on by hope; the prophecies of the Ancients, the gospels of the Christians were but forms of hope. Indeed everything of our natural life,-our music and poetry, our language and arts and even sciences,-are suggestions rather than satisfactions. They are promises of a future advance. Thus we progress from hope to hope, and yet seem never able to satisfy the ambition which is visioned in our mind. So it seems; for when one past hope has been realized, a new and higher craving has sprung into existence and is waiting for its fulfillment.

     Pessimism and discouragement are the means whereby evil spirits open hell to man; and hence upon its gates is written, "He who enters herein leaves hope behind." Hope is what brings us together tonight. The Writings are the prophecy concerning the future New Church; they are the God-given hope that the ideal, some far-off day, will become a reality. On this hope our distinctive church work is founded. Civilizations may totter and fall, but no jot or tittle shall pass from the law of the New Church till all is fulfilled. The Lord is our hope.

     The toast to "The New Church and Its Victory" was followed by the 117th hymn.

     Rev. E. R. Cronlund noted, in response, that every man desires happiness,-the state where he may freely ultimate his cherished delights. But general happiness can be gained only by the combat against whatsoever opposes the love. "He that overcomes shall inherit all things." To gain heaven, man must conquer evil delights. Only if he struggles against these is there spiritual life in him. It is so with the body, which shows its strength when it endeavors to throw off the diseases which attack it. But this struggle to throw on disease is felt as pain. The absence of pain in the diseased body is-death.

     The Church-as an organized body-is subject to the same laws. When falsity arises the church must wage warfare against it, rather than succumb to it in death, as did the Christian Church. Falsities are permitted to infest that man may overcome them. If he struggles against them it is a sign that there is within him something of spiritual life, and that he may progress and acquire that life more fully, in victory obtaining peace.

     Although we are in the midst of a consummated church, the evils of which infest us from time to time, the Lord has furnished us with the heavenly doctrine as a means to victory. Let us then diligently study the message of those doctrines and obtain a love, of their truths. Love will then bring us faith and victory.

     The toastmaster brought, the idea of victory to bear upon the national life.


Upon the victory of the church depended the welfare of all nations of the earth, because of the need of a specific church on earth. The hope of the final victory of the Empire prompted to the enthusiastic singing of "God Save the King." Impromptu toasts and speeches followed, relating to our New Church ideals and the cross of the allied armies.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton then gave expression to a thought which had been uppermost in his mind while the conversation had drifted from the discussion of spiritual principles to the declaration of patriotic fervor. He spoke of the Church as a spiritual brotherhood and a communion with a bond stronger than that of racial and national unity.

     In wan there must necessarily be a partisan spirit,--without this there could not be good soldiers. But after the battle the spirit of the higher international fraternity should, exert itself, for that spirit knows no racial boundaries. The hope is that every nation and race should be reached by the New Church. The opinion had been expressed to the speaker that the "Swedenborgian" philosophy was too abstract and profound ever to become a religion. But the New Church faith, indeed, is primarily a religion, with a most simple creed--the confession and worship of the Divine Man. This is a universal truth, which can be comprehended by simple and learned alike.

     Toasts were honored to Bishop W. F. Pendleton and to Mr. John Pitcairn, whose presence had usually enhanced our interest in the Assemblies. Many speakers went into historical reminiscences and finally the toastmaster completed the program by offering the toast to the New Year-which was fast approaching. The tables were cleared away, while the gentlemen, on the toastmaster's invitation, retired into the "lower regions for a smoke. The young people soon emerged again, however, and spent the rest of the year at their favorite occupation,-dancing, although the terpsichorean muse was very limited for space in our narrow school apartments. At midnight, the year of 1916 was welcomed by singing and universal handshaking; but not until several hours had passed did the young people disperse.


     The Bishop's address on the STATE OF THE CHURCH was the principal topic in the session held in the afternoon of New Year's day. We can here give only a brief outline of its contents.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton stated in the address that he had thought well to speak to the meeting rather intimately on this subject, as recent events had tended to produce a state within the Church which might be characterized as abnormal and which had led to much speculation as to the future of the General Church, and to fears regarding its stability as an organized body.


He now, for the first time, wished to express in public his views on certain phases of the situation.

     In an address delivered at the opening of the Academy Schools last September, I expressed certain views with reference to the present status of the work of "the higher New Church education." This phrase covered the questions which are now in controversy amongst us, and which have arisen from the efforts to correlate the truths of direct Divine revelation with the science and philosophy of the earlier writings of Swedenborg. In that address I expressed a doubt; as to whether a full solution of our difficulties could be, found at the present time, but made the confident prediction that such a solution would in time be given on the basis of our uncompromising loyalty to the Divinely revealed doctrines. I was of the opinion that the work of correlation which has been going forward for two decades was in Providence called to judgment. In support of this view I had in mind two things the first was the reaction against certain conclusions which had been presented to the Church as results of that work. This reaction, beginning definitely some three years ago, has steadily increased up to the time of writing the address. The second thing in mind which gave apparent conclusion to the first stage of the controversy was the entire repudiation of the faith of the Church by the chief worker and inspiring leader in that field. We need not know, we need not say a word with reference to the state of the lady in question, we need pass no judgment upon her spiritual or natural state of mind, but what she has done, her work, and what she has finally done, her repudiation of her work apparently in a state of sanity, is a fact of which intelligent minds will from now on necessarily ask themselves the significance. I believe that the shock of this amazing proceeding would be such as to call for some readjustment in the minds of all. As one of those who admired the genius of Miss Beekman and who placed a very high value upon her scientific research work, but who could not follow in all points the conclusions she arrived at because of their apparent contravention of the obvious teachings of the Writings, I could not but grant that her work was, by the manifest leading of Providence, called to judgment,-that re-examination would inevitably follow. But being convinced that many of the things she had written were based fairly upon the Writings, I could not but warn against a spirit of too great invalidation, lest that which was true should be rejected with the untrue. However, those on the one side of the present controversy hold that they do not propose to invalidate any teaching of the Writings, and those on the other that they do not propose to teach anything but what is in the Writings.


As to purpose or intention no one would conscientiously invalidate the revealed truth in any part or portion, nor would sincere New Churchmen knowingly teach anything save that which is in the Writings or legitimately drawn from them. Yet we are all liable ignorantly to invalidate, and owing to some wrong conception, to misinterpret them.

     It is clear that the first thing' to do was to allow and encourage a full and free discussion of the points at issue, so that the truth might be brought out and convince all if possible.

     My thought was and is that the real settlement of our intellectual differences will require time, patient study, and some degree of removal from an atmosphere of disturbance. With this in view I am more concerned just now as to the things we ought not to do. . . We ought not to make a doctrinal pronouncement with reference to the bodies of spirits and angels, the Holy Supper, or any other question in dispute. Such an action would be contrary to all the traditions of our Church, which has from its beginning heeded the warning given to "beware of councils." ... I take the ground that a doctrinal pronouncement which will be taken as in any way the authorized view of the Church is equally objectionable whether it comes from a council or a Bishop. The whole point involved is that the Lord has spoken to us plainly in His Second Coming; the Church will not need an official or an authorized interpretation of the law revealed for the binding of the consciences of men. Enlightened interpretations of this law ought to be given, as by priests when in illustration. These interpretations are for instruction and advancement in knowledge, but no such interpretation, whether by priest, pastor, or primate, should be given or viewed au a doctrinal edict. And clearly the same is true of councils. This, however, does not render us powerless in meeting and coping with disorders in the Church.

     The law is expressly revealed that those who disturb the Church should be separated. It is stated in this form: 'He who differs in opinion from the priest (and the priest in the case of the General Church. is a Bishop or a General Pastor) ought to be left in peace, provided he makes no disturbance, but when such a person makes a disturbance, he must be separated; for this is agreeable to order, for the sake of which the priesthood exists.' I cannot imagine anything more foolish than for a priest to interpret this to mean that he should separate anyone who disagrees with him, if that disagreement should be given public expression. There are commotions within the Church which are no more than healthy growth-incidental phases of intellectual development. To suppress these signs by an episcopal pronouncement or by an order in council, would result in grave misfortune to the Church There is, however, another kind of disturbance, namely, that which involves the life or the continued well-being of the Church, as when an individual at variance with the priest is determined that his ideas or persuasions shall rule in the Church, then it is clear that if that individual is not separated or in some way quieted, he will, if his agitation progresses, separate the priest, that is, he will bring about a revolution and destroy the established order.


The law given us is, in one form or another, universally recognized. The Church, or for that matter any organization, must have the power of preserving its life and well-being by some orderly process of elimination.

     Do not think that the church is powerless because its Priests, Bishops, and councils, refuse to issue doctrinal rescripts against this or that erroneous view. All the priests in the Church-including its Bishops-and all as well laymen, have the right to express their views of such errors or non-errors, as the case may be. But my thought is that wise governors of the Church will be rather more conservative in this matter than others, by reason of the responsibilities of judgment which in the end may devolve upon them. However, even they have a right to their opinion about matters in dispute and also the right to express them either in private conversation or in print.

     . . . In the New Church there is a new way of treating errors of doctrine whereby there will be deliverance from error, and that way is not by episcopal pronouncement or by resolution of councils. The new way is by teaching and instruction, and by opening the mind to the truth of Divine Revelation in order that the light may come. Light is given when the mind, in a state of freedom, is open to the Word of God as it is revealed. Only in the light and by it will all these things be reconciled. Our efforts should be to prepare the way for the Church to receive light, and when it is received it may then pass from one to another. This is the Holy Spirit. Let us look for the light, and it will be given if we in humility open our minds to the Source of light, to our
Lord as He has revealed Himself.

     All those who are not parties to a heated controversy will readily agree on the wisdom of a conservative attitude on the part of those in authority, so long as the controversy is not one which threatens the life of the Church. But if and when it does, action with a view to the protection of the Church becomes imperative. Let me give a conservative statement. The Church will not stand sponsor for Miss Beekman's views, (certainly not as such). The Church will not be surety for the "concepts" of any one. The Church will stand for the Writings simply and solely. Views come and go, one concept gives place to another, but the Writings abide. No theory that we may form will measure up to the revealed truth. Let us indeed form our concepts, express our views, propound our theories, but always and at all times exalt the Writings and humble ourselves before them.

     The subject was then opened for discussion:

     Mr. Sam. H. Roschman: I would like to thank the Bishop for one of the most wonderful pronouncements I have ever heard as regards the method whereby the Church must be built up. I consider it a really reassuring thing, and I think the principles laid down there, if lived up to, would make a wonderful difference in everyone's attitude towards the Church.


     Mr. R. Carswell, now expressing his thanks to the Bishop, opined that the discourse had the right ring: Freedom1l Freedom of thought and trust in the enlightenment of our leaders are necessary if an agreement is to be reached. The Writings are the rock on which we must stand, and the time will bring us to see the harmony of truth. Space in the other life is an appearance and yet we see spaces there, just as in the natural world. He was satisfied that the Writings give us something to reflect on and something to have confidence in, even if we do not understand all its teachings.

     Rev. F. E. Waelchli: Two things stand out prominently in the address which the Bishop has just given us. First, the need of loyalty to the Writings of the Church and to them alone, and, second, the need of a charity. The Writings alone must guide us, guide us as a church, and guide us as individuals of the church. And it is for that reason that in our Academy and in the General Church, from the beginning, there has persistently been given the teaching and the advice that the members of the church read the Writings for themselves go to the source of our light and see for themselves what is the truth of the New Church. We have our teachers in the Church, the bishops, pastors and ministers. They teach; we hear what this one and the other one has to tell us, and we should be in an affirmative attitude towards that which is given to us. The Newchurchman can learn very, very much, if he comes to the services regularly and attends the doctrinal classes. He can receive a great deal there, but if this is all, there is something lacking. He needs to go to the Writings and see for himself, see directly from these books that that which is taught is true. He must find it for himself in these Writings In order that it may come with strength and force to him as the teaching of divine revelation. And when difficulties arise in the
Church, such as those of which the Bishop was speaking; when there is a variety of opinion, then there is need for the members of the Church to go to the Writings and decide for themselves what they teach. It need not be decided in a year, or several years, or in a life time. Yet let the desire be there, to see what it is that the Writings teach us. Read all that is said on the subject. It is well to read what has been said in the pages of NEW CHURCH LIFE and the books which have been published on the subject; but after you have gone over these various arguments, go to the Writings themselves. This does not necessarily mean to go to them for a direct study of the subject, but to go to them having this subject in mind amongst others, and little by little light will come to you here and there in the course of your reading.

     I will say again, what the Bishop has heard me say several times, that it is always safe to stick to the letter of the doctrines; and especially is this true when there is a great deal in the doctrines on a certain subject.


Hold firmly to this and you cannot go astray, for you are on safe ground.

     As to the other point, the spirit of charity which is necessary in the church. We in the New Church know what is meant by charity, that it does not mean winking at error and saying that they do not amount to any thing. But in our idea of charity there is the true idea of love to the neighbor, of having the neighbor's welfare at heart and, in fact, of thinking more of the neighbor and of his good than our own. This must be the spirit of our Church as a whole. This must be our spirit towards the individual members of the Church and if there is a brother in the church whom we believe to be in error we can at least believe in his honesty of purpose and can admire the courage he has in his convictions. There are men in our body who, I believe, are in great error; yet I cannot help but admire the great courage they have shown. Above all we must believe in their loyalty to the truth. If we should fall into any great error and afterwards come out of it would we not feel thankful for the attitude of charity which our brethren took towards us during the time that we were in that error? As we expect charity from others, so should we be ready to give it. But the one great thing for the whole Church is this, that we hold firmly to the Doctrines of the Church and that we read them and study them.

     Mr. Rudolph Roschman: During the past years it has appeared at times to the layman as if another standard was being put up almost equal to the Writings. We have felt that an attempt was made in some degree to raise the scientific writings of Swedenborg to the same level as the divinely revealed Writings themselves. The address this afternoon has certainly made it clear that the Church will have only one standard and this the standard of the Writings. It is all very well to study the scientific works and examine these statements and scientific teachings and measure these statements up to the statements in the Writings of the Church. If they measure up to that standard then we can accept them as true but if these statements should happen to be at variance with the general doctrines of the New Church I think it is well for us not to be hasty in acknowledging those scientific teachings as infallible. I think it is this which makes the church strong: that we hold the Writings as infallible. We should hold that what is there is true in this world and will be true to all eternity. I am sure every Newchurchman feels that the freedom of speech should be preserved. Only in this way can progress be made. In the discussion of any doctrinal question it behooves us to be very charitable. It behooves us to discuss all questions on their own merits and apart from the person who makes them. I am sure that if we have a common trust in the inviolable truth of the Writings themselves, the controversy can only result in the benefit of the Church.

     Mr. George Schnarr remarked on the use of Assemblies which was keenly felt at such occasions as the present one, when the head of the Church addresses those who are gathered together from the different centers.


     Referring to Mr. Carswell's remarks, the speaker said:

     "We know and realize that the doctrines of the Church are the Second Coming of the Lord. We know them to be true, and therefore we know that those things--viz., houses, gardens and living forms of life,--do exist in the other world; but we do not need to believe it simply because it is so taught: we can also understand it from a rational idea; and thus there can be contentment in our minds."

     Mr. Theo. Kuhl: One of the previous speakers mentioned that the address this afternoon had the true ring to it. He used words which I would like to repeat. For my own part I should like to express the delight and satisfaction caused by the paper and the indication of the progress of the Church. I think that to most of us it Comes as a very great satisfaction. I think the statement of standing on the Writings of the Church as they are, has the old Academy ring to it and is the one thing that gives us hope of being able to look for better times in the church.

     Mr. Jacob Stroh was pleased that so many of the laymen have taken advantage of their opportunity to talk. The Bishop's paper had shown us "the way out" of a serious difficulty:

     "I have no fear, on my part, that the Church will suffer to any great extent; for men are now permitted to express themselves freely. Our former Bishop Benade used to stress that there should be toleration in the Church. On account of the immense variety of ideas there are many gates which enter into the New Jerusalem, and each one may enter into a gate from the direction that the Lord may see fit. I think the Lord will surely take care of the Church. But the Church has surely been given to us. If we cannot worthily keep it, it may just be possible that it will be taken away and handed over to someone else. So we should be careful lest it should be taken away from us. The paper this afternoon has brought the solution of the situation; and I think, Bishop, that we sympathize with your proposition.

     Mr. Rudolph Potts: "In Parkdale it is very general to hear our people speak of the bodies of spirits and angels. It has been quite a bone of contention in our little circle ever since the last assembly. We are still at the same place we were two years ago. The discussions do not seem to give us any clear light on the subject. We have been looking to Bryn Athyn for light and looking for someone to come out with plain doctrine on the subject. We wondered why the Bishop did not say something on it. We have read articles by various writers criticising Mr. Acton's position. We began to plan to have the center of the Church moved to Parkdale, as no one in Bryn Athyn seemed to come forward and clear away the mist that has been hanging before the Church. But after your able paper today which has so fully covered the subject and shown in the clear light of the New Church that the standard of freedom and charity should be raised in the Church, we feel sure it will be safe to leave the center of the Church still in Bryn Athyn."


     Rev. J. H. L. Odhner: "I am sure that I voice the sentiment of all when I say that seldom has the Church heard an address that inspires so much confidence, and is so worthy to be pondered upon, as the one we have heard this afternoon. In former ages when an heretic had been spied, men treated him in a very ungentle manner with tar and feathers. It is just that very thing on a higher mental plane that we should look out for. Let us purge our mental attitude from any passionate and personal criticism and from any irreverence for the subjects which are discussed in this most grave and remarkable controversy.

     "The subjects under discussion are themselves holy. The knowledge which we derive from heaven through the Writings are the basis of the heavens themselves, and as such they must be kept in our minds, apart and sacred. And when I say apart I mean apart from individual interpretations and individual opinions. We should be able to regard the Doctrine as a sacred thing placed in our keeping, to regard every statement, every truth in the Writings as a sacred light and an altar in the temple of our minds. Then though our own opinions may change from time to time, the light on the altar will always be the same.

     "The progress of the Church comes by allowing individual freedom to the clergy. And it is that freedom which, I believe, the Bishop is preserving while leading the church through this temptation. The solution, as suggested by the Bishop, is very simple, if charity only gives us strength. The Church stands on the rock of Divine Revelation, and there it will continue to stand; for it is a rock which we are told fills the whole earth and cannot be broken down."

     Mr. Charles Brown confirmed the use of Assemblies. He further expressed the fear that Mr. Potts had revealed one of the weaknesses of the Parkdale Society, when he said that they had looked to Bryn Athyn for a solution of the difficulties; but there was some justification for this, when one considered that the trouble originated there. The light from Bryn Athyn did not fail, however: "We have been given the most excellent advice, that when troubles arise we should bear with them and light will come. There, indeed, has been a feeling for a considerable time past that it was strange that we did not hear any pronunciation from the Bishop, the leader in the Church; but everything comes in good time, and we in Ontario have had the privilege of hearing this address from our Bishop and are all thankful to him for the message which he has given us, for what he has done today to allay the fears which have arisen and to inspire confidence in the Church."

     Mr. George Scott was very pleased to hear from the Bishop's paper that no force was to be exerted in dealing with the matter. Mr. Acton's book had opened up a world of ideas to him. He knew that Mr. Waelchli and Mr. H. Odhner were opposed to the new position, but could find nothing in their teaching which convinced him of any error.


In fact, he enjoyed Mr. Odhner's sermons very much because they had the effect of confirming him in the new views. He believed that the Church was not yet in a state to receive Mr. Acton's teachings, but was pleased with the address and trusted that the difficulty would be cleared up in time as people read more.

     With renewed hopes and increased confidence the meeting adjourned, feeling that a new state had been inaugurated in the Church.


     A paper by the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, on LOVE OF COUNTRY, was read and a discussion ensued:

     Mr. Jacob Stroh told of his endeavors to insinuate true ideas of Patriotism while making recruiting speeches in the German-speaking districts around Berlin. It was his opinion that one should love the country where one has found one's home. An interesting fact is also that one may regard one's country as being in the wrong, and yet have a love for it. Many problems present themselves as to what our course should be in such a case.

     "One great feature in the freedom of a country is freedom of speech. We enjoy this privilege and I have been wondering how the New Church could exist without it. It seems that a country is practicing this idea so far as it gives to its citizens religious liberty, freedom of the press and freedom of speech. When a country gives these we think it to be the highest spirituality. We look to that for the preservation of the New Church. One cannot help but be interested in the Kramph Will Case. The New Church was wondering what the outcome would be; whether the State would interfere and say, 'You have no right to teach your doctrines as you, have them,' or whether freedom should be given us as we desired. In hearing the final decision a feeling of relief seemed to pass over the whole Church. It made us realize that the New Church was safe and was founded on something that it could not have enjoyed at an earlier period.

     "Now it is said that angels do not attack. I often use this remark on my recruiting trips, but say it in this way, 'Good men will not attack.' I think I am correct in this; I say that good men will not attack, but will defend. Newchurchmen, when they fight, fight for peace; and hope for the time when the swords again will be turned into ploughshares."

     Mr. Craigie reminded the meeting that while: the boys are fighting and dying for their country, the rest should remember that it is a good thing to live for one's country. The fact that men are amassing vast fortunes from "war-orders" at a time when sacrifices should cheerfully be made, seems almost incredible.

     The speaker then deplored that certain ministers from Old Church pulpits were pouring out hatred on the Germans and instilling the spirit of revenge into the men in Khaki.


He felt that Germany's power for evil must be checked and eradicated, but her ability to perform her uses to her citizens and to her neighbors must not be taken away. Germany can be of great use with the wonderful power of organization which she has shown.

     Rev. H. L. Odhner: Whereas usually religious standards in different nations are seen to be quite different from each other,-customs and practices and even standards of morality,-yet in respect to patriotism, there seems to be a wonderful unity among all the nations of the world in their conception of its nature. The New Church doctrine can interpret this inward unity, because it gets at the root of the matter, and measures the very bottom of human nature.

     Mr. Waelchli has brought out how the patriotic feeling may sometimes become the means of a nation's salvation. In the same way I would like you to consider whether the present war is not permitted just for the sake of the state of the world as a test whether the nations of the world and especially those of the European civilization are worthy to continue their existence as nations. Perhaps it is just that which is being decided now. The real battle is being fought in the spiritual world, and in the minds of men, especially in the interiors of their minds. The real issue is a matter of the attitude towards the great spiritual virtues which are perpetuated in the man by the instilling of remains. The present crisis is, I think, the occasion for bringing out those remains, those virtues of zeal for the welfare of others, remains of the love of freedom and justice, mercy and charity, the realization and conception of duty and self-sacrifice.

     The world is now in such a state that it takes the most sensational happenings to interest people. So it is with spiritual things. To awaken interest they muse be presented with a force that, however regrettable, will yet leave a most decided impression in our minds, both the minds of this generation now living on earth and those of all future generations. I regard this war and all other wars as a permitted test whether the civilization in which we live is worthy of continuation.

     One thing seems to give us hope, namely, the presence and the growth of the abstract conception of justice. Instead of growth perhaps I should say 'larger publicity' of the conception of justice within the last few months. I think that the world is beginning to reflect on what liberty means. We often do not think about the blessing we enjoy until We are about to lose it. So it is with the world today. The abstract conception of justice is one of those vague things which is not thought about in ordinary life, but the threatened danger causes us to think about it.

     Mr. R. Carswell was struck with the universal feeling among the men of the country that one should volunteer because it is one's duty. Their thoughts are not of the mortal danger into which they go, but of the protection of their country.


This love, thus expressed, seemed to the speaker to be genuine, and not prompted by selfishness, and a great hope seemed to lie in this fact.

     We know that wars are horrible. But they are permitted so that the two inward evils of mankind,--the love of dominion and the love of the world,--may come to the surface. These two loves have struck to the roots of almost every nation. In Germany and Austria the love of dominion on the part of the rulers seems to have the effect of making slaves of their own people. On the other hand, the speaker was satisfied that Britain seeks to "un-slave" many other nations.

     After some further discussion, the Bishop made the concluding remarks:

      Bishop Pendleton: I would like to say a few words in regard to the war from; the standpoint of the Church. I fully realize that the members of this District Assembly are in a state of war with another nation. I am not aware of all the needs that necessarily arise; the demands that have been made upon your patriotism to meet with the exigencies of this war. While I myself belong to another nation, yet I am one with you in a spiritual plane with reference to our Church. I would say no word but what would encourage you to make every effort to respond to your country's call. But there is one phase-of war concerning which I feel that I have a call to make, and I think you will understand me. War has its blessings and its grave necessities. War also has its desperate evils. Desperate evils that not only exist at the time of war, but are left as a terrible heritage for future generations to bear,-evils against which Newchurchmen should warn themselves. The great evil does not lie in the fact that many thousands of men are slain. It does not lie in the fact that Europe will be populated by swarms of cripples. It does not lie in the fact that the wealth and resources of your country will be wasted economically in all too late a measure. But the evil which remains and gives the most lasting scar is the evil of hatred of man to his brother. No matter how much the call for arms may stir us, (and it will and does stir us, and we should respond; and a man with any red blood in his veins is ready to do that; he is willing to give his life). . . yet we as Newchurchmen should always remember that as New-churchmen we are something more than citizens of our country. We have spiritual ideals! It is here that the Church has the right to make a call upon all men; and that call is to keep the spirit of hatred out of their hearts. Keep the spirit of hatred out of your hearts! Do justice to your enemies; even if you have to fight them, yet do them justice. The biggest thing a man call do is not to besmirch his enemies. Preserve the spiritual ideals and spiritual standards of the Newchurchman. Remember that the Lord has placed these people here. They all have their uses. Discipline must come to the evil. But when discipline has been administered then let each man go ahead to perform his true, destined uses.


     I am a citizen of a country that fifty years ago was torn by terrible warfare. A fratricidal hatred resulted and with that hatred grievous misunderstanding. In the Southern part of our country we were raised to regard the Yankee with utmost contempt. As a youth I went to the North and there I came to realize that the South was considered as simply a lot of slave drivers,-nothing much more and nothing much less. It took fifty years for my own country to become healed of this grievous hatred,-fifty long years!

     Love one another! We are Newchurchmen, and as I say, we are such even when in the midst of war. The true soldier fights bravely and is ready for the call to battle. But when the battle is over he will stoop and lift his enemy to his feet--and give him a drink. That action represents the least spiritual standard that we of the New Church should live up to. Wheresoever we may be born and whomsoever we must fight we must remember that first, and above all, we are Newchurchmen.


     On Sunday, at the morning service, the Bishop delivered a discourse on "Naaman the leper." The attendance was large,_144 persons. In the afternoon service-the Holy Supper was administered.


     Sunday evening a "musicale" furnished enjoyable recreation. The versatile program included: violin solos, by Miss Carswell, (who rendered the second movement of Grieg's C Minor Sonata to great effect); piano-solos, by Miss Vera Bellinger and Mr. Nathaniel Stroh, the selections being chosen from Grieg, Dede and Liszt; and vocal solos, by Miss Edith Cranch and Mr. Hugo Odhner. When the program was over, the audience joined in singing "O Canada." Shortly afterwards Mr. Craigie, of Toronto, with typical English eloquence, delivered the valedictory for the visitors.

     But the untiring Young People, averse to parting, spent yet a few pleasant hours together at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Theo. Kuhl. At midnight the party dissolved amid the well known strains of old school and fraternity songs, pledging their faith anew to "Our Own Academy."


     POSTSCRIPT.-In reply to a telegram of greetings sent by the Assembly to Bishop W. F. Pendleton, the Secretary has received a letter of the following contents:

     "Will you please extend to the members my thanks for their greetings. It was a great pleasure to me to know that they thought of me and remembered me in this way. I look back to my visits in Berlin and Toronto as some of the greatest pleasures of my life; and the friends I found there I shall always cherish,-and expect to meet them in another world; if not again in this. It is a matter of great regret to me that I no longer am able to visit my friends in Canada. But we must all grow old some day, and-when the time comes can but accept it and give place to the younger people.

     I should like to express to the friends in Canada my sympathy with them in this terrible war. My heart goes out to the mothers and fathers who have given up their sons, and to the sons who are fighting for their country. If in Providence they give up their lives on the battlefield, their memories will be held sacred. If they return after the war is over, they will always be grateful for the privilege of having been a soldier,-for love of one's country is next to love of the Church.

     I did not intend to write so long a letter. I merely wished to send my love and affectionate greetings to all my friends, with the hope that the New Year will bring peace to all hearts and nations.
     Sincerely yours,
          (Signed.) W. F. PENDLETON.


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. Another busy month. On January 22 the Younger Generation Club held a very spirited meeting, The speaker of the evening was Mr. Randolph W. Childs, who gave us a talk on "The West and What It Stands For." On the same evening, prior to the meeting of the Club, Miss India Waelchli, of New York, assisted by Mrs. R. H. Smith, Miss Creda Glenn and Miss Helen Colley, gave a much appreciated Sacred Concert in the Chapel for the benefit of a Theta Alpha scholarship fund.

     Swedenborg's birthday was celebrated by a School social in the evening of the 29th. The opening number on the program was a grand march, in which the schools marched in front of Swedenborg's picture, and facing about sung the song "O Prophet and Seer" in his honor. Then followed five speeches interspersed with music, songs, and dancing. All the speeches were made by students, and considerable promise was shown of future speakers for the Church. Probably the most impressive speech was made by Mr. Theodore Pitcairn in response to the toast "Swedenborg's Mission to the Universe." The celebration, under the leadership of Prof. Odhner, turned out a great success.

     On Sunday evening, February 6th, there was a Society banquet in celebration of "General Church" day. It was an inspiring occasion. The old Academy spirit of mutual love was clearly evident, especially so in the hearty way in which the songs were sung. Rev. R. W. Brown did the honors as toastmaster in a very pleasing way. His introductory remarks were short and to the point. The speakers were Bishop W. F. Pendleton, Mr. W. Whitehead, Rev. Homer Synnestvedt and Bishop N. D. Pendleton. All the speeches were handled in an inspiring way.

     On Friday, February 11th, Miss Carina Glenn became Mrs. Hubert Hyatt. The wedding was profoundly impressive, and the reception that followed was not only brilliant and festive, but was characterized by a distinctly spiritual tone. The Chapel was decorated in green and white in most artistic fashion, all the resources of the Cairnwood greenhouses being brought into play.


One of the pleasantest features was the presence of "Uncle John" once more in his accustomed seat.

     The second week of February was given up to meetings of the Consistory, Council of the Clergy, and Joint Council meetings, where subjects of great spiritual and natural importance were fully and freely discussed, As visitors from other societies of the General Church, we had the pleasure of greeting the Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, Rev. F. Waelchli, Rev. George De Charms, and Mr. Walter C. Childs, of New York, and Mr. Paul Carpenter, of Glenview.
      K. R. A.

     PHILADELPHIA. Swedenborg's birthday was celebrated by a banquet at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Harvey L. Lechner. Our minister, the Rev. George de Charms, introduced as the subject for the evening "The Influence of Swedenborg's Theological Works on Present Day Life," and Messrs. Lechner, R. B. Hilldale, K. Knudsen, and Fred. J. Cooper responded to a series of toasts grouped about this theme.

     The church building is rapidly nearing its completion, and all our members are busily engaged in preparing for its dedication. A. E. S.

     GLENVIEW, ILL. The winter season has been fairly kind to us this year, for only one Sunday service and three Friday Suppers have had to be omitted on account of the weather.

     We celebrated Swedenborg's birthday on January 28th with a banquet followed by appropriate toasts; a number of visitors were present. The next evening a social was carried, through at which much merriment was displayed. The feature of this social was the Olympian games, consisting of various kinds and sorts of slow races-that is, races so handicapped that the assembly barn could be used.

     February 2d being the first Wednesday of the month was "steinfest" day. As it was a cold day the event was held at Mr. Junge's house, National Hymns being the subject for consideration.

     The ladies have been active of late: the Ladies' Guild, which is practically a general council of the ladies, had a very successful meeting on February 9th, at which many social affairs and much business was amicably despatched.


February 10th witnessed a Theta-Alpha banquet at the Manse. Three papers were read, discussion followed: reporters were not admitted, but from such driblets of mirth as issued from the cracks in the walls, we are inclined to believe that a good time was had by all.

     As to the material progress we note our youthful Benedict, Mr. John Gyllenhaal, is building a home for himself and bride. It is located on the old school house lot, in southwest corner of the Park, the most retired and remote spot in our colony. Here, very "far from the maddening crowd," they will soon have a commodious and attractive home.

     TORONTO, ONT. On January 3d Bishop N. D. Pendleton visited our Society on his way home from the Ontario Local Assembly, in Berlin. We met together for supper and a social gathering, at the church, in the evening, when the Bishop delivered his Assembly Address. We are grateful to the Bishop for his splendid message. It opened up to us the possibility of this Last and Greatest Dispensation of Truth establishing upon the earth a religious liberty which has never prevailed on this earth since the fall of the Ancient Church.

     On January 16th the Rev. H. L. Odhner, of Berlin, preached for us.

     At this time, when our country is involved in the European conflict, it is difficult to avoid the subject of war, and hence it permeated our celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday. Mr. Craigie, clad in khaki, gave a rousing speech on "Swedenborg as a Patriot." Swedenborg said that those who did not love their country enough to die for it were but "cattle." Rev. J. E. Bowers spoke on "Swedenborg as a Seeker After Truth;" and our pastor, on "Swedenborg on the Relation Between Science and Theology."

     A simple but beautiful wedding was held in the church on Wednesday evening, February 9th. It was the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Izzard, the bride having recently been baptized into the church.

     The young people of the society decorated the church-room and reception-room. The floral decorations and the children attendants lent additional delight to the sphere of the occasion.


After the ceremony, when we repaired to the supper room to offer the newly married pair our congratulations, we found a perfect transformation. Rugs, curtains, flowers, candles and shaded lights made a beautiful reception-room, which we scarcely recognized as the very Plain room where, on other Wednesday evenings, we meet for our weekly suppers. After a couple of festive hours we had to say good-bye to the bridal couple for, unfortunately for us, Mr. and Mrs. Izzard are not going to remain in Toronto, but have to make their home in Montreal. B. S.

     SWITZERLAND. The Rev. Gaston J. Fercken writes as follows concerning the Christmas services at Lausanne: "On Christmas morning, which, unfortunately, was warm and rainy, about thirty persons attended the services at 10 o'clock. The hall was artistically decorated with greens, brought by most of our friends, especially the young. The music was excellent, and the hymns, appropriate to the occasion, were heartily bung. I gave ah address on the subject, 'Pourquoi et comment la Divinite sest-elle incarnee?' The Communion service was so impressive, and the sphere of the glorified Lord was so powerfully felt, that many shed uncontrollable tears. There were nineteen, with myself, who partook of the Sacrament. Some of our friends, who, for the first time witnessed a New Church Christmas service, and attended a New Church Communion service, and they had never experienced anything so impressive."

     In connection with the news from Lausanne, published in the LIFE for December last, we stated that the pastor "is supported by the Extension Fund of the General Church." This requires correction, inasmuch as the pastor now serving at Lausanne is not supported by-that Fund, but by private subscription.
Preliminary Program of the Annual Meetings of the General Assembly 1916

Preliminary Program of the Annual Meetings of the General Assembly              1916



Monday, June 12th.
     3 p. m. The Consistory.
Tuesday, June 13th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
     8 p. m. Theta Alpha and Sons of the Academy.
Wednesday, June 14th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
     8 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
          Public Session.
Thursday, June 15th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. The General Assembly.
     8 p. m. Dramatic Entertainment.
Friday, June 16th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. The General Assembly.
     8 p. m. The Assembly Ball.
Saturday, June 17th.
     10 a. m. The General Assembly.
     3 p. m. The Corporation of the General Church.
     8 p. m. The General Assembly.
          Final Business Session.
Sunday, June 18th.
     11 a. m. Divine Worship.
     8 p. m. Sacred Concert.
Monday, June 19th.
     11 a.m. Administration of the Holy Supper.
     4 p. m. Pageant.
     6 p. m. Banquet.
Tuesday, June 20th.
     10 a. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. and 8 p. m. Teachers' Institute.
          C. TH. ODHNER,
               Secr. Gen. Ch. N. J.




Vol. XXXVI APRIL, 1916          No. 4

Friends and Fellow-Students of Divine Truth:-
     Allow me to offer you my hearty welcome to this first Annual Meeting of our Hindi Swedenborg Society, and my sincere thanks for the trouble you have taken in order to attend it.

     I may humbly remind you at the outset that, though our meeting appears to be and is insignificant in numbers, and is providentially debarred from all pomp of outward circumstance, the work to which we are devoting ourselves is bound to exercise almost profound and vital influence upon the future of India. For it so happens that the works of Swedenborg are not like the works of Plato or Aristotle: they do not contain the thoughts of Swedenborg as the REPUBLIC or the ETHICS contain he thoughts of their author. On the contrary, they contain revelations from the Lord, given for the benefit of humanity, that are of unimagined depth and priceless value. By the Lord is meant God.

     In the Introduction to the ARCANA COELESTIA Swedenborg says:

     "By the Divine Mercy of the Lord it has been granted me now for some pears to be constantly and continuously in the company of Spirits and Angels, hearing them speak, and speaking with them in turn. In this way it has been given me to hear and to see the stupendous things which are in the other life, and which have never come to the knowledge of any man, and not into his idea.


I have been instructed there in regard to the different kinds of spirits; the State of souls after death; Hell, or the lamentable state of the unfaithful; Heaven, or the blessed state of the faithful; and especially concerning the doctrine of faith which is acknowledged in the universal Heaven."

     Later on in the same work he says:

     "It has been granted me to speak not only with those whom I had known when they lived in the body but also with those of especial note in the Word; and also with those who had been of the Most Ancient Church . . . and with some who had been of the Churches after that, in order that I might know that by the names in the first chapter of Genesis Churches alone are meant; and that I might know what was the character of the men of the Churches of that time."

     And towards the end he writes:-

     "As with most in the Church at this day, there is not a faith in the life after death, and scarcely any in Heaven, nor in the Lord as being the God of Heaven and earth; therefore the interiors which am of my spirit have been opened by the Lord, so that I may, while I am in the body, be at the same time with the Angels in Heaven, and not only speak with them, but also see them amazing things and describe them; lest hereafter also people should say, Who has come to us from Heaven and has told us that it exists, and of the things which are there? But I know that those who before this denied at heart a Heaven and a Hell and a life after death, will still harden themselves against them, and will deny them; for it is more easy to make a raven white than to cause those to believe who have once at heart rejected faith."

     Again, in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, Swedenborg says:

     "Since the Lord cannot manifest Himself in person (to the world), as has just been shown to be impossible, and yet He has foretold that He would come and establish a New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, it follows, that He will effect this by the instrumentality of a man who is able net only to receive the Doctrines of that Church in his understanding, but also to make them known by the press.


That the Lord manifested Himself before me His servant, that He sent me on this office, and afterwards opened the sight of my spirit, and so let me into the spiritual world, permitting me to see the heavens and the hells, and also to converse with angels and spirits, and this now continually for many years, I attest in truth; and further, that from the first day of my call to this office, I have never received anything relating to the Doctrines of that Church from any angel, but from the Lord alone, while I was reading the Word."

     Brethren, I have reproduced these extracts from Swedenborg in order that those among us that have not yet studied all his works may have a more accurate idea of his prodigious claims, and that all of us may study the Writings with that high seriousness which their nature demands. Let us remember the Word of the Lord in Isaiah: "For My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My ways, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways higher than your ways, and My thoughts than your thoughts." In the preface to the APOCALYPSE REVEALED the Lord's servant writes:

     "Every one can see that the Apocalypse could never have been explained but by the Lord alone, for the several words there contain arcana which could never be known without a singular illustration and thus revelation; wherefore it has pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit and to teach. Do not believe, therefore, that I have taken anything herein from myself, or from any angel, but from the Lord alone."

     And, certainly, the APOCALYPSE REVEALED is, as Dr. Wilkinson calls it, "a marvel of interpretation." I suppose but few here present are acquainted with that last work in the Bible,- the Revelation of Jesus Christ written by the beloved disciple. That wonderful and enigmatical work becomes grandly luminous in the New Revelation which has been sent from above for our own times.

     It is certainly allowable to question the credibility of these things and to demand proofs. I may reply that the proofs are contained in the Writings themselves and nowhere else. I know that as yet only a few members of our Society accept Swedenborg's own testimony concerning has Writings. The majority in our ranks have only discovered some striking truths in the works, and therefore think it advisable to spread a knowledge of them in India.


I would request such brethren to read more, and try to get a comprehensive view of the system presented for their acceptance. The Writings invite and welcome our examination, and they are meant to satisfy our reason. It is said in the Apocalypse: "And the Spirit and the Bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst, Come. And Whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely." The road to the acceptance of the Revelation of the Second Advent may appear to be easy for those who already believe in the Bible as the Word of God, and in the Divinity of Jesus Christ. Experience, however, has shown that the falsities prevailing in the various Christian Churches at the present day have induced a blindness of vision in many, which prevents them from seeing and understanding the verities of the New Jerusalem.

     For the rest of us, Parsees, Mahomedans, and Hindus, the journey is likely to be long and various according to the various points from which we start. It may be that some of us will never reach the promised land on account of want of faith or want of charity.

     But even though all the members of our Society may not accept the disclosures of the Lord's Commissioner in their entirety, I am confident that they will find many things which they can accept with pleasure, and many which will throw a rare flood of light upon the creeds of their respective religions. Our Brahman friends would understand their "Gayatri Mantra" better if they knew what Swedenborg was commanded to reveal about the Sun of the Spiritual World. Our Parsee compatriots would understand the significance of their fire-worship better if they learned what Swedenborg has to say about the correspondence subsisting between Spiritual and natural things. Our Mahomedan brethren would hail the magnificent array of considerations advanced in favor of the Unity of God in the beginning of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. And all of us should receive with joy the glad tidings of there being marriages in Heaven. There are things in this crowning Revelation to suit all sorts and conditions of men. They illuminate all ancient records and oracles.

     I am aware that a new awakening is observable among the votaries of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Islam for some time past.


It is supposed to be patriotic to sing the praises of one's own religion. The Hindus extol their own scriptures, the Parsees theirs and the Mahomedans those that have accumulated since the Koran was delivered to their prophet. To prefer an alien religion to one's own is commonly looked upon as wrong and dangerous; and any one who ventures to do so must expect to be denounced by the thoughtless multitudes as a person ignorant of his inheritance, and misled, and wanting in love of country and community.

     But can truth ever be alien? Can truth ever be other than Divine, and therefore common to all mankind? If we think a little, we must perceive that there is no merit in continuing to believe in ancient opinions when they happen to be falsehoods. And surely it must be allowable to learn truths from all quarters where we can find them. We do so in the various sciences and arts. There is no valid reason why we should not do so even in religion and philosophy.

     An open and receptive attitude like this, however, is not likely to be popular in these days of cheap sentiment: and false enthusiasm; and yet it is the only attitude worthy of a rational man. And if you examine our recent flood of so-called patriotism, you will find that there are many unworthy and degrading elements in it. I have heard men honored as great patriots vilifying other countries gratuitously in order to establish the superiority of their own. I have read the writings of men supposed to be deeply reverent and eminently just which are full of prejudices and hasty judgments in the criticism of different beliefs. As an instance I may mention the late Mr. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade's review of the REFLECTIONS UPON THE WRITINGS OF SWEDENBORG, penned by the late Mr. Dadoba Pandurung.

     It is not enough for a man simply to love his country. He must, also know what things are good for that country, and must make attempts to secure them. The other day I was privileged to hear the remarkably devout, strong and statesmanlike address of Sir Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, the President of our Indian National Congress. Our political leaders know what is good for their poor country, and have been trying their best for a generation to lead us towards national liberty and self-government. But it seems to me that nothing is more important to a country than a true idea of God, of the life after death and the history of God's dealings with mankind.


And if Swedenborg's works contain revelations on these subjects higher and deeper than all previous revelations, as I believe they do, no service to India can be more important than that undertaken by the Hindi Swedenborg Society.

     I see that our progress, both internal and external, is slow, very slow. But: how could it be otherwise? 'We are taught through the prophet Jeremiah that "the heart is deceitful above all things and desperately wicked;" and that applies to our own hearts as well as to those of our brethren. We cannot coerce the free will of our friends and neighbors; and most of us are not used to deep and sustained thinking. Many of our friends say, like Nathaniel, "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" And we can only answer with Philip, "Come and see I" What was said of Jerusalem by the prophet Isaiah is true of our own country today. Let us hear him for a while:

     "For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes; the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath He covered. And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee; and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed: And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned. Wherefore the Lord said, for as much as this people draw near Me with their mouth, and with their lips do honor Me, but have removed their heart far from Me, and their fear towards Me is taught by the precept of men: Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people, even a marvellous work, and a wonder; for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid."

     Has not such a state of things come about in our land at present? If it has, it explains the small progress we have been able to make.

     But let us hear the Word of God still further. The prophet Isaiah is again the bearer of the message:

     "Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever:


     That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the Law of the Lord: which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things; speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits: Get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us."

     Please remember that there is an Israel within all of us, and the Spirit addresses that Israel. The Bible would not be the Word of God if there were only local and temporary things in it. The people of Israel wandered in the wilderness for forty years. This means that progress in the path of regeneration is bound to be slow. Our spiritual failings cannot be cured at once. This truth is taught to us figuratively in Exodus: "I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land."

     Significant signs are not wanting. I was agreeably surprised the other day when Dr. Nilratna Sarkar, President of the All-India Theistic Conference, in opening the proceedings, in this very hall, prayed to God as "Redeemer, Revealer, and Inspirer." Remember what: the Lord Himself has told us:

     "The hour cometh when you shall neither in this mountain nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. Ye worship ye know not what; we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth."

     This hour of spiritual liberty has come for India at last, as for the rest of the world. The new liberty is visible in many and various uses and; abuses. Since A. D. 1757, When the Last Judgment was accomplished in the world of spirits, a new era has begun in the world, and in India it synchronized with the battle of Plassey.* We may rest assured that if we do our work properly, we shall be joined as we go along by unexpected friends and lovers of divine truth.
     * The battle of Plassey, on June 23, 1757, when Clive defeated Surajah Dowlah, and secured the foundation of the British Empire in India.-ED. N. C. L.


     I have not thought it advisable, brethren, in this my first address to you, to single out any particular teaching of the Heavenly Doctrines for consideration. But you will find that they are all competent to shed a wonderfully clear light on all questions that are likely to arise in our journey through life. Read and consider the Doctrine of the Lord, of the Sacred Scriptures, of Faith, of Life, and of Charity, and you will be astonished at the wealth of practical wisdom of which they are full.

     An impression seems to prevail in some quarters that our Society has some program of religious or social innovation to be taken up hereafter. I therefore think it necessary to declare that as members of the Hindi Swedenborg Society we have no such program in contemplation. The

     Society's work is simply educational, or propagandistic, if you prefer to call it so. The importance of that work cannot be overrated, and I do earnestly request everyone of our brethren to spread a knowledge of the Writings among his friends and acquaintances to the best of his ability. We care too much for real unanimity to attach any undue importance to mere outward conformity; and accordingly we deprecate such movements as the "Aryan Brotherhood" and "Cosmopolitan dinners" composed of heterogeneous elements.

     And now, brethren, I have done. What I should say to you on this occasion has been a matter of some anxious deliberation to me; and the result is now before you. Pray, examine all that I have said, and hold fast that which is good. "May the Lord bless your thoughts!"




     A STUDY



     As the Animal Kingdom, as a whole, corresponds to the human man with its living affections, so the Vegetable Kingdom, as a whole, corresponds to the human understanding with its intellectual perceptions, thoughts and knowledges.

     In the Writings the subjects of the Vegetable Kingdom are generally divided into the three classes of trees, shrubs and herbs, corresponding to celestial perceptions, spiritual ideas, and natural knowledges. Or, more conveniently, they may be divided into the three classes of trees, herbs, and grasses, since "shrubs" may easily be divided among trees and herbs.

     Beginning with the first class, the TREES, we find that these are further divided into three classes: fruit trees, corresponding to celestial perceptions; trees of foliage, shade and beauty, corresponding to spiritual perceptions, and trees of useful wood, corresponding to the perceptions of natural goods; and truths.

     The fruit-trees, again, may be divided into two kingdoms, with a trinal division in each, according to the following diagram:

     Celestial.                     Spiritual.
Fruits of meat and oil.           Fruits of juice and wine.
The Olive.                              The Pomegranate, Orange and Grape.
The Palm.                          Stone fruits such as the Cherry, Plum, Apricot, Peach.
The Fig; also Nuts.                Apple and Pear.



     1. The Tree of Life. Supreme among trees, though no longer flourishing in this world, is the Tree of Life, which grew in the midst of the Garden of Eden. It corresponds to the celestial perception of Divine Love. As to its form we have no idea, but Swedenborg beheld it in Heaven, where it was bearing fruits of transparent and edible gold, and was shrouded in leaves of silver edged with emeralds. Beneath its branches little children were playing. (C. L. 13.)

     2. The Olive. Next: to the Tree of Life comes the olive tree, the unrivaled representative of the celestial perception of the good of love, being the richest of all trees in pure sweet oil. The tree itself is not especially beautiful, but its yielding twigs are graceful, and its willow-shaped evergreen leaves,-dark olive green above, and silvery beneath-together with clusters of olives, lend themselves to lovely representation in connection with scenes descriptive of the Most Ancient Church, the celestial heaven, the celestial degree of conjugial love, or anything else celestial. They would be especially fitting on the platter for the sacramental bread. In Solomon's Temple the two cherubim within the oracle were made of olive wood overlaid with gold, and also the doors and posts of the oracle or adytum itself, to represent "a guard lest the Lord be approached otherwise than by the good of love." (A. C. 9277.)

     3. The Palm, bearing fruits rich both in meat and oil, belongs to the celestial side of fruit-trees; but on account of its wealth of feathery leaves and fronds, it corresponds to the spiritual of the celestial,-"spiritual good, which is the good of faith," (A. C. 8369); the good of the second heaven, which is the good of charity, (A. E. 277); and, in the supreme sense, the Divine wisdom of the Lord, when the olive represents the Divine Love itself. (A. E. 458.)

     "As palms signify spiritual good, and as all joy of heart is from spiritual good,-for spiritual good is the very affection or love of spiritual truth,-therefore in ancient times they testified to the joy of their hearts by carrying palm-branches in their hands." (A. E. 458:5) Hence, also, palm-branches were spread before the Lord when He entered Jerusalem, to signify confession of the Lord from spiritual good. (A. R. 367.)


     In a most ultimate sense the Palm-tree signifies the Divine Wisdom in the sense of the letter of the Word, and it was on this account that "cherubim, palm-trees, and flowers were canted on the walls of the Temple, to signify the Providence (cherubim), the wisdom (palm-trees) and the intelligence (flowers), which are from the Lord, thus all things which are of Heaven." (A. C. 8369; A. R. 367.)

     In the arboreal avenues of Heaven, the palm-trees signify the spiritual degree of conjugial love, (C. L. 270), and with them there are always associated laurels, to signify the truths corresponding to that good. (C. L. 56, 77, 183; A. R. 875)

     The palm-tree, therefore, can and should be freely used in the symbolism of our church, especially in connection with the capitals of the pillars, (in the simple yet beautiful style of Egyptian architecture), and in any place where the spiritual good of the celestial kingdom can be fittingly represented. Together with the grape-vine, the palm-tree belongs to the Church of Noah, the Ancient Church, the Church of the Orient, and to the Spiritual Heaven which was formed from that Church.

     4. The Fig-tree, also, on account of its sweet and meaty fruit, belongs to the celestial kingdom of fruits, but, on account of its comparative dryness and abundance of small hard seeds, it is relegated to the natural degree of the celestial kingdom, ''the external good of the celestial Church," (A. C. 9277), "the good of life in the internal and at the same time in the external form,"
(A. E. 403:19); "exterior goods and truths, which are also called moral ones," (A. E. 635:20), "the good of the natural," (A. C. 4231). The "Sycamore" sometimes mentioned in the Word, is a special kind of fig-tree. (A. E. 815.)

     The Fig-tree can be used as a symbol of the Israelitish Church, and of the Celestial-Natural heaven, and of natural-moral good, in general. Its leaves are large and coarse, but ornamental; cluster of figs are handsome, and a good artist: can, no doubt, use them representatively with good effect.

     Lowest in the scale of trees of the celestial class comes the NUT-TREES, such as the Almond, the Hazelnut, the Walnut, the Chestnut, etc. Of these the Almond corresponds to the perception of interior natural goods, (A. C. 5622); whereas the Pistacia nut or "Terebinth" corresponds to the perception of exterior natural good.


The Hebrew word for "almond" also means "watchful" and the almonds that blossomed from Aaron's rod for the tribe of Levi, signify the Divine watchfulness over the Church by means of that form of interior charity which is the essential principle of the priestly office. (Ibid.) The blossoming almond rod would therefore be a fitting symbol of the tribe of Levi, or of the priestly office.

     The Hazel corresponds to "exterior good and truth." (A. C. 4013.)

     Among the nut-trees we may also count the Beach, the Chestnut, and Oak, which are mentioned together in the Memorable Relation in C. L. 78. The Beech is also mentioned in C. L. 270, where the palace representing conjugial love is described as surrounded by olive trees, palms, and beeches,-the olive representing the celestial degree of that love, the palm its spiritual degree, and the beech its natural degree, like the dove, the bird of paradise, and the swan. The oily triangular little nuts of the beech, always growing in pairs, bear out this correspondence.

     The correspondence of the Chestnut has not been given, but it is mentioned next after the Beech in C. L. 78, and would seem to correspond to external domestic good, such as, perhaps, the love of home and children, as indicated by the bur, warmly lined within, and prickly without.

     We come now to the other general class or kingdom of trees, the fruits of which are characterized by an abundance of sweet yet acid juices, corresponding to the perceptions of spiritual good, just as the oily fruits correspond to the perceptions of celestial goods. Here we are on more uncertain ground, as the correspondences of these fruits are not definitely given in the Writings, but only suggested.

     As the highest of these we would place the Orange tree, which, with its immense and perennial fruitfulness, and with its evergreen shroud of glossy leaves and fragrant flowers, bearing blossoms and fruits simultaneously, seems to correspond to the marriage of good and truth. The orange tree is frequently mentioned in "Conjugial Love," in such ways as to indicate a correspondence with this love, and it is probably from a common perception of this correspondence that orange blossoms are everywhere regarded as the appropriate bridal wreaths.


     The Grape Vine has its place in the middle or spiritual degree of the spiritual kingdom, and I need not present any arguments for its well known correspondence to the perception of spiritual truth, and to the Spiritual Church itself. In the class with grapes I would place also the whole order of juicy stone-fruits, such as the cherry, the plum, the apricot and the peach, though the exact correspondence of these fruits has not been given in the Writings. Josephus tells us that one of the Ptolemies sent some magnificent gifts to the Temple of Jerusalem, and renewed the Golden Vine,-the symbol of the Jewish nation, of which the Treasury had been, robbed. And Jewish traditions relate that in the Temple,-above and around the gate, seventy cubits high, which led from the porch to the holy place,-a richly carved vine was extended as a border and decoration. The branches, tendrils and leaves were of the finest gold; the stalks of the bunches were of the length of the human form, and the bunches hanging upon them were of costly jewels.

     The Apple would seem to belong to the lowest or natural degree of the spiritual class, being of more solid flesh than the other juicy fruits. The only place where ifs correspondence is given is in A. E. 4587, where we are told that as a palm-tree signifies joy of heart from spiritual goad so an apple tree signifies joy of heart from natural good thence. In mythology the apple is often associated with the goddess of love, and probably signifies the natural degree of conjugial love. With the apple: must be associated, also, the pear.

     The Pomegranate, in, worked representations in blue, purple and scarlet, adorned the hem, of the robe of the ephod, (Exod. 28:33), where these fruits signified "knowledges of good" in the ultimates of order, (A. C. 9552.). Carved figures of the pomegranate adorned also the tops of the pillars in Solomon's Temple, where they probably signified the same. In Joel 1:12, we read of "The Vine, the fig, and the pomegranate," where "the vine = the spiritual good and truth of the Church; the fig-tree = the natural good and truth thence derived; and the pomegranate = the sensuous good and truth, which is the ultimate of what is natural." (A. E. 458:7.) This would seem to give to the pomegranate a very low correspondence, but the meaning is that of a most ultimate heavenly good, pellucid with interior goods and truths even as the pomegranate is pellucid with ruby-like pips, in beautiful arrangement.


Conjugial love, in its own ultimates, is such a good, the seed-house of all heavenly virtues, and it was on this account that the angels of the heaven from the Golden Age,-as the symbol of conjugial love with them-presented to Swedenborg a pomegranate, in which there was an abundance of seeds of gold. (C. L. 75)

     Leaving the Fruit-trees, we come now to a second-class of trees, which flourished in the Garden of Eden, and are called "trees pleasant of sight," signifying in general perceptions of truth, or spiritual perceptions.


     Within this class we place all the trees which were given to refresh the human mind by their beautiful form and foliage, or by their fragrance or spicy taste, according to the following tentative diagram:

     Good.                         Truth.
Cassia. Myrtle.                         Laurel.
Aloes. Linden. Elm.                Poplar. Plane-tree.
Myrrh. Box.                         Willow.

     Of these the Cassia, Aloe and Myrrh, form a series of aromatic shrubs, rather than trees,-the Cassia signifying inmost good, of the third or highest degree, and the Divine Truth itself which proceeds immediately from Divine Good, (A. C. 10258); while Aloe signifies good of the second degree, and Myrrh good of the ultimate degree, (A. E. 684:17). These plants, however, are of inconspicuous appearance, and may not be of striking value in ecclesiastical symbolism.

     I pass by the Myrtle, the Linden tree, and the Elm tree, as their correspondence is not definitely given. Of the Box tree we learn that it refers to celestial-natural things, (A. C. 2162), and its use for borders and hedges hence seems quite fitting.

     The Laurel or Bay tree signifies "the affection of truth," (H. H. 520), and it was on this account, undoubtedly, that the victors in any intellectual competitions were in ancient times crowned with wreaths of laurel.


The little tree, and its fragrant leaves, are highly ornamental, and can well be used for symbolic purposes.

     The Poplar, the Plane-tree, and the Willow signify "the lowest goods and truths of the natural man, which belong to the external sensual," (A. E. 458); the Willow, particularly, corresponds to "sensuous truth, which is the most external truth." (A. C. 7093.) Hence their habit of springing up along brooks and water courses. The weeping willow, perhaps the most graceful of all trees, is the willow upon the branches of which the captive Jews hung their harps by the ruins of Babylon, and hence is always associated with grief, perhaps from a Perception that, since the willow corresponds to the last boundary of truth, beyond it truth ceases.


     We now come to the third class of trees,-those of useful wood,-which are of a great variety but from which we select the following as representative types:

     Good.                         Truth.
Beech.               Cedar.
Chestnut.          Arbor vitae.
Oak.               Pine, fir spruce.

     Of the Beech and the Chestnut trees we have already treated, under Nut-trees.

     The Oak is of a very distinct symbolic character, on account of its majestic aspect, hardness, toughness, and durability; and all its qualities show that it has a very ultimate correspondence, for all strength resides in ultimates. The very name of the oak, in the Hebrew, comes from a root which means "to be strong." Hence, in general, it corresponds to "sensuous scientifics," (S. S. 18); but; being at the same time a tree bearing nuts, it corresponds more particularly to "the scientifics of the celestial man," (A. C. 1443), or "sensuous good," (A. E. 1145). Thus, as the olive corresponds to the perception of the love of God in the inmost of the mind, so the oak corresponds to the perception of this love in ultimates, whether it be in the book of nature, the book of written Scripture, or in the book of life.


     It is interesting to note, in this connection, the use of the acid of the oak-gall, in the preparation of ink; and the use of the bark of the oak in the tanning of leather. Both the ink and the tanned skins of animals found their highest use in the everlasting fixation of Divine Truth in the written Word, and we conclude, hence, that the Oak is a special representative of the letter of the Word. It was probably from a perception of this correspondence that the Oracles of the ancients, among the Greeks and also among the Druids, were placed in oak groves. And because the oak lives to an indefinite old age, it came to represent also what remains perpetually, or to eternity, (A. C. 4552, 4562), even as the Word of the Lord in the letter will remain forever in heaven and on the earth.

     The Cedar is the highest representative of those timber trees which correspond to the spiritual perceptions of the natural-rational mind. As the palm corresponds to "spiritual good," so the Cedar corresponds to the genuine truth of that good. (A. E. 458, 294.) Like the Lebanon Mountains it signifies the highest rational truths, and the reason for this correspondence is easily seen in the great height, straight stature, horizontal stratified branches, pointed ever-green leaves, and enduring aromatic wood of that tree, as represented by the ancient cedars of Lebanon or the present cedars in California and in the Himalaya mountains. Hence the pillars in Solomon's Temple were made of Cedar, to represent the rational foundations of the genuine church, and for the same reason the Temple was lined throughout with cedar wood. The Cedar can be used also to represent "the spiritual-rational church such as was the church with the Ancients after the Flood." (A. E. 1100.) Nay, it may be used to represent the crowning revelation given to the New Church, as indicated by the Cedar-table in heaven, on which volumes of the Writings were seen resting. (A. R. 875)

     The Shittah wood, or Acacia of the desert,-which was so extensively used in the construction of the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the table of show-breads, the altar, etc.,_was, according to the Writings, "the wood of a most excellent kind of cedar," (A. C. 9472) It was "a tree on Mount Sinai, or at its base, a most noble cedar. It is a mountain tree, excellent above other trees from its aromatic oil, thus from its odor and purity." (Adversaria 3/1298.)


And as such its wood represented "spiritual good; the good of the Lord's merit," (A. C. 9472); "the very good proceeding from the Divine Human of the Lord," (9491); "the only good which reigns in heaven and supports it." (9635.)

     Somewhat lower than the Cedar comes the Cypress, which by the ancients was regarded as an emblem of immortality and hence was always planted in and around grave-yards. In this class, also, belong the Juniper and the Almug or Thyine wood, which latter is represented by the Arbor Vitae and which corresponds to "good conjoined with truth in the natural man." (A. R. 774.)

     Lower still in the class of ever-greens come the Fir tree and the Pine, both of them corresponding to the rational perceptions of most ultimate natural truth, (A. C. 2162, 2708; A. R. 936); but the Fir corresponds to higher natural truth, and the Pine to lower natural truth. (A. E. 730:24.)


     Leaving the order of trees we come next to the great order of SHRUBS, but of their correspondence little has been revealed and we must therefore pass them by, at present. The HERBS, too, are innumerable, and have not been treated of in the Writings, except as to a few representative types. Among the Flowers we have the Rose and the Lily, as types of inmost celestial and spiritual perceptions. The Rose undoubtedly corresponds to the perception and affection of celestial good-especially the good of conjugial love. And the Lily seems a perfect symbol of the spiritual affection of truth. Among the lilies the Lotus flower can be beautifully represented on walls and pillars, (as was done in Egypt), as corresponding to the perception of spiritual truth in the scientific truth of the literal sense.

     The great order of edible vegetables must similarly be passed over, since it is not likely that we will seek for ecclesiastical symbols among beans and peas, cucumbers, onions, and cabbages. But among the GRAINS we may represent: ears of Wheat as corresponding to celestial good, Rye to spiritual good; and Barley to natural good.

     REEDS and RUSHES may also be represented as signifying "lowest scientifics from the Word in the letter." (A. C. 9372.)


The Egyptian Papyrus would be an especially graceful representative of the Written Word itself, and could be used at the base of the Repository.



     In the ARCANA COELESTIA, NO. 2405, we read this statement:

     "As 'the morning' in the proper sense signifies the Lord, His coming, and thus the approach of His kingdom, it may be evident what it signifies besides, namely, the rising of a new Church; for this is the Lord's kingdom on earth; and this as well in general as in the particular, and even in the least particular; in the general when any Church on the globe is being raised anew; in particular, when any man is being regenerated, and becoming new-for then the Lord's kingdom is rising in him, and he is becoming a church; in the least particular as often as the good of love and faith is operating in him, for in this is the Lord's coming. Hence the Lord's resurrection on the third day n the morning involves all these things even in the particular and the least particular, as to His rising again in the minds of the regenerate every day, and even every moment."

     This statement throws a wonderful light on the meaning of events connected with the resurrection of the Lord as they are narrated in the Gospels. It shows us plainly that these events are representative of what shall take place, when the Church has died and a new Church is to be raised up. In other words, they foretell what shall take place spiritually at the Lord's Second Coming.

     With the aid of this light, we shall endeavor to follow some of the events described in the 20th chapter of the Gospel of John, and to see their prophetic meaning.

     In connection with this let us remember that the events connected with the Lord's passion, as that "He was betrayed by Judas; that He was seized and condemned by the chief priest and scribes; that they buffeted Him; that they smote His head with a reed; that they set on His head a crown of thorns; that they divided His garments and cast lots upon His coat; that they crucified Him; that they gave Him vinegar to drink; that they pierced His side; that He was buried and rose again on the third day, represented the state of the Church as to the Word." (DOCTRINE OF THE LORD, 16.)


     The same things take place spiritually whenever a church repudiates or denies the truth of the Lord, and these events are therefore also representative or prophetic of what should take place in the Christian Church in its latter days. They describe the way the Christian Church in a later age would receive and treat the Spirit of the Lord, present with men in His Word, and teaching them through it.

     We know that the teaching of the Lord in His human life on earth was not dissipated with His death, but preserved alive in the minds of the disciples, and resurrected and present with men of the Christian Church in the written Gospels. In them His love and wisdom speaks to men; through them men are told how He in His human life, by obedience to the Father's will, overcame temptations and all the tendencies to evil that human nature is heir to; through them the Lord's power to remove evils in men, if they will obey His teaching, is revealed; in them men are shown that the Lord's teaching is not the teaching of a man, but of God Himself; and how the spirit of love, speaking through the man the words of eternal life, is God Himself. The Gospels therefore were the Word of the Lord to men; indeed, they were the Lord Himself resurrected with men, His spirit of love and truth present with them and teaching them.

     The High Priests and the Scribes of the Christian Church treated the Lord as the Word, the Son of Man, in the same way as He had been treated by the Jewish Church. They obscured, falsified and adulterated the truths of the Word by their interpretation and traditions, dispersing the truths of the letter, cutting them to pieces and pulling them out of their connection with each other, just as His outer garments had been cut to pieces; and finally they crucified and killed the spirit of eternal love and truth from Him within themselves. Then spiritual darkness and death spread its pall over the Word, and it became a coffin in which the Lord and His Church were buried.


     The spiritual darkness that came over the Church on earth through men's denial of the spirit of love and its teaching in the Gospels, is represented in the literal story by the darkness that enveloped the land when the Lord was crucified; and the death of His Spirit within the Church by the night when the Lord Jesus lay in the grave before the resurrection. The stone that the Jews rolled before the opening of the tomb, and which they sealed and set a watch to guard, represents the desire of evil and natural minded men, priding themselves with holiness, while filled with self-love, to rule over the minds of men in the Lord's place, and to have the key to heaven and hell, which desire leads them to seal up the spirit of love and charity in the Word. They closed the Word with quotations from its letter, quotations from the Lord's own truth, which seemingly uphold their man-made doctrines, and impress upon it the seal of their own interpretation with the whole authority of the Church, so turning the Word into a grave for the spirit of the Lord. The day of the Truth is at an end, and night is over the world.

     And then comes the story of the morning of the New Day, the first day in the week, and the resurrection of the Lord, told in slightly varying ways in the different Gospels. These variations in the literal story represent variations in the reception of the Lord in His Second Coming in different classes and states of minds. The story in the Gospel of John, which is written by the disciple that Jesus loved, portrays the reception of the message from the opened Word by the remnant of what is good in the will of men, the remnant of the affection for truth, of faith, and of charity in the will of men within the church, the remnant from which a new and heavenly church shall be raised up among men on earth; the spirit of the Lord's love shall again be vivified in them; and the Word of God, instead of being the grave of Jesus, be the embodiment of the spirit of the Living God, our Lord and Savior, through which He again is present with and speaks to men,-speaks to them of the death of the natural and selfish life, and of the resurrection of life from His love in men, by which He can come and reign among men on earth as He does in heaven.

     We are familiar with the story. Mary Magdalene comes to the grave very early in the morning when it is yet dark.


She finds the stone rolled away; and, troubled in spirit, thinking that they have taken away her Lord, she runs to tell Simon Peter and John. They hasten to the grave, find the stone rolled away, see the grave-clothes in their places, but the Lord is not there, and then they return to their own homes. But Mary tarries, hears the message of the angels, and sees and finally recognizes the Lord Himself, and brings the message to all the disciples.

     The Lord took to Himself a human through a woman called Mary; Mary Magdalen was, according to John, the first to see the risen Lord. The affection of the truth that tells about the good God in heaven is the first means by which the Lord can be born in children's lives, and later teach them to walk in His ways. When children leave His paths as they grow up, sin against Him, and walk in their own ways, the Lord's life in them dies, but it can be resurrected, born again, if they feel the need of forgiveness for their sins, and there remains within them the affection of the truth that saves from sin.

     In the Gospels of Matthew and Mark and Luke two Marys are said to be at the grave, waiting for the dawn of the new day to embalm the body of the Lord. In the Gospel of John it is said that Mary Magdalen was alone. It would seem to represent the fact, that in some minds the affection of the truth that tells about the Lord is inseparably united with and has, so to speak, become one with the affection of the truth that saves from sin. And that affection is most fitly represented by Mary Magdalen, out of whom the Lord had cast seven devils.

     We know that Peter represents faith, and when he is mentioned by his two names, "Simon Peter," he always represents the faith that is implanted in the will, and not only lives in the understanding, for Simon means hearing, or spiritually, obedience. And John, the disciple that Jesus loved, represents Charity, or love to the Lord, expressing itself in the doing of good toward others.

     With this in mind, we can readily see that the narration of the events connected with the Lord's resurrection prophetically tell us of the presence of the Lord in His Second Coming in the opened Word, and His reception by the remnant which will be the nucleus of His New Church.


     It is very early in the morning. In fact, it is still dark on earth, though the sun is approaching, when Mary Magdalene comes to the grave and finds the stone rolled away.

     The Lord has risen; the judgment is accomplished in the spiritual world; the seal of the Church's authority has been broken; men's false interpretations of the Divine Truth have been set aside, and the teaching of the Word concerning the Lord's life and the life of heaven from Him is in the world. But the Church is ignorant of it. It is yet dark. Even the remnant of what is good in the Church does not know it.

     The spiritual affection of the truth that saves from sin is bound up with the love of the man Jesus, born of Mary, and with the teaching that is suffering and death constitute payment for the sins of men. When it finds the stone rolled away on approaching the new teaching of heavenly truth from the opened Word, that affection is troubled in mind. The new teaching seems to remove the Lord from human knowledge, understanding and association. What it has relied on and embraced with affection seems to be taken away. To the affection of truth represented by Mary Magdalene the teaching of the opened Word does not at first bring any message from the Lord or heaven, but awakens fear that enemies of the Lord have rolled the stone aside and taken the Lord away, and it hurries to what is left in the Church of faith and charity to consult with them.

     Aroused by the affection of truth the faith in the Lord and the love for the good of men that is yet alive in the Church, hasten to examine the new teaching. Those that have any faith in the Lord left in their will go to the opened Word to see for themselves if the stone really has been rolled aside, or in other words, if the interpretations of the Old Church have been set aside by Divine Truth out of the Word. Simon Peter runs to the Grave.

     But the love of the eternal welfare of men is swifter and out runs the understanding of truth, eager to find that which can eternally profit men. John outruns Peter to the grave, but when they come there, Simon Peter first enters in.

     It is always the spiritual understanding of man that first enters into the teachings of the Word, for the love for men which shows itself in working for their welfare, even if it has what is eternally good for them in view, can do nothing except by means of the truth that teaches what heavenly life is, just as love for making men's existence here on earth better and happier can accomplish nothing without an understanding of the natural truths and means that can lead to better and happier conditions.


     Simon Peter first entered into the grave, which now stands for the opened Word and its teaching of heavenly life. He saw the grave-clothes lying in their places; i. e., the remnant of faith in the Lord's Word enters first into and examines the new teaching, and sees truths from the Lord there, truths both internal and external. Then John also enters, saw and believed. When the understanding has seen, the love for men's welfare accepts the truth of what the understanding has seen. But neither Peter nor John then saw any angel from the Lord. They heard no Divine message, nor did they see the Lord Himself. They accepted what they saw, and, combining it with their remembrance of the Lord's words, they were satisfied with that and returned to their own houses.

     We can see instances of this in the Christian world around us. But the affection for the truth that can save from sin is not very often or commonly such that it comes to the opened Word, or that it invites the faith and charity among men to examine the teachings of the Lord in His Second Coming. And those who do come and find some of the truths taught these, do not often as yet see in them any message from heaven, nor do those truths lead them to see the Lord Himself in His Divine Humanity.

     They are satisfied with what they have found. It appeals to them in a way. The truths, for instance, that religion is of life, and consists in the doing of good, harmonizes with their understanding of the Lord's teaching in the letter of the Word, and they are satisfied with that, and return to their own houses, without any new vision of the risen Lord, or good of life from Him; they retain in the main the conceptions of the faith they were in before, and keep on in the same old methods and work from the same old principles for what they consider the good of men.

     If in the New Church we think of the Christian Church as being regenerated and made new by the inflowing spirit of the Lord from the new heavens, it is surely still "very early" in the morning of the new day.


The message of the Lord has not yet been heard, nor the Lord seen. Truths, internal and external, are seen by men around us, and we can trace their source from the opened Word. Those who call themselves "Christian Scientists" believe in an internal or spiritual interpretation of the Scriptures, but if we want a most striking illustration of the teaching that the knowledge of correspondence and the spiritual interpretation of the Scriptures from that knowledge cannot lead men to heavenly life with the Lord without true doctrine, we can certainly get it by observing that movement, and inquiring into their belief.

     If they are led to the opened Word by a desire for the truth that saves, it would seem that it is the affection for truth that can save from bodily ailments and make life in this world as long and as pleasant and free from worries as possible, that has led them thither. If there is any affection for the Lord united with that desire, it would seem to be for the man Jesus of Nazareth, "the great teacher of Christian Science," and the great healer of men's bodily sicknesses. The Lord Jesus Christ as God, the Life from which we all have life, they reject, and substitute for Him their own thoughts and their own will power. That is their God, and there is none else to them. They only need the will to think that there is no evil and no sickness, and that will of theirs, which is their God, will do the miracle now as the will of Jesus of Nazareth did long ago.

     Movements among men, corresponding to the Christian Science of our days, and the allied New-and Never-and Newest Thought there have been in all churches. It is the sons of God taking to themselves the daughters of men; it is the attempt by men to reach heaven by building a tower of strength on the basis of their own earthly affections; it is the magicians of Pharaoh doing the same miracles as Moses did; it is Simon Magus and his followers, who, in the early days of Christianity, drew the attention of the multitudes by the wonderful miracles they performed, and who, at one time, threatened to usurp the power of God and become the religion of the world.

     But if the Daylight from on High never reached the zenith in the first Christian Church; if darkness spread over the world with the formal denial of the one-ness of God at the Nicene Council, we know that the light from the Lord in His New Church shall never set, but shall shine in constantly greater splendor.


It is yet early in the morning of the New Day, the first day of the week, whose seven days are the whole of all time to eternity.

     In the story of Mary Magdalene, staying at the grave weeping,-after Simon Peter and John had returned to their houses,-and finally stooping down to behold the angels of the Lord, hearing their message, and later seeing the Lord Himself, even though she did not at first recognize Him, and in her bringing the news to all the disciples, there is hope and comfort.

     The stone has been rolled aside from the grave. The true doctrines of the Word have been made known; the Lord is risen and revealed as our Father in heaven. There is among men in the Christian world remnants of an affection of the truth that saves from sin, which can not be satisfied with the doctrine of the sole efficacy of the suffering and death of Jesus, or with the momentary stirring of emotions by pleadings and more or less sensational methods of so-called revivalists, whose preaching of religion generally have very little, if anything, in common with the religion of the Lord our God and Savior Jesus Christ. This small remnant has been, and is being led to humble itself, to stoop down and examine the teaching of the opened Word. Like Mary Magdalene it has and will hear the message of the Lord, and will finally behold and recognize Himself in His glorified Divine Humanity, and bring the message to all the disciples, to all that remains of the truths of the Lord in the Christian world.

     Meanwhile men in the Christian world are becoming gentilized. The greater freedom, brought to men on earth through the Last Judgment in the spiritual world, is doing the work among men whose spiritual degree of life is neither closed nor shut. They are more and more commonly losing all faith in any religion, and more and more commonly thinking and living simply as men of this world, doing what life here seems to their natural understanding to require of them, and this even if they retain the name of Christians and nominally belong to some Christian denomination. Jesus Christ to them is a natural man like they themselves, and they can learn things from him about this life.


The talk about his Divinity they do not heed or understand, and the Scriptures to them are the records of how men have lived here on earth in times gone by, and contains many things good to know and to think about.

     But the time will come when the Risen Lord will send His disciples into all the world to preach the Gospel to every creature, the Gospel of the one God, our Lord and Savior, and of heavenly life from and with Him.

     We are taught that the Lord alone knows who those are which really belong to His Church. But we also know that the Lord always seeks to inflow with His wisdom into the understanding of men, and when we see the representative character of the Gospel story, we are enabled to see things from the Lord, and therefore to judge of the state of the Church in the world and in ourselves in a truer way than before.

     We all need to examine ourselves in the light, to see where we stand, in what degree we ourselves individually can be said to be spiritual units of the Lord's New Church. For the fact that we are members of the external organization that constitutes the visible New Church on earth does not make us spiritual members of it.

     If the affection of the truth of the Lord's life, the truth of His goodness that can save us from sin and teach us to live from Him, is not living in us; if the Lord has not spoken to that affection in us out of His opened Word, we may be sure that our relation to His Church is as yet of a very external kind depending perhaps on external circumstances or training alone, or in intellectual understanding alone. If we really are in the affection of the Lord's truth, we must be eager to learn about it in the Revelation from Him, which tells us that He is Love Itself. If we are in the affection of the truth that saves from sin, we must first feel the need of being saved from sin, feel that we in ourselves are evil, and that He alone is good, feel the need of learning the truths of His life that can save us from evil if we obey them.


We shall be eager to read about the life of the Lord in a human life like ours, and how He kept sin away from His human and overcame the evil, removing every tendency to it, so glorifying His human and letting us behold a Divine Human life.

     We shall love to learn His commandments and strive to obey them, because they are the way of salvation, and we shall love to learn about the life in His heavens where those who have been saved from sin live in His love, guided by His wisdom.

     We shall not rest satisfied merely to learn the spiritual significance within the letter of the Word and with the intellectual enjoyment such knowledge can give us, and then return to our own houses, keeping on thinking and doing as we have done before we saw these truths, but we shall be in the constant endeavor to understand the doctrines of the opened Word, to think and to act from them, because they are the doctrines of heavenly life, leading to happiness and peace with the Lord in His heaven. And we shall see that the greatest work of charity which we can do for our children and others is to lead them to a knowledge of these doctrines, and to imbue them: with a love for them, so that when they themselves come to feel the need of knowledge of eternal life and the salvation from sin, they may know where they can find the Lord of Life and His salvation.



     Mr. Condy Raguet, in the preceding letter, describes the organization of a society in Philadelphia under the above-mentioned lengthy name. It was the first regularly organized Missionary Society in Philadelphia or in the United States, and it is therefore of interest to reproduce here, in connected form a full account of this Society, by Mr. William Roberts, an old member of the New Church in Philadelphia, greatly interested in the history of the Church. The beginning of this account appeared in the NEW JERUSALEM MESSENGER for Jan. 16th, 1878, and the rest was published, piecemeal, and in very small installments, in the same journal, in the course of several months.

     Mr. Roberts writes:

     I have before me the Minute book of one of the oldest New Church organizations in the United States. The manuscript from which I quote, reads as follows:


     "Minutes of the American Society for Disseminating the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, established at Philadelphia on the 25th of December, A. D. 1815."

     So much for the title, which is then followed by the minutes and the names of the readers of the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg then and there present. On Christnias day twelve gentlemen, readers and receivers of the Heavenly Doctrines, met at the schoolroom of Johnston Taylor, Cherry street above Fourth, organized, after religious services, and adopted a constitution.

     The members present were:

Daniel Thuun                    John K. Graham
Wm. Schlatter                    John Hunt
Johnston Taylor               Condy Raguet
Wm. Kneass                     Chas. Beynroth
Maskell M. Carll               John Sterling, of Glasgow
Job Harrison                    William Bantun, of New York

     At, the following meeting, held January 1st, 1816, in addition to the above, we find the names of Francis Bailey, Daniel Groves, Frederick Eckstein, and William Strickland, recorder.

     The following gentlemen were duly elected officers:

President, Jonathan W. Condy
Vice-President, William Schlatter
Treasurer, Daniel Thuun
Secretary, William Kneass
Corresponding Secretary, Condy Raguet

     Subsequent meetings were held at Mr. Carll's school-room, back of No. 229 Arch street, (old number. The location is between Sixth and Seventh streets). At the one held on the 5th of January, 1816, Mr. Raguet reported that he had caused to be published in all the daily gazettes of the city, eight in number, an address declaratory of the establishment of this society. The address is entered at large upon the minutes, ordered to be printed, and, with a, circular, to be sent to all individuals of the New Church, distant from Philadelphia.

     At the meeting held in February, 1816, the venerable Francis Bailey sent a communication, giving an account of the first introduction of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church in Philadelphia.


     Mr. Schlatter informed the Society that he had printed, for gratuitous distribution, 500 copies of the DOCTRINE OF THE LORD, 250 copies of Sermon on the Second Advent by Rev. Joseph Proud.

     Mr. Taylor informed the Society that he had printed for gratuitous distribution, 1,000 copies of Hindmarsh's SEAL UPON THE LIPS.

     The donors asked the acceptance of the Society to the balance of these works to be applied agreeably to the original design. They were accordingly accepted, and an appropriate resolution

     The corresponding secretary reported that he had sent circulars to a number of persons in different parts of the United States, and that he had received a letter from Rev. John Hargrove, of Baltimore, and one from Dr. Robert Magwood, of Charleston, S. C.

     Twelve copies of CONJUGIAL LOVE were presented to the Society by Rev. Mr. Hargrove.

     In the stated meeting in March, 1816, we find the name of Jonathan W. Condy in addition to those before recorded. Mr. Raguet reported letters from Judge Young and Stephen Ozier, Pennsylvania; J. N. Taylor, Washington, and James Barker, Charleston.

     In the subsequent meeting of April and May, letters were received and read from Hugh White, Albemarle, Va.; Thomas and Mary Newport, near Lebanon, Ohio; Lewis Beers, Danby, N. Y., and Isaac Waters of Rocky Fork, Paint Greek, Ohio; also a communication from Charles J. Doughty, Corresponding Secretary of the New Jerusalem Church of New York, on the subject of a common liturgy. A donation was made to the Secretary for distribution by Mr. F. Bailey, of six copies of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, Six copies of CONJUGIAL LOVE, six copies of SUMMARY VIEW, and a similar donation for the Society at New York, and for the Society at Baltimore.

     The minutes of the June meeting relate principally to the laying of the corner-stone of the new temple, which will make the subject of future communication.


     The following interesting intelligence was communicated to the Society at its stated meeting in June: "On the 6th day of June, 1816, the corner-stone of the First New Jerusalem temple to be built at the S. E. corner of Twelfth and George streets, was laid at 8 o'clock a. m., in the presence of a number of members of the Church."

     The service and prayers on that occasion were read by Maskell M. Carll officiating as lay-reader of the Society.

     The reader commenced with the Lord's Prayer, in form as follows, varying somewhat from our common version in its rendering: "Our Father who art in the Heavens-Sanctified be thy name-thy kingdom come-thy will be done as in Heaven so also upon earth-give us this day our daily bread and forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors, and lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil-for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory for ages. Amen."

     Then following a number of passages from the Word, the corner-stone was laid, and the following form of words used:

     "In the name and the honor of our ever blessed and adorable Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, whom alone we acknowledge to be the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, in essence and in person indivisibly and eternally one-this stone is laid." After laying the stone the speaker continued: "This stone is laid as the first or principal corner-stone in the foundation of a New Jerusalem temple now to be erected, and hereafter to, be dedicated and devoted to the service and worship of the same only Lord and Savior Jesus Christ who in his most Holy Word has declared himself to be the one omnipotent, omnipresent and everlasting God of Heaven and earth. Amen." A number of passages from the Word were then read, followed by a prayer and benediction.

     At subsequent meetings letters were read from James Barker, of Charleston, S. C.; Charles Aug. Tulk, Esq., of London: John Young, of Greensburg, Pa.; William Grant, Steubenville, O.; David Powell, Steubenville, O.; Rev. John Hargrove, Baltimore; Rev. Hugh White, Albemarle, Va.; Josiah Espy, Bedford, Pa.; Rev. Robert Ayres, Brownsville, Pa.; Rev. John Clowes. Manchester, Eng.; Richard Gee, Charlestown, Va.; Charles Doughty, Esq., New York;


Dr. Louis Beers, Danby, N. Y.; Robert Campbell, Abington, Va:; Thos. Fairfax, Fairfax Co., Va.; Samuel Worcester, Newton, Mass.; Nathaniel Shelmerdine, Salford, Eng.; Rev. Edward Madely, Derby, Eng.; Eben Newcome, Bristol, R. I.

     At the meeting in August a circular was received and read from Charles J. Doughty, Esq., Secretary of a Society in New York named "The Association of the city of New York for the dissemination of the doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church." The circular bore date of April 28th, 1816. The letter from Rev. Robert Ayres, Brownsville, Pa., dated Sept. 19, 1816, stated that a Society had been formed in that place, of which he was appointed Corresponding Secretary.

     At the meeting held Dec. 6th, a letter was read from George Billberg, of the Society "Pro Fide et Charitate," of Stockholm, Sweden, giving a very interesting account of the New Jerusalem Church in Europe, dated July 31st, 1816.

     At the meeting held Jan. 3d, 1817, a letter was received from Mrs. M. H. Prescott, of Lancaster, Mass., on the subject of a small work to be published by her, entitled RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY UNITED. A letter from Thomas Fairfax, Esq., dated near Prospect Hill, Fairfax Co., Va., offering to the Society twenty-five copies of the Baltimore edition of HEAVEN AND HELL, as a present. Accepted with thanks to the donor.

     At the stated meeting held Oct. 4th, 1816, a resolution was adopted that a periodical publication devoted to the Lord's New Church, be issued quarterly, under the direction of an editing committee, to be appointed by this Society, and to be entitled THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPORITORY. Messrs. Raguet Carll, and Thuun were appointed.

     A friend has reminded me that the name of a town in Virginia spelled in a former communication "Abington," should be Abingdon. It was as copied from minutes of the Society. Abingdon, Va., was the early seat of a New Church Society.

     That the new temple was approaching completion may be learned from the following resolution adopted at the stated meeting held by the Society in December, 1816:

     "Resolved, That the next annual election be held in the vestry room of the New Jerusalem temple at the southeast corner of 12th and George streets, at ten o'clock in the morning, on the first day of January next."


     The meeting was held as resolved, and the officers were all re-elected. The next stated meeting of the Society was held at Mr. Carll's school-room, when a number of letters were presented, addressed to the Corresponding Secretary, some of which were published in the Society's organ, THE NEW CHURCH REPOSITORY. A member (Mr. Thuun) stated that the New York Society had agreed to take 150 copies of the liturgy and hymns lately printed. At a stated meeting in March, Mr. Raguet, from the Printing Committee, reported that 750 copies of the first number of the NEW JERUSALEM REPOSITORY Were published in the early part of January last. He also informed the Society that, agreeably to the unanimous invitation of the members of the New Church in Philadelphia, Mr. Maskell M. Carll had been ordained a priest and minister of the New Jerusalem Church, by Rev. John Hargrove, of Baltimore, on the 31st of December, 1816, and that the new temple, situated at the corner of Twelfth and George streets, was consecrated on the first of January, by Rev. Mr. Hargrove, assisted by Rev. Mr. Carll. At the stated meeting of the Society, held April 4th, 1817, Mr. Raguet reported that an invoice of books had been received by the way of New York from England, and was now in the hands of Mr. Thuun, consisting of 8 copies of the ARCANA COELESTIA, 6 copies of the APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED, and other New Church books, amounting to L105, 12.0 sterling.

     The following resolution was adopted:

     "Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be tendered to Mr. Strickland for the handsome engraving of the New Jerusalem temple, presented by him for the second number of REPOSITORY, and to Mr. John Kneass for his present of good impressions of the same."

     Mr. D. Thuun stated that he had opened a book store for the sale of New Jerusalem writings, at No. 12 South Sixth street. At a stated meeting of the Society, held at the temple, Nov. 7th, 1817, it was stated that Mr. John Eckstein, a member of the Society-a native of Prussia, and formerly sculptor to the king-had died at Havana, Cuba, on the 27th of January last, aged 82 years.


     The death of Francis Bailey, aged 73, was also noted. He was one of the earliest receivers of the doctrines of the New Church in the United States. Mr. Bailey published the following works in Philadelphia in the last century: A SUMMARY VIEW OF THE DOCTRINES, 1787; TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, 1789; CONJUGIAL LOVE, 1796.

     Rev. Mr. Carll stated that he had received an interesting letter from J. Espy, of Bedford, Pa., informing him of the death of Lavinia Murdoch, who had within the last year become a zealous and intelligent receiver of the Doctrines of the New Church. It was, on motion, resolved that biographical sketches of Mr. Eckstein and Mr. Bailey be inserted in the REPOSITORY, also that the letter of Mr. Espy relating to the death of Miss Murdoch be published in the same periodical. (See obituary notices in NEW CHURCH REPOSITORY, pages 323, 326-329.) At the stated meeting of the Society, held at the house of Mr. Schlatter, Chestnut street, no business seems to have been transacted except the reading of letters-one from Mr. Robert Campbell, of Abingdon, Va.; one from Mr. James Magwood, of Charleston, S. C.; one from Wm. Grant, Steubenville, O., and one from John Savelle, Gardiner, Dist. of Maine, Then we have the following entry on the minute book:

     There was no meeting of this Society in consequence of being no particular business to transact until Friday evening, April 3d, 1818. A stated meeting was held at Mr. Thuun's book store, Mr. Condy in the chair. Present: the Rev. Mr. Carll, and Messrs. Schlatter, Thuun, Smith, Raguet, Sterling, and Parr."

     Two letters were read and the meeting adjourned. The minutes of this last meeting are signed by Condy Raguet, Secretary pro tem.

     The records of the Society close with this meeting. No reason is assigned, no formal dissolution is announced, and it is only left to conjecture the cause of so abrupt a termination. That the Society performed important uses is evident-its correspondence with receivers in this country and England, its publications, its dissemination of New Church writings, and its establishment of a periodical journal.


     But the church as formed in Philadelphia superceded the society, performed its duties, and did what a society like this could not do. It was therefore useless to continue a work that could be done so much better by the Church Society at large. Hence its dissolution.

     As all who are successors to these pioneers in, the good work of disseminating the heavenly doctrines of the New Jerusalem are interested in their labors, I close with a full list of members' names as found on record:

W. Condy, President
William Schlatter, Vice-President
Daniel Thuun, Treasurer
William Knease, Secretary
Condy Raguet, Corresponding Secretary.

John Sterling, of Glasgow
William Barton, of New York.
J. Eckstein
F. Eckstein
Beath of Boston
I. Smith
J. Parr
S. Sellers
D. Lammont
T. Espy, of Bedford, Pa.
J. Phile
C. Sontag
Dr. Canby

     Twenty-seven in all who now, with one exception, have departed to the Spiritual World.


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916


     Our Scandinavian contemporary, the NORDISK NYKIRKELIGT TIDSKRIFT, in its most recent quarterly issue, begins the translation of the documents concerning the New Church in Basutoland, which appeared in NEW CHURCH LIFE for December.

     The "BULLETIN of the Sons of the Academy," under its new management, has become a very lively young people's magazine. It has greatly improved in appearance and regularity, has increased in its number of pages, and is furnishing very interesting reading.

     Mr. John Stuart: Bogg, of Manchester, died on January 21st, at the age of 77 years. He was one of the most active and prominent members of the New Church in England, and was the author of a number of valuable works of distinctly New Church interest, the last of these being his GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND PHRASES USED BY SWEDENBORG, which was issued just before his death.

     THE NEW CHURCH EVANGELIST-the monthly tract published by the Rev. John Headsten, of, Chicago, is keeping up its good work, and is deserving the support of the Church. The price is but 50 cents a year, and the editor should be encouraged to continue the publication. In his last three sermons Mr. Headsten has been treating in an original and instructive manner of "the Adamic Church," and in each issue there is a page of trenchant editorial comments.

     DE GODDELIJKE ZENDING VON EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TOT HET GELUK VON HET MENSCHDOM. "The Divine Mission of Emanuel Swedenborg for the happiness of Mankind" At a guess we so translate the Dutch title of Mr. G. Barger's most recent contribution to the growing New Church literature of Holland.


It is an interesting-looking booklet of 72 pages, published by the Swedenborg Genootschap voor Holland en Belgie. 's-Gravenhage. 1915.

     The intended publication in bookform, of the new translation of SWEDENBORG'S DIARY AND DREAMS, of 1744, which appeared seriatim in the LIFE, has been delayed on account of the decision to publish together with it Swedenborg's preceding Journals of Travel, (known as the ITINERARIUM), the whole volume to be issued under the title, "Swedenborg's Journals." This has involved a revision of Dr. R. L. Tafel's translation of these Journals, as published in the DOCUMENTS; this work' is now progressing, and the volume will undoubtedly appear before many months.

     Commenting on the New Church movement in Basutoland, the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for January says: "The signs are that 'the Academy' will have the honor of being the pioneer in New Church missions to the Gentiles, unless the Conference bestirs itself quickly. It is to be hoped that our Academy brethren will not be allowed, by our supineness, to be before us in India also, as they seem likely to be in Africa." If these words should help to arouse the General Conference to do something for the Gentile world, we are sure the "Academy brethren" would welcome any such activity. There is plenty of room for all in these vast new fields, where there is so much to be done and so few to do it.

     In the January number of the NEUKIRCHENBLATT, the editor,-the Rev. F. Muhlert, of Brooklyn, describes a visit to him by the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, and adds the following reflections, which we take the liberty to translate into English:

     "If the members, and especially the ministers, of the two great organizations of the New Church,-the General Convention and the Academy-could more frequently come into personal touch with one another and express themselves in peace and charity respecting the doctrinal views on which they differ, we believe that the apparently insuperable obstacle to a united co-operation for the growth and welfare of the Church would gradually disappear.


Where there is a will, there is a way. No one can deny that a vigorous and harmonious co-operation of the two bodies would be attended by results rich in blessings for the development and extension of the New Church. Is not such a prize worthy of an effort?"

     The Rev. John Whitehead, in the MESSENGER for February 26th, reviews very favorably Bishop W. F. Pendleton's recent work, THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION. The reviewer recognizes that this work "treats of a number of principles little touched upon by previous writers in this fertile field of New Church thought," and concludes as follows: "The SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION is replete with valuable suggestions to ministers, students, and others bearing on the exposition of the Word, sermon writing, and instruction in the Word in general. Particularly is the treatment of the Series of the Word, and in general of the principles of exposition to be commended. . . . Mr. Pendleton has gathered here the results of many years of study of the exposition of the Word. It is largely non-controversial in character and will be a valuable addition to the literature of the Church in this field."

     WHAT AND WHERE IS THE NEW CHURCH? This is the title of a pamphlet of 35 pages, by Mr. J. Haward Spalding, of London, originally published as an article in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY Of 1912. In the preface the author says: "It is well known that in some sections of the external New Church the severe things said by Swedenborg about the 'consummated' Church of his day are freely applied to the Christian Church of today. The aim of this paper is to submit the assumption which underlies this attitude of mind to a careful and impartial scrutiny, with a view to discovering whether any authority for it is to be found in the Writings themselves." In other words, the author essays to prove from the Writings that the "severe" things said in the Writings do not apply to the present state of the Christian world.

     As an extreme instance of the "assumption" referred to, Mr. Spalding points to the statement: on the inside cover of NEW CHURCH LIFE: "The old or former Christian Church is consummated and dead, with no hope of resurrection, nor can there be a genuine Church except with those who separate themselves from it."


Mr. Spalding, on the contrary, holds that "we know nothing about the spiritual state of the Christian world in the present day, and therefore ought not to make any assertion about it on grounds of doctrine," the subject being "known to the Lord only."

     The revealed doctrine being thus eliminated, the writer appeals to his personal experience among the Old Church people of his acquaintance, as a source of information on this unknowable subject. The secret of his confusion in regard to the present state of the Christian world, and as to the nature and whereabouts of the New Church, is disclosed in his statement, near the end of the pamphlet: "No one who has any intimate acquaintance with sincere and good Old-Churchmen (so-called) can believe that their state can be" such as described in the Writings.

WORD, IN A "RESTRICTED" SENSE              1916

     In a paper in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for January, 1915, the Rev. W. H. Acton expressed the conviction that the Writings of the New Church, "although indeed inspired, and thus interior Divine Truth, cannot rightly be called the Word, because they are not Divine Truth in ultimates, thus in the fulness, perfection and power of Divine Wisdom."

     In a paper on "The Writings as the Divine Rational," published in the LIFE for March, 1915, we reviewed at length Mr. Acton's arguments, which were also answered by the Rev. G. C. Ottley in the QUARTERLY far July, 1915. And in the QUARTERLY for January, 1916, Mr. Acton presents a rejoinder to Mr. Ottley, in which he calls attention to an admission made by him in his paper of January, 1915,-an admission which seems to have escaped the notice of Mr. Ottley as well as the LIFE.

     Mr. Acton, in the statement to which he calls attention, says:

     "So far, indeed, as the Writings are regarded as the revelation of interior Divine Truth from the Lord, they make one with the Internal Sense which is the very life and soul of the Word; and in that restricted sense may, indeed, be called the Word, and thus the Lord Himself, who is the Divine Truth."


And in his most recent paper Mr. Acton places further emphasis upon this admission, in his concluding statement: "As I have already pointed out, I do not deny that there is a sense in which the Writings are the Divine Truth, and thus the Word."

     But though in his first admission he grants that, in a certain "restricted" sense, the Writings "may, indeed, be called the Word," (italics ours), his main objection now is against so calling them: "I deny, most emphatically, on the dearest and oft repeated testimony of the Writings themselves, the propriety of referring to them by the same expression as that which is used to designate the fullest, most perfect and most holy-because most ultimate-form of the Divine Truth, the Word in its Letter."

     It is rather difficult, then, to define the exact object of Mr. Acton's contention. We know of no one who, in ordinary discourse, is in the habit: of referring to the Writings as "the Word in the Letter." The Divinely-given name of the crowning Revelation is "Doctrina Coelestis,"-"the Heavenly Doctrine," and for the sake of distinction we always refer to it under this designation, or as "the Writings." But if, with Mr. Acton, we believe that the Writings are the Word, there can be no possible objection to so calling them, when the object is to call attention to the fact that it is the Lord Himself, and no finite man, that is speaking in them,-as when in worship the lesson from the Writings is announced as "the Word of the Lord in the Heavenly Doctrine."

     But the issue is too sublime and important to be belittled by quibbling about designations and references. The one essential thing is the recognition and acknowledgment that the Heavenly Doctrine is the Word of the Lord in His Second Coming, and therefore of Divine Authority in our faith and our life. Any form of such acknowledgment, however slight, is welcome, for it opens the way to a full acknowledgment. What the LIFE has been opposing all these years has been the denial, (embodied in the Resolution of the General Convention of the year 1902), that the Writings are the Word in any sense whatsoever.


     Mr. W. H. Acton, in the QUARTERLY, admits that the Writings are the Word,-but he qualifies this admission by stating that they are the Word in a certain "restricted" sense. The admission places all his other arguments,-apparently to the contrary of this admission,-hors de combat, and therefore they need no further consideration. There remains only the question as to the "restricted" sense in which he admits the Writings to be the Word.

     From his own words we learn that he considers them the Word in the "restricted" sense of being "the revelation of interior Divine Truth from the Lord" "one with the Internal Sense which is the very life and soul of the Word," "and thus the Lord Himself Who is the Divine Truth."

     This is the "restricted" sense in which he admits the Writings to be the Word. Could anything be more un-restricted, more unbounded, closer to the Infinite? It is a truth, which no one in the New Church will venture to deny, that the higher we ascend in the scale of degrees, the less restricted and the more universal do things become. It is known that the Lord Himself, as the Infinite Divine Truth, is the Word in the most universal and unbounded sense. And hence the celestial sense of the Word, which treats of the Lord alone, is the Word in a more universal and less restricted sense than the Word in the lower spiritual sense which treats of man and his regeneration. And the internal sense as a whole is the Word in a more universal and unrestricted sense than the Word in this world which treats of times and places and individual persons.

     And similarly, in the series of written revelations that have been given to men on this earth, the Writings of the New Church-which are one with the Internal Sense, and thus the Lord Himself in His Second Coming-cannot possibly be regarded as the Word in a more "restricted" or limited sense than the earlier and more external and ultimate revelations. On the contrary, it is the Word in the letter that is the Word of the Lord in the most restricted sense,-the most literal, strict and technical sense of the term.



MORE FROM BASUTOLAND              1916

     The most recent news from our friends in Basutoland is contained in the following letter:

     Liphiring, Dec. 13_1915.

     The site is given by the Paramount Chief, Letsie: II at Qhuqhu for everything the New Church business; is not builds yet. We wish to appoint one your minister to come and teach us in same place as head Quarter and to establish Theologe school and press, library, Book room, to sell them.
     Yours truly,
          S. M. MOFOKENG,
          B. F. SERUTLA,

     We understand from this letter that the Paramount Chief, Letsie II,-great-grandson of Mosche, and hereditary patriarch of the Basuto nation,-has granted a tract of land to be used as central headquarters for the New Church in the country, but that no buildings have been erected there as yet. And our brethren desire that one of our ministers be appointed as resident missionary in Basutoland to establish a theological school, New Church press, etc. We can only express our regrets that the man and the means for this purpose are not yet in evidence. The Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal is needed at his post in Durban, Natal, and there is no other minister as yet foot-free and prepared to enter upon missionary work among the Gentiles. In the meantime, Bishop N. D. Pendleton has responded to the request of our Basuto friends for official recognition, and a suitable collection of New Church literature has been sent to them.

     We have received also a translation into the Sesuto language of the letter which, as Secretary of the General Church, we addressed to the Rev. S. M. Mofokeng, on August 22, 1915. This was a surprise, and we regret that our friends did not select something directly from the Heavenly Doctrine as the first thing to be translated into their native tongue. But we understand that they desire this letter to be printed here, (since they have no press of their own), to be distributed in their country. As the easiest means to this end we have decided to publish the letter in the LIFE, and to have copies struck off from the type.


The setting of this document will be a difficult task for our printers, but it will give our readers an interesting sample of the Sesuto, and may induce some one to take up the study of that tongue.


Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Phato 22, 1915

Rev. Samuel M. Mofokeng.
Liphiring, Basutoland.
Ngoaneso ho Jerusalema e Mocha:-

     Ebile makalo e kholo, le thabo, ha ke bala mangolo a neng a ngoletsoe morena mobishopo, ke Rev. F. B. GyIlenhaal maloka le ho hohola ha Kercke Encha Lesotha.

     Swedenborg Boolceng ea hae, ea T'senolo ea nzoea, pale ea tsona 4777: "A bua a re Kercke ena ha e senyeha mona Europe, etla kiongoa moo Afrika," le ii bakeng tse ling T'senolo ea bo profeta ba buka ea Thuto ea leholimo, bo tla amokeloa ke ma-Afrika, ba tsuanang ie ba memuoa botteng, eseng ha yoalo ka ba mahareng a bobe, ba ttetseng bolotsana, yoalo ka moloko oa khale oa Makhooa.

     Ho fetile lilemo tse le kholo, maloko a Kercke Encha Europe le Amerika ba ntse ba tatimile qaleho oa Kerck'e Encha hara ba Lichaba. Ha ho fitile lilemo Tharo, ebile moo re qala ho hoa uttoa ho tsamaea ha Kercke encha k'uana India; joale pelo tsa rona li ttetse le thabo, le tsepo, le ho khothala, le mattafetse, ke litaba tsa Jerusalema e mocha e qalehile ruri ho theoka ho Molimo, maholimong ha'ra ha bacha le Lechaba se ratekang Semahla hoa ha se hdo mefuteng ea Afrika. Re leboha Morena ea aumeletseng ha bona letsatsi la phetha-halo ea boprofeta ha hae.

     Re balile tsa mosebetsi oaMohlomphehi Godfrey Lagden BASOTHO; le ile a thabisoa haholo tsa lona bohale ba lona le botsepehi ba lona le mafolofolo a lona. Mosebetsing oona, le libugeng tse ling, ke tta ngola tsa fatsa la lona le batho bi lona, ha nako e se efihlele ea here Mr. Gyllenhaal ha hlahisa tsa leeto la hae Lesdho.


     Morena mobishopo N. D. Pendleon le maloko oohle a Kercke encha ba thaba haholo mosebetsing oa lona, re tta le phetihela ntho tsohle, ka matta a rona re tta etsetsa pele ho holisa Kercke par Basotho. Taba ea pele ke ho et;sa ntlongana ea bokello ea libuka tsa Kercke lencha lefatsing lona, ka ho rcmella sehlotsoana sena sa libuka, seq Moren ho tteng ha hae ha la bobeli secr ngotsoeng ke mohlanka a hae Emanuel Swedenlrorg ka paballo. Bokello eena ea libuka ebe makareng, here ebe mo leseli la leholimo le ttalahlehla mahlaseli a lona befatseng la lona. Ba bang ba lona ba ka bala buo ea Senyesemane, ka buka tsena ba tt;a ithuta ha hole ii makatso tsa nete ea leholimo la thuto ea lona. Ke ile ka uttoa here le na le lildlo tse lokileng. Moo ho ithutang ba bacha ba bangata ho bala le ho bua ka Senyesemane.

     Ke maketse ha ke uttoa here o amohetse BOPHELO BA KERCKE ENCHA,-ha, ke homang-me ke bele ke thabile uttoa hoo le rata le rata libuka tsa rona, hoo ho tta le etsa "matta le matta" tumelong ea: Jerusalema ea Mocha. Ke suabile ha sale le sa amohele libuka, ho hlaheng ha ntoa eena e kholo, empa pe tta lokisa here ke romelle ho lona tse sa lefioeng ka khoeli le khoeli. Ka taelo ea Mr. Gyllenhaal le na ke tta kopa BOPHELO here bo romelloe ho battatsi ba hao ba baruti, kantte ho tefo, David Khaile, Epainetus Myaredi, Bethuel Serutla, le Zakiea Lipale.

     Ke thaba ho romella limpho ea libukanyana tsa ka e bitsoang, LILEMO TSA THABO, eo eleny taba ea Kercke tsa Khale, tse bitsoang Adama; le tsa BOPI-IELO BA SWEDENBORG, tse ngoletioeng ba bacha; le libuka tsa mongolo o mokutsoanyane trsa maiukutto, ea JERUSALEMA E MOCHA, tse tta sebeliesoa ke ba romuoa mesebetsi oa lonp. Laeba le rata libukanyana tsena, ke tta le romella tsona.

     Ke ho romella BOPHELO BA KERCKE ENCHA ba khoeli ea Phato 1913, moo o tta fumana litaba tsa "Kercke Encha le Baiichaba;" tse hlahisoa ha moho ka Tsenolo ea Swedenborg maloka le mekhoa ea ba lichaba le tsoelo pele ea Kercke Encha ha ra ba. Mohlomong o ka fetda lipampiri tsena ka buo ea Sesuto. Ho na le buka engoe eo ka ho thabasang; e bitsoang
HO.KRISTE RA NETE BA AFRIKA LE THUTO EA BONA LE KHOPOLO EA HAE TEMEKNOA; tse hlahisotoeng ke mokolo-holo ea Kercke Encha mongoli, Ngaka Wilkinson. Ke tta le romella buka eena London.


     Hara mangolo a romeletsoeni ke Mr. Gyllenhaal ho no ho ena le mangolo a Rev. D. W. Mooki a Krugersdorp, Transvaal, moruti motso ea amoketsing thuto ea leholimo. Na tsebang ka eena ka mosebetsi oa hae re?

     Salebeletse lengolo le tsuang ha Mr. Gyllenhaal le tta hlahisa hante toa leeto la hae Lesotho, ke ka ngola ho tsoela peie nakong ea joale holima ha lona ngoanesa. Ea ratehang, oa mo-Africa, Morena mohaung o hlahisetse hlonepho e khlolo hoba lesole la Kercke Encha har'a ma Afrika, oa ho qala har'a mangata ba se nang pale ba ka nako ettang'ba tta phetha teboho ea lipelo mantsoe a Morena oa rona: "bathe ba lutseng lefifing ba bone leseli, la ba lutseng meriting oa lefu, ba bone leseli le beng etsa hole." (Isaiah 9:23; Matth. 4:13.)

     Ke ho lakaletsa mahlonolo a le holimo le bohle banabeno moo Lesotho, ke tsepa here tta ngolla ha ngata ka to koloho ho rona.
     kea ema
     ngoaneso moreneng Kerckeng Encha
     C. TH. ODHNER
     Mangoli oa Kercke ea Kopano
     ea Jerusalema e Mocha.

Translated by
     Bethuel Isibele Serutla
     David Metsing Monyake.
Corrected by Samuel M. Mofokeng,


     For the sake of comparison we publish also the English original of the letter.

Rev. Samuel M. Mofokeng.
Liphiring, Basutoland.

My Brother in the New Jerusalem:-
     It was with the greatest surprise and pleasure that I read the documents sent to our Bishop by the Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal concerning the growth of the New Church in Basutoland.

     Swedenborg, in his SPIRITUAL DIARY, number 4777, states that "the Church which is now perishing in Europe, will be established in Africa," and in many places the Revelator prophecies that the Heavenly Doctrine will be received by the Africans, who are like virgin soil and not filled with interior evils and falsities like the old European nations.

     For more than a hundred years the members of the New Church in Europe and America have been looking for a beginning of the New Church among the Gentiles.


It was only three years ago that we first heard of a New Church movement in India; and now our hearts are filled with joy and our hope and courage strengthened by the news that the New Jerusalem has indeed begun to descend from God out of Heaven in the midst of a young and noble nation of the great African race. We thank the Lord that we have been permitted to see the dawn of the fulfillment of His prophecy.

     I have read Sir Godfrey Lagden's work on the "The Basutos," and was deeply interested in his account of your brave, upright and industrious nation. From this work, and some other books, I shall write a description of your land and its people when the time comes to publish Mr. Gyllenhaal's report of his visit to Basutoland.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton and all the members of the New Church here are deeply interested in your work and we shall do everything within our ability to promote the growth of the Church among the Basutos. The first thing to do will be to establish a little New Church library in your land by sending you a collection of those books which the Lord in His Second Coming wrote through His inspired servant, Emanuel Swedenborg. Such a library will be a center, from which the light of heaven will spread its rays in your land. Some of you are able to read the English language and will from these books learn more of the wonderful truths of the Heavenly Doctrine, which they can then communicate in your own tongue to the rest of your brethren. And I have read that you have good schools, in which many of the young people are learning to read and speak English.

     I was surprised to learn that you had received the NEW CHURCH LIFE,-I know not from whom-and it made me very happy to hear that you like our journal, and that it had made you "stronger, stronger" in the faith of the New Jerusalem. I am sorry that you have not received the journal since the outbreak of the great war, but we will now arrange to have it sent to you, free of cost, every month. At the recommendation of Mr. Gyllenhaal we will also send it to your assistant ministers, David Khaile, Epainetus, Nyaredi, Bethuel Serutla, and Zakiea Lilpale.

     I take pleasure, also, in sending you as presents some little books of mine: THE GOLDEN AGE, which is a history of the Most Ancient Church, called Adam; a BIOGRAPHY OF SWEDENEORG, Written for young people; and ten copies of A BRIEF VIEW OF THE NEW JERUSALEM, for use in your missionary work. If you like this little book we can send you more copies.

     I would call your attention to the NEW CHURCH LIFE for August, 1913, where you will find an article on "The New Church and the Gentiles;" it brings together many of the things revealed through Swedenborg concerning the character of the Gentiles and the prospects of the New Church among them. Perhaps you cduld.translate the paper into the Sesuto language. There is another book in which you will he interested; it is called THE AFRICAN AND THE "TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION" HIS MAGNA CHARTA, and it was written by our grand old New Church author, Dr. Wilkinson.


I must order a copy of the book for you from London.

     Among the documents sent by Mr. Gyllenhaal there were some letters from the Rev. D. W. Mooki, of Krugersdorp, Transvaal,-a native minister who has received the Heavenly Doctrine. Do you know anything about him and his work?

     As we are still waiting for the letter in which Mr. Gyllenhaal will give a full account of his visit to Basutoland, I will not write further at present. Upon you, my dear African brother, the Lord in His mercy has bestowed the great honor to become the pioneer of the New Church among the Africans,-the first among countless millions who in time to come will repeat with grateful hearts the words of our Lord: "The people which sat in darkness have seen a great light, and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up." (Isaiah 9:23; Matthew 4:13.)

     Wishing every blessing of heaven upon you and upon all the other brethren in Basuto-land, and hoping that you will write often and freely to us, I remain, Your brother in the Lord's New Church, C. Th. ODHNER, Secretary of the General Church of the New Jerusalem.



     Bryn Athyn, Pa.,
     February 17, 1916.

Mr. Raymond Pitcairn,
     Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Dear Raymond:-
     At a recent meeting of the Joint Council of the General Church, called to consider the mode of procedure in selecting a Bishop, two propositions were laid before the meeting, one by yourself and the other by Mr. Alden. Both of these proposals had in view some provision whereby the members of the Executive Committee should take part in the deliberations which of necessity should occur prior to the naming of a Bishop before the General Assembly. And both of them, I believe, in some degree recognize that the initiative in the naming of a Bishop should be with the Clergy, though Mr. Alden's proposition was more definite on that point.


     As the discussion progressed I made the suggestion that we adopt neither plan as stated, but agree that a meeting of the Joint Council be held prior to the Assembly in order to make the final arrangements for placing the name of the chosen candidate before the Assembly. In explaining the meaning of this suggestion, I said that it would give opportunity for considering the suitability of the candidate from the standpoint of the layman as well as from that of the priests. It appeared to me obvious that the judgment of representative laymen, and especially of those intimately associated with the priests in the work of the Church, should be heard in this matter; that it should be granted its due influence on the ground that laymen are qualified to judge of the qualities which will make a man a suitable Bishop of the Church from their viewpoint; and that for this reason occasion should be provided in order that such judgment might find expression. In this case judgment would be given and counsel interchanged between priests and laymen in a more intimate way than is feasible on the floor of a General Assembly. With this in view, as something altogether in order and quite in harmony with the modes and principles of our ecclesiastical government, I suggested calling a Joint Meeting for this purpose, and expressed the thought with reference to the final arrangements that it would be well if a priest in the name of our ministerial body place the name of the chosen candidate before the Assembly, and that this naming be seconded by a member of the Executive Committee in the name of that Committee.

     You will recall that my proposal was adopted, there being one vote in the negative and one vote withheld. The negative vote was cast as a protest against yielding anything of the priestly prerogative, it being held that the "election" of a Bishop is a purely ecclesiastical matter to be attended to by the priests. It is hardly necessary for me to say that I do not agree with this view, nor to add that I am not yielding any priestly prerogative. I am not "yielding" anything. A just request should not be "yielded" to, but freely granted as of right, and provided for. In so far as I perceive a request to be just and of order it is my duty to take part in that request. This expresses my attitude.

     Another vote was withheld on the ground that my proposal allowed for just the process in the mode of selecting a Bishop which Mr. Alden's proposal essayed to provide, namely, it gave opportunity for the Council of the Clergy to exercise the initiative and select a candidate, and yet opened the way for the consideration of the suitability of such candidate by the members of the Executive Committee in joint session with the ministers, before the naming in open Assembly.


It was said that I was allowing by "indirection" that which Mr. Alden would have arranged by a positive and definite provision. I have some complaint against the implication in the word "indirection," inasmuch as the purpose in my suggestion was obvious to all and quite fully explained. It was obvious that the calling of a Joint Meeting would allow of some such process as Mr. Alden's plan definitely proposed. Why then did I offer my suggestion as a substitute for Mr. Alden's "plain and straightforward provision?" He wanted to do two things "straight out in the open." He wanted to provide for the preservation of the initiative with the Clergy, and for consultation with members of the Executive Committee, before the name went to the Assembly. I was in sympathy with Mr. Alden's intention in both of these matters but I held that the initiative belongs to the Clergy.

     Let us suppose that Mr. Alden's proposal, or the one presented by you had been offered as a resolution and adopted. In that case the mode of procedure would have become obligatory. Under such a resolution the initiative would have been conferred upon the Council of the Clergy. To this I objected on the ground that it has been with them from the beginning of our Church as a power derived from the priestly office. The form of our church government is episcopal. The Bishop carries the full powers of the priesthood, ordains all priests and names all pastors. No one-priest or layman-has questioned this; it is acknowledged by all. This acknowledgment is based on the apperception that our form of government is drawn from the Divinely revealed statements that the priests are the governors of the Church, and that there must be order and subordination among priests; also from the doctrine delivered in CORONIS 17, concerning the perfection of a trine in just order, as in the church where there is a "primus infulatus," parish priests, and curates under them. The Bishop carries the full powers of the priesthood and therefore represents in his administration the whole use of the priesthood.


It is on this ground that the Bishop alone, of all the priests, ordains into the priesthood and names the pastors of the churches, the people of the churches choosing one from among those named. If then it is agreed to by all that the Bishop alone should ordain and nominate pastors,-if this is important, if it is vital to the proper exercise of the episcopal function in the Church, (and the term Bishop would be a mere name if the office were stripped of these powers)-how then about the ordaining and naming of a Bishop? That the ordination of a Bishop should be performed by a Bishop is freely granted. But according to our long established custom the Bishop also nominates the pastors of the churches. Is not then, the naming of a Bishop of a Church also an episcopal function? If we had a number of dioceses and several bishops, it would doubtless be agreeable to our order for the primary or initiatory nomination to come from the House of Bishops. But where such a House is lacking the episcopal function of naming must devolve upon the priesthood as a whole, since the priesthood as a whole has episcopal power, and must be able to exercise it on occasion. This power is, as I have said, that of naming. It is, if you please, a wise limiting of the field of choice. It is so in the case of a pastor, where there is a placing of the name of one or more suitable candidates before the church for acceptance.

     You see I hold that this naming is an episcopal function whether it be exercised in the case of naming a bishop or a pastor, or whether its exercise be by a Bishop or by the whole priesthood. But in my opinion there is a difference between naming and actual choice. No Bishop can place a pastor whom, the people have not chosen. He may for a time install a minister, but such a minister is not the pastor of that church. Nor can the whole body of the Clergy seat a Bishop of the General Church without the assent of the Assembly. But they can and should name the candidate, one or more, to the Assembly, with which body,-as standing for the whole Church-lies the ultimate choice. But our Assembly as it is now constituted is in the nature of a mass-meeting,-its reaction is necessarily very general. Its floor is not a fitting place for those intimate consultations which should be interchanged not only between priests, but also between priests and leading laymen, with reference to the fitness of a candidate for the office of Bishop of the Church.


Such consultations ought to be provided for. In this way the abruptness of a direct passing of a name or names to the mass-meeting of the Assembly will be mitigated and an intelligent and very useful intermediation will be given. This intermediation is, in my opinion, agreeable to the principles laid down in the Doctrines, and I am convinced that it is in harmony with the spirit of our traditions as a Church, though we have no direct precedent for it. Let me note here that it is rather the spirit than the letter of our traditions which we should endeavor to carry forward; and if there is one of our traditions concerning the modes of government that is stronger than others it is that we "should not legislate for the future." Now if we should not legislate for the future but act intelligently for the time being, it can hardly be expected that we should unduly bind ourselves by the letter of legislation of the past. Certainly we may do that which now seems best. It is a cardinal principle with us that the priesthood is a medium, and in order to be a medium it must be adjustable. An intelligent body of laymen called to consult with a body of priests in the matter of the Bishop who is to preside over them all appeals to my mind as an exceedingly satisfactory arrangement, and the principle involved is not unknown in our episcopal practices.

     When in Pittsburgh, acting for Bishop W. F. Pendleton, I first placed the names of the pastor candidates before the council of the Society. I assure you that in that case this was quite necessary, and was attended with the best results. I have reason to believe that a like mode of procedure has been followed on other occasions. And this is that which we propose in the case of the choosing of a Bishop for the General Church, that is, to place our ministerial nomination before that joint body which stands as a general council for the Church and intermediates for the Assembly.

     With us the choosing of a Bishop is more a process than an election in which there is a counting of votes. The candidate, before taking office, must be raised to the third degree of the priesthood; that is, he must be a priest holding full power by the whole priesthood; he must receive the nomination from the hands of his brother priests; he should also have the favoring approval of the leading laymen in consultation with the priests; and finally he must be given an affirmative vote by the members of the Church in Assembly.


Not, however, until this ultimate ratification by the Assembly is he the Bishop in permanency, fully commissioned and duly authorized to govern the Church.

     It may be said that I lay much stress upon the point that in this process of selecting a Bishop the naming must be by the Council of the Clergy, the priest body. I do, for I regard it as vital to our order in itself and to its standing in the Church. Consider this-the Bishop must be a priest, he must have risen through the three grades, he must stand forth from the priesthood as a body, as a leader of the priests, to serve the whole Church. By what power does he thus stand forth? Certainly by no power of his own, nor is he called by the Church as organized apart from the priesthood, in any other sense than as pastors are called by their societies. There is usually given a selective power to societies, but limited by the Bishop's nominations. The naming of a Bishop, when done by action of the whole priesthood, organized into its three distinct grades, is an episcopal action. I ask from what other source can a nomination of a Bishop of a Church be derived, if it is to bear any analogy or likeness to the mode of nominating pastors? If our societies should call their pastors without regard to the Bishop's nominations, a fundamental bond of our episcopal government would be broken, and the immediate effect would be a reversion to the Congregational form. I think it most important that this should be clearly seen and recognized by all priests and leading laymen.

     I note that in your proposal you say that "the Council of the Clergy shall hold a meeting to suggest "candidates." If I understand the meaning of the word suggest, I am willing that anyone should do this. If I understand a "suggestion," I may not only reject it but may take another suggestion from an entirely different quarter. If the Bishop only suggested the names of pastors the Bishop's power would be only suggestive. No, the idea is that a society may not in order go aside from the Bishop's nominations, and to my knowledge no society in the General Church has ever done so.

     Apparently a difficulty arises in the matter of choice when but one candidate is named.


But this is not a real difficulty in case the unity of the priesthood bespeak a unity of mind in the Church. It simply means that there will be little excitement in any of the final stages of the proceedings. In such case there will be no excitement, no contest, not even in the body of the clergy when sitting for the purpose of nominating. If, however, the priests should force upon themselves an artificial unity by the application of some binding unit rule, for the sake of forcing through a candidate of a majority faction, then we should have excitement and contest in the Ministers' Council, in the Joint Council, and even on the floor of the Assembly. It is my opinion that such an effort would not met with success.

     I have spoken of the candidate in the singular for the sake of convenience and brevity. I hold that the priesthood should name one or more candidates. In case of more than one, each should receive the nomination of the whole priesthood. That is, they should not be presented as majority and minority candidates, as would be the case if the Ministers' Council acted simply as a nominating committee. In a word, the priesthood, acting as one, should place a name or names before the Church for its choice and acceptance in much the same spirit and manner as the Bishop of a church nominates pastors for the local churches. This should not be by the adoption of a binding unit rule for the sake of forcing through a majority candidate, but instead we should hold to our longstanding unanimity rule. This with us has never meant the forcing of the will of the majority upon the minority, but rather a spirit of patient waiting until all could see together. In my opinion, the naming of a pastor or a Bishop is an episcopal act which may on occasion be undertaken by the whole priesthood of a church acting as one. This being so, a majority or minority candidate would not answer the requirements. Of course, we know not what may arise in the course of our human affairs. I am speaking of the ideal to which we should look.

     A final word in regard to the part played by the Joint Council in this process of selecting a Bishop, and especially by the lay members of that body. The whole body of the Clergy acting as a unit cannot seat a Bishop of the General Church without an affirmative ratification by the Assembly, and such affirmative action will to a large degree depend upon the attitude of the leading or representative laymen.


Having in the Church a body of such laymen, a consultation is called. Meeting in joint council, the Clergy say in effect: Gentlemen, this is the name of our candidate. What do you say? Is he, in your view, suitable, and is the Church ready to receive this nomination? If the answer is yes, then we may go forward. If no, then it will be the part of wisdom for the Clergy to withdraw, and either reconsider, or await the time when agreement can be reached.

     This letter is long, but I hope you will find time to read it. Sincerely yours, (Signed.) N. D. PENDLETON.



     George A. Macbeth, one of the pillars of the New Church in Pittsburgh, and a member of the Corporation of the Academy of the New Church, passed into the spiritual world on February 11th, 1916.

     Mr. Macbeth was born at Urbana, Ohio, in the year 1845. In his youth is family, of Presbyterian stock, removed to Springfield, Ohio, and it was here that he and his sister, Helen, through their acquaintance with the Williams family in Urbana, began to study the Writings of Swedenborg, at first surreptitiously. It was a great day for them when the brother and sister discovered that both of them were reading these wonderful books.

     Mr. Macbeth was a chemist and a salesman of druggists' supplies, and in the course of his studies he became interested in the making of glass. His name is now, and has long been, a household word in this country in connection with lamp chimneys and lighting fixtures of all kinds. But this was only an incident in a career which was devoted to the production of glass for any and every purpose. Although the business grew very large and factories multiplied, Mr. Macbeth never gave up an active share in the solution of new glass problems as they arose. He studied this subject from every angle, historical, artistic and scientific points of view, and became one of the foremost authorities on glass in this country.


     For many years all of the best optical glass had to be imported from France or elsewhere. This fact was humiliating to Mr. Macbeth's patriotic pride, and after much experimenting he finally succeeded in producing an equally good glass in this country, and in securing government contracts for supplying lighthouses and other optical uses,-the most difficult and complicated work in this field. It was one of his greatest delights in later years that Uncle Sam no longer had to go abroad for anything in the glass line.

     We led the way in the production of heat-resisting glass, such as is used in chemical laboratories, and he was the original producer of the Alba glass, which has revolutionized electric lighting. Largely through this development of glass, the proper lighting of buildings has become a special branch of engineering science. His son, George D. Macbeth, who took a course in the Academy Schools at Bryn Athyn, has been prepared to carry on this work.

     Mr. Macbeth was also prominent in Library work, and was for many years a director of the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, which has done so much for the wonderful modern development of the Library use. He was himself an enthusiastic collector of rare books and engravings, and his library, where he was almost always to be found of an evening, was a famous place. It was here that a number of very important meetings of the Councils of the Church were held, in the days when Bishop Benade was in his prime, and it was at such a meeting that Mr. Macbeth himself first proposed that the General Church of Pennsylvania should sever its connection with the General Convention in order to be free to develop its uses according to the teachings of the Heavenly Doctrine.

     When those who remained loyal to the principles of the Academy separated from the old Pittsburgh Society, then worshiping in Allegheny City, it was Mr. Macbeth who was the most active in securing for the new society the present property in the East End. In recent years, also, he did much for the enlargement and improvement of the church building, and last year it was his encouragement, as much as anything, that enabled us to secure a second teacher for our parish school.

     When a member of the Church such as Mr. Macbeth is removed from our ranks, his place is not easily filled, and we shall doubtless feel is absence in many ways for some time to come, but the work that he has done, so far as it had what is of the Lord and his-service within it, cannot be lost.


It is built into the substance of our society and of its-members. His son and his two married daughters,-all of them taught in the schools of the Academy,-are still with us, to continue the line founded by his whole-hearted faith in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem.


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. We made rather novel use of the extra day granted to us this February. An energetic committee of ladies gave a feature dance to the Society. The feature was that the ladies invited their own escorts, and the whole evening's fun was based upon the leap-year custom of "women's choice." The whole affair was carried out with good humor and merriment. The young people danced late into the night to the sweet harmony of Seaman's orchestra.

     The resident ministers are engaging in a series of monthly meetings to talk over theological matters that have been disturbing the Church. The general tone at these has been very encouraging for it will only be by such frank discussion that the difficulties of the hour can be squarely met and thrashed out.

     On March 4th the "Younger Generation" met, and in the absence of Mr. Whitehead Mr. Gyllenhaal presided. The meeting was unusually successful, the evening being devoted to the discussion of our newly assumed responsibilities as members of the Bryn Athyn Burrough.

     The month's activities included two theatrical performances. The first was the play, "Tom Pinch," produced by the Civic and Social Club, under the direction of Mrs. George Heath. It was a great success both financially and from the standpoint of furnishing healthy entertainment. All the actors deserve hearty praise for their keen interpretations of their parts.

     The second performance was the comic opera, "Pinafore," by Gilbert and Sullivan. The Schools undertook this task under the direction of Mrs. R. S. Smith. Probably the most elaborate scenery ever produced upon a Bryn Athyn stage was arranged for this event. Mr. D. F. Rose and Mr. L. Price were the architects and engineers who pushed the scheme through, while many of the school boys made it possible by their faithful work. They made the stage into a veritable ship, with mast, serviceable rope ladders, and prow extending to one side.


Sails, cannon and port holes all lent a touch of the realistic, which made the scene a complete success.

     The rendering of the opera itself was fine. It was full of the joy and happiness of youth, which, combined with the intrinsic wit: of the verses and the catchiness of the tunes, made it doubly enjoyable.

     During the past month the Bishop has instituted the practice of Sunday evening services at which, every other week, the theologues have a chance to hold forth. The evening services for this closed March 19th.

     "At last we are discovered!" The inhabitants of San Salvador are reported (by Bill Nye) to have exclaimed thus as Columbus landed on its shore. And so did the dismayed inhabitants of Bryn Athyn as they read Mrs. Bosman's sensational write-up in the Sunday edition of the PUBLIC LEDGER for February 27th, 1916. The account of our community was doubtless well intended, but is bristling with inaccuracies, exaggerations, and phantastic inventions, which would be amusing did they not drag in our womenfolks-literally by their "wonderful hair." The dear public is informed that our girls marry "at 16 or 17 usually," and that they "want to marry!" And "woman's place in heaven, they consider, is in direct ratio to the number of little souls she has brought into the world and prepared for eternity!" No effort has been made to correct these and other misleading Statements, for an answer in the LEDGER would only produce more newspaper notoriety. K. R. A.

     GLENVIEW, ILL. One of the most elaborate social entertainments we have had this season was on Washington's Birthday, under the management of Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Lee. The barn was beautifully decorated with flags; one enormous flag covered the ceiling almost completely. The entertainment consisted of patriotic songs, tableaux vivant and the exhibition dance of the minuet. As this was too advanced for the children, they were delighted by an afternoon party given the same day at the Manse.

     There was also a Valentine's Day party on the 14th that was well attended and very enjoyable. The uncertain weather has been somewhat of a handicap to these events.


     The approach of spring is betokened by the appearance of birds of passage; thus a horned owl made a short stay en route for the north. Robins have come and grackles are occasionally seen. That: unpleasant accompaniment of the spring-bad roads-is with us. One meeting that should have been mentioned sooner was a very harmonious one of the whole society for the purpose of receiving reports of work done on the buildings, authorizing a continuance of the same and considering the uses of various rooms in the new buildings.

     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR. On the 19th of December I visited MILVERTON, Ontario, and conducted services at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Doering. Six persons were present, all of whom partook of the Holy Supper.

     The 20th to the 23d of January were spent with the Circle in CINCINNATI. TWO evening doctrinal classes were held; at the first the subject was "Man's Relation to Both Worlds," at the second, "Influx." On both occasions the interest was so active that, after two hours' conversation, the evening could be brought to a close only by breaking off abruptly. One afternoon was given to a Children's Service, at which six children, representing three families, were present. Services were held on Sunday, the 23d, at which eleven persons were present. At the Holy Supper there were six communicants.

     On the 24th I arrived at MIDDLEPORT, Ohio, to spend ten days with the Society there. Notwithstanding adverse conditions,-two families were under quarantine, and the roads so bad that the friends in the country could not come in,-the Society was as zealous as ever in desiring to derive all possible benefit from the pastoral visit, as is evident from the fact that during the ten days there were held two doctrinal classes, two ladies' meetings, two men's meetings, a celebration Of Swedenborg's Birthday, and two services. At the doctrinal classes, the subjects considered were "The Degrees of Worship and of Doctrine" and "Entrance into the Spiritual World." At the ladies' meetings, the principles of New Church education were presented. Several persons, not. of the Church, were present at both meetings, and manifested considerable interest. The subject at the men's meetings was "The Origin of Conjugial Love."


The celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday, held in the evening of the 28th, was most delightful. Eighteen persons were seated at the banquet. Toasts appropriate to the occasion were proposed and responded to. Then followed conversation, continued late into the evening, on various subjects of doctrine. Services were held on Sunday, January 30th. In the morning there was an attendance of eighteen, of whom thirteen partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening a missionary sermon was given, the subject being "The Divine Trinity." Thirty-one persons were present, of whom, fifteen were strangers. Some interest, we hear, was awakened.

     The next point visited was ERIE, Pa. Here a doctrinal class was held on Saturday evening, February 5th. There was an attendance of fifteen persons. At the classes here "Divine Love and Wisdom" is being read. The next day services were held, including a baptism and the administration of the Holy Supper. The attendance was twenty-four, and the number of communicants sixteen.

     The week from February 29th to March 6th was spent with the three Evens families at PENETANG and RANDOLPH, Ontario. I officiated at three baptisms -and a marriage. On Sunday, March 6th, services were held, but on account of unfavorable conditions only six persons were present. Of these, four partook of the Holy Supper. F. E. WAELCHLI.

     LONDON. Since our last appearance in these columns military liabilities have pressed closer than ever. Inasmuch as these are altering the phase of our society life a better idea can be given of the change if a brief outline be given of one of the methods by which the manhood of the country has been organized for war duties.

     During last autumn Lord Derby's scheme for the formation of an Army Reserve was brought into operation. This involved the division of eligible civilians into "Groups." Each Group was numbered according to age. Groups 1 to 23 constituted the unmarried men between the ages of 19 and 41, while Groups numbered 24 to 46 included the married men of the same ages. It was then possible for one to enlist (under the voluntary principle) either directly into the Army or into the Reserve and await to be called up at a later date in order of the rotation of the Groups.


     In consequence of the evident new societary duty the following members of our circle presented themselves for attestation:-Messrs. Harold Ball, Edward Boozer, D. Elphick, Felix Elphick, Edward Morris, D. Mckay, W. H. Stebbing, Edward Waters and J. E. Waters. Some were rejected on medical grounds, but the majority await their respective calls. Mr. R. A. Stebbing, whose firm is already in connection with military work, is recognized as on War Service.

     Since our last report Mr. Elrad Acton has joined the Royal Engineers; Mr. Geoffry Morris has been drafted to the Front, and Messrs. Fred. and Alan Waters are serving in the Medical Corps in a London Hospital. Messrs. Leon Rose and Karel Acton have undergone some terrible experiences at the Front, and no news has been received from Mr. Osmond Acton, who was in connection with the Dardanelles expedition.

     With all these several anxieties it is quite natural that energy has been diverted from Doctrinal Classes, Music practices and Socials. The fortnightly Services, however, keep us together, while the School Social on December 22d, and the Celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday, on February 6th, were two enjoyable breaks in our long spell of silence.

     The details of the School Social we have already forwarded to "The Bulletin." The program for the Celebration held on the 6th was in the good hands of the Rev. A. Czerny.

     With great convenience to the friends, Service was held at 4 p. m., instead of the usual morning hour. Following this all were accommodated for tea, and after a congenial tea-table talk, Mr. Czerny introduced the subject for the evening-"Divine Revelations."

     The first set of papers dealt with the Descending Series, or successive veilings of Divine Truth. With quotations supplied by Mr. Czerny, Mr. Anderson dealt with the "Adamic Revelation," Mr. Waters the "Noatic," and Mr. Howard the "Mosaic Law and Prophecies." The second half of the program consisted of the Ascending Series, or successive unveilings of Divine Truth.


Mr. Rose took the First Christian Revelation, while the Second Christian, or Immediate Revelation given in the Writings of the New Church was considered in its "Doctrinal," "Descriptive" and "Prophetic" forms. The first two were included in a reading of passages from the Writings themselves by Mr. Archie Stebbing, and the third or Prophetic form was embodied in a paper by Mr. D. Elphick.

     The series afforded a very pleasant evening and the reunion was concluded by the singing of the hymn "God Bless Our Native Land"-a hymn, we may add, which was phrased in accordance with the universal faith of the New Church. F. W. E.


     UNITED STATES. The Rev. Samuel S. Seward died at Pittsfield, Mass., on February 22d, 1916, at the age of 78 years. Mr. Seward entered the Ministry in 1869, served as pastor of the New York Society from 1878 to 1897, and as President of the General Convention from 1900 to 1911.

     The Men's Club of the Pittsburgh (Convention) Society reports in the MESSENGER for February 23: "The most important use of this body is the apparent fact that it is likely to be a channel through which we may interest the outside world in our beloved doctrines. During the month we had the pleasure of a very intellectual address by the Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, of the Pittsburgh Academy Society."

     Work on the new church building of the Detroit Society has progressed so far that worship and Sunday School are now held regularly in the Sunday School room. Dr. Gustafson is well enough to conduct the morning service every Sunday.

     The Rev. J. S. David has resigned from the pastorate of the New Church Society in O'Farret St., San Francisco.

     The General Convention is to meet at Chicago, June 13 to 20.

     The New York Society celebrated its centenary anniversary on January 30th, 1916. We quote the following from a sermon by the Rev. Julian K. Smyth commemorative of the occasion (MESSENGER, Feb. 23): "Edward Reily, a Newchurchman from England, came to New York in 1805. . . . The ANNALS declare that 'soon after his arrival he began a search for those professing the doctrines of the New Church' . . . and 'considered himself fortunate in finding two Persons who were readers and felt an interest in the works of the Church-a Mr. Mott and a Mrs. Gallon:' Their faith and interest were contagious.


Others became interested." So from this little center the work grew until there were sufficient believers "to organize themselves as a New Church Society," which took place on January 27th, 1816, with "twenty-six male members." The ladies, it seems, were not counted in those days.

     A letter from a receiver in Salt Lake City, Utah, to the Swedenborg Printing and Pub. Society, is quoted in the MESSENGER for February 23: "I have a class in Swedenborg. That is the reason for my ordering two sets. Usually I have the people order themselves. The orders coming from Salt Lake are from my class. Formed a class to study Swedenborg from his works. It is going very well. It always appeared to me that the teaching of Swedenborg from his own works was more clear. Also wish to tell you that among the people in the class many told me that life and the world is more clear to them since the study."

     GREAT BRITAIN. From a private letter from the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck to the editor of the MESSENGER We publish the following items:

     "We feel the war more and more. The taxes are very high indeed. I am simply unable to pay mine in the time assigned, but the tax collector is willing to wait. The streets are darkened at night; lights, shaded, are to be seen only at street corners. The slightest infraction on the part of shops or residences, of the lighting orders, are instantly punished by heavy fines. Our church looks rather dismal in the evening service, and even then, to step out on to the street, seems like stepping into black darkness. Mrs. Schreck and I visited the scene of one of the air-raids. It is dreadful the way that innocent, and mostly poor people, have been injured by the air-raid. But it makes people all the more determined to fight the war to a finish.

     "Our church activities [in Birmingham] continue as before, but attendance has been greatly diminished by the enlistment of fifty-eight, while others are detained from many meetings by work on munitions or other war work, and by service in the home defense, as special constables (even the wealthiest take their part in this) and the like.


Great Britain never was as much in earnest as in this war. Let us hope that: it will mean a pause in warfare for a very long time to come.

     "The strain is telling on Mrs. Schreck. I am sending her to the Cotswolds this week to recuperate. There she will be far from 'war's allarums.' "

ORGANIZATION       R. B. CALDWELL       1916


VOL. XXXVI. MAY, 1916           No. 5
     In the work, entitled DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, we are taught that "love consists in this: that its own should be another's: to feel the joy of another as joy in oneself. This is to love. But to feel one's own joy in another, and not the other's joy in oneself, is not to love, for this is to love oneself; whereas the former is to love the neighbor."

     If the organization which we are to consider at this time was to be effected between men and women who comprehend and practice the doctrine that love consists in feeling the joy of another as joy in one's self, the subject could be easily disposed of. In other words, if we had to deal with men and women from whose lives all selfish aims and unworthy ambitions had, by regeneration, been eliminated, then organization for beneficent purposes would be a simple matter. But we find the parts of which we are to form a unit, heavily cumbered with loves fixed for personal aggrandizement, with passions, ambitions, and strong desires for selfish gratification, and little or no thought of feeling the joy of another as joy in themselves. And, this being the case, we can hope to organize for common good, only by each one taking these conditions into his serious consideration and meeting the requirements in the way suggested in Bishop W. F. Pendleton's address on "Law, Obedience and Organization" (N. C. LIFE, 1914, p. 65.)

     By familiarizing ourselves with the law and by bringing our lives into obedience to it, organization must follow as a natural sequence. The Bishop has placed Law first in the order, then Obedience and Organization.


In our unregenerate state we find ourselves strong in opinions which have only our prejudices as a basis. Opinions based upon prejudice are the ones we usually stick to with the greatest tenacity; they come to be part and pared of our proprium, and this is unfortunate because when we once obtain the consent of our will to a proposition, we have great difficulty in changing,-the will being not only obstinate and tenacious but always wrong with the unregenerate. It is therefore of the very greatest importance that when the will's consent is obtained it be for a proposition that is true, for if true it will be for the best for the common good.

     The law to the Newchurchman is the Divine Revelation given for the New Church, and therefore his obedience must be to the Doctrine of life given in this Revelation. As already intimated, if the lives of the men and women who form an organization, or are about to attempt organization, were regulated by an intelligent conception of the doctrines given to the New Church and by a desire on their part to live these doctrines; then organization would give us no anxious concern; but we all know from experience that much ground must be covered by every one before it call be said of him that he is prepared for organization, or in other words, is prepared to work in harmony with his neighbor for the common good.

     Organizations of men and women for various purposes have existed ever since men first appeared upon earth. History tells us of the rise and fall of Governments, Empires and Nations, and it has been throughout the ages. Organizations formed for the purpose of accomplishing the ends of this world only, brought into existence to bring about only selfish and worldly aims, in their very nature sooner or later come to an end. Organizations of this kind have in them all the elements of disruption. With such, disruption is at all times only in a state of postponement. Union with such is an appearance, the continuation of which rests upon the Unstable basis of hope of worldly advantage; when this may no longer be hoped for, the internal state of conflict becomes external, and the end is at hand. Worldly advantage as an end, and a spirit of union upon an interior plane (which alone has the elements of perpetuity in it), cannot exist at the same time with the same persons any more than the faith of the New Church and the faith of the Old Church can be accommodated by the same mind.


An attempt of this latter we know results in delirium.

     The importance of having our organizations based upon the truths of the Revelation given to the New Church, may be seen clearly from what we are told of organization in the other life, which have self-gratification as an end. We read in A. C. 1322 that evil spirits are arranged into Societies and that there is a sort of common tie whereby they are kept united; but when this common tie is dissolved, one rushes violently against another, and it is their delight each to torture his companion. This must eventually be the case with all organizations where the individuals composing such have self-gratification as their end.

     It will be seen then, that if an organization is to continue and be of use, and a source of spiritual comfort, it must have to guide it something better than that which has in the past guided the associations of men and women and that for which they associate at this day in the world. As already intimated, it must be guided by that revealed truth,-unique to the New Church but unknown in Christendom,-that revealed Truth which teaches that a man must shun his evils as sins. 'Tis a truth as simple as childhood, as clear as sunlight, and stronger to bind men together than the electric belt that binds the earth; yet how difficult it is to get the man of the world to comprehend and believe it.

     If a man has regard to his own defects and assumes an antagonistic attitude towards these, he will come into a state of consideration for the short-comings of others. The mutual struggle against evils, each of us against his own, will produce in each a state of charity attainable in no other way. A spiritual brotherhood may be established and be conducive of good and comfort, if, in our relations with each other, each one places his own evils before himself for scrutiny and judgment, instead of giving his neighbor's life this prominent position.

     Whether an organization of men and women is to be productive of good, rests upon this apparently small matter of each passing judgment on his own evils instead of each one making it his care to judge his neighbor's evils. We may be enabled to measure correctly our duty and responsibility with regard to our neighbor's evils by giving heed to the fact that the Lord permits our neighbor to have evils, and that it is better for our neighbor and his regeneration to find out his own evils for himself than to be told of them by others.


     Organization, like every other good work, must have regard to perpetuity. The Writings teach that that alone which is Eternal can be said To Be. Everything else ultimately passes away as a dream. The operations of the Divine Providence for man's happiness here and hereafter begin in the womb, continue to the grave, and last to Eternity. In this respect man may be compared to a tree; the progress of the formation of the new man may be likened to the seed, the sprout, the sapling, the trunk, the branches, the leaves; the flowers, the fruit, the new seed. So will an organization, actuated by spiritual good, have in it also the element of reproducing its like, and the emanating sphere from such will ever be a perennial source of spiritual reproduction. This cannot be said of ordinary worldly friendship, or of anything that has for its end merely worldly advantage. That friendship, like the grave, draws all things to itself and gives nothing back. Man should be a radiant, not an absorbent; that is, he should be willing to take part in the services of life as well as in its benefits. He should feel the joy of another as joy in himself.

     By the order of our creation we are mutually interested in and reciprocally dependent upon each other. Any undertaking amongst us which does not make this relationship a condition in its plans cannot have mutual love as its spring. Man was not born for himself alone. Everything preaches this. It is a self-evident truth that we have all been placed in this world to be of service to the neighbor from a love of being useful. The man who for any reason shrinks from this condition of his birth has yet to learn his true origin and destiny. The greatest of all sources of content and peace in this world is to be found in doing one's own part well, or to the best of one's ability, with no end in view but to be useful.

     Then it follows that man, being so constituted, to accomplish his true destiny must resist the tendency to make himself the center, and must adopt some rule of life by which he may contribute his share, along with the rest, to a common center, and this he best accomplishes by making his own evils the subject of his enquiry instead of marshaling his neighbor's evils before him for inspection.


     We can easily see how impossible it would be in a body of men and women to organize for a common end, when each one is bent upon having his own way, or is actuated by a desire to set other people right.

     In a sermon by Bishop W. F. Pendleton, published in the LIFE, (1913, p. 645), we are told that "a religious freedom such as never existed, is to become the heritage of men. The individual is to become responsible to the Lord alone in what he says and does. He is not to be subject to the will and command of another in the things of a religious and moral life, nor even in the things of civil life, so long as he lives according to the laws of order. And in separating from: the Old Church, one of the fundamental things to lay aside, to shun as a sin against God, is the desire and wish to control the actions of others; to dictate what another shall think or what another shall do."

     We read in H. H. 220, that every one in hell wishes to rule others; but of the angels we read in S. D. 4427, that while they are most powerful and able to subdue hell, yet notwithstanding, they are such that they desire to rule over no one. The angels practice this love of leaving others in freedom to the extent of declining to give specific advice of instructions. In the work on DIVINE PROVIDENCE 321, we read that certain inquiring ones in the other life are told that if they act wisely they will be wise, but if they act foolishly they will be foolish; this is the extent of the advice given them. Abraham Lincoln expressed his idea of Government in this way: "When the white man governs himself, that is self-government, but when he governs himself and also governs another man, that is more than self-government,-that is despotism."

     It would be well, therefore, for us in contemplating organization, to reflect, and like the angels restrain the inclination to advise. We can hope to get the best thought and action of the others, with whom we are to form an organization, only by allowing the others to think and act for themselves.


In this way, it appears to me, we shall be finding the joy of another as joy in ourselves, and when we have accomplished this important vantage, we shah have made a long stride toward a happy and delightful organization.

     Man may assist himself greatly in forming an idea of his duty toward his fellow men by keeping before himself the doctrine that the end of creation is to form an angelic heaven out of the human race. We can see that this involves the work of each man examining himself, discovering his evils, and shunning them. For the work of forming a heaven out of the human race must begin in forming a heaven in each individual, and this can come about only by each individual' shunning his evils as sins against the Lord.

     Every man is born to become an angel. No man is born for himself alone, but for others. Man is a social being and must associate with his fellowmen. He must, however, discriminate; that is, he must shun evil associates, or rather, if he is in charity, the selfish will shun him, for there's a daily beauty in the life of charity which is not congenial to the selfish. Therefore, it might be said that a man is known by the company he attracts. One must ever keep in mind that he cannot, by any effort he may make, judge rightly of his neighbor until he has judged rightly of himself. He must take his own case into judgment, get the beam, (not the mote), out of his own eye, and then on the principle that that which he must hate in himself he cannot love in another, he withdraws from association with the evil in another. He does not withdraw from the good in another, but the evil; for neither his neighbor, nor he himself, would derive any spiritual good from an alliance between each other's evils. The Writings teach of evil spirits in the other life, that they are organized into Societies, but that the common tie which keeps them together is self-worship. So far as they can partake of self-worship, they adhere, but so far as they cannot partake, or have hope of partaking, they are disunited (A. C. 1322). In other words, so far as the love of self prevails, they have the common tie of love of self; but the love of self has no enduring power, and eventually collisions and quarrels ensue, as we all know from experience.


     Let me quote from Daniel Webster: "If we work upon brass, time will efface it; if we work upon marble, it will perish; if we rear temples, they will crumble into dust; but if we work upon our immortal minds, if we imbue them with principles, with the just fear of God and a proper regard for our fellow men, we engrave on those tablets something which will brighten to all eternity."

     If, then, we would be of mutual aid and delight to each other, and bound in an internal bond of spiritual brotherhood and ever find our meetings a source of spiritual good and comfort, let us carefully bear in mind these teachings from the Writings: "Those who are in charity scarcely see another's evils, but observe all that is good and true in him.... Such are all the angels, and this they have from the Lord, who turns all evil into good" (A. C. 1079) And that "it is the will of the Lord that all things good should be communicable, and that all should be mutually affected by love, and so be happy" (A. C. 1388).


     "And He saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is near." (Revelation 22:10.)

     There are discrete degrees in the understanding of the Word, ascending from the ultimate sense of the Letter even to that inmost and highest sense which treats of the Lord alone. As these degrees become more interior they at the same time become successively more universal; and as thy descend toward the purely literal sense, they become more fixed, limited, and prescribed in their application. Thus the Word may be conceived of as a great telescope, with its point upon the earth. When extended to its full length, it becomes focused upon the Lord alone as the Divine Man, the Center and Source of all things, Eternal, Immutable, Infinite. So regarded, the Word treats solely of the Lord, the God of Heaven and Earth. All things of time, and space, and person are stripped from, it, and there remains a revelation of the Divine Love and Wisdom, of the Divine Mercy and Providence, of all the attributes of Infinite God, existing forever the same through all time, through all space,-coming alike to all people of whatever planet or race or nation,-falling without distinction upon the just and upon the unjust, upon the righteous and upon the wicked,-causing all things in the entire realm of Creation, by His Own Divine Power, to be and to exist every instant of time.


     If however the telescope be shortened, if the Word be looked upon as to its internal sense, rather than as to its inmost sense, then also the range of vision becomes narrowed. The eye becomes focused, not upon the Lord as He is in Himself, but upon the Lord as He is received by man. We look not now upon the Infinite and Eternal apart from creation, but rather upon the Infinite and Eternal as reflected in the things of Heaven, in the things of the spiritual and internal mind of man. Thus we do not now see the Lord directly as a Divine Man, but our attention is fixed upon the Gorand Man of Heaven, Universe-wide, including all men that ever were, or ever will be created, yet finite, and created into an ever more perfect image and likeness of God Himself. A contemplation of the nature, the structure, the inmost form and constitution of this Gorand Man, reveals the laws of regeneration that apply to all men everywhere. It sets forth to view those universal principles that govern all spiritual growth, and pays bare each state successively through which a man must pass in order to be raised up from earth to heaven. It enables us to see the whole Heaven as a unit, as one man, measuring "an hundred and forty and four cubits, the measure of a man, that is, of an angel."

     And if we shorten our vision still more, descending to a contemplation of the Word as to its internal historical sense, then do we descend from heaven to earth. Our range no longer includes the whole universe, but is limited to our own little planet. We begin to be bounded by the things of time. We are not now looking upon the Lord as He is in Himself, nor yet upon the Gorand Man of Heaven. We are contemplating rather the race of men upon our earth, seeing that whole race as a single man, who grows from an infant into manhood before our eyes. We see now the successive churches that have existed upon the earth.


We see how one part of the Word treats specifically of one church, while another part treats of another. We see how the Lord was received at one time, as compared with the way of which He was received at some subsequent time. Here we find the laws of regeneration and of reformation more fully differentiated, more particularly described, more especially applied to specific times and seasons and states of life.

     And lastly, focusing our attention upon the outmost or literal sense of the Word, wherein persons, places, and historical events are described, we find the Divine Laws treated of with Infinite minuteness. In the Representative characters, in the things they did and said, in the laws, customs, habits of life that are related concerning them, in even the least curves of the original Hebrew Letters, we are taught about internal states of life with minute detail. Every least change of state, every alteration of the substances of the internal man, every moment of spiritual growth, from the cradle to the grave, and beyond to the final goal of Heaven itself, is described in the correspondential representatives of this literal sense, in order that the universal laws contained in the Word may be applied with exactness to the circumstances and conditions of every man who may ever be born upon the earth.

     Thus the Word is adapted Divinely to the needs and requirements of men, reading them on, from a contemplation of their own little world, and of the states of their own infinitesimal life, to a vision of wider compass, of more universal application, of higher and more interior conceptions, and of more perfect wisdom and delight, until they are drawn even to the Lord Himself, that He may enter into their hearts to form them and to mold them into a complete finite image and likeness of their Creator. And since the Word is written with an internal historical sense, in which special churches, special stages in the development of the race, are more particularly treated of, therefore, that we may receive special illustration with regard to our own age, our own church, we naturally turn to those parts of the Word which are devoted, in this proximate sense, to a description of the New Church, its birth and its development.

     That part of the New Testament which treats most especially of the New Church, is the Book of Revelation. This book, in the internal historical sense, treats solely of the First Christian Church at its end, of the Coming of the Lord, of the Last Judgment, and of the formation and establishment of the New Church.


It is called the "Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto Him." It was dictated by the Son of Man as He is pictured in the first chapter, and by Angels who are described in various ways. Thus it is the Revelation of the Lord in His Divine Human Glorified, which revelation is none other than that which is at this day made to the New Church in the Writings of the Second Advent. Further, the revelation was made to John, who represents all those within the Church who are in charity and in its faith, thus who represents all in the whole earth who will receive the Lord, and who will acknowledge Him at his Second Coming. And while the revelation was made representatively to John, it was not given for the First Christian Church. Its meaning could be deciphered by none; it was a book that was sealed with seven seal's, and no one was found worthy to open the book, or to loose the seals thereof except the Lamb,-except the Lord Himself who has now manifested the spiritual meaning and interpretation of the prophecy, through His servant Emanuel Swedenborg.

     In this book, then, we find teaching from the Lord that applies specifically and particularly to ourselves, and to our present state. In its internal historical sense, we find a description of the state into which the world has at this day actually fallen. We find in it a revelation of the true internal character of the dead Christian Church in the midst of which we dwell. We see there a description of the Lord's Coming, and of all that is actually described as taking place, as seen and heard in the Spiritual World by Emanuel Swedenborg, Servant of the Lord. We find there a representative picture, minutely worked out as to every detail, of the New Church, as the Holy City, now descending from God out of Heaven. Here the Lord is speaking to us, in a special sense, accommodated peculiarly to our needs and to our circumstances.

     With this in mind, let us examine what is meant by the words of the tenth verse in the twenty-second chapter of this book: "And He saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near."


This command is uttered by one of the seven angels who had the seven vials containing the last plagues. It was this same angel who had appeared to John, had shown him, the Holy City New Jerusalem, with its gates of pearl, the twelve foundations of its walls of precious stones, the walls themselves of jasper, and the city within of pure gold, like unto clear glass. It was immediately after the vision of all these things that the angel commanded John, in the words of our text: "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book." By the angel here is meant the Lord as to His Divine Human Glorified, inflowing through the inmost of Heaven. The inmost of Heaven, with every man, is the inmost plane of the mind, the plane of internal perception and delight. By that which is said by the angel, then, is denoted that which is perceived in the inmost of the human mind. And because the angel is speaking to John, by whom is represented those who are to receive the New Church, therefore this perception is revealed only to those who have acknowledged the Lord in His Second Advent. Such a perception from the Lord is necessary that the New Jerusalem may be built up upon the earth. Before the Church can be ultimately formed as an organization, it must be seen internally as a spiritual reality. Before men have seen, from internal perception in the Word to the New Church, that the old Christian sects are dead; that a judgment has been effected upon them, that a New Heaven and a New Earth are being formed, because the first heaven and the first earth have passed away; and that a new City of Doctrine and life is about to descend from God out of Heaven, before all this has been internally perceived and recognized, no new Church on earth can be formed. If we are to form a distinct organization, with our own peculiar beliefs, our own peculiar forms of worship, our own particular modes of life, that will distinguish us internally and externally from the world around us, then must we see that the New Church to which we belong is indeed a "New Heaven and a New Earth" and that "the first heaven and the first earth have passed away." It is this perception which must precede the establishment of the Church that is internally involved in all that has preceded the words of our text in the Apocalypse.


It is only after John has been carried away in the spirit into heaven, where he has seen the throne set for judgment, the little book sealed with seven seals, and the Lamb who alone is "worthy to open the book and to loose the seals thereof;" it is after he has witnessed the results that follow the breaking of the seven seals, and the pouring out of the seven vials containing the last plagues; it is after the Dragon who persecuted the woman, has been shown to him, and he has seen the fall of Babylon the Great; it is after he has perceived the revelation of the New Jerusalem as the Holy City descending from God out of Heaven to become the Bride, the Lamb's wife; it is only after all these revelations have been made that he hears the voice of the angel commanding: "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book." By the "sayings of the prophecy of this book" are meant the truths of Doctrine now revealed to the New Church. By "this book" in the literal sense, is meant the revelations made to John. But internally, as we have seen, the revelations made to the New Church are referred to, and in this sense, "this book" is none other than the Word to the New Church, the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, the rational revelation made by the Lord at His Second Coming.

     "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book." Hold not back, keep not Secret, withhold not from the world nor from yourselves the Divine Truths that have now been made manifest for the upbuilding of the New Church in the hearts and minds of men. "For the time is near." By "time" in the Word is meant state; and here by "time" is signified that state which; is specifically treated of in the Apocalypse, namely, the last time of the Church, the state of total devastation and judgment. By "near" is not meant nearness of time, but nearness of state. The words here written were uttered to John in the isle of Patmos, a few years after the Lord's resurrection. The first Christian Church had scarcely arisen. It had to pass through its successive stages of morning, midday, and evening, before the state here referred to could be reached. Its course was destined to comprise seventeen and a quarter centuries, before, in time, the prophecy here continued would actually be "near." But to be near when spiritually considered is to be near in state,-to be destined with absolute certainty. The state of devastation treated of in the Apocalypse was sure to come.


The Judgment there described most take place. And the formation of a New Church will certainly follow. And that devastation, Judgment, and new formation are destined surely to come, not only to the race as a whole, but to each individual member of the Church. And the one way in which we can be counted among those that belong to the New Jerusalem, and not among such as fall with the Dragon or with Babylon the Great, is to heed the Command of the Angel: "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near." The importance of this injunction in its bearing upon the formation of an external New Church on earth, has been seen and recognized by a few Disciples of the Lord in His Second Advent. It has been acknowledged that "the sayings of the prophecy of this book," the truths that are revealed to us In the Heavenly Doctrines, the Divine Revelation that has been given from the Lord out of Heaven for the upholding of an everlasting Church among men, must be declared to the world in its integrity. The New Church cannot be built by men. It cannot be formed from the imperfect ideas which they may conceive. Its light must not be the candle of mere human intelligence, nor its temple the work of human hands. "Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it;" We cannot pick and choose what we shall teach and what we shall withhold. We cannot present part of the truth revealed in the Writings, hiding the rest carefully within ourselves that it may not appear before men. For so doing we deprive the teaching of its Divine character, infill it with our own finite personality and make it human. The Lord has given a Divine Revelation, Infinitely adapted, in His Wisdom, to the work for which it is intended. It is this revelation, and this alone, in its entirety and in its integrity, that can form the New Church upon the earth. By this alone can the Lord work to establish His presence anew in the hearts of men. And this revelation is given into our hand with the express admonition "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near," and with that other solemn warning: "If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book, and if any man shall take away from the words of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the Holy City, and from the things which are written in this book."


The grave responsibility thus imposed upon men, to teach and declare to the world the Doctrine of the New Church, without fear, and without reserve, has been seen and acknowledged by a few. And under the inspiration of this evident commission from the Lord, the work of establishing the Church as a separate and distinct organization has been commenced. And by the Lord's Divine Mercy, it will advance slowly, imperfectly at first, but none the less surely, to the final upbuilding of the Holy City among the nations of the earth; for "The time is near."

     But there is another work more internal than this, without which this external establishment of the Church is impossible, and the efforts to make it truth spiritual and permanent are vain. There is another understanding of the words of our text, which necessarily follows from the first more general perception alluded to above, and which sets for us a task even harder than that to which we have just referred. This task has relation to the establishment of the Church in ourselves, and involves the responsibility thrown individually upon each of us by the command of the Angel: "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near." Every man is a microcosm, a little world, and the establishment of the Church in the world is but the complex of its establishment in the individual mind and heart. And it is just as true that, with each of us, it must be built by the Lord and not by ourselves, as it is that it must be so built in the world at large. The present state of almost universal indifference to spiritual things; the civil freedom in religious matters that has been so widely recognized; the abolition of the spirit of persecution on account of religious principles,-all these have made the external entrance into the Church, even an entrance that involves the total and unreserved acceptance of the Writings, a comparatively easy matter. But the entrance into the external organization of the Church is only the gateway. If we are to lay bare the inmost meaning of the truths of the Heavenly Doctrine, looking upon them irrespective of our surroundings, irrespective of the natural loves and desires that fill our hearts, unblinded by the persuasive sphere of the dead Christian Church, with its false standard of morality and its utter ignorance of those things that have to do with the life of heaven, we will find ourselves confronted with a far harder task.


Such an acceptance of the teaching of the Writings involves a complete change in our mode of thought and life. It means that we shall reject all the reasonings that come into our minds from the selfish loves into which we are born, and will recognize the truth of the Doctrine in its purity, as it has come to us from the very hand of God. It means that our whole life, our whole love, our whole effort must be to establish this truth, this doctrine, in our lives, in some ultimate and concrete form such as will constitute a permanent upbuilding of that doctrine within us as part of our very being. It involves a readiness to do, in some form, in some way, however incomplete and imperfect, that which the Lord reveals to us in the Word of His Second Advent, without exception, and without regard to the mere external consequences. It necessitates our allowing the Lord to reach into the very inmost recesses of our most secret thoughts and deepest ends to mold and order all things according to His Divine Law, The mere outward acceptance of the Writings, as an abstract teaching, entirely separate from the practical problems of our lives, is so easy, that we do not, perhaps, appreciate how difficult the life of those teachings really is. It is so easy to accommodate them, to close our eyes to that part of them which offends our natural ambitions or desires, to remold them in our own minds to accord with our selfish tastes and appetites, that we scarcely enter, even though we have spent all our life within the walls of the external New Church, into spiritual temptation such as will reduce us to the state of despair and self-abnegation which alone can lead to the Lord's eternal presence with us in heaven. And yet we have before us the unmistakable command of the Lord: "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book for the time is near." Be not content with a mere superficial view of the Doctrines such as may still allow you to dwell in the courts of wickedness. Accept not part of the Divine teaching as it is seen to apply to your life, while the rest is rejected and cast aside, because it is found to interfere with some worldly desire and ambition. Take the Word as the Lord has given it, in its Very Divine form, and follow the Lord as He there appears, even though it be into prison and unto death, that He may in truth become your God, and that ye may be His people.


Stand ready at all times to obey His voice, looking neither nor the right hand nor to the left, doubting not His Divine Providence, and turning not aside to the ways of man. Only thus can the New Church be truly established within us. If we only partially follow the Lord, taking one thing that He has revealed, and rejecting another; obeying His will at one time, and at another inserting our own will as the guiding principle of our life,-if the choice of our path is to be our own, and the pattern of the walls of the New Jerusalem to be our own design, then are we of necessity deprived of the Lord's guidance; and that which is built as a result of our life will be of human, and not of Divine origin. We cannot in this way truly enter into the New Church, for by "adding or taking away from the words of the prophecy" our part shall be "taken away out of the book of life and out of the Holy City." We will take to ourselves the power that belongeth unto God, and we will make His temple in our hearts a den of thieves.

     Such is the explicit teaching of the Lord, a teaching so vital, so far reaching, so fundamental in its effects that it must become the very corner-stone of all genuine New Church life and faith. To make it such leads inevitably to spiritual temptations, to spiritual persecutions, even to the death of all our merely natural loves. But with the death of these, the Lord gives us a new and spiritual love, a love for the things of heaven, a love for the inmost keeping of His Commandments. And when this love has come to be the highest desire of our lives, we are brought into a state of heavenly peace and joy impossible to any other state. Once the real, the genuine establishment of the Church with us, in all the beauty of holiness, has become the deepest love of our life; once this is given first place in our affections, overshadowing all external desires, however attractive they may seem in the light of natural reason alone; once we have been brought to subject our own will, that the Lord's will may be done on earth as it is done in heaven; then can the Lord truly enter to bless us with His eternal presence, and to build in us the New Jerusalem, that Holy City which hath no need of the sun of mere human affection, neither of the moan of external reason to shine in it, for the Lord God will lighten it, and the Lamb will be the light thereof. Amen.




     A STUDY

     In heaven and on earth the supreme of all the doctrines of the Church is the Doctrine of the Lord. As revealed in the Writings this Doctrine in its general outlines is so definite and clear as to be within the grasp of every simple-hearted reader, but at the same time it involves Divine arcana hidden to the deepest thinkers in this world, nay, transcending even the inmost perceptions of the most sublime angelic minds.

     It is no wonder, therefore, that from the earliest days of the New Church there has been some perplexity and divergent views among our theologians in regard to certain profound aspects of the Doctrine of the Lord, subjects such as the Divine Human from eternity, the process of the Incarnation and the Glorification, and the nature of the Resurrection Body or Glorified Human of the Lord. The natural difficulty for earthly minds to enter upon an interior study of these recondite subjects is greatly increased by the sphere of Old Church thought which in both worlds surrounds the nascent thought of the New Church, and which is ever seeking to confuse and devour it, especially when that thought is directed to the Divine Human of the Lord. And this adverse sphere of the dragon operates not only upon our conscious understanding but also upon our unconscious will, through the very blood inherited from uncounted generations of Christian ancestors who, systematically and persistently, have been taught to divide the Godhead into three persons in their faith, and to separate the Divine from the Human in the Lord Jesus Christ.

     These are some of the psychological and we may even say physiological reasons why the interior things of the Doctrine of the Lord have been so difficult to grasp, but these reasons nevertheless must never deter the students of the Church from ever renewed, studies in each succeeding generation. It is our duty to go forward and not rest content supinely in the conclusions of our fathers. If the truth does not advance in our minds, the opposite will be sure to do so.


That such a danger is not an imaginary one seems evident from certain recent theological developments concerning the nature of the Divine Human and its relation to the elements of the Holy Supper,-theories which I cannot but regard as separating the Divine from the Human of the Lord, and as tending directly to the Church of Rome.

     Much confusion, I regret to say, has emanated from that one work which, (outside of the Writings), has been regarded as the greatest authority on these subjects, the work on DISCRETE DEGREES, by the Rev. N. C. Burnham. Though this work represents the life-work of an eminent specialist, its teachings were never received with perfect satisfaction by the other early leaders in the Academy, and the late Bishop Benade often criticized not only the methods but many of the conclusions of the author. His theories concerning the Divine Human from eternity and the state of the Lord's human at the birth are especially open to objection, and on this account it seems necessary to introduce the present study with an analysis of his teachings on these subjects.


     Dr. Burnham begins his treatment of the subject by teaching that "the Lord before the assumption of the Human in the ultimate from the Virgin was as it were clothed with a certain higher or interior human formed by His proceeding Divine in the angelic heavens as a complex man. This was then the Divine human of the Lord and from it flowed in with man in the world the Spirit of the Lord in ancient times." (p. 113.) After quoting the references to "the former human" and "the two prior degrees," (D. L. W. 221, 233), Dr. Burnharm asserts positively that these "'two prior degrees' are not the essential Divine called Jehovah or the Father in distinction from the Human or the Son, but are the two higher degrees of His Human, and are the same as the 'former human.' (n. 221 of the same work.) "The Lord from eternity," (n. 223), means not merely the Essential Divine, but the Lord in His former human" (p. 114). The author then proceeds to state that "the Lord at that time by means of the heavens as a whole had their two prior degrees in actuality and their third degree in potency," (p. 114); these "two prior degrees in actuality which the Lord had in the heaven before Incarnation, and the whole natural human which He held in potency, He took upon Himself at the Incarnation." (p. 116. Italics ours.)


     In the next chapter, on "The Degrees of the Human, and whence taken," we are informed that the Lord at the Incarnation "descended through the heavens, (from which He took His spiritual mind), into and through the world of spirits whence He took a degree below that from the heavens and above that from Mary," (p. 119), and the author bases this surprising conclusion upon an analogy with "the descent of the Word through the angelic heaven, and thus through the world of spirits, till it reaches man. (A. C. 1887, S. D. 3020.)" And this analogy is the sole foundation for the following remarkable account of the "State of the Human at Birth:"

     1. THE STATE OF THE "SPIRITUAL MIND" AT BIRTH. According to Dr. Burnham, the Lord at birth had "the three degrees of His spiritual mind taken from the angelic heavens" and "the three degrees of His natural mind taken from the world of spirits." (p. 119) "The spiritual mind of the Lord at birth was assumed from the whole angelic heavens, and was equivalent to the aggregate of the virtues and powers of those heavens, which were composed of finite but genuine good and truth." "'Inasmuch as the Lord took on the good and truth of the whole angelic heaven, His spiritual mind was at birth immensely developed." (p. 126.) "When this vast complex of angelic good and truth constituent of the heavens, is called the former divine human, and the divine human from eternity, the term 'divine' is used in a qualified sense, and means the inflowing divine as appropriated by the angels." (p. 127)

     It was "qualified," indeed, for according to the same authority, "the amount and excellence of this good and truth, though strictly finite, and in relation to the Divine within, impure, still vastly transcends human conception." (p. 126.) Nay, it was not only "impure," but something far worse than this, for we learn from the same source that "inasmuch as His spiritual mind was at birth from the heavens, whatever of weakness inhered in it, was, of course, from the created substances composing the organic forms of the heavens from which it was assumed, and whatever of impurity adhered to it, was from the proprium of the angels." (p. 129.)


The proprium of the angels, it should be observed, is no better than the proprium of the devils in hell.

     2. THE STATE OF THE "NATURAL MIND" AT BIRTH. As to this Dr. Burnham teaches that the Lord's "natural mind, (including His spiritual body), was composed of inferior spiritual substances taken from the world of spirits." (p. 123.) "The evils of this degree were not inherited from the mother," (p. 124), but "His natural mind was tainted with evils derived from the great mass of spirits in the world of spirits at the time of His Incarnation. It was also stored with all the good and truth possessed by the spirits there, which good and truth, from a taint of evil and falsity, were, in the main, not pure and genuine till cleansed and elevated." (p. 128.) "His natural mind at birth was filled with evil and falsity, clothed with apparent good and truth." (p. 122.) "His natural or external mind was assumed from the world of spirits and was evil and false within, but apparently good and true without." (p. 123.) "His spiritual mind was clothed with the natural from the vast mass of spirits then in the world of spirits and not yet judged, who were mainly evil and false within, but apparently good and true without. Such was the state of His natural mind at assumption." (p. 122.) And the evil thus assumed, according to Dr. Burnham, was not "hereditary evil, but evil loosely adhering and mixed with good and truth not yet genuine." (p. 131).

     And both of these degrees or minds, with all their goods and truths and evils and falsities, "were the Son of God by assumption, not by birth" from the virgin, (p. 124); they "were not inherited from the mother," but were "assumed from the great spiritual mother, the heavens." (p. 130.)


     The mind gasps at conclusions such as these, which ever since their first publication in the year 1887 have been permitted to remain unchallenged.

     Leaving aside, for the present, the question of "the two prior degrees," I must take issue with the whole theory that the Lord assumed from the angelic heavens any angelic human of His own or was born a Divine Angelic Man.


There is no doctrinal warrant whatsoever for these ideas and expressions, nor for the notion that He assumed a human "mind" from the world of spirits. He took nothing from either angels or spirits,-nothing from their good and truth and nothing from; their proprium. They, individually or collectively, had nothing at all to do with the process of Incarnation, for this was a work purely Divine. The whole unfortunate misconception has arisen from mistaking the "angelic heavens" for "the Divine in the heavens."

     Dr. Burnham's idea seems to be that the Divine-when in ancient times assuming the "former human"-descended through the atmosphere of the successive heavens, there gathering to itself an organic human form from the exhaling spheres of all the angels, and then descended further into the world of spirits, there gathering a still more ultimate human form from the sphere-particles of all the spirits there, and that this was the usual manner of His appearance in the spiritual world, except when on occasions, ("sometimes," "frequently"), He in addition borrowed the organic human of an individual angel or spirit. What became of the "human" thus gathered, does not appear, but we infer that it was dissolved into its component elements after each appearance, except on the last occasion, when He assumed it permanently, and "superinduced" over it the ultimate human from Mary.

     This idea, however, is mystical and unintelligible, because postulating an inorganic process, devoid of every organic medium. It is, moreover, contrary to the plain and unanimous testimony of the Writings, which everywhere teach that whenever the Divine appeared in the Heavens, it did so by means of individual angels and spirits. The inorganic process is not to be found in the Writings.

     The analogy with the "descent of the Word," upon which Dr. Burnham founds his whole hypothesis, does not apply to the Incarnation of the Lord for in the passages adduced for support of his theory, (A. C. 1887; S. D. 3020), We are simply taught that Divine Revelation was given-by means of angels in heaven and by spirits in the world of spirits, until it reached a man on earth. But at the Incarnation, the Word did not reveal itself as Speech, but as Flesh, and It did not descend into the womb of Mary by means of a series of inspired angels and spirits, but the Divine took unto Itself a Divine SEED, formed out of its own Proceeding Divine.


This is "the Divine in the heavens," and this divinely human Seed is what the Lord "took upon Himself" at the Incarnation, without the intermediation of angels or spirits.

     The theory that the Lord took from the angels a "spiritual mind," and from the spirits in the world of spirits a "natural mind" and a "spiritual' body," is contrary to the universal teachings of the Heavenly Doctrine. The mind, whether spiritual or natural, is something which does not exist with any human being at birth, but it is built up in after life through the gradual influx of the soul into the body and through the afflux of sensations and knowledges from, the outer world. The planes upon which this mind may be built up, exist in the cortical substances of the brain, but these planes, at first dormant and unconscious, cannot as yet be called a mind. Moreover, these substances are not taken from the angelic heavens or the world of spirits, but from the father and the mother of the individual conceived and born. And the Lord had but one Father,-His own Divine,-and but one mother,-the virgin.

     The idea that the Lord, in assuming the human, assumed at the same time the aggregate of "the good and truth of the whole angelic heaven,"-"the vast complex of angelic good and truth," while at the same time He assumed the impurity of the "proprium of the angels," nay, the combined "evil and falsity" of all the spirits in the world of spirits,-is equally without warrant from the Writings, and is as irrational as the ancient heresy of the Old Church that the actual evils of the whole human race were transferred in body to the human of the Lord, while the good of His merit is transferred bodily to those who have faith in His "vicarious atonement." It is difficult enough to imagine how "truths and falsifies" could have been transferred to the unconscious brain of the newborn infant in the manger, but it is still more difficult to imagine how "goods" not done by Him, or "evils" not committed by Him, could be assumed by any transflux through the heavens and the world of spirits. For Dr. Burnham states that these evils were not hereditary tendencies assumed by birth from the human mother, but some other kind of evil,-which if not hereditary, must have been actual,-taken on "by assumption, not by birth."


     Now, if the Lord could have assumed from the spiritual world even the tendency to evil and falsity, there would have been no necessity for Him to be born by a woman on the earth, for the some reason for this birth was that He might assume hereditary evil, and by means of it,-without any actual evil,-be able to meet the forces of Hell, conquer them in His own human, and thereby redeem the human race.

     But, according to the work on DISCRETE DEGREES, these "evils'' were "assumed,"-not inherited,-from "the great spiritual mother, the heavens." It seems to me that, from this point of view, the "world of spirits" should also be included in this great spiritual motherhood, and why not also the whole spiritual world, including the hells? For the "propriums of the angels" and the hypocritical spirits who were "good and truth without, but evil and falsity within" are in themselves nothing but infernal. The Lord did, indeed, inherit hell itself in His human, but as a tendency of that human towards hell, not as a state of actual damnation. But all these tendencies He assumed only by the way of heredity from the earthly mother, for only in the earthly ultimate could they be actually assumed.

     What need for any other "mother?" Why call heaven or the spiritual world the "mother," since the Lord was not born there, and did not assume anything hereditary from it that He did not at the same time assume from the virgin? Where, in the Writings, is heaven called His "mother?" Where, in the letter of the Word, is the Lord called "the Son of heaven?" We know of the "Son of God" and the "Son of Man," but we do not know of any "Son of heaven."

     The Lord in His human did not have two mothers, any more than He had two fathers. Dr. Burnham terms heaven "the great spiritual mother." Others have taught that the Lord assumed from the heavens something which took the place of that which "constitutes the Paternal with other men." This will not do, for it involves the idea of human paternal inheritance with paternal hereditary "imperfections," which is but another term for paternal evils.


If the Lord had assumed anything of this kind, the Glorification would have been impossible, for the hereditary evil from the father can never be entirely put off. It may be subdued, but it remains for ever in the conquered but still adhering proprium of the angels. The whole idea of any angelic "motherhood" or "fatherhood" is altogether untenable.


     We may now return to the "two prior degrees," mentioned in DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, n. 233, of which Dr. Burnham states that they are not identical with the essential Divine. This, however, is exactly what they are! The "two prior degrees" in the Divine Human from eternity are the Divine Celestial and the Divine Spiritual, the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, the Father and the Son, thus the two essentials of the Divine Essence.

     Before proceeding to prove this identification, it will be necessary to present a brief introduction to the subject.

     As to the essentially Human quality of the Divine essence, it is most important to remember that this was, from all eternity, infinitely coexistent with the whole nature of God. The Infinite Itself, as the inscrutable Divine Esse, is most essentially Human, because it is nothing but Divine Love, which is the esse of all that is human, the source of all that is human, and therefore has made itself known as the Father, an essentially human term.

     The Divine Existere of this Divine Esse, the Infinite Form of this Infinite Substance, is also most essentially and eternally Human. In all its manifestations the Existere of this Esse has stood forth such as it is in itself, a Divine Man. When in the beginning God created man, He created him in His own image and likeness, and this before heaven was inhabited or the Maximus Homo formed. This eternally Human form of the infinitely Human substance of God, has been revealed as the Self, the Only-begotten of Eternity.

     This Only-begotten was the Word of God by which all things were made, the whole universe created, in the human image and likeness of its Maker, for the whole universe, from first to last, breathes forth nothing and tends to nothing but the human quality and form. And, therefore, "the idea of the Divine from which is the universe is not to be perceived otherwise than as of a Divine Man in firsts, who is Life itself, whose Divine Love appears as a Sun above the heavens, whence are all things." (ATH. CREED, 120.)


While God was not yet "Homo natus" He was from eternity "Homo in conatu seu in fieri." (Man in endeavor or in becoming. S. D. 4847.)

     This "Homo in conatu" is the "Nexus" between the Infinite and the finite, the Divinely Human Seed in which the universe, man, and the ultimate Divine Man, were present "in fieri," in the state and act of "becoming." This is the "Logos," immediately proceeding out of the Infinite Itself,-in itself infinite, yet forming the beginning of finition. It is Divine because It is nothing but the Infinite Itself standing forth. It is Human because it is nothing but the conatus of the Divine Will, the Divine end or purpose pointing to Divine Uses.

     As to the meaning of the terms "celestial" and "spiritual," it is to be observed that the qualities expressed by these words do not commence with the celestial and spiritual heavens, but with the essential Divine which makes these heavens. The "celestial" means whatever is of esse, substance, love, and good; and the "spiritual" means whatever is of existere, form, wisdom, and truth. The Divine Itself, the Father, is the inmost, supreme and infinite Celestial, and the Word, the Son, is the inmost, supreme, and infinite Spiritual. The image of these two Divine essentials is reproduced, with an unfailing exactitude of alternations, in the whole series of Divine manifestations, finitions, and creations, down to the ultimates of nature.

     The Lord alone was born a spiritual-celestial man, because He alone had for His Soul the Infinite Spiritual (the Word) of the Infinite Celestial, (the Divine Love itself). This is the reason given in the Writings for the statement that He alone was born a spiritual-celestial man. It was not because of any supposed assumption of an intermediate human taken from the good of the celestial heaven and the truth of the spiritual heaven. "THE REASON why the Lord alone was barn spiritual-celestial, is that the DIVINE was in Him." (A. C. 4592.)

     Bearing in mind these universal principles, it may not be impossible now to dissolve the mystification with which good men and true have surrounded the teaching concerning the "two prior degrees" in the "former Human" of the Lord, spoken of in the DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, n. 233.


     The teaching reads:

     "It has been told me from heaven that in the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah, before the assumption of the Human in the world, there were the two prior degrees actually, and the third degree in potency, such as also are with the angels; but that after the assumption of the Human in the world He also superinduced the third degree, which is called the natural, and that by it He became a Man similar to a man in the world, with this difference, however, that this degree, as the prior ones, is infinite and uncreate, while these degrees in angel and in man are finite and created. For the Divine, which filled all spaces without space, (n. 69-72), also penetrated to the ultimates of nature; but before the assumption of the Human the Divine influx into the natural degree was mediately through the angelic heavens, but after the assumption it was immediately from Himself; this also was the reason why all the Churches in the world before His advent were representative of spiritual and celestial things, but that after His advent they became spiritual natural and celestial natural, and that representative worship was abolished." (D. L. W. 233)

     When this much-disputed passage is studied carefully, and in connection with the whole chapter of which it is a part, it will be seen that by the "two prior degrees" is meant the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, or the Infinite Celestial and the Infinite Spiritual, which constitute the purely Divine Essence. The heading of the chapter reads: "That the three degrees of altitudes are infinite and uncreated in the Lord, and that the three degrees are finite and created in man," and the opening number, (230), states, "That in the Lord the three degrees of altitude are infinite and uncreated is because the Lord is Love itself and Wisdom itself," the Divine of Love being the Divine Celestial, and the Divine of Wisdom being the Divine Spiritual. These are the two prior degrees which were actually "in the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah." There is not a word said here about the Lord assuming the two prior degrees from the heavens, but it is said that they were actually "in the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah." From eternity means always, before there were any heavens.


     Some of our students may have been misled by the added statement: "such as also are with the angels," as if this meant that the Lord from eternity had these degrees such as they are with the angels, that is, the angelic celestial and the angelic spiritual; but the evident meaning, clearly stated in the passage itself, is that the angels also have these degrees, but finite and created, while with the Lord they were from eternity, infinite and uncreated. And common sense can recognize that the finite and created heavens could not possibly bestow any infinite and uncreated degrees upon "the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah."

     The teaching, therefore, explains itself, but if additional testimony is desired I need but quote the following teaching in the NINE QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE TRINITY, n. ii, which in slightly different language presents exactly the same doctrine as that given in D. L. W. 233. It is strange that this passage has never been quoted, either by Dr. Burnham or by subsequent writers on this subject:

     "The Lord from eternity, or Jehovah, was Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and He then had the Divine Celestial and the Divine Spiritual, but not the Divine Natural before He assumed the Human; and as the rational is predicated solely of the Celestial and Spiritual Natural, therefore Jehovah, the Lord, also put on the Divine Rational. Before the assumption of the Human, He had a Divine Rational, but by influx into the angelic heaven and when He manifested Himself in the world by means of an angel whom He filled with His Divinity; for the Purely Divine Essence which, as was said, was the Purely Divine Celestial and Divine Spiritual Essence, transcends the rational, both angelic and human, but it was given by influx."

     This purely Divine Essence, therefore, was the Lord from eternity, not from the Lord, nor assumed by the Lord through any finite medium. It was the same as the two Divine Essentials, the Divine Esse and the Divine Existere, the Father and the Son, the Infinite Itself and the Word. This was the Divine Human from Eternity in its supreme and most essential sense, and it was this inmost Human, as the Divine Soul, that He clothed with a natural Human at the Incarnation.


     As to the third degree, which also was with the Lord from eternity-not yet actually but only in potency the natural human of a Divine Man,-it refers to the natural quality of the Logos, or the Nexus, as the seed of the natural universe. This, also, was in itself infinite and uncreated, filling all space without space, and penetrating even to the ultimates of nature. It was essentially divinely human, but it was only in potency the natural human of a Man born on earth. It was such a Man in conatu and in fieri, but not yet in actuality, and, therefore, we are taught that. "Before the Incarnation there was not any Divine Human except a representative one by means of some angel whom Jehovah the Lord infilled with His Spirit; and because it was representative, therefore all the things of the Church at that time were representatives, and, as it were, shadows. But after the Incarnation the representatives ceased, like the shades of evening or night at the rising of the Sun." (NINE QUESTIONS n. 15.)


     Thus far we have considered "the Divine Human from eternity" in its essential sense, as being the Divine Existere of the Divine Esse or "the Word which was in the beginning with God." We arrive now to the study of the Representative Divine Human before the Incarnation, or the Divine Human as presented to view by representative angels when Divine revelations were given by the Lord through heaven to men on earth.

     "Before the Incarnation there was not any Divine Human except a representative one," for the human by which the Lord was then represented, was not a human of His own but it was as it were borrowed from individual angels on special occasions and for special uses. (N. Q. 15; T. C. R. 109; ATH. CR. 119.)

     Beside the purely spiritual substances composing their spiritual body, the angels possess also a "limbus" or border of "the purest things of nature," and by virtue of this natural ultimate they are able to serve as organic vessels to receive and retain the inflowing Divine; and by virtue of it also they are able to serve as media whereby the Divine can be communicated to men in the natural world. And thus, before the Incarnation, all the angels; or heaven as a whole, could serve as a collective and potentially natural human, of which the Divine was the common Soul.


     For "before the coming of the Lord the Divine Human was Jehovah in the heavens, for by passing through the heavens He presented Himself as a Divine Man before many on the earth." (A. C. 6000.) "It was the Divine Human that the ancient churches adored, Jehovah also manifested Himself among them in the Divine Human, and the Divine Human was the Divine Itself in heaven; for heaven constitutes a man which is called the Maximus Home. This Divine in heaven is nothing but the Divine itself, but in heaven,-as a Divine Man." (A. C. 5663) "From first creation He was in a Human from Himself, viz., in the universal heaven which in the complex refers to one man." (ATH. CR. 119.)

     Nevertheless, though heaven as a whole is a Maximus Home, let us by all means remember that it is not actually one single individual, like an individual man, spirit, or angel. For throughout the Writings we are taught that heaven is a Maximus Homo only in a relative sense; it refers to one man, has relation to one man, represents one man; and the Divine in the human of this Maximus Home is therefore only a representative Divine Human, a human representing the Lord. "For the Lord is the only Man, and Heaven represents Him." (A. C. 2996.) Being thus only representatively but not actually one man, the angelic heaven could not possibly act either as a mother or a father to the inflowing Divine, to clothe it with an actual human.

     We must distinguish also between the universal presence of the Divine in the heavens, and its transflux through the heavens. The former was and is a permanent presence, but the latter was only an occasional occurrence, which took place when a Divine Revelation was to be given; and it is then called a "transflux" because the Divine then flowed through even to men on the earth. (A. C. 4060, 1925, 6982.)

     On such occasions the Divine at the same time manifested Itself as a Divine Man, flowing through the heavens in general into the ultimate human form of an individual angel, for angels are the only organic human vessels of the Lord in heaven. In His own Divine Person He is never seen in heaven among the angels there, but only above the heavens in the Sun of the Spiritual world. And before the Incarnation He would not be seen even in that Sun, in His own Divine Human, for He had not yet assumed that Human.


     "When the Lord appears in heaven, which takes place very often, He does not appear girded with the Sun, but in an angelic form, distinguished from the angel's by the Divine which shines through; for He is not there in person, for the Lord in person is constantly encompassed by the Sun, but He is in presence by aspect." (H. H. 121.)

     "The Lord is not there in Person, because the Lord in Person is constantly encompassed with the Sun; but He is in presence by means of aspect; for in heaven it is a general thing that they appear as present in the place where their aspect is fixed or terminated, although it may be very far from the place where they actually are. This presence is called the presence of the internal sight." (Ibid.)

     If we compare this statement with the one in A. E. 412, we find that this "presence by aspect" simply means the presence by means of an individual angel, for "He fills an angel with His aspect, and thus His presence, from afar."

     The statements that He could have assumed a human without birth, (A. C. 1573, 3030), as He did "sometimes" and "frequently," does not mean that He assumed an actual or permanent human of His own out of the combined spheres of the angels, for in each of these two passages it is said that this assumption "without birth" occurred "when seen," "when He appeared to men," and the universal teaching is that when He thus appeared and was seen, it was by means of an individual angel, thus organically. Nor are the statements that He thus appeared "sometimes" and "frequently," to be taken as if they meant that sometimes He appeared without such a medium, for the Lord in every revelation acts by media and organically.

     The Lord, even now,-though possessing a Divine Human of His own,-never appears in heaven in His own Divine Person, for no finite being could sustain His personal presence, but He still always appears through the veiling and accommodating human of some angel infilled with the Divine. (A. R. 938; D. P. 96) How much less reason, then, to suppose that the Divine, before the Incarnation, could have appeared in Person in heaven, through a Divine Human of His own, assumed from, the Maximus Homo or the spheres of the angels without the medium of an individual angel.


The thought is inconceivable, because involving the mystery of some inorganic process.

     This manifestation of the Divine by means of an individual angel was the Divine Human from eternity, the Lord from eternity, but still it was only a representative Divine Human, for the angel only represented the Lord,-was not the Lord Himself in His own Human; and that which the angel represented was the Lord who was to come. "By means of angels God manifested Himself to the sight of the ancients in the human form, which form was representative of God incarnate."
(CANONS. Redemption. viii:9.)

     "That the former churches have not been in this verity, is because the Most Ancient Church, which was before the Flood, worshiped the invisible God, with wham no conjunction is possible; the Ancient Church, which was after the Flood, similarly; the Israelitish Church worshiped Jehovah, who in Himself is the invisible God, but under a human form, which Jehovah God put on through art angel, in which form He was seen by Moses, Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Gideon, Joshua, and when revealed to the prophets; and this human form was representative of the Lord who was to come; and because this form was representative, therefore also all and single things of those churches became representative." (T. C. R. 786.)

     When the Word was to be given the Divine descended through the heavens in their order, by means of intermediating angels. In each successive heaven an angel was filled with the Divine, and was thus inspired to utter or write the Word, the last mediation being through the spirit who was present with the man on the earth who was to act as the prophet or scribe. Thus in each heaven the Divine was accommodated to the state of those who were to receive the revelation thus given. (A. E. 1073, 1074; A. C. 6996.)

     The angel thus serving as the medium of revelation, was filled with the Divine "from afar," the Divine taking complete possession of all the faculties and organic forms of the angel. The things which were his own were lulled to sleep, so that he no longer exercised his own consciousness.


He was no longer himself, but to all intents and purposes was Jehovah in human form, and was distinguished from the other angels by the Divine which shone through. Hence they were also called "Jehovah." (A. C. 9315)

     The angel himself, when in this state, did not know what it was that Jehovah spoke through him, and thus it was actually Jehovah, and not the angel, that was speaking. As soon as his mission as a medium was ended, the angel returned into his own consciousness, and recognized and acknowledged that he was only an angel. (A. C. 1925; A. R. 943; A. E. 1228.)

     The Divine Human thus revealed by means of angels was not so completely one with the Divine itself as was the Human which the Lord glorified when on earth, but it was as it were distinct from the Divine itself. It could not be a purely Divine Human, because heaven, and the celestial kingdom itself, was not completely pure. No absolutely pure medium could be found, until the Lord assumed a human of His own. (A. C. 6000, 6373)

     When, therefore, mankind fell, and in the degree that men and angels became more and more external, heaven itself became more and more weak, and the representative Divine Human in consequence became less and less effective; And when mankind, which is the foundation of heaven, finally subverted and destroyed an order, the former Divine Human was no longer strong enough or sufficient to sustain all things in Heaven and the Church. (A. C. 8273, 5663; A. E. 148; H. H. 101.)

     In the fulness of time, therefore, it became necessary for Jehovah Himself to assume a human of His own by birth through an earthly woman. And when He had made this Human in Himself Divine, the former, or representative Divine Human, ceased. "For previously the Divine transflux through heaven had been the Divine Human; it was also the Divine Man which was presented to view when Jehovah so appeared; but this Divine Human ceased when the Lord Himself made the Human in Himself Divine." (A. C. 6371.)





     The following series of extracts from letters by Lector (Professor) John Gothenius, of the Gothenburg College, to C. C. Giorwell, Librarian of the Royal Library at Stockholm, have reference to the history of the Gothenburg Controversy, and are now published for the first time in English, some of them having previously appeared in Swedish in Wilhelm Berg's SAMLINGAR TILL GOTEDORGS KISTORIA, (Guthenburg, 1891) They are preserved in the Royal Library, and the extracts are found scattered through a series of autograph letters to the Librarian from various prominent men.

     JOHAN GOTKENIUS, Doctor of Theology and Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, was "a man of rare scholarship, based on a most thorough and profound study of the older classical literature, and enriched by an extensive knowledge of the literature of his own times." (Bexell: HISTORY OF THE DIOCESE OF GOTHENBURG.) He was a man of liberal but somewhat skeptical form of mind, and was a keen but rather canical observer of men and motives, as freely depicted in his intimate correspondence with the royal librarian Giorwell. It was Gothenius more than anyone else who assisted Dr. Beyer in the compilation of the HOUSEHOLD SERMONS (or "Sermon-Essays").

     Gothenius, during the earlier part of the trial, consistently voted with Beyer and Rosen, but he was by no means a receiver of the Heavenly Doctrine; and finally, disgusted with what he regarded as the "superstitions of the Swedenborgians," he went over to the majority, but was never rancorous. He died in 1809.

     CARL CHRISTOPHER GJORWELL was born in 1731. This name is among the foremost in the history of Swedish learning. Returning to Sweden, after extensive foreign journeys, he began, in 1755, to publish the SVENSKA MERCURIUS, (The Swedish Mercury), which was the first critical literary journal ever issued in Swedish, and he now gathered about him, an enthusiastic group of literary men.


As Librarian of the Royal Library at Stockholm he worked zealously to collect and preserve historical works and documents, and edited periodicals and publications amounting to over two hundred volumes. In various of his journal's there occur notices and reviews of Swedenborg and his works. His most important contribution to this subject is the record of his personal conversation with Swedenborg. (Doc. 282, 3.)

     Giorwell's merit as a literary man consisted mostly in his making foreign authors known in Sweden, especially those of Germany, and in his zeal for the improvement of science and letters, more than in being himself a great author who influences his age by the novelty and breadth of his ideas and style. He died in 1811. CYRIEL LJ. ODHNER.


     August 17, 1765.
My Dear Librarian.
     ......Swedenborg was here and ate daily on the matter.* Forgive me, this was somewhat hastily said; what I meant to say was that he was continually invited out. He afterwards departed by boat for Holland. Opinions among us vary greatly concerning him. [J. GOTHENIUS.]
     * Referring to the interest awakened in Gothenburg in Swedenborg's doctrines. Swedenborg, on this occasion, was passing through Gothenburg on his way to London, and one day was invited to dine with Dr. Beyer in company with Dr. Rosen. They listened eagerly while Swedenborg explained the truths of the New Revelation and "the next day, on meeting Beyer, he told him with visible emotion, 'My friend, from this day the Lord has placed you in conjunction with His heaven, and His angels are at the present moment surrounding you.'"


     Gothenburg, April 8, 1767

     ......Our Dean [Ekebom] needs to learn to know himself; that man has all the ignorant people among us as his worshipers. A superficial man, even in his chief subjects, which are Dogmatic Theology and Poemics. Let judgment overtake his Synodal Disputation of 1765, and all other ignorami! [J. GOTHENIUS.]



     Gothenburg, May 28, 1767.

     .....Tomorrow the 12th sheet of the HOUSEHOLD SERMONS will issue from the press. The first volume is to contain 14 sheets for the sake of convenience in binding. At the first opportunity I shall send a copy to you and to Mr. Strickers: Nota bene, on fine paper. [J. GOTHENIUS.]


     Gothenburg, February 4, 1767.

     .....Kindly present the Court Preacher my humble thanks for the request, and please ask him that the Sermons which are being published here, called NYA PREDIKO-FORSOK may, for various reasons, be published entirely anonymously. I was the very last to give a thought to these Sermons, or to interest myself in their behalf... J. Gothenius.


     [Gothenburg, 1767.]

     .....I had thought of apply for the lectureship of Theology at Carlskrona at the beginning of this year... But what I want is a professorship in Theology to encourage the taste for Bible studies at some University; as a schoolmaster, I am, to be sure, unqualified for it, but I cannot enter into explanations now, but will merely ad this: that I wish to be where liberty of opinion is not too strictly circumscribed, as is the case, for instance, at Lund, where I certainly should not wish to be. The condition of servitude there is so great that Dr. Benzelius, that honest man, received a calling down from one Engerstrom, because he possessed a few volumes of Swedenborg's work. Farewell! I remain, with everlasting esteem and veneration, Sir, your most humble servant, J. Gothenius.


     Gothenburg, April 30, 1768.

     Quite a remarkable improvement has taken place in the most important subjects of study here, through the present [teachers], my friends Roempke and Beyer, who have access to my private papers and manuscripts, books and oral guidance.


The last mentioned [Beyer] is not altogether free from a suspicion of Swedenborgianism, which is strange. He has been this way a couple of years. He possesses penetration and is distinguished both in speculation and in holding fast to an opinion. The ambition of being considered unique seems to be somewhat of a weakness with him. He is my old comrade from childhood, and I now speak candidly about this to you, dear Sir, who ought to understand the [various] temperaments here, and will be lenient with me, who can hide nothing from a Giorwell..... J. GOTHENIUS.


     Gothenburg, June 17, 1769.

     In the Consistory there appears each time, represented, Assessor Aurell, (who removed hither from the country half a year ago), with memorials and libels against the NEW HOUSEHOLD SERMONS, which he accuses of advocating Swedenborgian views. He has mentioned in particular Lector Doctor Gabr. Beyer, and has submitted a lot of "dictata" [notes] full of Swedenborgianism, which Beyer is reported to have presented and explained to the youth of the Gymnasium, Beyer, on the other hand, declares that they are loose notes upon which his name has been scribbled. This much is true and certain: those copies which I have seen are so full of gross mistakes in spelling that it is impossible to get any sense out of 2 or 3 lines at a time. Aurell; however, offers to extricate the meaning by comparing them with Swedenborg's books, which he runs through like lightning. The secret purpose of it all is to have Beyer removed from his post, which several have been at work on for a long time, but hitherto in another way.

     This way, however, seems to be the best of all; but Beyer thinks there is no danger in it, so long as he enjoys the protection of the law. Aurell is having the Consistory Proceedings on the subject printed; the fourth sheet is already published and the fifth is soon to appear. He is the brother of Secretary Aurell, of the College of Exchequer, an amiable and friendly man, but irascible and zealous against those whom he does not find to his pleasure. To me he is unusually gracious.


He is unmeasured in his praise of Gothenius, even when other Lectors are present, and they would never be able to forgive me for it, were it not that they know he is fond of a joke... J. G.


     August 23, 1769.

     Herewith I enclose the collection of acts published here concerning Swedenborgianism. The tenth sheet is soon to issue from the press. You will now be enabled by the perusal of these papers to inform yourself of the connection of things.

     The "dictata," which are so often alluded to, and on account of which Dr. Beyer has been declared incompetent, (see sheets 8 and 9) are said to be totidem verbis copied from Swedenborg's books. Aurell (who is the brother of Secretary Aurell of the College of Exchequer, my faithful comrade at Gattingen), is the wicket man who is determined upon vexing Doctors Roempke and Beyer. This Consistory has never found favor in his eyes. Dean Ekebom and he are friends, and his love for me is so blind that he speaks of me, even in the presence of my colleagues, as an incomparable man in this place, in the way of learning and other similar small matters, and when I think it over carefully the only reason for it is that I do not make any show of my qualities as he thinks a great many others do of theirs. He is also affectionate and faithful as a friend. He furthermore possesses a high degree of penetration; from early childhood he has imbibed Hebrew from his father, the Rev. Aurelius, still reads his Bible and is continually having philosophical combats with our fellows as often as he can get at them..... J. GOTHENIUS.


     Gothenburg, September 16, 1769.

     Yesterday, my dear Sir, I sent you by a student, the son of the Rev. Jeurling, Representative from the province of Bohus, the following documents:

     1. The first sheet of the Swedenborgian acts.

     2. The last sheet published of the same, and

     3. Dr. Roempke's Synodical Disputation, "De Reprobatione," which is not free from considerable suspicion of Swedenborgianism.


For this reason Assessor Aurell, who has appeared quite satisfied with it, last Wednesday submitted to the Consistory an announcement of his intention to translate this disputation into Swedish and have it printed, together with his own remarks.

     There is an anecdote concerning this disputation which is deserving of repetition, but, as usual, sub rosa silentii:

     Last year, when I returned home from Finland and Stockholm, just after the session of the Clerical Assembly, it happened that Roempke and Aurell chanced to meet here at my rooms. Aurell at once began to bring forth arguments against [the disputation], and Roempke to defend himself, as being the one best able to judge of his own book. At this juncture the Bishop arrived, and the discussion was continued. The Bishop then said, as he then is going to have me against him. I have censured it nomine CONSISTORII; I have approved it for printing, and I intend to defend it." Then Aurell took the Bishop into another room, as if to tell him in confidence that this heterodox disputation has recently been reported to the Chancellor of Justice and that legal procedure is to be taken against it. This he described together with numerous particulars. The Bishop then took to considering the matter and at last he comes in to us others, and says: "Good Sirs, I have, indeed, censured this work alone, but afterwards I submitted it to the Consistory's supervision; now, inasmuch as the Consistory declared itself satisfied with my measures in the matter, it follows that not I alone, but the entire Consistory, are equally responsible for it." Nota critica: can it be possible that he who before spoke only of himself, has allowed himself to be intimidated into making the matter one of common concern? J. GOTHENIUS.


     [1769], Dec. 16, Gothenburg.

     Do not believe of Gothenius that he is a Swedenborgian or the pupil of a dreamer. But it is against his nature to do the man injustice, by storming at him without actually showing wherein the gentleman has erred against our confession of Faith. It does not take a great deal of cleverness to shout "Swedenborg is a Socinian," but it would probably be quite an embarrassing proposition for many a one to refute him, for in order to do this, one must as least be acquainted with his opinions.


I find him entirely different from Socinus on important points. He repeatedly says that Christ was glorified after His resurrection from the grave, and that He alone ought to be worshiped as God, and addressed in prayers. To quote his words more exactly: "Humanum Christa Jesu Domini fuit vel factum est Divinum, cum ad vitam e sepulchro rediret." [The Human of the Lord Jesus Christ was or has been made Divine, when He returned to life from the sepulchre.] He is so little an indifferentist that he even excludes the Socinians from eternal blessedness, in saying: "Qui negaverunt Divinum Domini, et agnoverunt solum Humanum Ipsius, ut Socinian, illi similiter extra Celum sunt,_ac in proundum demittuntur." De Coelo et Inferno pag 5. [Those who have denied the Divinity of the Lord, and have acknowledged only His Human, as have the Socinians, are likewise excluded from out of heaven, and are let down into the depths. HEAVEN AND HELL, page 5.] One ought not to do the Man an injustice, and charge him with more or other faults than those of which he has made himself guilty, which, are numerous enough to convict him as a fanatic and even a heretic. He, on his part, does the Lutherans an injustice in so often accusing us of putting faith in mere knowledge and of making it only a work of the memory, and of despising love, good works, and Christian virtues. I most certainly intend to explain our doctrine, through the press, section by section, in opposition to the Swedenborgian. In doing so I shall quote Swedenborg's own words, comparing them with the Bible in a philological manner, since I find that a deficiency in philology has contributed greatly to his having been led astray. But more of this another time.

     (To be continued.)


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916


     "A so-called 'Swedenborgian's' inner life and faith are almost always exceedingly unobtrusive, and wholly free from the odd and bizarre, closely cloaked, indeed, in conventional commonplace and decorum." (Rev. A. E. Beilby, in the N. C. MAGAZINE for March, 1916. The author adds to this dignified picture of New Church people the further statement that "they are not occulists,"-which is an awful blunder of the printer's).

     "Among the professed disciples of the New Church, as visibly organized, we may, without much effort, discern a lack of continued interest toward a steadfast development in spiritual knowledge, and a consequent apathy in the uses of the church. The history of many societies connected with the New Church shows a lamentable inconstancy on the part of its young men and women whose fathers and mothers had been founders and supporters in its early days. When it is understood that there ought to be a systematic up-building of the visible church, beginning with the children of the Sunday School, and continuing through a period of increasing study and knowledge of doctrine in its application to life, we naturally expect to see results contributing by these means to the establishment and increase of the Lord's New Church before the world. Why, then, the apparent failure of our hopes in this direction." (A. H. C., in the MESSENGER for March 29.)

     It is with deep regret we hear that the publication of THE HEART OF INDIA has been suspended, at least for some time to come, on account of financial and other difficulties. Only thirty-five subscribers were secured in India, and a few elsewhere. From the Report of the first annual meeting of the Hindi Swedenborg Society we learn that the Society numbers at present thirty-four members, an increase of eighteen since the end of 1914.


Among the new members mention is made of Mr. H. D. Chokd, a distinguished teacher in the Baroda State Service; Mr. Blaise Alexander D'Sylva, the first accession from the Indian Christian Community, and Mr. Mathura Das, of Lahore, who for some years has been a devoted student of the Writings. Mr. A. E. Penn, the only English member of the Society in India, was elected President for the year, and Prof. M. R. Bhatt, Vice-President.

     From Prof. M. R. Bhatt we have received a very handsomely bound volume, entitled BRITISH AND HINDI VIKRAM, a "Weekly War Magazine, published by command of H. H. Maharani Shri Nandkunvarba, C. I., of Bhavnagar, and distributed free of cost. Vol. I. Dec. 1914 to Nov. 1915." With the exception of the title-page, preface, and table of contents, the whole volume is in the Gujerati language, and is furnished with a profusion of excellent portraits and illustrations. In an accompanying note Prof. Bhatt informs us that he is the editor of the paper, which is published at the expense of Her Righness the Maharani (or Queen) of Bhavanagar, and he adds: "Being a work written under New Church influences, I have thought that it might be deemed worthy of your library." The volume has been deposited in the Academy's Library.

     In the January issue of the NEW CHURCH REVIEW there is a very friendly review of the Academy edition of CONJUGIAL LOVE. The reviewer says in part, "The desire for an edition wholly free from annotations did something to inspire this one, no doubt, yet in itself it comes very near being distinctly warranted. Editions of the theological works are so frequent that there is a proper tendency to hold a new one to strict accountability, and force it to show plain advance on others. It hardly seems to us that the present edition shows a distinct enough advance; but the reviser, whose painstaking and affectionate interest are everywhere manifest, and the Academy of the New Church, whose imprint it bears, are to be congratulated, nevertheless, upon what is a most handsome and excellent edition of this precious book of the Church.


     It has been charged, again and again,-and quite recently in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY,-that "the practical tendency" among those who acknowledge the Writings as the Word of God "has been to neglect the study of the Letter of the Word, and to emphasize the study of the Writings." But what are the actual facts in the case? For some forty years it has been the universal custom among the people thus accused to read a chapter of the Sacred Scripture, daily, in the family worship, while reading at the same time a lesson from the Heavenly Doctrine. Can this in justice be termed a "neglect" of the letter of the Word?

     In all the parochial schools of the General Church, and in all the departments of the Academy Schools, from the Kindergarten to the Theological School, the study of the Hebrew language has always been an essential and distinctive feature. What is the study of the Hebrew but a study of the letter of the Word in its most ultimate form? And in the thirty-five volumes of NEW CHURCH LIFE, and in other Academy journals, past and present, the letter of the Word has been the subject of minute and systematic study in almost innumerable articles,-the history, geography and ethnology of the Word, its languages and style of composition, its inspiration, authenticity and preservation, etc., etc. no these facts support the charge that the practical tendency among those who acknowledge the Writings as the Word, has been to neglect the study of the literal sense?

     It is not to be denied that far more of such study is highly desirable, that a more direct use of the literal sense in doctrinal instruction would be beneficial, and that as a whole our Church has merely begun to realize the beauty and power and holiness of the Word in the letter. But, we may ask, however much we may have been at fault, what evidence is there that the letter of the Word has been studied more in those quarters of the New Church where the Writings are not acknowledged as the Word of God, and where, in consequence, the study of these Writings are not so much emphasized!

     Surely, the Lord in His Second Advent has not come to dissolve the Law and the Prophets, but to establish them. Every reader of the Heavenly Doctrine knows that this is "the practical tendency" of the new Revelation. If so, the practical tendency among the lovers of this Doctrine must necessarily be the same.




     The readers of the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY in America are aware that a discussion has been proceeding in the pages of that magazine on the ever recurring subject, The Relation of the Writings to the Word. The discussion was initiated by the new ideas propounded by the Rev. W. H. Acton in his fourth article published in the QUARTERLY for January, 1915. In criticizing them in the issue for July, 1915. I drew the reader's attention en passent to the fact that on this vital question Mr. Acton's present position was in hopeless conflict with the one he held many years ago when he published a very thoughtful and instructive article in the NEW CHURCH LIFE for Oct., 1886, on the suggestive subject-The Word.

     In his rejoinder in the QUARTERLY for January, 1916, Mr. Acton denies in a categorical manner that there has been any repudiation on his part of the position for which he once so conspicuously stood. In a footnote he makes the following statement: "Mr. Ottley refers to an article published by me nearly thirty years ago. He will no doubt be pleased to learn that I by no means repudiate the position then taken. That article was written at a time when there was a tendency, stronger than there is even now, to regard the Writings as Swedenborg's works, rather than as an immediate revelation of Divine Truth by the Lord! My purpose in writing it was to show that the Doctrines now given in the Writings are interior Divine Truths, and it was in the restricted sense referred to in my last article in the N. C. Q. that I claimed that they are the Word. The idea that the Writings are in any sense a literal form of the Word, and an integral part of the Letter, was an innovation first introduced and developed in the pages of THE NEW CHURCH TIDINGS, for Oct., 1892 (see p. 63, ital)."

     As Mr. Acton's denial of a change of attitude or front on a subject of such exceptional importance was a virtual challenge of the accuracy of my statement, I deemed it right to lay before the readers of the QUARTERLY Clear proof of the absolute correctness of my charge.


The editor of the QUARTERLY, however, decided to rule out this portion of my reply on the grounds that as the article under notice was published in the LIFE, it was there, and not in the QUARTERLY the reply should appear. Under the circumstances, I trust you will kindly extend to me the hospitality of your columns to enable me to show by actual quotation from the LIFE how the fact stands as I stated it.

     This is what Mr. W. H. Acton wrote in the NEW CHURCH LIFE for Oct., 1886:

     "Some might object to our classing the Writings of the New Church with the Word, even those who believe their having been inspired by the Lord. That they are from, the Lord no one can doubt who believes in the Lord's Second Coming. For we read: The Advent of the Lord is the revelation of Himself and of the Divine Truth which is from Him, in the Word by the internal sense. Nowhere else does the Lord reveal Himself than in the Word, nor otherwise there than in the internal sense.' (A. E. 36; H. H. 1.) 'And to this end He has now opened the internal or spiritual sense of the Word which everywhere treats of Heaven.' A.E.870. (See also A. E. 594, 635.)

     "Where is this spiritual sense of the Word to be found thus revealed save in the Theological Works or Emanuel Swedenborg? to whom that sense was dictated. (A. C. 65, 97.) Hence we read in the preface to the APOCALYPSE REVEALED: 'Every one can see that the Apocalypse can by no means be explained but by the Lord alone. . . . Do not believe, therefore, that I have taken anything herein from myself, nor from any angel, but from the Lord alone.'

     "And further: 'It was not allowed me to take anything from the dictate of any angel, but from the Lord alone.' (DE VERBO 4.)

     "Acknowledging the Writings to be from the Lord, we must also acknowledge them to be Divine. For 'The Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord is the Divine itself in the heaven and in the Church.' (A. E. 228.) 'And what proceeds from the Lord is also Himself.' (A. E. 392.)

     "Since the Divine is not divisible, and, therefore, cannot admit of comparison, the Writings must be all Divine or in no respects Divine.


Hence: 'The Word inasmuch as it is a revelation from the Divine, is Divine in all and singular things: for what is from the Divine cannot be otherwise.' (A. C. 1032.) 'What the Divine has revealed is, with us, the Word.' (A. C. 10320.)

     "Thus, then, the Writings since they are a revelation from the Lord are the 'WORD WITH US,) also, as being the spiritual sense of the Word, they constitute its essential life." (A. C. 64.)

     Now I ask the question, Is the position taken thirty years ago by Mr. Acton in this article identical with the position now taken by him? Are not the two positions in glaring conflict? But this is no solitary article in which Mr. Acton took so strong and unmistakable a position. Two years later, (1888); in a "Letter from England" to the NEW CHURCH LIFE, after attending a session of the General Conference, he wrote as follows:

     "It was positively painful to hear how the Divine Writings were spoken of as the "Writings of Swedenborg' in which 'is to be found the great means of introducing men into the spiritual sense of the Word, but certainly inferior to the Word.' As the speaker uttered these words I wondered whether he had forgotten the Lord's words, 'Who shall swear by the temple sweareth by it, and by Him that dwelleth therein.' (Matth. xxiii:16-22.)

     "The Writings of the Church-are not an 'introduction to the Spiritual sense,' nor is it right to speak of them as did another priest as 'illustrating the Word.' If they are anything they are THE SPIRITUAL SENSE ITSELF and the Word as understood by the angels of heaven and the Letter is holy only because it contains in perfect fulness those Divine Writings." (see p. 157.)

     The italics and capital's are Mr. Acton's. While here he tells us that "if they, (the Writings), are anything they are the spiritual sense of the Word," he now says, twenty-eight years later, "Neither do the Writings claim to be the internal sense of the Word !" (N. C. Q. p. 42.) Which of these two diametrically opposed statements are we to believe?

     Eleven years later-1899-when Mr. Acton was minister of the Colchester Society-he dealt again with this important subject and showed in language which was as clear as it was emphatic that his convictions had not then, undergone any change. He wrote:


     "It is manifest that those who fail to see that the Writings are the Word of God no less than the Letter of the Word of the Sacred Scripture, and who yet admit that they are a Divine Revelation and the Word as to the internal sense, dwell in mere externals and fail to understand clearly the true nature of any Divine Revelation, and hence the Word and the Writings. It seems as though they tried to see spiritual things in mere natural lumen.

     "It appears to me that those who refuse to acknowledge the Writings as being the Word do so because they worship not the living but the dead Letter. It is like one who admires another on account of his body and clothing who nevertheless admits when asked that the body lives only from its spirit or soul, but yet does not regard the spirit or soul himself and is unwilling to let others do so either. Do not the Lord's words apply to this state of the Church! 'Ye worship ye know not what;' and again: 'If I have told you earthly things and ye do not believe, how will ye believe if I tell you heavenly things?'"

     Time, it is said, changes all things, and seventeen years seem to have had this effect upon Mr. Acton's convictions on a subject of great importance. In my opinion it is the most complete volte face which it would be possible to imagine. The evidence of this he supplies himself in the concluding words of his recent article:

     "As I have already pointed out, I do not deny there is a sense in which the Writings are the Divine Truth and thus the Word; but I deny most emphatically on the dearest and oft repeated testimony of the Writings themselves [?], the propriety of referring to them by the same expression as that which is used to designate the fullest, most perfect and most holy-because most ultimate-form of Divine Truth, the Word in its Letter." (N. C. Q., Jan., 1915, p. 53)
     G. C. OTTLEY.


     The prediction that the New Church after abiding among a few and in the wilderness is to become a world-wide Church and be received by the many has always kindled the imagination of Newchurchmen and excited speculation as to when and how this is to be accomplished, and what signs they are to look for so as to know the time is ripe for co-operation towards this greatly desired end.


Like the predictions of an Ancient Word that is to be searched for in Tartary, and of revelations made to Africans to protect them, from Christian missionaries and safeguard them for the New Church, the prophecy of the future existence of the New Church among the many always arouses keen interest and enthusiasm with those who have a love of the human race greater than the love of their country, and who realizes that its salvation will eventually depend upon the coming to them of the Lord in His Second Advent.

     But before the New Church can exist among the many, a cohesive and distinctive nucleus must be made among a few. As the great mixed multitude of Israelites had to be inaugurated about the revelation given from Sinai and molded and drilled by forty years of severe experiences in the desert, and until all save two of the original generation who had left. Egypt had perished, before their descendants could be led into Canaan and begin the struggle for the dispossession of its former inhabitants; as the apostles were instructed to abide first in Jerusalem for a season prior to their receiving the gift of tongues and being endowed with power from on high; so the apostles of the Lord in His Second Advent were first to make a complete cleavage from Old Church surroundings and be molded into a new and independent nucleus about the Writings of Swedenborg so that when the time for expansion among the many came there would be no risk of disintegration and of separation from the life-giving source in any of the vicissitudes attendant on the projection of the lines to a distance from the centre. During the stage of cohesive nucleus formation there is also to be developed a discriminative attitude towards the Old Church and the rest of the world so as to recognize the salvable religious states of the simple there; and implications are to be seen in the Writings that will make the nucleus flexible and sympathetic to the Peculiar religious qualities of this simple remnant who in an age to come will be in intimate relation to the central heart and lungs.

     In the wisdom of Providence the New Church nucleus began among the simple good who had been preserved among those of a Protestant quality of religion, and it is not difficulty to see the reason why, since among the Protestants alone there had been preserved a complete access to the Word of the two previous dispensations and since they alone possessed freedom of thought and speech and a perception that the safe-guarding of the freedom of the individual man is of greater importance than his belonging to a religious organization designed to secure for him access to the means conducive to salvation.


But be it noted that the extension of the New Church from among few to among the many is not likely to be just an increase of the Protestant quality of Newchurchmanship and of institutions peculiar thereto, but the adjunction of the qualities of the simple good of all other religions about the Protestant quality of the nuclear simple remnant; and this can only come about by a gradual tempering or flexible and sympathetic molding so that what is jangling and discordant in their diverse qualities may be resolved into a harmonic measure under the united attitude to the authority of the Writings and to public worship as their universal bonds.

     How much a Protestant quality of thought dominates our present day Newchurchmanship, and acts even detrimentally to the development of certain uses which will need the quality of a different religious mold for their enhancement, is rarely noted by us as we are accustomed to regard all our institutional New Church activities as pure, unsullied developments from the Writings, with the qualities from our original Protestantisms entirely eliminated and extirpated. The following remarks of a minister, writing to me in appreciation of my article, entitled "The Spoiling of the Egyptians," is one that should give us, therefore, much food for thought: "It solves for me a problem I have thought vaguely about for a very long time. To me it meets the case precisely. I have long thought that our externals of public worship do not, except in a very crude or meagre sense, at all correspond to the beautiful yet withal practical truths the Church of the Lord has to impart or disclose. Our hindrance to a reform in this respect is, generally speaking, due to a strong Puritan prejudice, out of which some of our adherents have come. Indeed, strange to say, this same prejudice is equally strong in those of even the third or fourth generation of Newchurchmen, due possibly in their case to the old Puritan influences around them in their daily avocations, and perhaps not a little due to the skeptical attitude to religion generally in the present generation."


     In my article referred to by the writer just mentioned, I called attention to the existence in the Old Church not only of the simple good but of certain states of acknowledgment of truth which they fancied were endorsed by the doctrines there; that so long as those simple good remained in the Old Church they lent it their support causing its shell to continue as an active factor in the world; and that the development in the New Church of a similar state of religious appreciation to that which kept the simple in their old environment would bring the simple out of that environment and make its perpetuation purposeless, and, therefore, bring it quickly to an end as a religious factor. As some seem to have a difficulty in seeing what I meant here, and have even imputed to me the desire to introduce consummated features of the Old Church or to imply that the New Church did not owe its vigor or vitality to the Writings solely, but was dependent on what the consummated Old Church had to give it, it will be in order now to cite the careful qualifications I made and which have been apparently unnoticed by those who impute such a desire to me: "My contention is that if the New Church can develop an external holiness of equal ultimate power with that which exists as a mere shell in the Old Church, and do this without infection from the internal desolation there, that then much blessing will accrue to the New Church. . . . I do not believe that ultimate benefits from the Old Church can be directly transferred to the New Church without a remodeling. The mode of transfer must be in the nature of an illustration to see in the heavenly doctrines principles that will lead to the formulating of an equivalent ultimate: [As an instance in point, a convert from Moravianism], the disciple of the educational ideals of Comenius was able to see the educational implications in the doctrines and to develop thence a New Church plan of education." (N. C. LIFE, Aug., 1915.)

     My point in these declarations is that the Writings contain in themselves all that will be needed to bring the New Church from among a few to among the many, but that it will require minds trained in different molds of religious experience and sensitive to the needs of the simple in those particular fields in order to detect in the Writings the features necessary to align their qualities of religious craving with the nuclear qualities of the already organized New Church.


With regard to the benefits transferred to the New Church by the Lord through the channel of Moravians, though entirely apart from: their corrupt and consummated character, I was especially struck by the concluding phrase of the following unqualified declaration of the Writings: "But I remembered what also came into [my] thought, that these [spirits] were not of the primitive Church, but of the Moravian Church; so that it is now said they were of the Moravian Church, with whom has been preserved the image of the primitive Church." (S. D. 3492)

     One writer has expressed himself as of the opinion that this latter phrase is to be understood as being merely the opinion of Moravians but not the plain truth in the matter, and bases his contention on the teaching given elsewhere that the Moravians boast most preposterously and without foundation whatsoever that they are "the remains of the Apostolic Church." (J. Post. 297.) In reply I would remark again that the passage of the DIARY cited just above is entirely without such qualification; and that the preservation of the image of the primitive Church is quite a different matter from the assertion that a group of people are themselves the remains of the Apostolic Church. The image of a Church can be preserved among an evil race who have scarcely anything of the Church within them and who deserve the terrible denunciations the Writings give the Moravians. Such a race can yet have the image of a Church preserved among them and thus serve the Lord as an instrumentality to transmit certain virtues to a future race that will have the Church inwardly in them. The signal historic example of this is the Jewish Church which bridged the gap between the Ancient and Christian Churches; and continues even today in order to preserve the appreciation of the Word in the Hebrew. It is not improbable also that the insistence of the Moravians about their being the remains of the Apostolic Church may have had something to do with the preservation of that image among them. For it is said of the Jews that the Lord permitted a representative of a Church to be established among them "because they had obstinately insisted" upon being His people. (A. C. 10396, 10430, 10612.)


     The same writer seems to think that the existence of eight columns in the Potts' CONCORDANCE that are mainly condemnatory of the Moravians should deter anyone from thinking anything of value could have been transmitted through them by the Lord to the New Church. But if Weight is to be attached to an argument of this sort, we would have to ask how it came about that the author of the CORRESPONDENCES OF EGYPT could wish us to accept his favorable deductions as to the truths involved in the mythology of that country in the face of the still more appalling fact that there are not eight but thirty-seven columns in the Potts' Concordance that are mainly condemnatory of Egypt. Are we through fear of the suspicion that we may be construed to favor the introduction of corrupt and consummated features, to deny that the Lord has stored up in Egypt things that the study of the Writings will enable us to use? Are we also to deny that the Jewish race was preserved to the present day to bridge over and make a continuity of appreciation of the Word in the Hebrew; from fear we may be accused of ascribing some virtue to corrupt Judaism, when it is the Writings that enable us to develop a similar appreciation? Yet had there been no continuity prior to such development from the Writings the havens resting on the ultimate appreciation of the Hebrew would have suffered.

     In characterizing this image of the primitive Church preserved by the Lord among the Moravians and their predecessors since Apostolic times, I used the expression "Apostolic Succession," which drew from the same writer last referred to a useful disquisition upon the evil motives that inspired the similarly named Christian theory and the lack of authentic historical proof to establish the early links of succession in the chain. In all this I most heartily concur even to the point of adding that I might have chosen a more felicitous phrase than one that has aroused so many unpleasant associations. But while on this point let me remark in passing that there is scarcely an expression used in the phraseology of the Old Church about which the simple good there do not have such thought obscurely suggesting doctrines that may be found in the True Christian Religion, (INV. TO N. C. 2, A. E. 1102), and which are definitely associated with the letter of the Word.


I am not unaware that the Christian theory of the Apostolic Succession is condemned in A. R. 802 as involving the transmission of the Holy "from man unto man," and as having been formulated as a device to strengthen the Babylonish love of rule. But in spite of this condemnation it yet can be seen to involve obscurely a truth set forth elsewhere in the Writings as follows: "That the Holy, which is meant by the Holy Spirit, is not transferred from man unto man [condemned also in A. R. 892], but from the Lord through man unto man." (CANONS S. S. iv:5.) This discrimination between a transference (1) from the Lord through man unto man, which is correct; and (2) from man unto man, which is incorrect, is precisely that which was the basis of the controversy between the two presidents of the Royal Academy, (D. L. W. 344), one hiding correctly that there was a continued force inflowing from God into nature, and the other, incorrectly, that it was inscribed in original matter and transferred from form to form since then.

     As to what was involved in the preservation of an image of the primitive Church among Moravians, I suggested it was something that made for greater ultimate cohesion, imparting greater "priestly power and fervor." Priests of a consummated Church come also into a fervent zeal while preaching, and exercise thereby a power for holding the simple, which power may continue in an Old Church long after its consummation. This power which is then subservient to evil spirits with the priests, can yet enthrall the good spirits attendant on the simple good and so keep the latter in that environment. I am inclined to think that the simple as a means to being delivered from that thrall, will need to see that fervor decreasing in the Old Church environment and developing in the New Church in a heavenly manner. My opinion about the mode of preservation of the image of the primitive Church among the Moravians and their predecessors to be finally conveyed to the New Church, is that in the Lord's Providence a certain society of simple Christian spirits continually replenished by those dying was associated with a line of Christian priests, and imbued them with a sphere of holy ultimate worship; there being a transmission not unlike that from the Lord through Elijah to Elisha, (cf. 3 ADV. 2186-92), but without reflection on the character of the individual so long as there was no external behavior of a scandalous character.


Having ceased to be Christian in essence, it was necessary that the being "Christian in name" should be preserved. (T. C. R. 668.) Since the Last Judgement, the associations of simple spirits about their co-religionists on earth were made brief with individual spirits, though there continues to be a daily replenishment by those passing out of our world. Yet means are being provided even for this to cease. This we are told was already the case with all Quakers, (C. J. 85), since they reject the sacraments; and with Mohammedan children. (S. D. 344.) It is probably the case now pretty widely in many Protestant Churches including the Moravians, who are suffering doctrinal disintegration and becoming coalitions for the promotion of ethical culture apart from religion.

     I have spent a great part of this paper so far in answering objections and so have postponed coming to the specific point in view. I would above all things most firmly emphasize the point that the authority for all growth and development in the New Church comes from the Writings of Swedenborg; but that once there has been developed a strong nucleus having unswerving loyalty to the Writings, that then the Lord begins to confer on that nucleus all virtues and treasures He has stored in the world among all races by means of the simple preserved there, by means of their states of religious acknowledgment and by means of their spiritual associations with the angels of heaven. But the men of the New Church are not to look upon such apparently accessory blessings as something apart from and grander than the Writings; since all these things are involved in the Writings, though in order to be evolved from the Writings they need to be seen in the time appointed by those who from a special quality of acknowledgment and love will have their eyes opened to see them there. Surely no one can deny that benefits will come to New Church thought and life from the future association of the simple remnant elsewhere! To deny this systematically will only mean that this will be made difficult of realization and be probably postponed to a far distant time. The concluding point of my paper is then that by the growth of the New Church from among few to be among the, many, is meant not only the bringing of the simple good of all religions into organic touch with the organized New Church; but the growth among Newchurchmen to perceive in the Writings all the states of religious acknowledgment which these simple have and to unite all such qualities of appreciation so that the New Church may come to fulfill the requirements of a world-wide Church which is composed of "the men of many religions," (D. P. 326, cf. H. H. 56, 57), that is, of the simple remnant who have different religious qualities which blending harmoniously can cause a concentration of varieties into a one.


The New Church will not leave the wilderness to fulfill this ample destiny until its nucleus is strong enough to resist infection from consummated Churches and discriminative enough not to make one pottage of the evil influences and the simple good remnant there. E. E. IUNGERICH.


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. On the Saturday evening, March 25th, the Younger Generation Club held its annual dinner. Many of the "old guard" were there to help us enjoy our evening. The general subject of the speeches was "The War," and with Mr. Randolph Childs in the toastmaster's chair the affair could not fail to be a success. However, before the serious part of the evening began, there were a number of carefully prepared spontaneous speeches, on "The Complexity of Our Social Life," "The Future of Esthetic Dancing," "New Church Drama," and "Early Rising." These speeches were well handled, in the spirit in which they were meant, and together with the quips of the toastmaster, caused much laughter. But turning to the serious side of the evening, we found an endeavor to deal impartially with the whole subject of the war. Mr. Charles R. Pendleton gave the case for the "Central Powers." Mr. Whitehead spoke for the Allies, whilst Mr. Gyllenhaal brought out the duty of the neutral nations. Mr. Paul Synnestvedt gave us a careful resume on "The International Law Involved," and Bishop N. D. Pendleton brought the evening to a close with a speech on "The New Church and the War." He ended his remarks with a stirring appeal for loyalty and support to our President, which evoked an enthusiastic response from his auditors.

     It seems as though Bryn Athyn has set itself a record of one marriage a month, at least so it seems to him who has penned these notes, for every time the task comes for more news notes, a wedding is sure to go in them. This time it was the wedding of Miss Rosalba de Anchoriz to Mr. Maurice Joy, of New York. The chapel was decorated with Easter lilies. The children of the Elementary Schools formed the procession and entered carrying flowers and singing a Hebrew song. Bishop W. F. Pendleton performed the service, which closed with the administration of the Holy Supper. A private reception was held at the home of Bishop W. F. Pendleton. The date was March 26th.


     The College Club was entertained twice during the past month. The first time was at a tea given by Miss Venita Pendleton, at her home. The subject for discussion was New Church "culture." The occasion was most pleasant. The second time was a tea given to the Club by Miss Alice Grant. The subject was "Preparedness For Teaching." All who were present felt that they had received a treat intellectually, as well as spending a pleasant social afternoon.
     The Civic and Social Club has been active this month,-I might add, as usual. It conducted a very spirited dance on the night of April 7th. On Saturday evening, April 15, the Club met in debate the Pennsylvania State College team. The subject was: "Resolved, That the Administration policy of armament increase is demanded by the best interests of the U. S." The battle was a royal one, but the local team was nosed out of victory by a 2-1 vote of the Judges in favor of State College. The following members represented Bryn Athyn: D. F. Rose, K. R. Alden, R. W. Childs and R. N. Bostock, alternate. K. R. A.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. During the month the Theta Epsilon entertained Mrs. Roydon Smith, from Bryn Athyn, who gave them a very interesting talk on "American Composers," illustrating her subject with musical selections. Mr. Walter Cranch, in a talk before the Advent Club, proved conclusively not only that Isaac Pitman was a Newchurchman, but that he had embodied many New Church principles in the development of his system of shorthand writing. On Washington's birthday; Mr. and Mrs. Donald Edmunds, costumed as George and Martha Washington, received the society at their pleasant home in West Philadelphia. The tone of the whole evening was one of patriotic enthusiasm.

     We were surprised by a visit from an old time member of our Society, Fraulein Schneider, of Yalesville, Conn.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. The Advent Church. The one event which overshadows all ease in the life of our Society this month, is the Dedication of our new Church building. After the months of patient toil and anxious expectation which preceded it, the great day, when we were to actually enter into our new home, and to solemnly consecrate it to the Lord Jesus Christ, and to the Proclamation of His Second Advent in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, came at last.


After strenuous efforts on the part of every available member of the Society, and with the help of a Providence that appeared almost miraculous, the building, with its inside furniture and hangings, was completed on the evening of Saturday, April 8th, and Sunday morning found everything in readiness. The chancel was appropriately decorated with palms, ferns, and roses. In the Chapel, the seating had been arranged to accommodate ninety-eight persons, and the assembly room had been cut off from this by curtains, Shortly before eleven o'clock, our friends from Bryn Athyn arrived, about thirty in number, and together with the members and friends here; filled the Chapel to overflowing. Bishop Mr. F. Pendleton had prepared a beautiful service, and although, much to the regret of all, he was unable to be present, the thought of his wise counsel and guidance in the past, as a result of which the present success was made possible, filled the minds of all present. Bishop N. D. Pendleton delivered a memorable sermon and performed the ceremony of Dedication. The Rev. George de Charms assisted him in conducting the service. Every one was impressed with the strong sphere of worship that pervaded, fittingly inaugurating the building into the use for which it was intended.

     After the services, the guests were entertained in the various homes as far as our facilities allowed, and we were delighted indeed to have them with us, though we fear they were shamefully neglected during the afternoon, as preparations had then to be made for the evening banquet. Seven o'clock found the Assembly Room changed into a banqueting hall. Tables accommodating ninety-eight Persons had been tastily spread, under the direction of the ladies. The walls were decorated with banners which had been presented by the Sunday School children, red and white roses decked the tables, while the palms and ferns added a final touch of beauty to the room. Every seat was occupied, and although there was not room for the waiters to pass between the tables, Mr. Edmonds, who had charge of this part of the work, organized a "bucket brigade" in whose hands the dishes were miraculously spirited away, as soon as they had been emptied of their contents.


     The intellectual part of the evening opened by a toast to the Church, and the singing of "Our Glorious Church." The Rev. Alfred Acton presented the address of the evening, speaking most impressively of the meaning of Dedication, with special reference to that dedication which had been solemnized in the morning. Mr. Acton's remarks were followed by the reading of three communications which had been received,-one from Miss Minnie Thomas, who, having met with an automobile accident, was lying in the hospital. She expressed her regret in being unable to be present. The following telegram was received from Pittsburgh:

     "Congratulations from the Pittsburgh Society. May this place be to you the House of God and the Gate of Heaven. Homer Synnestvedt, Pastor." And finally a communication from Mr. John Pitcairn,-stating that he wished to cancel the loan made by him to the Advent Church, and expressing the hope that the Lord would bless the work of the Society,-raised a veritable storm of cheers, which made the building shake to its very foundations. Coming as it did as a perfect surprise to all, and as the culmination of a long period of earnest effort, it filled the heart of every member and friend with feelings of gratitude which it is impossible to express in words.

     Much to our regret, the Bryn Athyn friends were forced to leave early on account of the train service. We managed, however, to retain a few of them, Mr. Walter C. Childs among the number. In fact, after a series of speeches from our various members and friends, we gladly turned over the rest of the evening to this representative of the Founders of our beloved Academy, and he rounded off the evening with such entertainment as he alone is able to provide.

     At a late hour, the meeting broke up with appropriate songs, and each departed with new strength and determination to face and meet the problems that must confront the society under the new conditions which it has now assumed.
     G. DE C.

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. War-burdened England is receiving a patriotic response to the call to the colors from our young Newchurchmen. Our society here in Colchester has practically given up all its youth and young men. A list of their names and of the regiments they are serving with may be of interest here:


Mr. Norman Motum, Army Ordinance Corp, (now in France).
Mr. John F. Cooper, Royal Engineers, (signal section).
S. W. Appleton, Royal Flying Corp, (now in Ireland).
W. Rey Gill, Artists Rifles, (at present in London).
Mr. Philip Motum, attested in Derby Group.
Mr. A. J. Appleton, attested in Derby Group.
Mr. Alan Gill, Royal Naval Division.

     You can well imagine what the loss of these young men means to our Church and social life.

     On Jan. 6th Mrs. W. Gill was the hostess at a very pleasant children's party. Of course the number of children is few, but there were also quite a number of adults present who made up a goodly party.

     We celebrated Swedenborg's birthday on Jan. 30th, and the meeting was very well attended. The subject, Divine Revelation, was arranged in two series. The first half dealt with the revelation that was given prior to the Advent, and the second half dealt with the Advent, and the crown of revelations, "The Writings." The treatment of the four subjects was well handled, and the guests felt that they had gained just a little deeper insight into that truth of truths that leadeth unto all truth. Before leaving a toast was offered to Mr. and Mrs. Motum, who for a period of 25 years have uninterruptedly provided the banquet for these occasions.

     For the present our pastor has deemed it advisable to discontinue the doctrinal classes. F. R. C.


     UNITED STATES. The Pittsburgh Society ended, Thursday, March 16th, a very successful series of lectures, founded on Swedenborg and the Writings. The first lecture was given Thursday, March 2d, by Rev. Julian K. Smyth, of New York City, official head of the New Church. His subject was "The Life of Swedenborg." Mr Smyth's pleasing manner of delivery, together with the very interesting subject, pleased the audience immensely.

     This lecture was not given in the church, as in former years, but in the Lecture Hall of Carnegie Library, the attendance being close on to two hundred people, one-third of whom were strangers.


     The second lecture, given at the church was delivered by Rev. Homer Synnestvedt of the Pittsburgh Academy Church, his subject being "The Practical Saving of Soul's," a philosophic and scientific treatment of the subject of Regeneration. Mr. Synnestvedt's experience as teacher and lecturer in the General Church Academy at Bryn Athyn made it possible for him to deliver this deep subject in a very simple and comprehensive manner, using a large blackboard to illustrate the deeper points. This lecture was not only attended by our own members, but also by a large delegation from the Academy Church, as well as not a few strangers. Everybody was apparently pleased and no doubt greatly benefited by this delightful discourse.

     The third lecture, ending the series, was held at the church, March 16th, and was delivered by our own Pastor, Rev. Wm. G. Stockton, whose subject was "The relation of the Natural and the Spiritual Worlds." This was a most interesting subject and was delivered in a most pleasing manner, within comprehension of all. Mr. Stockton also used a blackboard to illustrate the deeper points of his discourse. This lecture covered such an interesting field, also a subject much discussed at the present day, and was so well received by the audience, that we feel that we should go further and offer this lecture to our societies in distant cities. We would, therefore, be pleased to give any of the societies within the jurisdiction of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Associations an opportunity to hear same. The Committee on Lectures would be glad to entertain any call from the other societies to do so, as we feel confident that we could induce Mr. Stockton to deliver this lecture abroad, in spite of his modesty in such matters. (MESSENGER, March 29.)

     The Rev. L. G. Landenberger reports in the MESSENGER for March 15th on the results of his advertising the work on HEAVEN AND HELL in various secular and religious periodicals. We quote the following: "In this morning's mail I am in receipt of a letter from a man in Ouitsha, Southern Nigaria, Brit. West Africa, who saw the little ad in the "HOMILETIC REVIEW" and requests HEAVEN AND HELL and DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM.


He says he is a Sunday School superintendent and is preparing for the ministry. This morning's post also brings a letter from Mr. P. A. Egozene, of San Juan, Porto Rico, who is now purchasing the ARCANA COELESTIA, a volume at a time. He requests the fourth volume and says: 'I continue as ever reading Swedenborg's works and the Bible.' And the hopefulness of the novitiate is expressed in this next sentence: 'Time is not far when everybody wil1 do the same,' adding, 'I am sure.'"

     GREAT BRITAIN. The Rev. Jas. F. Buss has been given three months' leave of absence by the Kensington Society in London. Some months ago he developed a severe attack of influenza, from which he recovered with the greatest difficulty and which left him so weak that it was feared he would utterly collapse unless he had a long holiday. In order to recuperate he has gone on a voyage (on the steamer "Saxon") to Durban, Natal, where he once ministered, and where he has two married sons.

     The following excerpts from the annual report of the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck to the Birmingham Society are of more than local interest:

     The nature and world-wide extent of the European War are having a markedly sobering effect upon our Church community, as on all other people. Nor is this lessened by the darkened streets, and the recent shaded lighting of the church, both of which are apt to diminish the attendance at the evening services. And yet there is much of a heartening nature in the year's history of our Church. Gloom and cheer often come very close to each other, thereby setting each other off in sharper contrast. Thus, while we deplore the war and its attendant evils which we are made to feel sorely, yet we rejoice that it has demonstrated how intensely burns the fire of patriotism and of love of righteousness in the hearts of our constituency. I believe that there is not a man of military age and fitness, not on war work, who has not offered his services, and if need be, his life, to his country. A very few, much to their own great disappointment, have been rejected as physically unfit for the arduous life of a soldier. Yet the spirit animating our men is exemplified in the case of one such, who, with quiet determination took special physical exercises, and then offered himself again, with the result that he was accepted; and in the case of others who have not yet reached the military age, but who have nevertheless succeeded in entering the forces, and are proving themselves worthy of the best traditions of a British soldier.


When compulsion comes, the officers will not find a single man in our Church and Sunday School to impress into service. And it is not only the young men, afire with the enthusiasm of youth, who, in the hour of Britain's need, have shown that their love of country far surpasses the love of self and of ease. The older men, with mature deliberation of the grave responsibilities involved, have entered the ranks of volunteers, as recruiters, as Home Defence Guards, as Red Cross workers, as special constables, and the like; and the women, old and young, have become nurses, women volunteers, or are otherwise helping, directly or indirectly, the workers in the trenches, in the munition works, and in the hospitals. We may truly say that the whole Society and Sunday School are aglow with patriotism. This condition leads us again and again to recall what is said in the Divine revelations which the Lord has made to His New Church through His servant Emanuel Swedenborg, that "He who loves his country, and from good-will benefits her, in the other life loves the kingdom of the Lord, for there the Lord's kingdom is his country." No one will ever be able to sum up the amount of money, time and labor that is being devoted by members of our church and Sunday School entirely aside from any official duty or taxes for the benefit of their loved country, and, what is still more noble, for the cause of international liberty and honor. It is profoundly moving to witness the surrender of business interests, of family ties, of personal pleasure, and their submission to the higher interest of country and humanity. It is true, that, so far as workers in the Church and Sunday School are concerned, the situation has tended to handicap us seriously. Yet the spirit that has brought this about will eventually bless the Church the more. In my report of last year, I dwell upon the falling off in church attendance that had been steadily taking place for a number of years past, as lamented by both of my predecessors, and I suggested that, while the changing surroundings of the church were largely the cause, yet so far as such falling off was due to the young people of the church taking no interest after childhood, this could be remedied by a more thorough religious education in the principles of the New Church.


Experience had shown that young people who had been thus carefully nurtured, in an interested appreciation of the beautiful, deep, and practical truths of the New Church, were much less likely to stray from the Church, than those not so thoroughly trained in our most excellent religion. I also announced that I was then engaged in efforts in the direction of a new and improved instruction of the younger, beginning with those children of our Church who were not, at that time, receiving the benefit of Sunday instruction. I am now happy to report that, owing to the munificence of the father of some of the children, who, with a modesty like that of others just referred to, desired that his gift should remain anonymous, I was able to devote the sum of ?15 to the accumulation of necessary material for the more interesting teaching of children. It has involved much time and correspondence to ascertain the various sources of supply in England and America, some of them quite out-of-the-way. But the results are gratifying. One of the first purposes was to decorate some of the bare walls. Large framed pictures of Biblical stories have been hung in the class rooms. Several of the frames have movable backs, enabling the teachers to show the picture of the day's lesson in a glazed frame, making it more refined and attractive. Pictures large and small, Biblical models, specimens of materials, charts, maps, books, slides, sand-tables, hymn books, etc., have been brought together.

     PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. Among the students taking a correspondence course in the New Church Theological School in Cambridge, Mass., there is a native of the Philippines, Ildefonso Agulo, a Tagalog, 27 years of age, who is very ambitious to spend the doctrines of the New Church among his fellow countrymen. As he speaks very little English, it became necessary for the School to correspond with him in Spanish, In a recent letter he writes: "I desire to ask you people over there, when will arrive here a companion to work with me in the propagation of the 'New Gospel' of the Lord Jesus, or if you have any plan of sending a missionary of the New Jerusalem for the Philippine Islands?"


Program of the Annual Meetings of the General Assembly 1916

Program of the Annual Meetings of the General Assembly       C. TH. ODHNER       1916


Monday, June 12th.
     3 p. m. The Consistory.
Tuesday, June 13th.
     10 a. m, and 3 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
     8 p. m. Theta Alpha and Sons of the Academy.
Wednesday, June 14th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
     8 p.m. Council of the Clergy.
          Public Session.
Thursday, June 15th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. The General Assembly.
     8 p. m. Dramatic Entertainment.
Friday, June 16th.
     10 a. m. and 3 p. m. The General Assembly
     8 p. m. The Assembly Ball.
Saturday, June 17th.
     10 a. m. The General Assembly.
     3 p. m. The Corporation of the General Church.
     8 p. m. The General Assembly.
          Final Business Session.
Sunday, June 18th.
     11 a. m. Divine Worship.
     8 p. m. Sacred Concert.
Monday, June 19th.
     11 a. m. Administration of the Holy Supper.
     4 p. m. Pageant.
     6 p. m. Banquet.
Tuesday, June 20th.
     10 a. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. and 8 p. m. Teachers' Institute.
          CTH. ODHNER,
               Secr. Gen. Ch. N. J.



INCARNATION       Rev. C. TH. ODHNER       1916

Vol. XXXVI      JUNE, 1916           No. 6
     A STUDY

     In the Gospel of Luke we read these words of the angel Gabriel in announcing to Mary the Incarnation in her of that Word which was in the beginning with God: "The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; and therefore the Holy which shall be born shall be called the Son of God." (Luke 1:35.) And in the Gospel of Matthew we read that Mary "was found with child of the Holy Spirit." (Matth. 1:18.)

     It has been revealed to the New Church that the Holy Spirit which came upon Mary signifies the Divine Truth, and that the power of the Highest which overshadowed her signifies the Divine Good from which the Divine Truth stands forth, and that both as one coming upon her signify the Divine Proceeding. (T. C. R. 88, 139, 140; CANONS. Redeemer, IV.)

     The subject of the present study is the question how the Divine, which is Infinite, could descend into the finite vessels of the virgin and through her assumes the flesh. The Divine Good, even in its form of Divine Truth, is far above the heavens and cannot be received even by the angels of the highest heaven without a series of successive veilings or accommodations. It is evident, therefore, that the Divine Soul could not descend into Mary without the same mediating accommodations. What then, at the moment of the conception, was this veiling medium, which in the Word is called the Power of the Highest and the Holy Spirit?

     I. By the Holy Spirit or the Divine Proceeding is meant the Divine Life operating in and through the atmosphere proceeding from the Sun of the spiritual world.


     1. "No angel and still less any man can bear the very presence of the Lord such as He is in Himself or in His Essence, and therefore He appears above the heavens as a Sun." (A. R. 465.) The Lord Himself, however, is not a Sun but the Divine Man, and the Spiritual Sun is in itself the first thing created by Him and consists of the first substances of finition.

     2. Being finite they are not Life in itself, yet being immediately from God, they are still too full of the Divine life or activity to be as yet received by human or angelic beings. And therefore a third successive was created, by means of which the first two are accommodated to angelic reception. The first two successives appear above the heavens as two radiant belts or solar circles surrounding the Lord Himself, and the third successive, called "the Divine Truth which is in heaven," appears as and is the universal atmosphere or first aura proceeding from the Sun of heaven. (A. C. 7270.)

     3. The first degree of these successive finites by their intense activity produces the heat of heaven which in its essence is the Divine of Love or Divine Good. The second successive finites, relatively passive, temper the heat, and are the origin of spiritual light which in its essence is the Divine of Wisdom or Divine Truth. And the third,-the atmosphere which is produced by the combination of the first two, and which is their common containant,-in its essence is the Divine of Use, for it accommodates the Divine of Love and of Wisdom so as to render them receptible and thus useful to angels and men.

     "There are in the Lord three things which are the Lord: the Divine of Love, the Divine of Wisdom, and the Divine of Use. These three are presented in appearance outside the Sun of the spiritual world,-the Divine of Love by heat, the Divine of Wisdom by light; and the Divine of Use by the atmosphere which is their containant." (D. L. W. 296.)

     "The Divine Proceeding is what, around the Lord, appears to the angels as a Sun; from this proceeds His Divine through spiritual atmospheres, which He created for the transmission of light and heat, down to the angels, and which He accommodated to the life of both their minds and their bodies, in order that they may receive intelligence from the light; and also in order that they may see and breathe, according to correspondence; for the angels breathe like men." (DIV. WIS. XII.)


     4. The sphere of first finites, proceeding immediately from the Lord, corresponds to the Divine Celestial, or good from the Divine; and the sphere of second finites, derived from the first, corresponds to the Divine Spiritual, or truth from that good. (A. C. 5307, 5331.) This correspondence will be seen to be complete in view of the teaching that: "the actives of life are called celestial things, and the passives of life are called spiritual things," (S. D. 1741), and that truths or passives become goods or actives when man acts according to them. (A. C. 4984.) We are taught, moreover, that these first forms of good and truth are "finite and created," (CANONS. Trin. IV:5) ;that they are "outside" the Lord as a Sun, (D. L. W. 296); that "those things which constitute the Sun of the spiritual world are from the Lord, but are not the Lord, and therefore are not Life in se," (D. L. W. 294),-all of which proves that these forms of good and truth, which constitute the Divine Proceeding, are substantial and corpuscular forms, and not any purely abstract entities of thought.

     5. As the Infinite Celestial, or the Father, is Life itself, and as the Infinite Spiritual, or the Word, is Life thence, so the first successive or first finite is active in relation to the second successive or second finite. And it is the first successive that inflows as the principal thing in the celestial heaven, while the second successive is the principal thing in the spiritual heaven, (A. C. 1001, 3969, 4286, 8827), just as the first finites are also the actives in the first aura, and the second finites active in the second aura. And, finally, the celestial natural heaven receives influx from the third or celestial heaven, while the spiritual natural heaven receives influx from the spiritual heaven, (H. H. 31), just as the third aura or ether receives influx from the first aura, and the fourth aura or the air receives influx from the second aura,

     6. These two finites are specifically called the Divine Truth, but, taken together with the universal spiritual aura, they are called the Divine Proceeding. (A. E. 726.) For "the Divine Truth proceeding from the Divine Good of the Lord is not to be conceived of as speech and its influx into the air, but as a sphere from the Sun, which, as it recedes from that Sun, decreases in ardor and splendor, and at last is so tempered that it is accommodated to the reception of the angels.


Within this sphere, but far from the sun, is the angelic heaven." (A. C. 9498.)

     "The Divine Proceeding is that which is extended into the universe, and is the Divine Truth. It was afterwards formed successively into spheres, of which the ultimate is the atmosphere of the natural world." (ATH. CREED 191.)

     7. The first and universal atmosphere consists of nothing but goods and truths, so arranged that the goods or actives are enclosed within an elastic shell of truths or passives, (A. C. 1001; A. E. 594; D. L. W. 296), leaving, however, many actives to play freely in the interstices around them. For "truths live so far as they have goods within them and also around them." (A. C. 9151.) Thus these spheres of good and truth are finally so tempered as to be accommodated to the reception of the angels, (A. C. 9498), by being formed into an atmosphere of elastic bulla, enclosing and veiling the ardor of the good by shells or coverings of truths rendered passive by the yielding multitudes of their combined forms. In this manner the angels are mercifully protected from immediate contact with the good itself, and are actuated by it only mediately by the truth in which they can live and move and have their being. And thus it is that the Divine Truth is the all in all in the heavens. This first aura is "a celestial and spiritual sphere which is full of the Lord." (A. C. 2551.) "For the light and heat which proceed from the Divine Sun cannot proceed into a nothing, . . . but into a containant which we call the atmosphere; and this takes it up in its bosom, and carries it to the heaven where the angels are, and then to the world where men are, and thus presents the presence of the Lord everywhere." (D. L. W. 299.)

     And thus it is from the Lord, by means of His aura, and not because of the angels, that "heaven in the whole complex is the Lord, because it is His proceeding Divine." (A. E. 1166.) And, again, it is stated that "By the Lord, here, as elsewhere, is meant the Divine which proceeds from Him as a Sun of heaven, from which and through which all things in the universal world have been created."


     8. And since this aura is the Divine Proceeding, it is also the Divine Human proceeding, for God from eternity was Divinely Human, and nothing but what is human can proceed from Him. "The Divine in Heaven before the Advent of the Lord was the Divine Human, and on this account everything proceeding from the Divine then was in a human form, so that this form was the existere of Infinite love from the esse of love." (S. D. 4846.) From this Divinely Human quality and form of the Aura it is that "everything of heaven conspires to the human form." (A. C. 5110.)

     And "in the heavens all things which proceed from the Lord, in greatest things and in leasts either are in the human form or have relation to the human form." (A. E. 1119.) "This Divine Human is that which inflows into heaven and makes it; before the Advent of the Lord this form of heaven was the Divine Human, which is the Lord from eternity, thus the Divine itself or Jehovah in heaven." (S. D. 5775.) "For from the Divine there, the universal heaven is like one man, and from this, at that time, was the Divine Human; and though Jehovah appeared in the human form as an angel, it is evident that nevertheless it was Jehovah Himself, and that. that very form was His, because it was His Divine in heaven. This was the Lord from eternity." (A. C. 10579.)

     9. As the first Divine Essence was essentially and from eternity a Divine Man,-"man in conatu or in fieri, so also the Aura immediately proceeding from Him, was also "homo procedens," the Divine Human proceeding,-not as yet from "home natus," but from "homo in conatu." (S. D. 4847.) And this conatus, this endeavor to produce the human form in actuality, is so implanted in the divinely human aura, that it aspires and conspires to nothing but the human form, breathes forth nothing but the Breath of God-Man from eternity.

     It was this breath that God breathed into the nostrils of the image made from the dust of the ground, and from this breath man became a living soul. And it is this same breath that the Lord breathes into everyone of His human images and likenesses, for the soul of everyone of us is formed "from the substance of heaven," (THE SOUL 4; E. A. K. 11:217-219),-that is, the "human formative" substance of the first aura.


When, therefore, we read of the "transflux of the Divine" through the angelic heavens, it is most necessary and important to remember that the Divine which flowed through was the Divine which makes heaven,-the Divine Proceeding, or the Divine Truth which is the divinely human Aura. (A. C. 6720.) It is this aura which inflows especially into that third heaven but "at the same time it inflows without successive formation down to the ultimates of order, and there, from the First, rules and provides each and all things also immediately; thus the successives are kept together in their order and connection." (A. C. 7270.)

     "The universal angelic heaven consists only of the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord, the reception of which makes the angels. The Divine Truth in the highest heaven appears like the pure aura which is called the ether; in the lower heaven it appears as an aura less pure, almost like the atmosphere which is called the air; in the lowest heaven it has a thin watery appearance, above which there is vapor, like clouds. Such is the appearance of the Divine Truth according to degrees in its descent." (A. E. 594.)

     II. At the Incarnation the Word or the Divine Human from eternity clothed itself with a finite Seed taken from the aura proceeding from the Sun of heaven.

     1. In the CANONS OF THE NEW CHURCH we read: "Since God the most High, who is the Father, by His Divine Proceeding which is the Holy Spirit, beget the Human in the virgin Mary, it follows that the Human born of that conception is the Son, and the begetting Divine is the Father, and that both together is the Lord God the Savior, Jesus Christ, God and Man. It follows also that the Divine Truth, which is the Word, and in which is the Divine Good, was the seed from the Father, from which the Human was conceived. The soul is from the seed, and by the soul is the body." (CANONS. Trin. IV:3, 4.)

     2. It will be seen from this teaching that the Divine Incarnation seed was from the Divine Itself, but by the Divine Proceeding which is the Holy Spirit. And the Divine Proceeding, as has been shown, is the Divine in the heavens and-in its first finite receptacle-the atmosphere proceeding from the Sun of the spiritual world.


     3. It would not be possible to understand how the Lord assumed the inmost of His finite human from this atmosphere, unless it had been revealed in what manner the inmost of our own human is taken from the same source. In general we are taught that "the soul is from the father, and the body from the mother; for the soul is in the seed of the father, and this is clothed with a body by the mother; or, what is the same, everything spiritual that a man possesses, is from the father, and everything material that he has is from the mother." (T. C. R. 92.)

     4. It is self-evident that this "spiritual," which is our soul, is not derived from the angels of heaven; they had nothing to do with the shaping of its human quality or form, for it was created by God alone and dwells with Him above the angelic heavens, in the "heaven of human internals," in the atmosphere of the "supra celestial heaven." Every man "has heaven in his human," but this "heaven" does not mean the heaven of angels, but the "successives" which proceed from the Lord as a Sun and which make heaven to be what it is. For we are taught that "man, because he is a little heaven, has also successives in himself corresponding to the successives in the heavens; and in his natural, as the ultimate, the successives are in simultaneous order." (ATH. CR. 114.) These "successives," as has been shown above, are, first, the sphere of first finites proceeding from the Sun of heaven; second, the sphere of second finites; and, third, the atmosphere or first aura, resulting from the combination of the first two successives. It is from the substance of this aura that our soul is formed, and out of it our soul descended, "in a perfect human form," into the seed of our fathers. (C. L. 183)

     5. The contents of the human soul are described most clearly in the following passage from the little work called THE MECHANISM OF THE SOUL AND THE BODY:

     "That the rational soul consists of the actives of the first and second [finites]; that these form little spaces, and around them there are surfaces of passives or finites. The soul is most highly active, not otherwise than the first element, in which are enclosed actives of the first finites; but the actives by themselves can form nothing unless they are enclosed in spaces.


Therefore the soul must enjoy a surface; the surface cannot be other than of second finites. The actives thus enclosed and formed into a surface cannot but colligate themselves on the surface, and make an extense, so that the surfaces are not alone and free, but they make an extense; therefore there will be a meninx or as it were a most subtle membrane, in which the actives will lie enclosed; thus we have the soul, which is of this consistency in the whole and in every part. Such a membrane cannot but be most highly active and most highly elastic, for the enclosed actives make the elasticity; no otherwise than in the elements. There is the same effect; therefore it is most highly elastic, and in it there lies hidden as it were the very first of elasticity. (MECH. SOUL AND BODY 12.)

     6.     Remembering that by first finites are meant goods or what is celestial and by second finites truths, or what is spiritual, we may gain a substantial idea of the following teachings:

     "Celestial and spiritual things form the internal man," which is the same as the soul. (A. C. 978.) "As to the celestial and spiritual things which are of the Lord alone, man is an internal man." (A. C. 1015.) "The inmost with man lacks a name, because it receives immediately the Good and Truth which proceed from the Lord." (S. D. 4627.) "Love and wisdom proceed unitedly from the Lord, and in like manner inflow unitedly into the souls of angels and men." (INFLUX. 14.) "The conjugial of good and truth has been implanted from creation in the soul of everyone, and also in the sequents from the soul." (C. L. 204.) "The very origin of conjugial love resides in the inmost with man, that is, in his soul." (C. L. 238.) "The first of man is spiritual, being the receptacle of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom." (DIV. WIS. VIII:5.)

     7. That these "goods and truths" of which man's inmost soul consists, are not abstract propositions, but concrete realities, is clearly shown in the following teaching in the CANONS, which also most strikingly exhibits the difference between our own souls and the soul of the Lord in His human: "The spiritual origin of all human seed is truth from good, yet not Divine Truth from Divine Good in its own essence, infinite and uncreate, but in its own form finite and created." (CANONS. Trinity. IV:5.)


The same difference is shown in the statement in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED that "the Itself, which is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself was the Lord's soul from the Father; thus the Divine Life, which is Life in itself; whereas in man the soul is not life, but the recipient of life." (A. R. 961.) For the first substances of creation, being finite and created goods and truths, cannot be life in se, but receive all their life or activity from their first source, the Divine Conatus or the Word itself. The Lord alone, as the Only Begotten, had "life in Himself," but the inmost life of any finite being is only a derivative life.

     8. This derivative life of the first finites, or goods, supremely and unceasingly active in our inmost soul, is always clothed and tempered by the elastic shells of second finites passive, that is, by the forms of truths, and it is in these truth-forms that the soul descends into man and creates his seed. "In man, the most general universal, which contains the singulars, is the soul. Thus it is also the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord; for this continually inflows and causes the soul to be such." (n. C. 6115.) "Virile semination is from a spiritual origin, being from the truths of which the understanding consists. Nothing is received by males from the spiritual marriage, which is that of good and truth, but truth and that which relates to truth; and this, in its progress into the body, is formed into seed; and hence it is that seeds, spiritually understood, are truths.... The masculine soul is truth, and therefore when the soul descends, truth descends, and when this takes place, the entire soul forms itself and clothes itself, and becomes seed." (C. L. 220.)

     9. But in clothing itself and becoming seed in a human masculine mind and body, the soul is enveloped with something that is not purely spiritual, but natural in its origin and quality. For the soul is not the same as the masculine seed, but exists in that seed. "The seed of a man is conceived interiorly in his understanding and is formed in his will." (T. C. R. 584) "in the seed of a man is his soul in perfect human form, covered over with substances from the purest things of nature." (C. L. 183) "In the seed of every one there is a graft or offset of the soul of the father, within a certain envelope of elements from nature." (T. C. R. 109.)


"The soul in its descent, when it becomes seed, is veiled over with such things as are of the man's natural love. From this springs hereditary evil." (C. L. 245.) "The seed is the first form of the love in which the father is; it is the form of his ruling love, with the nearest derivations which are the affections of that love." (D. P. 277) What that ruling love is, with all of us, has been very plainly revealed.

     10. With the Lord, as with all other men, the soul was from the father alone, and the body from the mother, but with Him the Father was His own Divine. And this Divine Soul descended into the virgin by means of a Seed which also was from the Divine itself, alone, but formed by means of the Divine Proceeding. Through this mediating Seed He was able to be conceived by the virgin, and this Seed formed in her ovum a first finite human internal, which was "the human in which His Divine was able to be." The teaching reads:

     "The Celestial of the Spiritual is the good of truth in which is the Divine, or which is immediately from the Divine. This, viz., the Celestial of the Spiritual in which is the Divine was with the Lord alone while He was in the world, and was the human in which His Divine was able to be, and which He could PUT OFF when He made all the Human in Himself Divine." (A. C. 5331.)

     11. With every finite man the "celestial of the spiritual," or the first finite, is the inmost of the sed and of the human internal, but the Seed of the Lord differed from merely human seed, in that it consisted of ('the celestial of the spiritual IN WHICH IS THE DIVINE, or which is immediately from the Divine." That is to say, with Him alone the Divine Esse descended in the form of the Divine Existere or the Logos itself, clothed with His own proximate and first finite compass, whereas with a finite man the soul-propagation begins in this proximate compass. But with the Lord alone "the Divine Truth, which is the Word, in which is the Divine Good, was the Seed from the Father from which the Human was conceived. From the seed is the soul, and through the soul is the body." (CANONS. Trin. IV:4.)

     12. The finite veiling of this Divine Seed He formed for Himself,-as He forms the inmost of all human seed,-out of the aura which proceeds from Himself as the Sun of Heaven.


This is what formed "the internal human of the Lord, which was the celestial of the spiritual, and this was truth from the Divine, or the first clothing of the Divine itself in the Lord; and the spiritual of the celestial, which is the intermediate, proceeded therefrom." (A. C. 5689). Thus "He put on that very thing which was with the angels of the celestial kingdom." (A. C. 6371.) He did not put on the angels of that kingdom nor anything from the angels, but He put on that which was with, those angels, i. e., the celestial of the spiritual, or a first membranous precipitation formed out of the celestial aura, in which is the Divine with the celestial kingdom and which makes that kingdom.

     13. This is what is meant by the statement: that "the Lord had heaven in His human," for "heaven" here means "the successives" which present the Divine in heaven.

     "Man, because he is a little heaven, has also successives in himself corresponding to the successives in the heavens; and in his natural especially, as the ultimate, the successives are in simultaneous order. And because the Lord had heaven in His Human, thence out of heaven in Himself He disposed all things in order in the heavens and in the hells." (ATH. CR. 114.)

     14. It is self-evident that by "heaven," here, is not meant the "angelic heavens," but the Divine in those heavens. Of course, being Infinite, His Divine Soul also included the angelic heavens, and the whole universe, but these neither constituted nor contributed anything to the formation of His own human internal. It is more proper to say that the Lord had the angelic heavens about Him and associated with Him. "The Lord when He made the Human in Himself Divine, also had societies of spirits and angels about Him; for He willed that all things should be done according to order. But we associated with Him such as were of service, and changed them at His good pleasure. He took from them, and applied to Himself, nothing of good and truth, but from the Divine. Thus, also, He reduced into order both heaven and hell." (A. C. 4075.)

     15. His Seed being thus derived from His own Divine, without the intermediation of any finite father,-angelic or human,-there was with the Lord no other Paternal heredity than that of His own Divine,-His own Divine Esse, His own Divine Existere, and His own Divine Procedere.


Hence there could be with Him no paternal hereditary evil. "All men whatsoever have no other seed but what is filthy and infernal, in which and from which is their proprium, and this is from that which is inherited from the father," but with the Lord alone "the seed itself was celestial, because He was born of Jehovah, and therefore He was the only one who had this seed in Himself." (A. C. 1438.) With Him alone, therefore, the celestial of the spiritual could act in the fulness of its heavenly intensity, in complete obedience to the impulse of the Infinite Celestial of the Infinite Spiritual,-unimpeded by any paternal hereditary evil, and obstructed only by the hereditary evil derived from the mother,-an evil which could be put off.

     16. This Divine Seed, when conceived by the maternal ovum, immediately began to weave "the human internal of the Lord,... and the spiritual of the celestial, which is the intermediate, proceeded therefrom," (A. C. 5689), even as with man the simple fibre proceeds from the inmost celestial cortex of the cortical land. The conception itself was from the Divine Celestial through the first finite, represented by Abram,-and the birth was from the Divine Spiritual, through the second finite, represented by Sarai. (A. C. 2629.) The same fibre, extending itself from the human internal, wove also the organic substances constituting the Lord's "interior man," or the organic cerebral plane in which could be developed the intermediate rational mind. This also, "as to celestial things,"-as to the interior contents of the fibre, or the hereditary ruling love from the Father,-"was from the very birth adjoined to the internal man." But as to its "spiritual things,"-as to the coating of the fibre, infilled by substances from the mother,-His interior man was adjoined to the external man from the mother, and was like that of any other man, (A. C. 1707),-that is, subject to education, temptation and glorification.

     17. As to His internal man, therefore, and also as to the essence of His interior man, He, and He alone, "was born into Good, nay, into the Divine Good itself, as far as from the Father," (A. C. 4644), so that even in the natural He was from the very birth "hungering for good and thirsting for truth." (A. E. 449.)


As to these planes and degrees of His human He could not be tempted by evil, but by means of them He "disposed all things into order in the heavens and in the hells," (ATH. CR. 114), by first disposing into order all things of His own external human. Even so, in a finite measure, the human internal or the soul of every man,-formed from that supreme aura which is Order itself,-ever strives to dispose into order all things in our own human.

     18. Then, when the finite human internal with the Lord had performed this service, He "put off" even this first finite medium, (A. C. 5331), and "mounted above it, and became the Divine Good itself or Jehovah as to the Human." (A. C. 5307). For by obeying all Truth and thus fulfilling the whole Word, He turned all Divine Truth into Divine Good. All the passive forms with Him thus became actives, and by the descent of the Infinite into all degrees of form, all were successively rendered Infinite. Thus He glorified and rendered Infinite the whole of that finite human internal which He had assumed from His immediately proceeding but finite aura.

     And thus, in His own Divine Human, the Divine Proceeding, equally with the Divine Existere, became one with the Divine Esse. "For in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily." (Col.2:9.)


     "Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; a blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day; and a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn aside out of the way, which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known." (Deut. XI:26-28.)

     The sons of Israel were chosen to represent the true spiritual church of the Lord; hence all that is said of them in the Word is representative not of spiritual states of life as actually existing with them, but of the true spiritual states of an internal church which was yet to come on earth.


     States of spiritual life, of spiritual love and wisdom, as these exist with the angels of heaven, and such as ought to exist with men on earth, cannot appear on the sensual plane of life except in such things as clothe them, except in such appearances as represent them, which are thus no longer themselves-no longer spiritual-but which are veiled in things which correspond to those which are spiritual and celestial. All activities, all forms on the sensual visible plane, are thus but representative of and correspondential to the things of heaven and the heavenly life; even as words which are sounds are not thoughts but represent them, and as the gestures of the body are not affections, but represent them to the outer world, to the sensual view of men, even as words and gestures are not thoughts and affections, but the visible instrumentalities or vehicles of conveying them to the senses of others, and through their senses to their minds. The only way, therefore, for what is spiritual to appear in what is natural, especially in what is sensual, is by representation in it through the things there which correspond.

     The Jews were sensual men above all others then upon the earth, thus were of all men the most suited to represent the things of celestial love and wisdom, and of conveying them, as through sensual media, to all others of the human race; they were of all men the most suited to become the medium by which the Word could be written in a sensual, correspondential, representative form, which would thus become the Divine Truth adapted and accommodated to the minds of children and the simple in all nations. For the sensual man, especially in childhood, is not necessarily evil. He is at first neither good nor evil; but he will become the one or the other, according to his afterlife. It is therefore necessary that the Divine should reach him, should be brought down to him, should be accommodated to his capacity to receive early in life, that he may be led out of his sensual state into rational and spiritual states of truth and good. In order that the Divine Truth might be so accommodated, that even children might receive it, a nation was chosen which could act as a medium of communication to the simple and childhood states of men, and that nation was chosen which was the best adapted of all nations to this purpose.


Thus we see throughout the Old Testament the Jews were always treated as a nation of children. They were rewarded as children, and punished as children, and nothing was said to them or commanded them, except such as is suited to the mind of childhood, or to men who are in states similar to the states of childhood. This was because the Divine work of salvation must begin in childhood, and the Divine Truth must therefore be accommodated to the states of childhood, must be clothed in forms to reach the states of childhood, that is, must be clothed in sensual appearances which are appearances of truth, or in forms which correspond with the truth on the sensual plane, otherwise the states of childhood could never be reached or approached by the Divine Truth, and the children and the simple could never be saved. This was the use which the Jews were led to perform for the human race.

     The Jews were therefore always addressed as children, and there was always held before them the hope of reward, or the fear of punishment, the hope of natural worldly reward and the fear of natural worldly punishment, if they did not obey the commandments of the Lord their God. Therefore Moses said to them, as recorded in the text, "Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; a blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day; and a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn aside out of the way, which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known."

     It was not a spiritual blessing that was set before them, but a natural blessing, natural reward which would be theirs if they kept the commandments of the Lord, and natural punishment if they disobeyed. If they did as they were commanded, they were to be rewarded with plentiful harvests, riches in abundance, much of this world's goods; but if they did not obey, these things would not be given them, or they would be deprived of them if already given; thus they would be under a natural curse if they refused to obey the commandments of the Lord their God.

     This is the state of children.


For in childhood, as in all sensual states of life, it is the blessings and rewards of natural life, of the natural world, that are appreciated, wished for, sought for and loved; and there is keen distress if these are not obtained, or if there is a deprivation of them; and as every man is led by his delights, so children, as it was with the Jews, are led by their pleasures or bodily delights, and they regard themselves as blessed when they obtain them, and cursed or under severe punishment when they are lost or taken away from them.

     It is indeed a general law or fact of human life, that a man considers himself blessed in receiving that which he loves above all things, in which he takes delight above all things, and cursed in losing it, in being deprived of it. There is no greater punishment to any man than to take away from him that in which he places the greatest delight of his heart, or no greater reward than to give him that which he most ardently desires. And as all men do not have the same ruling love, so the idea of blessing and curse is as various as loves are various or as the men in whom loves reign are various in state, disposition, and character. Loves are even opposite, as men are in opposite states to each other. What one man regards as a blessing, another man in an opposite state will regard as a curse, and what the former regards as a curse, the latter will regard as a blessing. It is by this that men learn to lead or drive one another. Find what a man values above all things, or what he fears, and you possibly have in your hand the means of controlling or compelling him to subserve your will. This is the secret of all administration or government by rewards and punishments, whether in children or adults, whether in this world or the other. If you are able to give a man or a child what he really values, or deprive him of what he really loves, you are in a position to compel or lead him according to your will or judgment. It is thus that the Lord governs all men, not by compelling but by leading every man according to his love, or by the delight of his love; and when we realize the infinite knowledge of the Lord, His Omniscience, we may in some degree realize His exquisite leadership of every man that is born into the world.

     The Lord knows the heart of every man, He knows what every man values and loves above all things, and He leads him by it. He knows that what the natural man values and loves, is not what the spiritual man values and loves, that the loves and the values of the natural and spiritual man are opposite to each other, and He leads each accordingly.


     What the natural man regards as a blessing, the full and free indulgence of all his natural loves and desires, the unlimited and unrestrained activity of his natural delights, the spiritual man regards as a curse. For to the spiritual man the free indulgence of all the desires of natural love, of the loves of self and the world, is the very curse itself of hell, and when he perceives it to be such he shuns it, strives against it with all the might and energy of his soul.

     On the other hand what the natural man regards as a curse, namely, to be placed under the necessity of restraining the delights of evil loves, the spiritual man regards as the beginning of every blessing-to voluntarily restrain and bring under subjection the loves which go forth into the commission of those things which are forbidden in the commandments and contrary to the order of heaven. This the spiritual man regards as the open door to every blessing of heaven.

     It was thought by the Jews that blessing consisted in receiving from the Lord an abundance of natural possessions-gold, silver, plentiful harvests of corn, wine and oil, flocks and herds in great number, slaves to do their bidding, the spoils of war, the plunder of nations, and dominion over their enemies. Whenever they obtained an abundance of these things they considered themselves prosperous, happy, blessed; but when they did not obtain them, or lost them when they had been once possessed, they considered themselves as under the curse or punishment of God; and this is what blessing or reward, what curse or punishment, meant to them as recorded in the Word, as in our text, "Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; a blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day; and a curse if ye will not obey the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn aside out of the way, which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known." When Moses spoke these words to them, they understood what he said in no other sense than what is purely natural; they understood by his words that they were to receive natural wealth and prosperity if they obeyed the Lord in keeping all things of His law as given to them, or they would be punished by being deprived of it, if they did not keep the commandments of the Mosaic law and ritual.


     Now when we compare the state of the Jews with the present or prevailing state of mankind at large, of men as we know them, of men as they manifest their states of love and faith, their sentiments and belief, we find but little difference. The ruling love now, as it was with the Jews of old is the love of the world; the ruling delight is the delight of that love, and the ruling idea of happiness and blessing consists in the persuasion and belief that he alone is blessed who has much of what the world has to give, and that he who has it not has no real blessing but is under a curse. There is no other thought in the mind of the average man, than that blessing consists in receiving much of this world's goods; and with the same man the converse of the proposition also holds that not to receive and possess an abundant supply of the goods of this world, or to be deprived of them, is to be in a state of curse, and indeed we often hear the curse of poverty spoken of as that which is above all things the most undesirable. This is because the wealth of the world is loved more than all things else, and it is believed that life is scarcely worth living without it.

     We have then before us this universal principle of human life, that a man always considers himself blessed when he receives an abundance of what he loves, and takes delight in, and cursed when he has not or is deprived of it.

     We would here note one of those wonderful things of the providence of the Lord,-He gives to man that which man himself considers a blessing, as far as it is possible to do so, consistent with order and the general good of mankind in both worlds. The Lord gives even to the evil their blessings, what they regard as such, so far as this may not be to the detriment of the good, so far as it may not be to the injury of the order of His kingdom. He wills that no man live in misery, He is kind to the unthankful and the evil.


     A man is in misery when he is without what he loves, when he does not obtain what he desires; and it is not the will of Providence that a man should be without what he loves, that he should not obtain what he desires, that is, it is not the will of Providence that any man should live in everlasting misery, except so long and so far as it may be necessary as a Divine permission that he may be finally brought under the wholesome restraints of order, and to a wholesome recognition of the rights and goods of others.

     Why are men, therefore, deprived for a time of that which they hold dear, that which they love supremely in their hearts? First, for the reason which we just mentioned, namely, that they may not use the blessings of God to the injury of others; they are therefore deprived for a time of the exercise of the delights of their loves, until they are ready and willing to tone down and temper their lusts of natural love, and to act, even though unwilling, according to the laws of order which require a due balancing of the rights and privileges of all. Second, that the mind may, if possible, come to see the vanity of earthly things, and thus be weaned away from an inordinate love of them, and thus be turned and induced to seek and love the blessings which are enduring and eternal. For the necessity is supreme with every man, that he should cease to consider the things of this world, the things of time, the pleasures of the senses, the indulgence of the bodily appetites, as the only and the chief of all blessings-the necessity of ceasing to lust for them as the chief and only blessing to man; and the Lord by wonderful ways is ever seeking to lead him and wean him away from the persuasions and lusts that bind him to the belief that worldly blessings are the all of human life, which all men are at first disposed to believe.

     Children so believe, and as yet they know no better. It so appears to them-it appears to them that the pleasures of the body and the senses are the chief end of man, the highest good, and contain in them all that is essential to human happiness. This is the same with men who are yet children it was so with the Jews, it is so now with the mass of mankind. They are still children in their love of the pleasures of the body and of the world, in their belief that in such pleasures are to be found the highest, yea, the only good.


This state of childhood has continued with them into adult age, and thus has become confirmed. They still believe that natural pleasure, natural blessing is the highest good, and it is now nearly impossible to lead them away from it. This is indeed the origin of all evil and all falsity, all heresy, namely, the confirmation in adult life of the fallacies, the appearances, the evils of childhood, the confirming of the persuasion that the pleasures of the love of dominion and love of the world are the only real blessings of human life-a confirmation that closes the spiritual mind, and makes it impossible for any other perception to enter-any perception that there is a higher blessing and a higher good, which is the only real blessing and the only real good, a highest blessing and a higher good than that which their world has to give.

     Children must be led away gradually from this state, while they are yet in the period of childhood and youth, by being led to see that there is a higher good, a real blessing which is permanent, and eternal, and which is provided for those who begin early to deny themselves, to take up their cross and follow the Lord by keeping the commandments of His word.

     To begin early to deny oneself the indulgence of the inordinate lust of worldly pleasure opens the only road for passing out of a state, which if confirmed in adult life becomes a curse; for this is what is meant by a curse in the text and generally in the Word of God-the confirmation of the lust of natural love, a lust that is innocent in the beginning of life, but whish if afterwards confirmed introduces a state of curse, which is separation from all angelic consociation and disjunction with God. Man begins life in a state of blessing-every man-because his state is then innocent, because he is then in the sphere of angelic association, in the sphere of the Lord's presence with men. But this state of innocence passes away, natural loves which were at first innocent are confirmed as the only good, and there is a fall from heaven, a removal from angelic association, a disjunction with God, a passing over from a state of blessing to a state of curse.

     But it is not necessary that such a change as this should take place it is not necessary that any man should pass out from a sphere of blessing to a sphere of curse, from the blessing of heaven of the curse of hell.


The first states of every man, the states of childhood and early youth are neither good nor evil; a sphere of innocence from heaven is present, but there are also present evil tendencies which look toward hell, and by virtue of these two, an equilibrium is established in which there is free choice, and man may rum the one way or the other. And as the Jews were told to choose, so the Lord invites every man, even in childhood and early youth, to choose between good and evil, between a blessing and a curse, between an innocent love of pleasure of the world and a confirmed inordinate love of them, "For behold I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; a blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day; and a curse if ye will not obey the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn aside out of the way, to go after other gods, which ye have not known." Therefore, "choose ye this day whom ye will serve.

     One of those remarkable reactions, notably in history, took place when in the early Christian Church asceticism arose, and the same thing appears in the rise of modern Puritanism, the appearance of the doctrine of the total depravity of man-a doctrine which taught that all the delights, of the natural man, all the pleasures of the body and the world are wholly and altogether evil, to be suppressed and rooted out, even in childhood and early youth, or otherwise man cannot be saved. In the light of the Revelation which has been given to the New Church, such a teaching cannot stand; in the light of this heavenly doctrine there is no such thing as the suppression of the delights of the natural man in the sense of annihilation. The heavenly doctrine calls aloud to us, not for the suppression and actual rooting out of any natural love or any natural delight, but for bringing into order and subordination that which ought to be made subservient, and thus instrumental to higher good. For all things of the natural man are for service and not for rule. The natural man is not to rule bur to become the servant of the spiritual man, and thus the delights of the natural man are to be held and kept in their place of service; and we are only to beware that they do not rule and govern, after the period of childhood and youth is passed.


For not even in adult life are the pleasures of the body, and of the world, to be extirpated and destroyed; pleasures remain to man even in heaven itself, as the servants of his spiritual life, as instrumental and for recreation, but not as ends of life.

     At first, as in childhood, they are loved as the chief and only blessing, but this state is then innocent and not harmful to spiritual life; but if this state remains it becomes harmful and injurious, positively hurtful, because that which is the last and the lowest is made the first and the highest thing of life; the whole order and nature of man is perverted; that which should serve and which is intended only to serve, usurps the chief seat in the human mind and rules when it should obey. This is the state which in the text is called a curse, from which we are rescued, and can be rescued only by a life of regeneration, which is by keeping the commandments of the Lord our God, by not turning aside out of the way to go after other gods which we have hitherto not known.

     We see then what is meant by blessing and what is meant by curse in the letter of the Word, as accommodated to the state of the Jews, and as accommodated to the state of all natural men, accommodated to what they regard as a blessing and a curse, and at the same time accommodated to the state of children. We have also seen that the Jews, and indeed all the men like them, are addressed by the Lord in the Old Testament as children and treated as such, rewarded as such, and punished as such. The Old Testament will thus serve us a guide, not only in all natural government, but especially in the government of children-not too much of reward, not too much of punishment, but a proper and just balancing of both according to the needs, conditions and states with which we have to deal. Some children need more of punishment and some more of reward; neither is to be used to the exclusion of the other. Judgment is therefore to be exercised in the administration of both, as to whether reward is to be used, or punishment to be used in the government of the child. The Lord does this in His dealings with all men, that is, every man is punished or rewarded according to his needs; some men receive much of punishment, and some men receive much of reward, adapted in an infinitely just balance by a merciful and Omniscient God.


     Now the Jews were addressed as children because they were sensual men, and could only be so addressed and so led; and hence like children, having no spiritual intelligence or spiritual affection, they could represent only what is spiritual. They thought only of sensual or worldly things when the Lord spoke to them. This is the state of children, and to this state is the letter of the Word addressed, especially the Word of the Old Testament. The Jews had no other idea of a blessing and no other idea of a curse than what is purely natural and sensual, of the world and of the body, nor have children any other idea. The Lord would have led the Jews out of this state, had it been possible to do so, but they stubbornly adhered to their natural and worldly loves, as men generally do now-the Lord would have led them out of this state, even as He said to them when in the world, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate."

     The Lord would have led the Jews out of this sensual natural state into a state of spiritual intelligence and wisdom, even so that He might establish an internal or spiritual church with them, but they would not! It was not possible to lead them against their will out of a natural idea of blessing into a spiritual idea of the same. They choose the curse rather than the blessing and their house was left unto them desolate.

     But if a spiritual church is to be established among men, there must be somewhere on the earth a region, a state, a people, where the children who are born within the church can be led by the Lord out of natural into spiritual states of intelligence and wisdom, out of a natural into a spiritual idea of blessing; where they will freely choose the blessing rather than the curse; where they will obey the Lord in the conduct of their life by beginning early to keep the commandments of His Word,-the commandments which He has set before them this day, the day of childhood and of youth, the day of early manhood, the day which is now,-that they may not pass over to the service of other gods, the gods of the nations, the gods of this world, the gods of the flesh, the demons of natural lust and desire, in the serving of which they voluntarily choose for themselves a state of disjunction with God, calling down upon them the curse of God, who has promised and would give them from the fulness of His Infinite Love a blessing, even life forevermore.




Why sweeter breathes the rose
     Her perfume unbidden?
Why sighs the wind that blows
     Of Eden long hidden?
'Tis June, 'tis June, Nineteenth of June!
     All nature knows the hour,
And to receive the Bride and Groom
     Makes ten times sweet her bower.
And sweeter breathes the rose
     Her perfume unbidden,
And brings the wind that blows
     The Eden long hidden.

Why now reveals the eye
Fond graces deep hidden?
Why halts the heart, ah, why,
     To worship, unbidden?
'Tis June,' tis June, Nineteenth of June,
     Divinest nuptial hour!
The earth and sky, and sun and moon
     Have framed the Marriage bower,
And Salem, like the rose,
     Has sweetened unbidden.
Kissed by the wind that blows
     From Eden long hidden.           -MADEFREY ODHNER.





     THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION AS DRAWN FROM THE WRITINGS OF THE NEW CHURCH. By William Frederic Pendleton. Academy of the New Church. Pp. 456

     By those who have listened to his preaching, Bishop W. F. Pendleton has long been regarded as one of the foremost expounders of the Scriptures in the New Church. His sermons cannot be said to be of the peculiarly "doctrinal" type, nor of the peculiarly "affectional." They are simply expositions of the Word, the setting forth of what the research of the student has found to be the teaching of the text, and these expositions have rarely failed both to enlighten the understanding and to move the affections.

     But to do a thing well and at the-same time to describe clearly and intelligently the means by which it is done, are gifts that do not always go together. That the Bishop possesses the latter gift as well as the former will be evident to anyone who has perused the work now before us, THE SCIENCE: OF EXPOSITION,-a work wherein are set forth in orderly sequence, and with clear explanation and demonstration, the means whereby can be unlocked to the student the treasures of the Divine Word. "The Word (says Bishop Pendleton) is the Divine Mind, which is omniscient and omnipresent, revealed in the form of a book for the instruction of men, and thus for their eternal salvation" (p. 387); and the supreme end of the New Church sermon is to "enter into the mysteries of the Word." This, of course, has always been recognized by New Church expositors; but little attention has been paid to a study of the means by which this end may be attained. Indeed, with the exception of the book before us, we know of no publication in the whole vast literature of the New Church, that deals in any way with this subject. There are commentaries and expositions such as the works of Clowes, Bruce, Maclagan and others, but these consist largely of direct quotations or summaries from the Writings; and in those cases where verses are explained that are not mentioned in the Writings, the commentator in no case gives the means by which he arrives at his exposition, though a knowledge of the Heavenly Doctrine, and of correspondences is presumed.


As a consequence the reader is led sometimes to doubt whether the true exposition has been reached.

     The same applies to the New Church sermon,-and even to a greater degree. For the commentator who is expounding a book of the Word verse by verse, has before his view a whole series, and cannot but be guided more or less by the orderly sequence of truths in the internal sense. But the sermon writer very frequently, if not mostly, has chosen some isolated text, and in the absence of any "science of exposition," or at best with a very fragmentary knowledge of the principles of exposition, he is often at a loss to know the true spiritual sense of the particular verse before him. One does not have to search far in the expository literature of the Church, to find evidences of this fact. A great number of New Church sermons are little more than the setting forth of some lesson that has been suggested to the preacher by the general meaning of the text, and that might indeed have equally well been set forth in connection with many other texts. Even the better class of sermons are sometimes rather a setting forth of the general doctrine contained in the text, than an exposition of the text itself, that is, an exposition that can belong to that particular text and to no other. The most conscientious and studious of preachers must frequently have wished for a greater abundance of indications, to point to the genuine internal sense of the text of his study.

     It is here that Bishop Pendleton has made his signal and unique contribution for the enriching of the New Church. He has shown that the Writings lay down certain definite rules of exposition. These rules he has drawn out and set in order like so many witnesses to bear testimony with unanimous voice to the internal sense of each book and chapter and verse of Sacred Scripture. As, in the Jewish law, nothing could be established except at the mouth of two or more witnesses, so, says the Bishop, the internal sense of a text cannot be determined with any certainty unless it be established by more than one rule of exposition.


Merely to know the correspondence of the words of a text is by no means sufficient, for with nothing more than this the preacher might indeed preach a useful sermon, but it may not be in exposition of the text.
     Other rules of exposition must be applied,-such, for instance, as the teaching of the chapter or series in which the text occurs, the consideration of what precedes, and of what follows, etc. When the text has been examined in the light of several of these rules, the minister can feel considerable confidence that their unanimous testimony will point to the genuine meaning of his text. By the application of these rules, to quote Bishop Pendleton, he "will put into the sermon only what he finds in the text," and will place himself "in a position to be taught of the Lord, and led by Him, or led by the spirit of truth to all truth" (p. 251). And, what is also of great importance to the teaching of the Word as the Divine Truth, this same application will "make clear to the understanding of the hearer that the truths set forth are contained in the text and are not mere human inventions" (p. 277).

     The rules of exposition are by no means presented as the only, nor even as the most important of the requirements for exposition. The three great requirements as laid down in the Writings are, the doctrine of genuine truth; the knowledge of correspondences; and illustration from the Lord. The Bishop assumes the existence in the priestly reader, of the last two of these requirements. He indeed gives some useful reflections bearing on illustration from the Lord, but with this exception his book is devoted to showing the means by which the doctrine of genuine truth is to be drawn from the Letter of the Word. "The principles of exposition do not, (he observes), add another essential (to the requirements far exposition), but they serve to make the three essentials more effective in their operation and application" (p. 3), and are "aids to the light of doctrine" (p. 195) whereby the preacher may 6ecome like that householder "who bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old," that is, the genuine truths of the internal sense, as well as those of the Sense of the letter (p. 282).

     The first suggestion of there being many leading principles of exposition came to Bishop Pendleton from Bishop Benade, who had pointed out to him "the value and use of sermons in a series, and the importance of noting what is first said in a chapter of the Word, and of what is last said in the preceding chapter."


From this suggestion the author was led to examine the Writings with a view to ascertaining whether there were not other and equally important rules of exposition. The result is the present work, the fruit of many years of study and reflection.

     The rules thus set forth are distinctly taught in the Writings, especially in the expository Writings. They are not, however, put forth as rules, but rather are mentioned, as though incidentally. In reading, one accepts them naturally, not-as principles for general application, but rather as incidental statements giving the reason in some particular case-frequently where the spiritual sense is deeply concealed in the Letter,-why such and such is the sense of the passage under consideration. And yet it is these apparently incidental statements that present the means whereby Swedenborg, endowed with the doctrine of genuine truth, the knowledge of correspondences, and illustration from the Lord, was enabled to expound the Word for the use of the New Church.

     Thus in the exposition of Genesis VI we read the following in the ARCANA:

     That by seven days is signified the beginning of temptation, has been shown above; and it refers itself to what precedes, namely, that this temptation, which was of his intellectual things, was the beginning of temptation or the first temptation. (A. C. 753.)

     That by they is signified in general the man of the Church, or everything which was of this Church, is evident from the fact the word refers to those who have been just mentioned.-Noah, Shem, Ham and Japeth,-who although they are four, still together constitute one. (ib. 773.)

     That wild beast signifies spiritual good, may not indeed appear at first sight; but it can be evident from the series of thinys. (ib. 744)

     Each of these passages gives a distinct rule of exposition, namely, (1) What precedes in the chapter must be studied. (2) The names of persons must be carefully examined. (3) The series in which the Word or text occurs must be in mind as the controlling general or universal. Yet these three principles of exposition are stated in a way so apparently incidental, that their importance is apt to escape notice; though to one searching for them, they become at once apparent and luminous.


Certain it is that, although a few of the rules drawn forth by Bishop Pendleton from passages such as the above, have been known in the church and by some ministers, and have been applied to the exposition of texts, most of them have not been known or only vaguely known, and still less have they been applied to the expounding of a text, or assembled together and arranged into a "science of exposition,"-a science, not exact as mathematics is exact, but exact in a spiritual way as giving to the properly prepared student a clear intuition of the spiritual truths contained in the words to be expounded.

     The rules or principles that have been thus "drawn from the Writings of the New Church" by Bishop Pendleton are seventeen in number, though others are indicated, and we hope will receive the attention of further students in this almost unexplored realm of study. Stated briefly the seventeen points or rules for the study and guidance of the expounder of Scripture:

     (1) The general sense of the Letter.

     (2) The first, and (3) the last thing mentioned in a given series.

     (4) The preceding, and (5) the following series.

     (6) The name by which the Lord is called.

     (7) The names of persons.

     (8) The person who speaks.

     (9) The place where, and (10) the time when the events of the text occur.

     (11) The numbers occurring or involved in the text.

     (12) The aspect of duality, and (13) trinality involved in every verse of Scripture.

     (14) The element of covenant or contract.

     (15) The affection expressed or implied.

     (16) A comparison of the words and of the text itself, with other parts of the Scripture.

     (17) The opposite sense.

     A separate chapter of Bishop Pendleton's work is devoted to a complete development of each of the above principles, the general plan of treatment being: First, the establishment, by quotations from the Writings, of the principle itself.


Second, the pointing out of the importance of the principle, and its unity with the universal laws of creation. Third, the application of the principle to numerous chapters, series, or verses from the Word.

     It would be beyond the scope of this review to enter into any detailed examination of these chapters. Moreover the chapters themselves must be read, to get any full idea of the value of the principles which they set forth.

     Not all these principles are of equal importance. Indeed the author places particular emphasis on the sixth, eighth and ninth as being "among the most valuable signs placed in the literal sense of the Word pointing and leading to the generals of the internal Sense" (p. 115).

     Nor is it necessary that all the principles be applied to each text. As the Bishop frequently points out, it is often the case that the application of two or three of the rules will be sufficient to determine with certainty the spiritual sense of the text; indeed time would hardly suffice for the examination of a text under the guidance of them all. Besides, in many cases, the application of several of the rules will be obvious to the well trained and educated student. Again, in certain cases, the application of a given principle may not be clear,-as is particularly apt to be the case in the rule as to the affection expressed in the text; in which case other principles may be applied. There is no hard and fast rule about the matter. It is the end to be attained that is the principal thing. The rules are merely means, and Bishop Pendleton, with characteristic broad-mindedness, shows that these means are to be used according to the judgment and needs of the student.

     Following the chapters on the specific rules come several chapters in which the rules are applied first to two whole chapters of the Apocalypse and then to a single verse. We note that these applications are confined to parts of the Word which are specifically explained in the Writings,-indeed, as we recall, throughout the work under review there is but one passage of the Word explained by the Bishop in the light of the principles of exposition, that is not explained in set terms in the Writings. We refer to the Lord's words, occurring several times in the New Testament. "Let them tell no man."


By an application of the rule concerning comparison of the text with similar texts in other parts of the Word, the Bishop gives a beautiful demonstration of the "science of exposition," showing that the text in question teaches that the Lord was not known and could not be known until the hells had been subjugated and the Human glorified (p. 200). But we would have welcomed more of such applications of the rules to texts not directly explained in the Writings. It is, of course, important, especially in the exposition of a whole chapter, that the portion chosen for illustration shall be some portion of the Word already explained in the Writings; for thus the student may see for himself that the application of the rules of exposition leads to the same exposition as is given in the Writings. But to us it seems that other illustrations, drawn from portions of the Word not so explained would have added value to this part of the Bishop's treatise. Of course the student can do this for himself, but some examples from so high an authority as the Bishop would be enlightening.

     The SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION is not confined merely to the rules noted above. Indeed among the most interesting chapters are those on The Sermon and The Text, where the rules of exposition are brought in only as one part of the whole treatment.

     The author holds that the sermon ought to be addressed to the most intelligent of the congregation, and the reasons given for this opinion are not only convincing in themselves, but, alas! have received much illustration in the history of the New Church, where men, especially of the younger members of the Church, continually hearing little more than elementary or missionary sermons, have found their interest to dull. If the minister speaks to the circumference only, says the Bishop, "a famine will result that may in the end lead to disintegration and dissolution."

     While insistence is not placed on the point, yet the general conclusion drawn from THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITTON is decidedly in favor of Sermons being written in Series according to the order of the Letter of the Word. This is the model given in the great expository works of the Writings, and it has a spiritual value, which, though not perhaps clearly seen by us in its effects, is nevertheless clearly indicated in the Writings. Every verse of the Word communicates with some society of heaven; groups of verses with larger societies; and chapters and books with great and complex societies.


"A minister in truly expounding a verse is giving general expression to the living thought of an entire angelic society; and the thought of that society is stirred by his meditation as a mother is stirred when her little one asks for food" (p. 293) Thus the sermon is the means for the fuller communication of angelic with earthly societies, and if that communication is effected according to the order of the Divine Word, there would seem to be no question that it will be more ultimate, and full and powerful. Certainly there will be in the mind of both preacher and congregation a richer and better ordered ultimate for the reception of influx from heaven and enlightenment. The chapter on The Text lays down nine rules to be applied preparatory to the writing of the sermon. They are (p. 241):

     1. A literal translation of the words of the text in the order of the original. Stress is laid on this and some striking examples are given in illustration.

     2. An examination of the root meanings of the words.

     3. and 4. A study of the explanation of text and words as found in the Writings.

     5. Where indicated, a study of Swedenborg's earlier works, and especially the ADVERSARIA. Interesting applications of this rule are given on pp. 248, 264, and 356.

     6. An examination of Commentaries, etc.-favorable mention being made of Clarke's Commentary.

     7. Application of the rules of Exposition.

     8. Reading in the Writings on the general doctrine involved in the text.

     9. Reflection.

     The list looks formidable, and indeed to an uninstructed clergy it would be formidable. The whole of Bishop Pendleton's book shows the necessity of an educated and intelligent priesthood. For while this work will be of the greatest value to all who are engaged in the study of the Word, yet for the full application of its many rich suggestions, there will be required a priesthood trained in the doctrines of the Church, in the Letter of the Word, in the Sacred languages and in the earlier works of Swedenborg.


     The reference to the study of Swedenborg's earlier works as a means to the expounding of Scripture, will come to some as a surprise. And yet it will not be a surprise if we reflect that the Divine Word is the storehouse not only of Theology but also of Philosophy, and that philosophy itself is but the handmaid of religion. Nay the Writings themselves continually confirm the exposition of the spiritual sense by the teachings of philosophy, and frequently, if we examine carefully, by philosophical teachings, the details and fullness of which are to be found only in the Philosophical Works. As the Bishop truly observes, "Neither the Sacred Scriptures nor the Writings can be fully understood without a knowledge of the wonderful philosophy contained in these early works. This is especially the case where a word or phrase involves the elementary Kingdom, and where mention is made of some part of the human body. For example, there is a rational unfolding of what is meant by searching the heart and the reins in the chapter on the kidneys in the ANIMAL KINGDOM" (248).

     Particularly instructive as to the new ideas that may be awakened by examination of these philosophical writings, is the illustration given in the exposition of the text "Blessed are they who do the commandments." Blessed in its root meaning is not dead. To quote the Bishop, "Now Swedenborg teaches in his philosophy that when anything is said to be dead the meaning is that it has no active center, but is merely acted upon from without. It does not even act but merely resists action. Man is said to be dead when there is in him no active center or regenerate internal. But when he has this he is not dead, because he has in him life from the Lord. The text is predicated of all such. Not dead are they who are doing the commandments" (p. 264).

     As in the case of the rules of exposition, the Bishop points out, that it will not be necessary for the minister to follow up and still less to endeavor to exhaust all the lines of enquiry which he describes. Frequently the following up of two or three will provide the student with a perception of the internal sense, and with a rich store of material for the sermon. Indeed the conscientious minister "will nearly always gather for his sermon more material than he can use.


Yet it cannot be said that what is left over has not been of use. It has been of use to him for his mental growth, and for a store to be drawn upon in the future; also for the implantation of affection. If he knows more than he can express,-if he has been inspired by affection,-he has a strong reserve, and hence a sphere in the delivery of the sermon; for after all it is not the truth that teaches, but the affection of truth and the sphere which affection engenders" (p. 256). Surely, every minister will appreciate the truth of these words, and they will awaken in others also, suggestive reflections.

     All this study for the true exposition of the Scriptures requires time. A sermon properly constructed is a work of art,-a work which so presents the heavenly harmony of Divine Truth, that at once the mind is lifted into the light or heaven and the heart affected by heavenly heat. "Happy is it for the minister, and also for his congregation, if he has at his disposal enough time for the preparation of material for his sermon and is not burdened by the pressure of other work. For such preparation and for the writing of the sermon an entire week is needed with no other absorbing occupation" (p. 253).

     It is not only that time is needed for the actual study, but it is needed also for repose and quiet reflection on the material that has been gathered. "Without this (as the Bishop justly observes) the sermon will probably be lacking in the important elements of conclusion and application, and there will be wanting a complete kindling of the fires of inspiration and enlightenment" (p. 254). Such reflection is necessary to a stale reactive to the studies that have been made, a state of willingness to be led by what the Lord reveals in the text, and not by some notion of one's own. The minister should not enter into a consideration of his text "with a preconceived idea in his thought. His mind should be in a state of readiness to be taught by the Lord, and not by anything of man's own intelligence. He will thus be introduced into the stream of the Word, and will be led to expound only that which is in the Word. Without this prior state of loyalty neither doctrines nor rules of exposition will be of any use" (p. 280). But for the enjoyment of this state repose is necessary.


"Repose of mind having its basis in physical rest, is one of the essential elements of worship. Not only should the minister prepare his sermon in a state of repose, but he should go to the church and enter into the service in a state of rest of body and mind; and the people should be encouraged to do the same" (p. 25).

     The last sentence is worthy of particular attention. All conscientious men engaged in daily toil, are careful that they be fresh for their work each day; and this thought is frequently active in their mind as a guide to their conduct. But it is not so often that we think with like prudence concerning preparation for the Sabbath. And yet the Lord has asked of us but one day out of seven. This is a matter which will necessarily and wisely be left: to each one for his own consideration and action. But it is well to reflect on the importance of external and public worship, and of due preparation for its right conduct. Perhaps then there will be fewer sleepy moments in church, and fewer regrets that one was too tired to fully benefit from the sermon.

     We have taken so much time in a review,-which is yet bet cursory,-of the first part of Bishop Pendleton's book, that we can but briefly notice the second part,-which is second in interest and importance only to the first.

     The book is not thus formally divided, but nevertheless it actually consists of two distinct parts. The first part consists of the Science of Exposition as applied to the Sermon to a New Church adult congregation. The Second part consists of a discussion of the instruction of children and the young, and the use of the Science of Exposition in this work and also in work of a missionary character.

     For the proper carrying on of the work of religious instruction there are required others besides those of the ordained priesthood. This is manifestly the case with little children whose first instruction must come from their mothers' lips; and the work of teachers to the younger grades is simply an extension of this first instruction. In all the old churches it has also been manifest in the case of adults, so far as work of a missionary character is concerned; and as the Bishop points out (p. 429) there is no reason why there may not be a similar field of use in the New Church.


Ordination looks to the pastorate; but there may he men who while having no desire to exercise the full ministerial function, are eager and able to do elemental or missionary work. It may be a question whether such men should be ordained into the first degree of the ministry, or whether it would be sufficient to authorize them as licentiates, lecturers or evangelists; but none can justly dispute that they should be properly instructed and that they should be under the general direction and authorization of the episcopal office" (p. 429).

     In the chapter; Children and the Young, which opens the second division of the work, the author premising that the spiritual sense is for adults and the literal sense primarily for children, proceeds to enquire whether there is not in this latter sense a threefold degree corresponding to the three stages of infancy, childhood and youth. He finds his answer in passages which enumerate the threefold sense of the Letter as historical, prophetical and doctrinal, and the threefold truths of the Letter as sensual, scientific and doctrinal. He concludes therefore that a comprehensive course in the Word would cover the historical portions for little children, the prophetical for older children and the doctrinal, together with the memorabilia of the Writings for young persons. The historical portions are actual happenings or sensual experiences, characteristic especially of the earlier books of the Old Testament. The prophetical portions include mainly the prophets, which treat "of the spiritual moral: state of the church, especially of its aspect, and relation to the advent of the Lord" (p. 385), and which, consequently, contain the internal historical sense (p. 385). The doctrinal portions are especially the New Testament.

     These conclusions are something entirely new to the church; for the usual conception has been that the prophetic Word,-excepting those parts thereof which, like Daniel and Jonah, are largely historical,-is hardly adapted for children. It is indeed recognized by some teachers of religion that there is the threefold quality of instruction spoken of by the Bishop. But whether the prophetical books can be used in this connection, or whether the internal historical sense should be taught mainly on the basis of the historical portions of both Old and New Testament, and the doctrine for young people on the basis of the New Testament and the Writings, is a matter which later judgment and experience may determine.


Certainly, the suggestion "to include the entire literal sense of the Word in a plan of religious instruction" is attractive. But to carry it out will require much thought; and probably it is only gradually, as we are led by experience, that we shall see more clearly wherein the plan can be carried out, and wherein, possibly, it should be modified. As the Bishop says, "It is worthy of a serious trial, but there should be thoughtful and serious preparation. A hastily prepared plan might fail; but one carefully digested and matured to which sufficient time has been given is sure to succeed in the hands of a teacher who loves the work" (p. 324.)

     But whatever the course adopted in the arrangement of instruction in the Letter of the Word, no teacher can afford to be without the guidance in this portion of THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION. We cannot go into the many invaluable teachings and suggestions given by the author in his chapter on the Analysis of the Literal Sense,-teachings which, in the following chapter, are illustrated by practical application. The rules of exposition are shown to be equally applicable here, though in a somewhat different way; and to them are added some new principles to be applied in teaching the Letter, namely, the examination of the lesson with a view to developing such references as may be made to the kingdoms of nature, and especially to the human kingdom, with its habits, customs and religious life. It may suffice to mention the pithy mnemonic aid suggested to the teacher as a preliminary to his examination of the portion of the Word which he is preparing for a class, namely, that he ask himself Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? We would also direct special attention to the invaluable suggestions which are made in this part of the Bishop's work, as to the teaching of spiritual truths by means of the phenomena of the spiritual world. A field of study is here opened up for development that will richly repay cultivation.

     The work closes with chapters on Planes of the Word, Natural Truth, and The Doctrine of Genuine Truth.

     The first of these chapters shows that the Word contains four planes or degrees of truth, any or all of which may form the subject of the New Church Sermon.


In the next chapter the Bishop shows that the plane of interior natural truth "is essential to the formation of the youthful mind as it draws near to adult age; is the final means of approach to the pure spiritual truth of the Word" (p. 388), and should therefore be studied and understood by the priesthood and by all who are concerned in the religious instruction of the young.

     As regards the priesthood, their duties lie not only in religious instruction of the young, but also in the preaching of sermons especially adapted to this age, and which also will be adapted to the simple. "If children and the young are to be taught religion in a conversational way in the class rooms (says the Bishop), why not do the same in the form of sermons accommodated to their plane of thought, drawing on the immense store of sensual, natural and doctrinal truth in the literal sense of the Word? Short sermons to the young, suitable to their age, in a general setting of music and ritual, would be a decided advance on the old Sunday School methods, being a more effective means of entering the understanding by stirring the affections" (p. 393)

     The last chapter of the work is more purely a theological enquiry into the nature of the doctrine of genuine truth,-a term so frequently used in the Writings. The chapter is among the most, interesting in the book, but our perusal of it awakened in us a desire that the learned and venerable author had added one more chapter devoted to the relation between the Old Testament,
the New Testament and the Writings.

     It seems, however, ungrateful to ask for more, when the book before us is so full of teaching, so rich in suggestion. It is a book which, primarily designed for ministers and for all others who are concerned in religious instruction, deserves also the earnest attention of New Church parents who are concerned in cultivating in their children that reverence for the Word which is the ultimate and basis on which is to be built their whole future religious life. And indeed we cannot imagine that there is any intelligent Newchurchman who will not profit by the reading of this work,-profit, in that it will more fully open his eyes to the wisdom and beauty of the Divine Word, and prepare his mind to receive more fully and with a sense of greater delight, the instruction given in Divine Worship.






     (Continued from our issue for May, p. 297.)

     I am sending you herewith the 12th sheet [of the PROCEEDINGS]: the 13th is to appear within a few days, and in it the letter itself is condemned.* Dr. Beyer was up before the Inn of Court yesterday at 10 o'clock, on the summons of Assessor Aurell through his Brother, since it is not fitting that the Assessor be present in person at a lower court. Dr. Rosen was there also, in the capacity of the Consistory's attorney. I have not heard what took place this time. I suppose it consisted mostly of preliminaries. All the world at home here is bitter against Beyer, with the exception of a few who are entertained by these revelations. Dr. Roempke is a reliable man and it is certain that he never read Swedenborg while he was engaged on his Synodal Disputation. Whether or not he was side-tracked by Dr. Beyer's sedulous discourses and spirit of (propaganda) is another question. Dr. Rosen is still making himself an object of suspicion and seems to be purposely intent upon participating somewhat in Swedenborg's system; nevertheless he draws back from time to time. The Rev. Kullin's holy zeal consists in a desire to get Beyer out of the way and off the held so that afterwards he himself, being the oldest Lector of Philosophy, may secure the prebendial pastorate which is the perquisite of a chair in Theology.
     * Swedenborg's letter to Dr. Beyer, Oct. 30, 1769, which Beyer printed in Gothenburg.

     See now, how open-hearted I am between four eyes! I am sending 4 copies of the Swedenborg letter. All unsold copies have been sequestered, at the Consistory's suggestion to the Printer. In the following 13 sheets, is related how the Consistory's Beadle, who had copied the extract, admitted in Consistory that he had done so at Dr. Beyer's instigation.


Dr. Beyer denied this orally, with the restriction that [he be granted] reconvention, until he proved his case: Beyer was declared incompetent one day, and, after further reflection, was declared competent the next day. The extract from the letter was disallowed: a couple of letters received from Bishop Lamberg were read..... I remain, continually, JOH. GOTHENIUS.


     Gothenburg, March 14, 1770.

     It may be known to you that His Majesty, in consequence of the Memorial of the Chancellor of Justice, has demanded an answer from this Consistory on various points relating to Swedenborgianism, and the Minutes reporting the votes with regard to it. Each Member has drawn up a rather extensive exposition of his views, especially Dr. Beyer and Dr. Rosen. The former absolutely professes Swedenborg's Theology as being in all its articles Divine and Heavenly; the latter seeks to reconcile it with that of Paul and the Bible. Aurell made the remark that Beyer had written ex solido, Rosen, ex stolido, and the Bishop informed Rosen of it, with some warmth, at a social gathering last week, although the people here who have read it greatly admired its eloquence and learning, in numerous points. The Bishop at the same time was kind enough to express a favorable opinion concerning my deductions, without mentioning anything about those of the others who, for the most part, were present. The Royal Letter and the Memorial will shortly be printed as well as the Minutes regarding the voting. As soon as the printed sheets appear, I shall have the honor of sending them to you, section by section: those now sent may for the most part be regarded as prattle, excepting Bishop Filenius' letter and a few similar portions.

     I have had no time to get together anything to send to the PUBLIC NEWS, [Allmanna Tidninger, published by Giorwell at Stockholm]. But as soon as I have less to do and have some spare time I shall present a translation of something from the Bible, and officially review the Book DE AMORE CONJUGIALE, which is beautiful in some parts, but either crazy or ridiculous in others.


This is one of my chief interests which I neither ought nor would neglect were [my time] at my own disposal. J. GOTHENIUS.


     Gothenburg, March 17, 1770

     The 2 sheets published today are herewith dispatched to you, as were the 4 previous ones-last Wednesday. Since His Majesty has graciously expressed his opinion concerning Swedenborgianism on the basis of our reports, these latter also are to be published, unless further reports are received from some other Consistory in the meanwhile. Thus a whole volume is brought forth into the world. Why the Consistory did not report the matter to the King in the first place is easy for me to answer and explain. I was not a Member after the year 1766 when I applied for leave of absence, and I resumed my place there in the month of May, 1769. A circular letter, issued by command of Royal Letter, was sent from the Consistory to all the Clergymen of the diocese containing an admonition for the Priests to beware of heterodoxy in religion. This caused a great debate in the Consistory, on account of an addition which had been inserted in the Draft by the Dean, [Ekebom], namely: "the stifling of the Swedenborgian errors." Beyer, Rosen, Roempke, and Wallenstrae refused to sign it, since these words do not occur in the Royal Letters. But are they not, indeed, in essence included in the Letter? It was impossible to send out a circular letter to the Dean's parish, signed only by himself and three others. When the Bishop returned [from Stockholm] he bellowed out that he himself would sign it and thus expedite the matter, but as he was reminded that these words did not expressly occur in the Royal Letter, it still remains undispatched. Nevertheless, a majority in the Consistory regarded Swedenborg's theology as heretical even before that time, and in a letter to the Clergy they confirmed the King's opinion by their own. J. GOTHENIUS.



     Gothenburg, June 9, 1770.

     ......A very large and comprehensive act which has cost the Consistory a distressing amount of trouble is now ready to be dispatched at the first opportunity to His Majesty, in causa Swedenborgiana. It is said that the heretics Beyer and Rosen have already appealed to the King on account of the harshness or want of consideration with which the Consistory has treated them, The "Cap Engestrom, who mixes himself up with everything that goes on down here, is also assisting them. Think of almost making a political party question of religion. There are "Caps" in the Council! It is believed that if these are numerically strongest the majority of votes will be in Swedenborg's favor J. GOTHENIUS.



     In view of the approaching centennial of the New Church in Philadelphia, the following document will be of timely interest. It was first printed by the Rev Richard de Charms in THE NEW-CHURCHMAN for January, 1831, pp. 70-73. The writer, Miss Margaret Bailey, was the daughter of Francis Bailey, the Philadelphia printer, and editor of THE FREEMAN'S JOURNAL, who was the first known receiver of the Heavenly Doctrine in America.


To C. Roguet Esq.
     Dear Sir:-You requested me to make a note of my earliest recollections of the establishment, or introduction, of the New Jerusalem Church in this city. On taxing my memory, I find the information I shall be able to give, will be very trifling, and that principally from what I have heard, rather than any recollection of the occurrences.

     Your are already informed that the Writings of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg were first introduced by a certain Mr. James Glen, in or about the year eighty-five.*


     * In "The Pennsylvania Gazette," for June 2, 1787, and the "Independentent Gazette, or The Chronicle of Freedom," for June 5th, 1784, two weekly papers published in Philadelphia at that period, may be found the following advertisement:
     A DISCOURSE on the extraordinary SCIENCE of Celestial and Terrestrial Connedions, and Correspondences recently revived, by the late and Honorable Emanuel Swedenborg; will be delivered by Mr. James Glen, an humble Pupil, and Follower of the said Swedenborg's, at eight o'clock on the evening of Saturday, the fifth day of June, 1784, at Bell's Book-Store, near St. Paul's Church, in Third Street, Philadelphia. Where tickets of admission may now be had. Price, One Quarter of a Dollar.
     The sublime Science teaches us from every Object in the World of Nature to learn things Spiritual and Heavenly; it is the most ancient and excellent of all Sciences, being that whereby the Holy Scriptures were written; according to which the highest Angels form their Ideas, and through the; medium of which the earliest of the Human Race held Converse and Communion with these blessed Beings. The Knowledge of this useful Science has for many Ages been lost to the World. The Egyptian Hieroglyphics, the Greek and Roman Mythology, and the Modern Free-Masonry being the last remnants of it. The honorable Emanuel Swedenborg, the wonderful Restorer of this long lost Secret, thro' the Divine Mercy, for the last twenty-nine years of his Life, had the most free and open Intercourse with Spirits and Angels, and was thus taught this Science of Heaven. From his invaluable Writings and Conversations with Gentlemen who have studied them, the Discourser hopes to convey some Idea and Taste of this Science of Sciences, to the wise and to the good of every denomination.
     According to the following Divisions.
     Definition of the Science of Correspondences, Scriptures, Human Body, Diseases, Remedies, Marriage, Natural Philosophy, Sun and Moon, Air, Earth, Metals, Vegetables, Animals, Jewish Manners and Customs, Hieroglyphics, Mythology, Free-Masonry, Languages, Character of Nations, Character of Individuals, Future State, The Application of the Science of Correspondences.
     N. B.-A few copies of Swedenborg's Theosophic Treatise on the Nature of Influx, as it respects the Communication and Operation of Soul and Body-May now be had at said Bell's Book-Store, in Third-Street,-Price, Two thirds of a Dollar.
     In the "Pennsylvania Gazette" of the next week, Mr. Glen put another advertisement, in which he proposed to lecture on the same subject, "at Half past Seven on the Evening of Friday; also at the same Hour, on the Evening of SATURDAY the 11th and 12th of June, 1784," at the same place as above. From the above advertisement we ascertain the interesting fact for historical record-that the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem were promulgated by public lecturing in America first in Philadelphia, on Saturday evening, the fifth day of June, in the year of our Lord's first advent, 1784._ED. NEWCHURCHMAN.


He was born, I believe, in Scotland, though he had resided many years in England. On his arrival in this country he asked and obtained permission to deliver a course of lectures in Bell's auction room, adjoining St. Paul's Church, on Third Street. The time and place being mentioned in the public prints, they were pretty well attended. He there, for the first time in America, presented to the public the fundamental doctrines of the Church. When he began to speak of Swedenborg's intercourse with the spiritual world, and the doctrine of correspondence, many of his hearers concluded he must be an enthusiast or madman, and left the house; others remained and became interested. Among the last mentioned were my father, Myers Fisher, and a Captain Lang.

     Mr. Glen remained but a short time in Philadelphia. Soon after his departure, a box of books, principally the Writings of Swedenborg, reached this city, consigned to Mr. Bell for him. On the death of that gentleman, which took place shortly after, these book's were offered, with his other effects, at public sale. My father being present when the box was opened, caught eagerly at the contents, hoping to find some elucidation of mysteries of which he had caught but a glimpse from Mr. Glen's lectures. At the sale, Mr. Fisher possessed himself of several Latin works, and my father procured copies of all the English ones. He perused them diligently and spoke of them in his family. He spoke of them, indeed, to anyone and everyone disposed to listen. In a few months, my mother and a Miss Barclay, who was in our family, received the doctrines they contained; and shortly after, Captain Lang, (a Revolutionary officer), his wife, a Mr. Thomas Lang, (a Scotch gentleman), and, I think, Judge Young, of Greensburg, received them. All those persons I recollect well to have seen.


They often met at my father's house, and conversed on the doctrines. I know there were others, but their names have faded from my memory.

     The next that I recollect having heard of, who were favorably disposed toward the writings, were the Messrs. Sellers, old parson Schlatter, and a Peter Libert, of Germantown.

     In the years eighty-nine to ninety-three or four, several interesting foreigners, attached to the doctrines, visited this country. The first was the Col. Julius Vahn Rohr-by birth a Swede. He had seen Swedenborg, and was well acquainted with many members of his family. He possessed all the Writings of Swedenborg, philosophical as well as theological. He remained two years in this country, and was much in our family, accompanied by a slave whom he had liberated and instructed in the doctrines of the Church. He left America, for Africa-that Julius, his friend rather than servant, might, with his assistance, instruct his countrymen, as he had been instructed. Col. Vahn Rohr promised to write when he reached his destined home, but my father received only one letter,-and that was written a few months before the Colonel left this country, on the eve of his embarkation.

     Shortly before Col. Vahn Rohr left this country, he introduced to my father a Mr. Chalmer, or Charing, a Danish gentleman. I think he came to this country in a diplomatic capacity. He was a full receiver of the doctrines. My parents were much pleased with him. He told my mother, that, when quite a boy, he had accompanied his father to Stockholm, and had seen Swedenborg walking in his garden. Of this gentleman's appearance I have a very distinct recollection.

     In ninety-three, Captain Byard, a French gentleman, with his family, fled to this country. He introduced himself at our house by asking for a copy of the writings in French, or Latin. One small work was all my father had which Captain Byard immediately purchased. My father lent him one or two in Latin, and asked him to call again. From this time until they were recalled to France, they were much with us. Indeed, the first grief I recollect ever to have experienced, was in being separated from their children.

     In ninety-three or four, Mr. Duche's family, I think, returned to this country.


About the same period, or rather later, Mr. Ralph Mather and family came to reside in this country. The little society now began to gather some strength, and assume a form. Mr. Mather was a teacher, as well as a receiver of the doctrines; and regular meetings were held every Sunday evening in a ware room, in an alley, running as well as I can recollect, from Arch to Race Street, and between Second and Third, but do not remember its name; Mrs. Hargrove, then Mrs. Mather, no doubt could furnish it, if desirable. These meetings were pretty well attended; but I do not recollect any of the ordinances, except baptism being administered.

     Mr. William Hill, an English gentleman, afterwards married to Miss Duche, came to America about the year ninety-eight or nine. His whole life and deportment were a practical comment on the doctrines he had embraced. He was much attached to my parents, and made our house his home until his marriage. From this period, until our little society commenced meeting in Mr. Carll's school-room, I know little or nothing, having lived principally in Lancaster county.

     I hope I shall be pardoned for saying, I believe our late highly valued friend William Schlatter, and my father have done more for the spread of the doctrines in this country than any other two individuals in it. My father by publishing and distributing-Mr. S. by erecting a Church as well as by publishing and distributing the writings. My father, after publishing, always presented copies to colleges, libraries, etc., but principally confined himself to Pennsylvania-Mr. Schlatter sent the writings to the far West and South, where their benign influences are now felt. Between the years eighty-seven and ninety-six, my father published the Theology, [T. C. R.], Conjugial Love, with all the smaller works, more than half of which were distributed gratis.

     I know not whether I have imparted anything that you were not previously acquainted with; but I have the gratification of knowing that, as far as was in my power, I have complied with your request. And now, with my sincere wishes for the best interests of the church, believe me to be your obliged friend. (Signed.) MARGARET BAILEY.


Editorial Department 1916

Editorial Department       Editor       1916


     Exceedingly appreciative reviews of Bishop W. F. Pendleton's Work, THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION, have appeared in the NEW CHURCH MESSENGER, the NEW CHURCH REVIEW, the BOTE DER NEUEN KIRCKE, NYA KYRKANS TIDING, and THE NEW AGE.

     From the Rev. Albert Bjorck, of San Francisco, we have received a pamphlet of sixteen pages on THE WINE OF THE HOLY SUPPER, being a reprint of his article on this subject, printed in NEW CHURCH LIFE for January, 1915. The immediate reason for its reproduction in separate form has been the recent agitation in the NEW CHURCH MESSENGER On that perennial issue,-the Wine Question.

     Pastor C. J. N. Manby announces the publication of his new Swedish translation of the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, a labor of considerable magnitude. It is the first complete edition in Swedish, and appears also under its original Latin title, which is quite comprehensible to most Swedes. The Swedish title, "Uppenbarade Uppenbarelseboken," is justly described by Mr. Manby as "rather heavy," and the translator hopes that henceforth the work will be referred to as "A. R.,"-a reference understood the world over.

     From THE NEW PHILOSOPHY for January we learn that the last of Miss Beekman's "Physiological Papers" will appear in the issue for April, and that in the same issue the editor will commence the publication of a new translation of the invaluable collection of brief treatises by Swedenborg known under the collective name of "Posthumous Tracts." We are happy to learn of this return to the original policy of the Swedenborg Scientific Association.


     A new subscriber, commenting on our editorial on "The Word in a 'Restricted' Sense," makes these observations: "I do not understand how any one can say that the Writings of the New Church 'are not Divine Truth in ultimates.' All Truth, whether on the natural or spiritual plane of thought, must be in ultimates; otherwise we should never be able to perceive it. If the revelation of the spiritual sense of the Word had not been presented to us in the ultimate form of writing, and portrayed by things of this natural world, how could we ever perceive the spiritual truth contained therein!"

     The Rev. G. C. Ottley, in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for April, calls attention to a significant historical analogy:

     "It is, indeed, strange how history repeats itself. In the course of the first century of the Christian era the Word of the New Testament was written. What now was the attitude of the early Christians towards this new Word of God! They said that it was not the Word, and some even went so far as to add that it was blasphemous to so designate it; that the Old Testament alone was the Word, and that the New Testament made no claim to be the Word. To all appearance the attitude seemed justified, since it is nowhere definitely or positively stated in the New Testament that it is the Word. It was only in the second century that it was acknowledged as such, and then only on the basis of inference. The early members of the infant Christian Church were too simple-too ignorant or too steeped in natural thought-the chief characteristic of Jewish Christians, to grasp the idea that there may be several forms of the Word; that the Divine Truth which is the very essence of the Word can assume a most external form as that of mere history, or a more internal form as appealing to the reasoning faculties of man. Both were Words of the Lord, but on different planes-the Word of the Old Testament on the sensual plane; the Word of the New Testament on the natural-rational plane. It is precisely the same at this day, the second century of the Church's existence. Newchurchmen, many of whom are not yet fully
emancipated from old Church ideas, cling with irrational tenacity to the idea that the Word can only be such as it is in the Letter-that is, as it is in the Bible-so-called!


They close their eyes or ignore the oft-repeated teaching of the Writings on the degrees in the Divine Truth-the essential Word of God-and hence fail to see how the Writings are the Word on an interior plane, the plane of the internal sense, which is 'the MOST ESSENTIAL WORD in which the Divine proximately dwells.' (A. C. 3432.)"

     In a footnote Mr. Ottley quotes the following from Dr. Samuel Davidson's CANON OF THE BIBLE: "The earliest fathers ... believed the Old Testament books to be a divine and infallible guide. But the New Testament was not so considered till towards the close of the second century when the conception of the Catholic Church was realized. The latter collection was not called Scripture or put on a par with the Old Testament as sacred and inspired till the time of Theophilus of Antioch (about 180 A. D.)"

     In the Journal of the eighth annual meeting of the California Association of the New Jerusalem, the report of the Los Angeles Society expresses dissatisfaction with certain conditions which have long retarded its progress, and says among other things:

     "The great need in Los Angeles is a permanent pastor and a suitable location and house of worship, attractive through the library and social conveniences to safeguard our splendid corps of young people that they may seek guidance in the true doctrines of religion, and try to have their affections directed and molded by their teaching which the New Church alone can give. Some of our young people-on account of the natural attractions-attend other churches whose teachings have nothing to do with the interior state of the will and understanding." (Italics as in the report.)

     It is certainly true that every New Church society will have to seek to provide natural attractions in the way of social life and amusements within the sphere of the Church, if they expect to keep the young people within that sphere, for the young are natural, and with rare exceptions they will seek for natural attractions,-outside the New Church, if the Church will make no efforts to provide these things.


But in well established New Church societies, with abundant social attractions, another danger arises, viz., an excess of such things within the sphere of the Church, by which an external, frivolous and Worldly sphere may be introduced. The MESSENGER for May 3d, speaking of the Report from Los Angeles, utters some warning words, which may well be taken to heart also by the societies of the General Church:

     "If we may speak a guiding word which may be of help to all our societies, as based upon what is said in this report, it would be not to make the mistake of giving amusement too prominent a place in connection with our activities. Energy that might be turned to better account is often wasted by going to extremes in planning for this or that entertainment with the desire to attract, whereas there is abundant drawing power in the Doctrines themselves to hold together those who feel their need. Amusements will not build up the church. Consecration to its high ends will alone avail. The church entertainment should invariably be the expression of what the church stands for, refreshing body and mind with a view to greater steadfastness in learning of and serving the Lord."

     In the NEW CHURCH MAGAZINE for April there is a review of a recent work by C. E. Housden entitled "Is VENUS INHABITED?" In view of the revelations of the Writings of the New Church on this subject, the following will be of interest:

     "We are assured that Venus turns only once on its axis during its annual revolution round the sun, thus always presenting one side to the sun. There are no alternations of day or night, so that the sunlit area must be intensely hot, while the dark hemisphere must be colder than any part of our earth's surface. Dr. Lowell, who has made a long and careful study of the planet, says that the amount of water vapor that can be spectroscopically detected over the sunlit area is very small, and that the atmosphere is cloudless, but probably a dust-laden one, the latter being a deduction from the enormous amount of light reflected. He argues that all we know on earth as life is, for the above reasons, unlikely thereon.


With respect to Mars, however, Dr. Lowell has declared his opinion that there is much evidence in favor of its being inhabited.

     "Mr. Housden using the same observations arrives at a different conclusion with respect to Venus. He discusses the movements of the atmosphere on the planet and shows that all water on the sunlit area will be carried off by evaporation and deposited on the dark side near the terminator or boundary between the two surfaces. There would thus be in the planet's dark hemisphere a vast ice field, with a more or less connected series of glaciers along its outer edge, and at no great distance from the planet's bright face. These glaciers would have a face length of nearly 24,000 miles. But the ice of these glaciers under the hot current of descending air would be melted and flow down toward the sunlit face. If it be assumed that the planet radiates heat like a 'dark body' the temperatures at points near the terminator can be calculated. The water flowing from the dark to the bright hemisphere would not get more than 30" within the sunlit face. Next to the melting ice, then, there would be a strip of land 24,000 miles long and 1,000 miles wide, or an area of 24,000,000 miles on which water would be, available and the temperature of which would range from 32" F. to 122" F. On this strip of the surface life would be possible. In this connection it is to be remembered that a very small part of the surface of our own earth is habitable, for the Arctic and Anarctic regions and certain great deserts do not support life.

     "It is well known that there are on the planet Mars lines of so peculiar a character that they have been called canals, and it has been speculated by some great astronomers that they have been cut or formed by intelligent beings. There are on Venus also certain markings and other phenomena that have led Mr. Housden to think that they are evidences of intelligent effort. It is, however, impossible to usefully discuss this part of the subject, interesting as it is, without the use of the diagrams with which the book is illustrated. He thinks that intelligent beings would probably find a way of carrying water from the neighborhood of the terminator to a considerable distance over the sunlit area, thus extending the area of habitable land."

     It would be interesting to know if astronomers, in Swedenborg's time, had any knowledge of the fact that Venus always presents one side only toward bur earth.


Swedenborg always speaks of this as if it were a well-known fact, but according to our recollection this fact was first discovered by Schiaparelli in the year 1888. In the extract from Housden, quoted above, it is stated that in Venus "there are no alternations of day or night, so that the sunlit area must be intensely hot," etc. But in the SPIRITUAL DIARY, n. 1450, we find the statement "that those who dwell there do not associate during the daytime, but at night, on account of the intense heat; and therefore they have lived in darkness, and [yet] they see." Evidently, there are things yet to be discovered by the astronomers.

ISSUE OF THE WAR              1916

     (Of all the New Church literature on the subject of the present War, we have seen none more searching than the paper here reproduced from the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY for March 4th, from the pen of the Rev. E. J. Pulsford, an English New Church minister.-ED. N. C. LIFE.)

     What is the real issue of the great war in which so many of the nations are plunged? The immediate political issue, as we and our allies see it-and, probably, as the enemy also sees it-is whether or not in years to come German power, German policy, and German ideals are to dominate the world. And this we consider a sufficient reason for our nation bearing its part in the struggle.

     But every thoughtful mind is aware-feels, perhaps, rather than sees-that a deeper issue is involved, one that transcends the world of politics, and that concerns the spiritual life of the nations. The war is the outward expression of a great conflict of principles that is raging in the minds of men in all the nations, the contending forces being nothing less than the powers of good and of evil striving for the mastery in the life of humanity. Respecting the actual nature and significance of this inward conflict, the instructed Newchurchman is privileged to hold a clear and definite view.

     One age in the spiritual history of the race has come to an end, and a new age is dawning.


One Church, divinely appointed for the enlightenment and salvation of men, has come to its end, and a New Church is being raised up. The Christian Church, which nineteen centuries ago superseded the effete Jewish Church as the Lord's witness in the world, has itself become effete, has reached its old age, its midnight darkness, its death, and is superseded by another Church, the Lord's New Church, signified by the New Jerusalem. The Lord has accomplished His promised Second Coming "in great power and glory," not a reappearance in bodily form to the bodily senses of men, but a revelation of Himself in His omnipotent, omnipresent Divine Humanity, made by the opening of the interior senses of His Word, through the instrumentality of His servant Swedenborg. And the present state of the world and the terrible happenings in it have in very truth the "dispensational significance" that they are so generally felt to have.

     Only a few years ago the statement that the Church which the Lord established among the apostles had in these days become "dead" was resented as a gross libel and breach of charity. Today the utterances of many leaders in the Churches amount virtually to a confession that such is indeed the case. The statement is one that needs to be understood; it does not mean that there is no spiritual life in the members of the countless sects that represent the Church; it does mean that such genuine spirituality as there is in them has been attained by the practical repudiation of the very dogmas on which they are founded; and that this is so, probably the majority in the Churches will agree.

     The present disordered state of the Christian world is the outcome of the evils and falsities that have brought death to the Church, and that have accumulated in intensity and power in the time of its end. And in its last analysis, the inward conflict which is raging beneath the war of the nations is being waged between these evil's and falsities on the one hand, and on the other the good and truth which belong to the New Church and the New Age.

     We have the definite assurance that the Lord's New Church, which is "the crown of the Churches," will never pass away. Its establishment and extension is the Lord's supreme provision for the blessing of mankind.


We cannot doubt that the course of the world-war is being, and will be, overruled to promote and hasten this end. And in this connection, what we are taught concerning the reasons for which wars are permitted is very suggestive.

     In DIVINE PROVIDENCE, NO. 251, we learn that the great reason for the permission of war is that inward corrupting evils cherished and indulged in the recesses of men's hearts may come forth into the outward life where their real deadly quality may be realized, and that, realizing this, men may be willing to desist from them. In war, many such evils are laid bare for all to see; war does not directly effect their removal; it rests with men, having had the real horrible nature of them thus revealed, to determine to put them away.

     Unquestionably, the present war is effecting such a laying bare of the grievous evils prevalent in Christendom; and the real issue of the war is nothing less than this-whether the nations of Christendom:, having had their evils thus revealed to them, are going to be willing to put them away, together with the falsities that are allied to them, and so prepare the way for the reception of the truth and good of the Lord's New Church.

     That we may realize how momentous, for Christendom, is this issue, let us go back, in thought, nineteen centuries, to the time when the First Christian Church was the Lord's new Church in the world. The Lord established that Church among the Jews. The disciples were Jews; their first mission was to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel;" the first converts were Jews, But, for ah this, the Jewish nation, steeped in falsity and prejudice, did not receive it. It quickly passed to the gentile world.

     Now mark well the present-time parallel. The New Church has been in the world for upwards of a century. It has been started among Christians. Great efforts have been made, by the living voice and the press, to proclaim its truths far and wide. The time would seem to be ripe, now if ever, for such efforts. Destructive criticism has battered and shattered the old fabric of belief until there is not one stone left standing. Surely the Christian world will turn with eager joy to the new light! But it does not. The organization which represents the New Church has to struggle hard to keep itself in being.


Prejudice and prevalent evil cause its appeal to fall on deaf ears. The light shines in a darkness that comprehends it not-as was the case nineteen centuries ago. And while Christendom, like ancient Judaism, shows itself so unreceptive of the new truth the Lord has given, there is the great gentile world-as also there was nineteen centuries ago-free from the prejudices and falsities and wickednesses of the modern Christian world, hopeful ground for the reception of the new seed of truth. The Lord has again chosen the first apostles of His New Church from the nations of the Old Church; but is the New Church going to remain with those nations, or once again to pass to the gentiles? Many things point to the latter; there are indications that the gentile races of India, China, Japan, Africa, not having to unlearn perversions of Christian doctrine, are going to be, when the new gospel is put fairly before them, as receptive of it as the Christian world is unreceptive. And if this proves so, it may well be the death-knell of European civilization as a factor in the progress of the race.

     In its present fiery ordeal Christendom is being tried, as to whether it is to be able to take the leading part that is offered to it in establishing the New Jerusalem, or to sink into spiritual deadness, and, perhaps, even to disappear from the face of the earth. There are not wanting hopeful signs in our midst; the spirit of the new age is abroad; there is a quickening of conscience and of charity. But the forces on the other side are terribly strong. There is all the wickedness that has come out in the violence of war. There are a host of other evils that are striking at the very foundations of society. To mention only one of the most deadly, there is the degradation of marriage, the abuse of sex relationships, leading to what is known as "race suicide," seen in the falling birthrate everywhere-an evil which is accentuated by the fact that the populations of Christian countries are being recruited chiefly from the classes that are the least fit, physically, mentally, and morally. And when we think of the hundreds of thousands of the finest young men of the various Christian nations who, instead of becoming fathers of families, are being slain in war, we may well wonder whether Christendom will survive the suicidal influences that are at work. And this is the real issue of the war. The evils of Christendom are laid bare for all to see; is she going to renounce them, and arise, purged and recreated, or to fall under them, and be no more?


     The Lord will protect His New Church, and will establish it. Of this we can have no doubt. It will extend, and in time cover all the earth; but whether this is to be by the regeneration of Christendom, or by the suicide of Christendom, is what remains to be seen.

     Jesus concluded the solemnly impressive parable of the wicked husbandman, by asking, "When the Lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?" and the answer was, "He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons." And then Jesus went on to apply the parable to the faithless Jews. "Therefore, say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof." Has the time come for this to be enacted again? This is the issue of the present conflict.

     In the Writings of the New Church we are taught that when a new Church is raised up by the Lord, "this is rarely, if ever, effected with those with whom the old Church has been, but with those with whom there was no Church before, that is, amongst the gentiles" (A. C. 2986). And the reason is stated to be that the gentiles "have no principles or falsity contrary to the truths of faith" (ibid.). Angels told Swedenborg that they had but "slender hope of the men of the Christian Church, but much of a certain nation far distant from the Christian world." (L. J. 74). Side by side with such teaching may be set the assertion of Swedenborg in a letter to Dr. Beyer: "I am certain of this, that after the appearance of the book referred to (the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION), the Lord our Savior will operate both mediately and immediately towards the establishment throughout the whole of Christendom of a New Church based upon this Theology." (DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG, vol. 2, p. 383). It is to be noted that this last statement is in no way inconsistent with the former two. These do not say positively that the New Church; will not be established in Christendom, or in any part of it, neither does the last-quoted say definitely that it will be so established.


We have the assurance that the Lord is operating "both mediately and immediately" towards its establishment in Christendom, and also a warning that, despite such Divine operation, its aim may fail of achievement. The position is, that the Lord is doing all He can do to establish His New Church in Christendom, and that it remains to be seen whether Christendom will receive it.

     The issue of the war is not merely whether in years to come Britain is to be on top of Germany, or Germany on top of Britain and the rest of the world, but whether the deadly evils that afflict the Christian nations, and that now are laid bare, shall give way before the truths of the New Jerusalem, or shall prevail even to the destruction of those nations. It is, Can modern Christendom be made serviceable in the establishment of the Lord's "Kingdom which shall never be destroyed?" If so, it will survive; if not, it will die! The war will prove an instrument either of its regeneration, or of its suicide.

     We fervently hope that the sun of prosperity is not about to set for ever on our beloved country and on Christendom. The one thing that can avert this is the conquest of the evil's of Christendom; and the only power that can effect such a conquest is the power of the Lord Jesus in His Second Advent. Here is the grand mission and the great opportunity of the New Church at this crisis. Christendom is in peril; it care be saved; and its hope of salvation lies in the reception of the New Church! Here is a cause in which to unite our forces to the utmost, to put forth all the zeal and devotion, and energy, and treasure that we can command! Love of country must mean for us whole-souled loyalty to the Lord's New Church. If Christendom is to be saved, this alone can save it. Spiritual indifference now must be accounted by us as treason. Our foremost duty is to concern ourselves with the life which the New Church requires, unswerving loyalty to the Commandments Who knows but that the Lord will spare the city for the sake of the ten righteous men that may be found there? And, beyond this, we have to use all means in our power to bring the truth, in which is the world's salvation, to those who are thirsting for it, helping them to put away their prejudices, and openly avow the Lord Jesus in His Second Coming as the only God.


     If Christendom can be saved, surely it is worth the effort to save it! We are assured that the Lord is making this effort; and we, whom He has led to membership of His New Church, must feel that we are called to co-operate in so great a purpose. It is the issue that is at stake in the great world-conflict; and our part in the crisis is to render the utmost loyalty, and bear the most faithful witness, to the New Church of our Lord, God, and Savior, Jesus Christ.


Title Unspecified 1916

Title Unspecified              1916

     My attention has been called to the following quotation from a letter by Swedenborg to Prelate F. C. Oetinger, which, as far as I am aware, has never before been referred to in connection with the "bodiless angel" theory.
          Bryn Athyn, May 2d, 1916.

     ". . . You suggest a doubt in respect to 'Christ's having power given Him over all flesh, when yet the angels and the inhabitants of heaven have not fleshy, but shining bodies.' To this be pleased to receive kindly the following reply: In the above passage by 'all flesh' are understood all men, wherefore in the Word in various places mention is made of all flesh, which signifies every man. With respect: to the bodies of angels they do not appear shining, but, as it were fleshy; for they are substantial though not material, and substantial things are not translucent before the angels. Everything material is originally from what is substantial; and into this every man comes after he has laid aside his material coverings by death. On this account man after death is a man, but purer than before; comparatively as what is substantial is purer than what is material. That the Lord has power not only over all men, but also over all angels, is evident from His own words in Matthew, "All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth.' (RXVIII, 18.)
     "Your most faithful servant,
          "EM. SWEDENBORG.
"Amsterdam, November 8, 1768."
          (Doc. 238; Vol. II, p. 269.)


Church News 1916

Church News       Various       1916


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. It was our turn to suffer a misfortune during the past month. It came in the form of a fire near our young cathedral building. About 1:45 a. m. on Saturday, April 22d, many of us were awakened by the sounds of roaring flames and hissing steam. Several persons claim the distinction of being the first to discover the fire. At any rate, when they arrived, the whole southeast side of the blacksmith shop, where the monometal workers had their forges, was aflame. Mr. Gustave Glebe was unable to reach the top of the flames with the hand fire extinguisher that he carried to the fire from his nearby home. Soon the tar paper roof caught, and from its intense heat the great timbermen's shed, which stood close by the blacksmith shop, caught the flames. Although the night had been a rainy one, the dry interior contents of the building soon became a roaring mass of flames. When the fire had reached this stage the local fire apparatus began to arrive. But the lack of water greatly handicapped their effectiveness, as the fire was far beyond the power of the chemical engines to extinguish. However, by means of these engines, and bucket brigades that were composed of local talent, we managed to save the office and architect's building.

     The fire was a great loss not only of money, but of time. One workman told me that some of the oak wood-work, that he had done more than a year ago, was destroyed. All the great oak roof rafters for the north isle were completely ruined, together with two of the complete spans, that were to extend the entire width of the nave. Beside the wood-work that was destroyed, all the models were ruined, including models of the west entrance, and of the south porch, which were very valuable. The building also contained numerous sets of valuable tools, which were all spoiled. The exact loss has not been divulged, but it is known that the insurance carried did not begin to pay for it.


     But the sheds have now been completely rebuilt, and every effort is being made to catch up the time that was lost.

     Bryn Athyn is beginning to look forward to the Assembly in earnest. The various committees are having frequent meetings, and the place is beginning to buzz with the future expectation of the great event!

     One of the festivities of the month was the Junior Ball. There seemed to be a very united spirit among the juniors, all of whom came to the dance in costume. They sang songs of farewell to the seniors, and songs expressing their own modest estimate of themselves.

     Mr. Roland Smith and Mr. Randolph Childs gave a patriotic banquet for Major Louis Tafel, of the Pennsylvania National Guard, the young men of the "Church Militant" in Bryn Athyn being invited to attend as guests. The Major began his talk by telling us how he had received his first elements of the soldier's training under "Homer," as he affectionately termed Mr. Synnestvedt, away back in the old Wallace Street days. His speech was calculated to show the value of military training upon the development of a young man. It was very well, received. K. R. A.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. After the strenuous times incident to the dedication of our new house of worship, the past month has been one of comparative rest. The work on the exterior of the Church building has been continued and the grading of the surrounding property has begun. Walks have been constructed in front and at the side, and the stone-work pointed.

     The average attendance at the services has somewhat increased, and we have been pleased to have with us a number of visitors. The doctrinal classes have been held in the new building, and the Sunday School has been resumed there. The meetings of the Theta Epsilon, of the young folks' classes, and of the Advent club have continued, as usual, in private homes.     F. A. D. S.

     BERLIN, ONT. Our social life has been considerably affected this year by the military spirit.


One by one, eight of our young men have donned the king's uniform and are preparing for service overseas. Khaki has become quite the style for young men, and young ladies who previously considered it "old-maidish" to knit, are now industriously knitting socks for the soldiers. On two occasions the ladies of the society sent a shower of preserves and, cookies to the soldiers stationed in the city. Very shortly the Berlin Battalion will have moved to the training camp at. London, Ontario, and we shall miss our soldiers very much.- Not only shall we miss their daily parades with band and bugles, their manly figures, and their trim uniforms, but most of all, shall we miss "our own boys," in the religious and social life of the Church. We shall always think of them and wish them good luck, God-speed, and safe return.

     The names of our New Church warriors are as follows: Sergt. A. Bond, now at Bramshot, England; Q. M. Sergt. Sam. Roschman, Armourer Sergt. Harold Kuhl, Q. M. Sergt. Fred. Stroh, Corporal Arthur Schnarr, Pte. Rupert Kuhl, Pte. Nelson Glebe, and Pte. Victor Waelchli.

     On Easter morning, at 9:45, a children's service was held in the chapel. During the Processional the children laid flowers on the altar, which added a delicate touch to the Easter decorations and brought with it a delightful sphere of springtime and the resurrection of all nature to life. The Rev. Hugo Odhner delivered an address on The Resurrection. At the Easter service the baptism of Laurence Theodore, the first child of Mr. and Mrs. Percy Izzard, took place.

     Our annual entertainment and bazaar on Easter Monday was, as usual, a success. The decorations were of a vernal Japanese nature, consisting chiefly of "hand-made" cherry blossoms, which were indeed effective. After supper had been served, a varied program of recitations, songs, and a flag drill by the children provided entertainment. When the booths were opened it was but a short: time before everything was "sold but," proving the excellency of the goods offered. The evening closed with dancing, "as usual."

     The regular Young People's classes have closed for the season. During the later part of the term Mr. Odhner commenced a series of lectures on "The History of the Christian Church," which will be continued next year.


Our classes in the "Rational Psychology" are still continuing.

     In the Friday classes Mr. Waelchli is at present taking up the subject of "New Church Education."

     REPORT OF THE VISITOR PASTOR. The General Church circle at CINCINNATI was visited April 1st to 5th. During this visit there were Sunday services, including the Holy Supper, two doctrinal classes, and a children's service. Although the circle is weak in numbers, it is strong in the affection of truth, and our gatherings are, therefore, always most delightful; especially is this true of the doctrinal classes.

     Ten days were spent at MIDDLEPORT, Ohio, from April 6th to 16th, and every day there was a church gathering of some kind, either afternoon or evening. On the two Sundays there were services morning and evening. The morning service on the second Sunday was an Easter celebration; although a week earlier than that festival. The chancel was tastefully decorated with plants and flowers. The Holy Supper was also then held. Both evening services were evangelistic, and each time several strangers were present. On the 7th there was a most enjoyable supper and social at the house of Mr. and Mrs. DeMaine, at which twenty-eight persons were present. There were held also three doctrinal classes, two ladies' meetings, a men s meeting, and two children's services. I called twice on Dr. W. A. Hanlin, and his many friends throughout the Church will be delighted to hear that he is recovering from his long and serious illness.

     April 19th and 20th I was with our General Church family in CLEVELAND, Mr. and Mrs. William Parker and their two daughters. During the afternoon of the second day I had the pleasure of a call from the Rev. Mr. Hunter, the pastor of the Cleveland Society, and we passed an enjoyable hour talking over the life and work of the Church. Mr. Hunter is doing excellent work with the young people of his society. That evening there was a gathering at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Parker, at which three persons, besides the family, were present. A short service was held and a sermon read.


Then followed conversation on the doctrines, which was continued until a late hour and much enjoyed by all.

     From here I went to ERIE, Pa., where, in the evening of April 21st a social was held at the house of Mr. and Mrs. George Evans. An interesting feature of the program was a question box, into which quite a large number of questions on doctrinal subjects had been placed by the members, which it took the pastor an hour to answer. But the members, far from considering it out of place to occupy so much of the time of a social in this way; were so much pleased that they decided to do this again at future social gatherings at which the pastor is present. On Easter Sunday, the 23d, services appropriate to this festival were held, and the Holy Supper administered. In the evening there was, as usual; a doctrinal class.

     The evening of April 24th was most pleasantly spent with seven members of the New Church at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Martin Grebenstein, at BUFFALO. The entire evening, from 8 to 11:30, was given to conversation on the doctrines, in the course of which many questions were asked and answered.

     On the following evening, April 25th, an address on Church Extension Work, given before the members of the Olivet Church, Toronto, Ont., brought the work of this tour to a close.
     F. E. WAELCHLI.


     UNITED STATES. The Rev. George S. Wheeler, pastor of the Society in Providence, R. I., has been called to the pastorate of the Church of the New Jerusalem in Brockton, Mass., to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of the Rev. Paul Sperry.

     The New Church Society in Detroit, Mich, on March 26th, dedicated their new house of worship. The building is said to be a very beautiful structure. It is described as a "cathedral in miniature." The Rev. Julian K. Smyth preached the dedicatory sermon and officiated at the dedication exercises. As part of the service the Rev. F. A. Gustafson was installed as pastor of the Society, Mr. Smyth presenting him the stole of office.


     The dedication of this Church "was a great event in the history of the Detroit Society and of much significance to every member of the New Church in Michigan. The work of the New Church in Michigan has received an impetus which cannot fail to carry it on to the realization of greater achievements than have been dreamed possible."

     In the MESSENGER for May 3, 1916, we notice an account of the golden wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Randall, of Boston. A celebration of the occasion was given to them by the Boston Society. An interesting feature of the event was that it took place in the same Church building where they were married, fifty years before. The Society presented them with a purse of $250 in gold as a more ultimate expression of congratulation. Mr. Randall, with much feeling, spoke of his joy and that of his wife in their long association with the Boston church friends, and told how much they were touched by the welcome and the gift of the evening.

     We have already noted in these columns that the General Convention for the year 1916 will be held in Chicago, Ill. In the MESSENGER for May 3d, we have the following announcement as to the Convention of 1917: "Whereas, the first meeting of the General Convention was held in the city of Philadelphia from May 15th-17th, 1817, and it stems fitting that the centennial meeting of the Convention should be held in the same city where the organization first met, therefore, Resolved, That the Pennsylvania Association hereby extends to the General Convention a cordial invitation to hold its 1917 session in the house of worship of the First New Jerusalem Society of Philadelphia, the opening meeting to be held Saturday, May 14th, 1917, or on such other date as the officers of Convention may deem advisable."

     ICELAND. From the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY for April 8, we learn that a little reading circle exists in the city of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland. Danish and Swedish translations of Swedenborg's Writings are read at the meetings, which are held at the home of Mrs. Valborg Einarson, the daughter of Mr. A. Helleman, who, in 1877 and 1878, was the leader of the New Church society in Copenhagen. The Heavenly Doctrine was first introduced into Iceland by Professor Jon Hjaltalin, principal of the University of Reykjavik.


He was a warm friend of the late Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson, and translated the DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM into the Icelandic. The population of Iceland is intensely Lutheran and conservative, and the progress of the New Church has been exceedingly slow in the island.

     EAST INDIA. From the First Annual Report of the Hindu Swedenborg Society we quote the following items of interest:

     "A book depot: containing the writings of Swedenborg and other collateral works of the New Church is maintained by our Society. The Swedenborg Society of London made to us a munificent grant of its publications worth ?100. In their letter of 13th June, 1914, they write: 'The Council unanimously resolved to make a grant to your Society of one hundred pounds worth of its publications, Hindi, Japanese, Arabic, and English translations being available. If you can sell them, the proceeds will go to the funds of your Society. In addition to these, the New Church Press of London sent us their publications worth Rs. 215 to be sold by us or to be returned in case of non-sale.

     "From these works we have been able to sell five copies of Divine Love and Wisdom, eight copies of Heaven and Hell, two of Divine Providence, three of The Evening and the Morning; three of The Wreath and the Ring, two of The Nature of Spirit, two of The Compendium, two of The Sexes Here and Hereafter, and other works.

     "We have been able to attach a small library to our Society, wherein some books were placed from those granted by the Swedenborg Society of London, while others were presented by Mr. Saklatwalla, Rev. Gyllenhaal, and Mr. M. R. Bhatt. Some of the members and other gentlemen have made good use of the Library, the number of books issued during the year 1915 being fifty-eight, as against thirty-four during 1914."

     As to our late Hindi contemporary, THE HEART OF INDIA, the Report mentions that it "was kindly reviewed in the leading New Church journals in England and America, and brought to us sympathetic letters with donations from Mr. Carswell, of Toronto; Mr. Stygen, of Washington, United States; and Mr. Richard Morse, of Sydney, Australia."



NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY              1916


     JUNE, 1916.

     The Bryn Athyn Society extends a cordial invitation to attend the meetings of the Ninth; General Assembly of The General Church of the New Jerusalem, to be held at Bryn Athyn, Pa., June fifteenth to twentieth, nineteen hundred and sixteen.

     Kindly notify Miss Olive Bostock, Bryn Athyn, Pa., so that provision may be made for your entertainment.


Annual Meetings and General Assembly.

Monday, June 12th,
     3 p. m. Annual meeting Theta Alpha.
     3 p. m. Annual meeting Sons of the Academy.
     8 p. m. Annual meeting Alumni Association.

Tuesday, June 13th,
     10:30 a. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. Annual Meeting Theta Alpha.
     3 p. m. Annual Meeting Sons of the Academy.
     8 p. m. Banquet Theta Alpha.
     8 p. m. Open meeting Sons of the Academy.

Wednesday, June 14th, 10 a. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. Joint Council.
     8 p. m. Public Session Council of Clergy.
          Annual address Rev. C. E. Doering.

Thursday, June 15th,
     10 a. m. Assembly. Address, Bishop N. D. Pendleton.
     3 p. m. Assembly.
     8 p. m. Dramatic entertainment.

Friday June 16th,
     10 a. m. Assembly. Address, Rev. W. B. Caldwell.
     3 p. m. Assembly.
     8 p. m. Assembly Ball.

Saturday June 17th,
     10 a. m. Assembly. Address, Rev. F. E. Waelchli.
     3 p. m. Corporation of the General Church.
     8 p. m. Assembly. Address, Rev. H. Synnestvedt.

Sunday, June 18th,
     11 a. m. Divine Worship.
     4 p. m. Sacred Concert.
     8 p. m. Lecture, Mr. Raymond Pitcairn.

Monday, June 19th,
     10 a. m. Holy Supper.
     5 p. m. Pageant.
     7 p.m. Banquet.

Tuesday, June 20th,
     10 a. m. Council of the Clergy.
     3 p. m. Teachers' Institute.
     8 p. m. Teachers' Institute.



DIVINE HUMAN       Rev. C. TH. ODHNER       1916

Vol. XXXVI      JULY, 1916           No. 7
     A STUDY

     "The Supreme of Divine Truth is the Lord's Divine Human, and therefore the supreme among the doctrinal things of the Church is this, that the Human of the Lord is Divine." (A. 4687.)

     Being thus the supreme, the doctrine concerning the Divine Human is also the most transcendant, the most difficult for finite minds to grasp. "The Divine states which the Lord had when He made the Human in Himself Divine, do not fall into any human apprehension, and not even into any angelic one." (A. 4237) And most especially difficult to men of the Christian Church is the apprehension of the truth that the Human of the Lord is Divine, altogether and absolutely Divine, for "they think naturally and sensually about the Human of the Lord, and hence in the idea of their thought they set the Divine of the Lord above His Human and thus completely separate the Divine and the Human of the Lord." (E. 735)

     While the men of the Lord's New Church have acknowledged as the very palladium of their faith the fundamental truth that the Human of the Lord is Divine, yet even they are in constant danger of infestation in regard to this truth, for they live in the midst of the Christian world and are surrounded by "the spheres in the spiritual world that flow forth and propagate themselves from the Christendom of today. One of these spheres is the one respecting the Lord; this breathes and pours itself forth from the southern quarter, where the learned of the clergy and the erudite of the laity reside. Wherever this sphere goes, it secretly insinuates itself into the ideas, and with many takes away faith in the Divinity of the Lord's Human, with many weakens it, with many makes it seem foolish; and this because it brings in with it the faith in three gods, and thus produces confusion." (T. 619.)


     The theological origin of this confusion is the ancient Nicaan doctrine, which not only divides the Godhead into three persons, but also "teaches that there are two essences in the Lord: the Divine Essence and the Human," and that these two are One in Him: "'One, not by conversion of the Divine Essence into the Human, but by a taking of the Human Essence into the Divine; one altogether, not by confusion of essence, but by unity of Person.'" (E. 1104:2.)

     And the revelator of the Heavenly Doctrine continues, speaking directly to the readers of the Writings:

     "Listen, my Reader! When you read these things you may think that you have never in thought separated the Divine of the Lord from His Human, nor therefore the Human from the Divine; but, I pray, examine your thought, when you have directed it to the Lord, and see whether you have ever thought that the Divine of the Lord is in His Human as the soul in the body; or whether you have not thought, instead,-nay, if you please, whether you are not even now thinking,-of His Human separately, and of His Divine separately?" (E. 1104:4.)

     Is there anything in these searching questions to be taken to heart by the men of the New Church! To my mind these questions are most especially directed to us, and the need of self-examination is evident from the century-long disputes and controversies in the New Church itself on this very subject.

     In the preface to the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION We read: "And afterwards in His Human He united the Divine Truth to the Divine Good, or the Divine Wisdom to the Divine Love, and thus He returned into His Divine in which He was from eternity, together with and in the glorified Human," (T. C. R. 3),-a statement which we find also in the BRIEF EXPOSITION 117; A. C. 2288, 3736, and other places. In reading these and similar statements, has not the thought occurred at times that the Lord, when ascending into heaven, took with Him into His Divine a new substance or essence, or something which He had not before,-something human, additional and secondary,-Divine, indeed, but not quite as Divine as the Divine Itself?


     And yet the very first idea of God is that He is Infinite and Eternal and Unchangeable; that to Him nothing can be added and from Him nothing can be taken away. "Such as God was before creation, such He is after it; and such as He was from eternity, such He is to eternity." (CANONS. Holy Spirit II:1.) From eternity to eternity He is the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, and no ultimate lower than the Last can possibly be added unto Him. This fact is a fundamental and incontrovertible truth which mush never be lost sight of in any consideration of the doctrine concerning the Divine Human. No interpretation of the doctrine call be true that in any way runs contrary to this axiomatic principle.

     The purpose of the present study has been to collect all the leading teachings of the Heavenly Doctrines in respect to the process of the Glorification and the nature of the Glorified Human, and to arrange them according to their own evidence. From the consensus of these teachings it will be seen that the Incarnation, and the Glorification of the Human, produced no change whatsoever in the Divine; but did produce a fundamental change in the relation of the Divine to man. And two very simple but essential truths stand forth from these teachings: I. That the Human of the Lord is altogether Divine and Infinite; and II. That the Word of God is the Divine Human of the Lord in relation to angels and men.




     1. That the Glorification of the Human of the Lord, like the regeneration of man, was effected by means of two processes first, an ascending process, by means of which He made His human the Divine Truth itself; and, second, a descending process, by means of which He made this Divine Truth the Divine Good itself.

     A. "The glorification of the Human of the Lord is the pattern of the regeneration of man." (A. 5688.) And "the regeneration of man is the image of the glorification of the Lord." (A. 7193.) "As the Lord glorified His Human, so He regenerates man." (A. 10047.) "The process of regeneration can fall into man's idea, but not so well the glorification of the Lord." (A. 4353.) "The glorification transcends the human understanding, but may be explained by its image, the regeneration of man." (A. 10021.)

     B. "'And behold, the angels of God ascending and descending.' (Gen. 28:13.) This signifies infinite and eternal communication and consequent conjunction, and that from what is lowest there is as it were an ascent, and afterwards, when the order is inverted, a descent. . . . Thus that by those truths which were the truths of man's infancy and childhood, the angels of God had ascended as by a ladder from earth to heaven; but afterwards, by the truths of his adult age, the angels of God descended as by a ladder from heaven to earth." (A. 3701)

     "The natural of man, on the one hand communicates with the sensuals of the body, and on the other hand with the rationals of the rational mind; by means of these intermediates there takes place as: it were an ascent from the sensual's which are of the body and are open to the world, to the rationals which are of the rational mind and are open to heaven; thus also a descent from heaven to the world." (A. 4009.)

     "When the Lord was in the world, He first made His human Divine Truth, which is the same as the Divine Law; and afterwards He completely glorified His human, and made it Divine Good." (A. 6864, 4577, 8127, 8724.)

     "From the Good, which is of Jehovah, He united the Divine Essence to the Human Essence; and from the Truth He united the Human Essence to the Divine." (A. 2025.)


     "The externals are opened by the things of the world, and the internals by the things of heaven." (A. 9279.)

     "Intellectual things are opened by means of truths, and voluntary things by means of goods." (A. 9279.)

     2. That in the ascending process of regeneration the exteriors and afterwards the interiors of the mind are successively subjected and opened to heaven by means of truths, and by temptations according to the truths with men. Thus also the Lord, by means of Divine Truths and consequent temptations, rendered all things of His mind and body correspondent with the Divine Soul and open to it.

     A. "After birth the sensuous mind is first opened; then the natural mind: then, as he studies intelligence, the rational mind; and, as he studies wisdom, the spiritual mind." (E. 1056.)

     "These regions of the mind are successively opened; the ultimate region from infancy to childhood, by means of knowledges; the second region from childhood to adolescence, by means of thoughts from knowledges; and the highest region from adolescence to manhood, by perceptions of truth." (T. 42)

     "From childhood to adolescence the communication to the interior natural is opened. From adolescence to young manhood the communication between the natural and the rational is opened; and in proportion as he then imbues goods through truths, the Rational is opened." (A. 5126.)

     "The three degrees can he successively opened, and as they are opened, the man is in the Lord, and the Lord in him." (W. 236.)

     "The internal man is opened and given to man through temptations." (A. 10685, 8367.)

     "In prayer there is an opening of the man's interiors towards God." (A. 2535)

     "The ascription of all things to the Lord opens the interiors of man towards heaven." (A. 10225)

     B. "With the Lord the Internal was Jehovah, to which His human was united after He, by temptation-combats, had purified the maternal." (A. 1793.)


     "With the Lord alone there was an infinitely perfect correspondence of all things of the body with the Divine; hence there was a union of bodily things with Divine Celestial ones, and of sensuous things with Divine Spiritual ones." (A. 1414.)

     "With Him the interiors were celestial thins which adapted the vessels for the reception of cognitions; so that the cognitions might afterwards become vessels to receive the Divine." (A. 1460.)

     "What was born of Mary the Lord expelled. Thence He assumed a human corresponding to the Divine; and thus He united the Divine, which means that the Divine took to itself the Human." (ATH. CR. 150.)

     "When the maternal human was expelled then succeeded those things which are concordant with the Divine. The Lord, whose soul was the Divine itself, made His body correspondent with the Divine Itself in Him." (ATH. CR. 192.)

     3. That in the descending process of regeneration a new and angelic human is actually born in man by the influx of heavenly good from the Lord through the soul into the opened truth-vessels of the natural mind. With the Lord the Divine Human was actually derived and born by the descent of the Divine Good, which was the Divine Soul, into all things of the natural human.

     A. "When mention is made in the Word of advancement in age, and of old age, the angels who are with man can have no other idea than of the state of life in which the persons are, and in which men are while passing through their ages even to the last; namely, that they thus successively put off what is human and put on what is heavenly." (A. 3016.)

     "For as the Lord made His human Divine from Divine Love, so by heavenly love a man becomes an angel after death." (A. 4735.)

     "When the internal has been opened by regeneration, good from the Lord inflows through it." (A. 9184.)

     "Both good and truth are called the soul, but still good is principally the soul." (A. 3299.)

     "The good which is charity enters through the soul; truth through the hearing," etc. (A. 7756.)

     "Unless, as to the spiritual life, man is conceived anew from the Lord, born anew, and educated anew, that is, created anew, he is condemned." (A. 8552)


     "Man is thus made new not only in this that a new will is given him, and a new understanding, but also a new body for his spirit." (D. WIS. IV. 2.)

     "The soul clothes itself with the body, and thus receives to itself that which is called the human." (ATH. CR. 30.)

     "For the inmost of life of every man, which is called the soul, is from the father, and this continually wills to make the external, which is from the mother, an image of itself." (A. 6716; T. 8.)

     "The life which inflows with man from the Lord is from His Divine Love. This Love, or the life thence derived, inflows and applies itself to the vessels which are in man's rational, and to those which are in his natural. In consequence of the hereditary evil into which man is born, and of the actual evils which he acquires, these vessels are in a contrary position within him relatively to the inflowing life; yet in so far as the life which flows in can dispose the vessels to receive it, it does so dispose them. These vessels in the rational man, and in the natural, are what are called truths, but in themselves they are merely perceptions of the variations of form of these vessels, and of the changes of state according to which in diverse ways these variations come forth, being effected in the most subtle substances by methods inexpressible, (n. 2487). Good itself, which has life from the Lord, or which is life, is that which flows in and disposes.

     "When therefore these vessels, which are to be varied as to form, are as before said in a contrary position and direction in respect to the life, it is evident that they must be reduced to a position in accordance with the life, or into compliance with it. This cannot possibly be effected so long as the man is in that state into which he is born, and to which he has reduced himself; for the vessels are not obedient, being obstinately resistant, and have hardened themselves against the heavenly order, according to which the life acts; for the good which moves them, and with which they comply, is of the love of self and of the world; which good, from the gross heat that is within it, causes them to be of such a quality; and therefore, before they can be rendered compliant and fit to receive anything of the life of the Lord's Love, they must be softened.


This softening is effected by no other means than temptations; for temptations remove all that is of the love of self and of contempt for others, in comparison with self, consequently all that is of self-glory, and also of hatred and revenge on this account. When therefore the vessels have been somewhat tempered, and subdued by temptations, they begin to become yielding to, and compliant with, the life of the Lord's Love, which continually flows in with man.

     "Hence then it is that good begins to be conjoined with truth; first in the rational man, and afterwards in the natural; for, as before said, truths are nothing else than perceptions of the variations of form according to states that are continually being changed; and these perceptions are from the life which flows in. This is the reason why man is regenerated, that: is, made new by temptations; or, what is the same, by spiritual combats, and that he is afterwards gifted with another nature; being made mild, humble, simple, and contrite in heart. From these considerations it may now be seen what use temptations promote, namely, that good from the Lord may not only flow in, but may also dispose the vessels to obedience, and thus conjoin itself with them.

     "But as regards the Lord, He by the most grievous temptation combats reduced all things in Himself into Divine order, in so much that there remained nothing at all of the human which He had derived from the mother. So that He was not made new, as are other men, but altogether Divine. For the man who is made new by regeneration still retains in himself an inclination to evil, and even evil itself; but is withheld from evil by an influx of the life of the Lord's Love, and this with a force exceeding great; whereas the Lord utterly cast out all the evil that was hereditary to Him from the mother, and made Himself Divine, even as to the vessels, that is, as to the truths.
This is that which in the Word is called 'Glorification.'" (A. 3318)

     B. "The Divine Good with the Lord made His soul, and the Divine Truth His body." (CANONS. Red. IV:6.)

     "The derivations of the Divine Good into which the Lord was born are what came forth in His human when He made it Divine, and by these He glorified it." (A. 4644)


     "The Lord's Divine Rational was born from the Divine Itself, and the Divine Natural from the Divine Rational." (A. 3279)

     "The Divine Human of the Lord was not only conceived of Jehovah, but also born of Jehovah." (A. 2628.)

     "The Lord separated from Himself and put off that which was merely human, namely, what He had derived from the mother, until at last He was no longer her son, but the Son of God, both as to conception and as to birth." (A. 2649)

     "The Lord put off the human from the mother, which in itself was like the human of another man, and thus material: and He put on a Human from the Father, which in itself was like His Divine, and thus substantial; from which the Human also was made Divine." (D. LORD. 35)

     "He put off the human from the mother, and put on the Human from the Father, which is the Divine Human." (E. 205:6, 1108:2.)

     "As the soul of Christ is from His Divine Essence, it follows that His body is also." (INV. 15.)

     "He who had Jehovah Himself for a soul, could have no Human but a Divine one." (A 4727.)

     "The Father can be in no other Human than that which is from Himself, and thus in His own Divine Human." (ATH. CR. 118.)

     4. That with the regenerating man the beginning of the descent of the soul takes place in the rational, which is the only thing really human with man; and thence the lower degrees of the mind are made new by the soul. With the Lord the descending Divine Soul first made the human rational Divine, and thence it glorified all the lower degrees of the natural human mind and body.

     A. "The Human itself consists of the Rational, which is the same as the internal man,-and of the Natural, which is the same as the external man,-and also of the body." (A. 3737)

     "The Rational is the Human itself." (5 Mem. 1.)

     "The human begins in the inmost of the Rational." (A. 2106, 2625:4.)


     "The Rational is that in which the human begins, and thus the Rational is that from which and through which is the human." (A. 3704.)

     "For man's human is interior, namely, in his Rational; the good which man has above animals is the love of God and the neighbor; all human good is thence." (A. 3175.)

     "When man is being regenerated the new soul which he then receives is the end of good, which has its beginning in the Rational." (A. 3570.)

     "The internal natural man is first to be regenerated, and through this the external. But to regenerate the internal through the external is contrary to order." (T. 593.)

     "When man is being regenerated, he is regenerated as to the Rational before he is regenerated as to the Natural." (A. 3855.)

     "The Rational is regenerated before the Natural, because it is nearer to the Divine." (A. 3493)

     B. "The human with every man begins in the inmost of his rational; so also the Human of the Lord. That which was above it was Jehovah Himself." (A. 2194.)

     "The Lord was unlike any other man in this that His interior man, as to celestial things or goods, was Divine, and from very birth was adjoined to the internal man. The internal man, together with this interior man, was Jehovah His Father." (A. 1707.)

     "In making all the human with Himself Divine, He first made the Rational itself Divine from its inmost." (A. 2194.)

     "After the expulsion from the Rational of the worldly and hereditary things, there was born the Lord's Divine Rational, which is represented by Isaac; and this not by an exterior way,-which is that of sensuous things, as was the former rational [Ishmael],-but by an internal way from the Divine Itself." (A. 2632.)

     "The Rational, in which the human begins, chastized and expelled all in the Rational that was merely human, or the maternal human." (A. 2767.)

     "The Lord completely exterminated His first Rational, for the merely human and the Divine cannot be together." (A. 2657.)


     "All things, both in the Rational and in the Natural, were by Him made Divine." (A. 3153.)

     "The Lord from eternity, or Jehovah, was Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and He then had the Divine Celestial and the Divine Spiritual, but not the Divine Natural before He assumed the Human; and because the Rational is predicated solely of the Celestial and Spiritual natural, therefore Jehovah, the Lord, also put: on the Divine Rational. Before the assumption of the Human He had a Divine Rational, but by influx into the angelic heaven and when He manifested Himself in the world by means of an angel whom He filled with His Divinity: for the purely Divine Essence, which, as was said, was the purely Divine Celestial and Divine Spiritual Essence, transcends the rational, both angelic and human, but it was given by influx." (NINE QUESTIONS, IV.)

     5. That as the Lord by temptation-combats overcame and expelled all the evils and infirmities inherited from the mother, so the Divine Soul could gradually descend into and take possession of all degrees of the natural human. And thus the Lord successively put off the finite nature of the human, and put on instead the Divine and Infinite Human.

     A. That the Lord by temptation-combats overcame and entirely expelled the hereditary or the human from the mother, see A. 2159, 2288, 2574, 3048, 4641, 9670, 10057.

     "Jehovah, who is the Lord as to the Divine Essence, descended and assumed a human which by conception was Divine and by birth from a virgin was such as that of another man. But this He expelled; and by Divine means made the human so born, Divine." (A. 3061.)

     "With the regenerate, hereditary evil is not exterminated.... But the Lord completely removed from Himself, expelled and cast out all the hereditary evil from the mother I and He had no hereditary evil from the Father." (A. 4564)

     "All the human which He took on from the mother He rejected from Himself by temptation and lastly by death." (E. 899.)

     "By His death the Lord rejected all the human which was from the mother." (ATH. CR. 106.)


     B. "To be glorified signifies to put off the human and to put on the Divine. To be glorified means to put on the Divine." (A. 2112.)

     "As He put off this [the maternal] human, He put off the appearances also, and put on the Infinite and Eternal Divine Itself." (A. 3405)

     "With man the prior forms are not destroyed [by regeneration], but only removed; but with the Lord the prior forms, which were from the maternal, were completely destroyed and extirpated, and Divine forms were received in their place. For the Divine love does not agree with any but a Divine form; all other forms it absolutely casts out. Hence it is that the Lord when glorified was no longer the son of Mary." (A. 6872.)

     "The Father can be in no other human than that which is from Himself, and thus in His own Divine Human." (ATH. CR. 118.)

     "When the Lord was in the world, His Divine Essence which in itself is Infinite and Life itself, rejected the finite nature and its life from the mother, and thus made Divine His Human, conceived and born in the world." (CONT. L. J. 75.)

     "That the Lord from eternity, or Jehovah, superinduced this third degree [the Divine Natural] by the assumption of a Human in the world, was for the reason that He could not enter into it except by a nature similar to human nature, thus not except by conception from His own Divine and by birth from a virgin. For thus He could put off a nature which in itself is dead and yet was a receptacle of the Divine, and put on the Divine." (D. L. W. 234)

     "The maternal human was the Infirm which adheres to nature." (ATH. CR. 192.)

     "In the Lord all these degrees [the Divine Celestial, Divine Spiritual, and Divine Natural] are infinite; in angel or man they are finite." (W. 235)

     "The Lord came into the world and assumed the Human, in order to put Himself into the power to subjugate the hells, and to reduce to order all things as well in the heavens as in the hells. This Human He superinduced upon the former Human. The Human which He superinduced in the world was as the human of a man in the world; each Human, however, is Divine, and hence is infinitely transcending the finite human things of angels and of men." (W. 321.)


     6. That the Human Essence was thus glorified not only in general but in every particular, so that the very organics or corporeal vessels, down to the flesh and bones, were rendered Divine and Infinite, being no longer vessels receptive of Life, but the Divine Life itself.

     "The Lord utterly cast out all the evil that was hereditary to Him from the mother, and made Himself Divine, even as to the vessels, that is, as to the truths. This is that which in the Word is called 'Glorification.'" (A. 3318.)

     "The exteriors of the: natural are what are properly called the corporeal things, or the sensuals of both kinds together with the recipient organs, for these together constitute what are called the body. The Lord made the very corporeal in Himself Divine, both its sensuals and their recipient organs; and He therefore rose again from the sepulcher with His body." (A. 5078)

     "The Lord glorified His very body, even to its ultimates which are the bones and flesh." (A. 10125.)

     "His Divine in ultimates was His Human, which He made Divine even to the flesh and bones, which are the ultimates." (E. 66:3, 41, 513:19, 619:15)

     "The Lord disclosed to the disciples that He had made Divine the whole of His Human even to its natural and sensual, which is signified by the hands and feet, and by the flesh and bones which they saw and felt." (E. 619:15.)

     "Ultimates are meant by 'flesh and bones,' and even these were made Divine by the Lord when He was in the world. This was the accessory; and this is now to God, the Divine Human." (E. 1112.)

     "When the Lord had made His whole human Divine, His flesh was nothing but Divine Good, and His blood nothing but Divine Truth." (A. 5576:5.)

     "After the Lord had expelled hereditary evil, and thus purified the organic, of the Human Essence, these also received Life; so that the Lord, as He was Life as to the internal man, so also became Life as to the external man." (A. 1603.)


     "The merely human is an organ of life, and thus has not life itself. The Lord's Human, when made Divine, was no longer an organ of life, or a recipient of life, but was Life itself, such as is that of Jehovah Himself." (A. 2658.)

     7. That the Lord, therefore,-differently from any finite man-arose after death with His whole body fully glorified, and left nothing of His Human in the sepulcher.

     "With the Lord all is Jehovah, even the body itself, and therefore He alone arose again into heaven with the body also." (A. 1729.)

     "His whole body was made Divine, as may be evident from the fact that He alone arose again from the dead as to the body." (A. 2083.)

     "No man rises again with the body with which he was encompassed here, but the Lord alone did so, because He made His body Divine while He was here." (A. 5078:6)

     "The Lord left nothing of His Human in the sepulcher." (A. 10044; E. 581:12.)

     "The soul of the Lord, being from Jehovah, was infinite, and was nothing else than the Divine Good of the Divine Love, and consequently after glorification His Human was not like the human of a man. For this reason the Lord took up into heaven all His Human glorified, that is, made Divine from Himself, and left nothing of it in the sepulchre, otherwise than is the case with man." (A. 10125.)

     "That the Lord arose with the whole body which He had in the world, differently from other men." (A. 10252, 10738, 10825-26; H. 316; L. 35; W. 221; T. 109.)

     "After the resurrection the Lord appeared as to the body which He had in the world, but angels appear as to the body which spirits have, which are in the human form, but not as the Lord's." (DE DOM. 14.)

     "That the Lord put off all the maternal in the sepulcher, and rising therefrom glorified Himself; for in the sepulcher all such was to be dissipated." (ATH. CR. 161.) "That the Lord in the sepulcher, and thus by death, rejected all the human from the mother and dissipated it,-(from which He underwent temptations and the passion of the cross, and whereas this could not be conjoined with the Divine Itself),-and that so He assumed the Human from the Father, thus that the Lord, rightly and clearly glorified, arose with His Human." (ATH. CR. 162.)


     "The Lord, from the Divine in Himself, expelled all the evil which was from the mother; wherefore He arose with His whole body. He retained the infirm while He was in the world, because in no other way could He be tempted, and least of all on the cross: there the whole maternal was expelled." (ATH. CR. 192.)

     "That part of the body, which with those who are born of human parents is rejected and putrefies, was with Him glorified and made Divine from the Divine in Himself; and He arose with this, leaving nothing in the sepulcher, altogether otherwise than, what takes place with every man." (J. POST. 87.)

     "He was not born a man like any other man, since He was not born from a human Father, but from the Father Jehovah, and by a virgin, and that thus He was unlike any other man; for a man's soul from a human father is a recipient of life, but the Lord's soul from the Father Jehovah is Life itself, which gives life to all; and the difference is as between the human and the Divine, and the finite and the Infinite or the create and the uncreate; and because He was such as to His soul, it could not be otherwise than that His body should become like His soul, after He had rejected that of the body which He had taken from the mother; and that therefore He arose as to His whole body, nor did He leave anything of it in the sepulchre, as is the case with every other man, who rises only as to his spirit, and never as to his material body. And further, the Divine Itself, as it is in Itself, which is Infinite, could not have done otherwise than to REJECT THE FINITE which was from the another, and PUT ON THE INFINITE from the Father, thus the Divine." (J. POST. 129.)

     "That in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead (as Paul says), is evident also from the words of the Lord Himself, that all things of the Father are His, and that the Holy Spirit speaks from Him, and not of itself; and finally, that when He arose He took from the sepulcher His whole human body, both the flesh and the bones, unlike any other man." (T. 170.)


     "That the Lord made the Natural Man in Himself Divine, in order that He might be the First and the Last; and that He might: thus enter with men even into their natural man, and might teach and lead it from the Word. For He arose with His whole natural or external man, and did not leave anything of it in the sepulchre; on which account He said that He had bones and flesh, which spirits have not; and hence it is that He ate and drank with His disciples of natural food, and in their sight. That He was Divine, He showed by passing through doors, and by becoming invisible, which never could have been done unless His Natural Man itself also had been made Divine with Him." (INV. 56.)

     Note.-He "left nothing in the sepulchre." This oft-repeated teaching by itself disposes of the notion that His material body was dissolved into an impalpable powder or some kind of gas,-for such would have remained, at least for some moments of time, "in the sepulcher." But the teaching that He "left nothing in the sepulchre" means that He left nothing material, finite, or unglorified, either there or anywhere else in the material universe.

     8. That the Lord, therefore, arose from the sepulchre not in a material body, but in a Divine Substantial Body, consisting of the Infinite Substance itself.

     "From this it follows that the Lord put off the human from the mother, which in itself was like the human of another man, and thus material, and put on the Human from the Father, which in itself was like His Divine, and thus substantial, from which the Human also was made Divine.... Since His fore came in to the disciples while the doors were shut, and after He had been seen He became invisible. . . . Since the Lord, with the Divine and Human united, in one, ascended into heaven, and sat at the right hand of God, by which is signified Divine Omnipotence, it follows that His Human substance or essence is as His Divine." (D. LORD. 35.)

     "Since He was such [i. e., Infinite] as to His soul, it could not be otherwise than that His body should become like His soul. . . . The Divine Itself, as it is in Itself, which is Infinite, could not have done otherwise than to reject the finite which was from the mother, and put on the Infinite from the Father, thus the Divine." (J. POST. 129.)


     "From this is evident what was the quality of the body, that is, the quality of the Human, in the Lord, namely, that it was as the Divine Itself." (A. 10823.)

     "Whatever is in the Lord is Infinite, because it is Divine." (A. 6482.)

     "With the Lord all is Infinite." (A. 1590)

     "In Jehovah or the Lord there is nothing except what is Infinite." (A. 2803.)

     "In the Lord and in His Divine Human everything is Infinite." (A. 4715.)

     "Communication and consequently conjunction cannot be predicated of the Lords Divine and Divine Human, unless at the same time they are called infinite and eternal; for in the Lord everything is infinite and eternal: infinite in relation to esse and eternal in relation to existere." (A. 3701.)

     9. That by the Resurrection-body of the Lord not being a material body is meant that it no longer consisted of the angular forms or saline matters arising from the soil of the earth, and thence existing in the blood and tissue of the body.

     "Ultimates are each and all things of the mineral kingdom, which are matters of various kinds." (W. 65, 158.)

     "The (spiritual) atmospheres at last became so compressed and inert, that they became substances at rest and, in the natural world, fixed, such as are in the earths and are called matters." (W. 302.)

     "The first forms of the mineral kingdom are the substances and matters from which are the earths, in their leasts." (W. 313.)

     "That the blood nourishes itself from the air, etc. is evident from the immense abundance of salts of various kinds, which are in the waters from the earth." (W. 426.)

     "The very forms of the members, organs, and viscera, are fixed through substances and matters such as are in the earths, and from the earths in the air and the ether. This is effected by the blood." (W. 370)


     That by "matter" is meant, in a most definite sense, the inert, dead, and measurable chemicals of the mineral kingdom, which afford the most ultimate basis of all things through their service of fixation, see W. 315, 3401 344; E. 1211, 1218; D. WIS. VIII.

     10. That since nothing of the Lord's material body was left in the sepulcher, (or anywhere else), but the whole of His body arose glorified,-that is Divine and Infinite,-it follows that the most ultimate or angular forms, like all the higher natural and spiritual forms, were opened and resolved into the Infinite by the descent of the Infinite Soul into the ultimates of the body.


     A. Concerning the opening of all things of the Lord's human mind and body by truth acting from without, and good acting from within, see paragraph 2.

     B. That with the Lord the very organics and vessels of the body were rendered Divine, Infinite, and Life itself, see A. 3318, 5078, 1603, 2658.

     C. That the prior forms, which were from the maternal, were put off, and Divine forms received in their place, see A. 6872.

     D. That finite nature was rejected and infinite nature assumed, see CONT. L. J. 75; W. 234, 235; J. POST. 129.

     E. That the part of the body which with men putrefies in the grave, was with Lord glorified and made Divine, see J. POST. 87.


     That, with the regenerate there is what is open even from the Lord. A. 99, 8456, 9707.

     That intellectual things are opened by the things that relate to truth, and voluntary things by those which relate to good, A. 9279; H. 33.

     That when the interiors are opened, love and wisdom inflow into the interiors of the mind, and the heat and light of heaven into the interiors of the body, W. 138.

     That the diaphanous forms of the mind, which are the receptacles of love and wisdom with man, "are not opened, except when spiritual heat conjoins itself with spiritual light; by such conjunction these diaphanous forms are opened according to degrees." W. 245.


     That love truly conjugial opens the interiors of the mind, as it opens the interiors of the senses, and with these, the organics of the whole body. C. L. 211.


     As spiritual heat thus opens the interiors of man's mind and body, in a finite, i. e., limited measure, so the descent of Divine and Infinite heat,-the Divine Good of the Divine Love, which was the Soul of the Lord,-in an infinite measure opened all things, all degrees, and all forms of His natural mind and body.

     "All forms" include the angular or most ultimate form, and such angular forms existed in His bones, in the globules of His blood, and throughout the tissues of His body.

     If these angular forms had been separated from the body, as is done by the putrefaction of our material body in the grave, it would mean that all these forms would have been "left in the sepulcher,"-but nothing was left.

     It follows therefore that these angular forms also were opened up by the Infinite Divine and resolved into the Infinite form and substance.

     This return of the most finite form into the Infinite is no more impossible to the Divine operation, than was the process of finiting the Infinite Substance in the original work of Creation.

     "This is in agreement with the wisdom of the ancients, according to which each thing and all things are divisible to infinity." (T. 33.)

     "There is no end to science, still less to intelligence, and least of all to wisdom; for there is infinity and eternity in the fullness of these things from the Infinite and Eternal from Whom they are; hence this philosophical axiom of the ancients, that everything is divisible to the infinite; to which it should be added that it is likewise multiplicable." (C. L. 185.)

     "Know, then, that everything when divided is more and more manifold, and not more and more simple; because what is divided and again divided, approaches closer and closer to the infinite, in which all things are infinitely. (C. L. 329.)

     11. The Process of Glorification illustrated by Swedenborg's Doctrine of Forms.

     The following application of Swedenborg's Doctrine of Forms to the process of the Glorification of the Human Essence of the Lord is offered only as a tentative but suggestive illustration of the manner in which the Divine and Infinite Soul could open and render Infinite each successive degree of form in the finite human of the Lord's mind and body.


     As is known, Swedenborg, in his great philosophical Doctrine of Forms, describes seven discrete degrees of form:

     1. The Divine Form.

     2. The Spiritual Form.

     3. The Celestial or Astronomical Form.

     4. The Vortical Form.

     5. The Spiral Form.

     6. The Spherical or Circular Form.

     7. The Angular Form.

     These degrees of form Swedenborg correlated with the following degrees of the human in God and man:

     The Divine Form-the Nexus, Logos, or God-Man.

     The Spiritual Form-the human soul.

     The Celestial Form-the intellectual mind.

     The Vortical Form-the animus.

     The Spiral Form-the external sensories.

     The Spherical Form-the body and blood vessels.

     The Angular Form-the bones.

     He observes, moreover, that each lower degree of these forms is formed by the successive withdrawal of that which is perpetual, and continuous, or, in other words, of that which is eternal and infinite, and that thus forms become more and more finite, until the angular or most finite form is reached, where nothing is perpetual, continuous or infinite.

     Returning from this lowest form, he notes that the Circular form is a perpetual or continuous angle and thus the infinitely angular form; the Spiral a continuously and infinitely circular form; the Vortical a continuously and infinitely spiral form; the Celestial a continuously and infinitely vortical form; the Spiritual a continuously and infinitely celestial form; and the Divine a continuously and infinitely Spiritual form.

     Now, in the Glorification of all finite degrees of substances and forms within the human of the Lord, it is manifest that the Divine Soul in its descent opened each lower successive degree in its minutest parts, added the Divine or Infinite to it, and thus rendered each degree Divine and Infinite.

     Thus the finite Spiritual form,-which was that first finite plane with the Lord which corresponds to the "human internal" or the soul of finite man,-was the first to be infinitely opened; it was filled with the Infinite Divine, and became Infinitely Spiritual, which is the same as to say that it became the Divine Substance and Form itself, or the Logos, the Word.


     As this Infinitely Spiritual or Divine Substance and Form next descended into the plane of the Celestial form, the plane of the intellectual mind with the Lord, this plane also in its most minute substantials and forms was infinitely opened and filled with the Infinite Divine; from being finitely Celestial it became Infinitely Celestial and Infinitely Spiritual, which is the Same as to say that it became the Divine Substance and Form itself, or the Word.

     In its further descent into the plane of the Vortical form, the plane of the human animus, the finite vessels constituting this plane were similarly opened and filled with all that which was above, so that these vortical substances and forms also became Infinitely Vortical, that is to say Celestial, but now at the same time Infinitely Celestial and Infinitely Spiritual,-in other words, Divine Substance and Form, or the Word

     Everything above the purely material plane with the Lord had now become filled with the glory of the Divine, and it was the mere shell of the body and its sensual organics, that still remained finite and visible to the natural eye. And by the last temptations,-the agony in Gethsemane and the passion on the cross,-the Lord in this human essence so overcame its last resistance that it gave up the whole of its own life, and finally died.

     And then, in the sepulcher, the remaining finite forms,-the spiral forms of the external sensories, the spherical forms of the flesh and the blood-vessels, and the angular forms pertaining to the blood-globules and the bones,-were likewise opened in their minutest parts and thus rendered Divine and Infinite, until nothing finite remained in the tomb. The spiral forms had become infinitely spiral, the spherical forms infinitely spherical, and the angular forms infinitely angular, and since all the higher forms had been rendered one with, the Infinite Substance and Form itself, the lowest forms likewise were rendered similar to the higher and the highest, and thus on the third day the Lord arose from the sepulcher with the whole body fully glorified on every plane,-the Divine Esse and the Divine Existere, God and His Word on every plane.


     12. That in making His Human Essence Divine and Infinite the Lord did not reduce it to nothing, nor did He commingle it with the Divine, but made it the Divine subrtantial body and form of the Divine Itself.

     "To man the Infinite appears as not anything, because man is finite and thinks from what is finite." (W. 29.)

     "As there is no ratio between the Infinite and the finite, let everyone beware of thinking of the Infinite as nothing. The Infinite and the Eternal cannot be said of nothing." (D. WIS. XII:4:2)

     "The Infinite appears to man as nothing, because man is finite and thinks from what is finite; therefore, if the finiteness which adheres to his thought were taken away, he would perceive the residue as if it were not anything. But the truth is that God is infinitely all." (T. 29.)

     "It is said that the two natures were not commingled, but that the Divine took to itself the Human. Neither are soul and body commingled with any man, but with everyone the soul clothes itself with the body, and thus takes to itself that which is called the human." (ATH. CR. 300.) "And consequently there is not commixture, but union, like that of the soul and the body." (ATH. CR. 188.)

     "As the doctrine of faith which is called 'the Athanasian Creed' teaches, that He did not transmute His human nature from the mother into the Divine essence, nor commingle it with it; for the human nature cannot be transmuted into the Divine essence, nor can it be commingled with it." (D. Lord, 35.)

     Note.-"The human nature from the mother" was not transmuted into the Divine, but put off, when the Infinite Human from the Father descended into the finite human and thus was "born" in it.

     (To be continued.)




     "Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance." (Matthew 3:8.)

     The words form part of a proclamation of the advent of the Lord made by John the Baptist. His opening words, "Repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand," were an announcement that the Lord had come to re-establish His heavenly kingdom; upon earth, to raise up a church wherein He would be present; and men were exhorted to repent, that they might receive the Lord to remove their evil by repentance, that the Lord might be present with them, to impart the blessings of the spiritual life, and thus to establish and increase a new church in the world.

     This exhortation was addressed to the men who were to constitute the beginnings of the Christian Church; and it now comes anew to those who are to constitute the New Church of the Second Coming. "Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance." The general subject of this text in the letter is the Growth of the Church by means of repentance, in the internal sense the Growth of the Church by means of purification from evil. The signs of this growth are the fruits that man bears; after repentance,-the good works that he does after he has been purified of evil by the Lord in the life of regeneration. The Lord alone produces these fruits,-the good works that a man does, and the truths that he speaks, after he has shunned his evils as sins, after he has conquered in spiritual temptation. The Lord is then received by him, and imparts a new state of spiritual love and faith, from which proceed the goods of charity and the goods of piety as the fruits of repentance.

     In the measure that man is producing these fruits, in the measure that he receives the Lord in new states of spiritual life after repentance, in that measure he bears the spiritual fruits of increase in the regenerate life. The life of the church is growing in him, and the church itself grows in the world according to the number and quality of such men,-men who are bearing the fruits of repentance to the glory of God and the increase of His kingdom on earth and in heaven.


"Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit." (John 15:8.)

     The primary thing that is essential to the growth of the church is the presence of the Lord therein,-His presence in the Word, wherein He reveals Himself at His coming, and His presence with men in their understanding of the Word and life according to it. When the Lord is thus present with men, the Divine Love and Wisdom, Life Itself, the only Source of growth, is present and, operating in the minds of men, increasing the spiritual life that makes the internal of the church, and thence infilling and blessing the worship and works that constitute the external of the church. The Divine is then present in both the internal and the external of the church, present in fulness and power, to promote the growth and final establishment of the church as His dwelling-place in the world, for the salvation of men and the perfection of heaven. "He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing." (John 19:5.)

     The second thing essential to the growth of the church is that men prepare themselves to receive the Lord, to provide for His presence with them, which is done when the Lord's Word is known and believed, when it is understood, and when there is worship and life according to the Word. This is to "abide in Him, that His Word may abide in them," and bring forth the fruits of spiritual increase.

     Now this preparation on man's part involves not only reception of the Word in faith of understanding, and in doing the works of charity and piety, but it involves also the doing of the works of repentance, of self-examination and resistance to evils, that they may be removed from the thought and will, and that goods may enter in their place,-goods from the Lord, producing their fruits in outward act and word. Indeed, the works of repentance are the first duty of the man of the church, if he would prepare the way for the Lord's entrance to abide in him, if he would remove that in himself which cannot be a receptacle of the Lord's life. When a man repents, by averting himself from the evil acts, the evil thoughts and intentions, that become known to him in the light of the Word, then the Lord can enter to purify him, to remove the evil and impart the good.


This is a Divine work, performed only in the man who prepares himself by repentance. And so John the Baptist exhorted to this repentance, as the first means to the establishment of the church, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord; repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance."

     The first fruits of the Christian Church were to be the fruits of repentance. For the first words of our Lord's public preaching were of like import to those of John. We read that "after John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent ye, and, believe the Gospel." (Mark 1:14, 15.) It was necessary that men should first repent, turning from their evil ways and evil thoughts, before they could receive the gospel; nor it is otherwise at this day of the Second coming, when men must repent before they can receive the Heavenly Doctrine in faith and life. And so the first fruits of the New Church also are the fruits of repentance. The man of this church is to purify himself so far as he is able, that the Lord may enter to purify him thoroughly, removing evil and falsity from the vessels of the mind, to the end that the Divine Good and Truth in all their purity may abide in that man, cleansing him from the hidden origins of evil, and: producing in him the fruits of everlasting life. This, on man's part, and that on the Lord's part, are meant by the words of John following the text, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but He that cometh after me is mightier than I; He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit, and with fire; whose fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His floor, and gather His wheat into the garner; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." (Matt. 3:11, 12.)

     These words describe the purification performed by the Lord in the regeneration of man, by the operation of the Holy Spirit or the Divine Truth, and by the fire of the Divine Love, proceeding from the Lord and inflowing with man through the atmospheres of heaven.


Just as cleansing by water is superficial as compared with cleansing by wind and fire, so John's baptizing with water represented the washing or cleansing of the external of the natural man, producing the good works and fruits of man's voluntary repentance, while the thorough purging that was to follow represented the after-purification performed in man by the Lord Himself, the cleansing of the internal of the natural man, the removal of the origins of evil there, effected actually by the purifying breath or sphere of Divine Truth,-the Holy Spirit, the "wind that bloweth where it listeth," and by the searching fire of the Divine Love.

     All that man can do is to repent of the evils of the external natural, which alone are conscious to him,-to suffer his acts, words, thoughts and intentions to be rectified in the light of the truth of the Word, and by diligent effort, which is to suffer himself to be "baptized with water unto repentance." This doctrine is fully set forth in the Writings, as where we read, "That the internal cannot be purified of the desires of evil so long as evils in the external man are not removed, because these grow and obstruct." (P. 111.) "That evils in the external man cannot be removed by the Lord except with man's co-operation" (P. 114), and that when this is given, "The Lord then purifies man of the desires of evil in the internal man, and from evils themselves in the external." (P. 119.) And this is just the teaching involved in John's words, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but He that cometh after me shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit, and with fire."

     And then the simile is changed, and this same Divine purification of man in the regeneration is likened to the threshing of wheat by winnowing or fanning, which blows the chaff away from the grain, and represents how evils and falsities, like chaff in the mind, are dispersed by the Lord after man's repentance; while goods, like the precious grain, are preserved and stored up by Him as the residue and fruit after this purification, even by "Him whose fan is in His hand, who will thoroughly purge His floor, and gather His wheat into the garner, but burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." And a like thing is meant by the prophecy in Malachi, concerning the Lord's advent to raise up the church, "And who may abide the day of His coming? and who shall stand when He appeareth? for He is like a refiner's fire and like fuller's soap; and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver and He shall purify the sons of Levi and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness." (3:2, 3.)


And it was to prepare men for this Divine coming that John the Baptist, as the Lord's messenger, was sent before to exhort men to "bring forth fruits worthy of repentance."

     This truth of the text is now manifest, that the Lord's advent and presence with men to establish and increase His Church cannot take place until He has purified them. He cannot become spiritually present: in the individual man, to promote his growth in the regenerate life, to impart and increase the genuine good of love and charity, and the genuine truths of wisdom and intelligence, unless He first purify man of evils and falsities. These are obstructions to the Lord's presence, and the enemies of man's spiritual progress in the regenerate life, enemies to the growth of the church itself which is accomplished only by the regeneration of men. As the primary means of growth is the presence of the Lord, so the primary thing with men is to provide that chief receptacle of influx from the Lord, which is the good of love and charity, and this good is implanted and increased in the degree that evil loves are removed by repentance, in the degree that man brings forth the fruits of repentance.

     It is indeed an important truth that is here brought before us, that the growth of the church begins in man's repentance, that the Lord will be present, and prosper the church internally and externally, if men sincerely repent, removing that which prevents the Divine operation. The good that man does before repentance is not genuine good; it is from self, not from the Lord. The increase of such good with men is not a true growth of the church; it is a forced and artificial growth under the stimulus of self love. The Lord cannot be inwardly present in such spurious good, even though He may use it as an indirect means to the real upbuilding of His kingdom, which is effected through the genuine good of love, imparted by Him ten man after he has done his part in humble repentance, after he has brought forth fruits worthy of repentance.

     That the good of love and charity from the Lord is the genuine origin of the spiritual growth of the church is set before us in these words of our Doctrine:-


"With the regenerating man nothing is multiplied, that is, nothing of good and truth takes increase, except it be an effect of charity. Charity is like heat in the time of spring and summer, which makes all things in nature grow. Nothing grows or is multiplied with a man unless there be some affection. The delight of affection not only causes a thing to take root, but also to grow fill things come about according to the aspiration of affection. What a man loves, that he gladly seizes upon, retains, and guards. Such as is the affection, such is the multiplication. With the regenerating man it is the affection of good and truth springing from charity, with which he has been gifted by the Lord. Whatever favors this affection of charity, he seizes upon, retains, and guards," that it may grow and increase. (A. C. 1016.)

     The church will grow, therefore, in the measure that there is with men a growth in the internal affection of love to the Lord and charity, and from these a growth in the delights of worship and the performance of uses and benefits to the neighbor, growth in the affection and appetite for truths, in spiritual hunger and thirst, in the knowledge and understanding of spiritual things, and also growth in the knowledge of natural uses and ability to perform them. Growth in all these things is a means to the growth of the church, taking its origin in a genuine affection of love and charity from the Lord. But this genuine affection cannot exist in a man unless he is purified of the opposite affections,-the evil affections of self-love and love of the world, of hatred, envy, avarice, and the rest, with their derivative false imaginings He must be purified of these evils and falsities, even by earnest repentance, if the seed of good affection, and its fruits, are to be implanted and brought forth in him by the Lord. The thorn and the thistle are to be plucked up that they may not "choke the Word, that it becometh unfruitful."

     We have now seen that there are in general three essential means to the growth of the church: (1) The presence of the Lord with men in their understanding of the Word, by which truths are multiplied. (2) The presence of the Lord in the good of love and charity, by which goods are fructified and increased.


(3) The presence of the Lord in the life of repentance, without which there can be no purification from evils and falsities, and no genuine growth in spiritual goods and truths, no bringing forth of the fruits of repentance.

     And we may add that the church grows by these three means because the individual man grows by them, namely, by learning truths, by doing goods, and by repenting of evil. As a correspondence of this mode of spiritual growth, the body itself grows by three means,-by food, by exercise, and by continual purification. In like manner the mind or spirit grows in strength and fruitfulness by receiving new truths from the Word, by active thought and work in the light of them, and by purification from evil and falsity in repentance.

     This third means of growth is meant in the text by "bringing forth the fruits of repentance," and that we may expand somewhat our thought upon the subject, consider how universal in creation is the process of purification as a means of growth. It is the process whereby evil is separated from good, that good may be set free to grow and increase. The Divine judgments in both worlds are Divine purifications, always followed by growth in the good of Divine order. In the civil affairs of men and nations, these purifications are manifested under many and various forms of disturbance to normal conditions, which are the indirect means of external reform, and thus of cleansing the body politic. After every such cleansing there is renewed growth in order and production. In the spiritual world the heavens themselves are periodically purified, that they may be increased in wisdom and love by a fuller presence of the Lord. The world of spirits undergoes frequent purification, evil spirits being separated and cast into hell, that the good may be gathered into heaven, that the "wheat may be gathered into the garner, while the chaff is burnt with unquenchable fire."

     And so the church is raised up and established by successive purifications, chiefly by the regeneration of individual men, by their deliverance from hell, their purification from the falsities of evil, that they may be gifted with the goods of heaven in ever-increasing abundance.

     The Lord Himself glorified His Human by a successive purifying of the infirm human, by an alternate emptying out of evil and an entering in of Divine Good.


By this process the Divine Human was put on by degrees, and as it were grew, in the measure that the assumed human was put off. This was taking place even in the Lord's childhood; for it is said of Him, that "the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon Him." And also it is said, that "Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." (Luke 2:40, 52.)

     That we may still further confirm the truth that purification is essential to all growth, consider how nature is ever purifying herself, how a Divine spiritual influx is ever operating in all nature to purify, to remove the conditions that prevent the growth and development of forms of use in the kingdoms of nature. Storms and winds remove impurities from the atmospheres that prevent the operation of heat and light in growing forms. The human body is continually purified by a natural operation, as in respiration, perspiration, and digestion. These are involuntary and natural, not subject to the will of man, but they are types of what the Lord operates in the mind to purify man of evil, when man has done his small part to cleanse himself by voluntary repentance. Man may indeed "wash himself with water unto repentance," but the Divine purging from evil is by the power of "the Holy Spirit and with fire."

     Even in the mineral kingdom there is an image of this free-will repentance and purification. "In every metal and stone and grain of sand, there is an analogue of free-will. For each of these freely absorbs the ether, breathes out the things native to itself, rejecting what is obsolete, and restoring itself with new things." (T. 499.) Again we read, "I have heard from the angels, who are in clear perception of such things, that there is no part within man, or without him, that does not renew itself, which takes place by solutions and reparations, and that thence is the sphere which constantly waves forth from him." (C. L. 171) This solution being a loosening up and casting out of worn out substance, and reparation, the bringing in of fresh material to repair the loss. And again we are told that "regeneration itself is represented by the continual renovation of all things in the body by means of the chyle, and by means of the animal spirit, and thence the blood, whose purification from things obsolete, whose renovation, and as it were regeneration, is perpetual." (T. 687.)


     These teachings bring to view the reason why purification is a means of growth. In the process something is removed and something added; something taken away, that something may be given,-a discarding, elimination, casting out of that which no longer is able to be a receptacle of life, which indeed is destructive to life, and the bringing in of that which is able to be a receptacle of life, of new production, of growth. A vacuum is everywhere impossible. A mind wholly occupied by evil cannot be a receptacle of good, and it receives good in the measure that evil is removed. What remains after purification is what causes growth. "When He has thoroughly purged His floor, He gathers the wheat into the garner."

     The good that remains with man after he has been purified of evil is what causes his spiritual growth, because the Lord has added it to his life after his free-will repentance. "Whatever is received by man in freedom remains, because the will of man adds that to itself and appropriates it, and because it enters into his love, and love acknowledges it as its own, and forms itself by it. So every plant, when heat opens its interiors, spontaneously receives its own nourishment, retaining what is suitable, and thus growing. So every beast chooses and eats what it desires from the love of nourishing itself, and this adds itself to its body, and thus remains. What is suitable constantly adds itself to a body, because all things that compose a body are perpetually renewed." (T. 496.)

     So the love of man's spirit or mind retains and adds to itself whatever nourishes it, and thus grows. It is true that an evil love does this, but evil has within itself the seeds of its own destruction, being contrary to order, use, preservation. And so evil must be checked and limited by the laws of Providence. We know that no evil is permitted in either world that is not the means to some good, to a greater good than the evil permitted. It is permitted in man to the end that he may see and acknowledge it, may desire to be purified of it, may actually be purified of it by acts of repentance, that good may be implanted in its place, and that this good may grow and take strength even by resistance to evil, that evil may diminish and good increase.


This power is in every good imparted to man by the Lord, who is the only Giver of all good, the only Purifier and Regenerator of man. "Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, He taketh away I and every branch that beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Now ye are clean through the Word which I have spoken unto you." (John 15:2, 3.)


Now gladsome ride the heralds forth
To east and west, to south and north,
Bearing the faithful of the earth
     A message from Bryn Athyn.
And hamlet, town, and stately hall
Rejoice to hear the herald's call:
"Come faithful hearts, come one and all,
Assemble at Bryn Athyn."

On distant peaks full many a night
The beacon fires are burning bright,
And this the message of their light.
     "Assemble at Bryn Athyn."
Nor Academia calls in vain;
From hill and vale and fruitful plain,
They come in many a joyous train,
Uniting at Bryn Athyn.

On battlement and towering wall
The blazoned banners rise and fall,
"The pealing bells and trumpets' call,
     Are speaking at Bryn Athyn.
While noble salves, deep and free,
Their thunders roll triumphantly,-
For thus are welcomed royally
     Her guests by fair Bryn Athyn.


In banquet halls of dazzling light
There feasts superb the guests invite,
For hospitality in might
     Prevails at fair Bryn Athyn.
Still rarer far the sustenance
Drawn from those founts of eloquence,
Wit, wisdom, and intelligence
That flow at fair Bryn Athyn.

But human speech is powerless
In fitting language to express
A picture of the loveliness
     Distinctive of Bryn Athyn.
Her matrons so surpassing fair,
Her beauteous maids beyond compare,
And kids galore, so debonaire,
Abounding at Bryn Athyn.

On earth, alas, good things must end;
Grief follows joy, friend parts from friend,
And o'er her guests the thoughts impend
     Of farewell to Bryn Athyn.
But homeward as they wend their way,
One hope within each heart holds sway,
A hope to hear some future day,
     The call to fair Bryn Athyn.





     Dr. R. L. Tafel, in his collection of Documents concerning Swedenborg, includes a letter' by Prof. J. II. Liden to the royal librarian, C. G. Gjorwell, which was published by the latter in the ALLMANNA TIDNINGAR, of Stockholm, for July 5th, 1770, in which the writer mentions among other things that he had called on Swedenborg several times in London during the summer of 1769. As Prof. Liden was a very prolific writer it occurred to me that further investigations of Liden's literary remains might prove fruitful. I consequently went through his correspondence with Gjorwell and others, preserved at the Royal Library in Stockholm, and afterwards looked up his Diaries which are kept at the University Archives in Upsala. As a result some interesting documents came to light, which are here presented in English.

     JOHAN HINRIC LIDEN, (1741-1790), was professor of history and librarian of the University of Upsala. During a journey abroad in 1769 he made the acquaintance of Swedenborg in London, but, as will be seen, was not very favorably impressed by the aged "New Jerusalem gentleman." Eighteen years later, in 1757, his hostility to Swedenborg and the New Church manifested itself in some pamphlets in which he made common cause with the poet, Kellgren, in ridiculing Swedenborgianism in general and the Exegetic-Philanthrophic Society in particular. The latter, unfortunately, had become mixed up with Magnetic and Spiritualistic practices, which brought great and long-enduring ignominy on the New Church in Sweden. CYRIEL LJ. ODHNER.


     (BARON DANIEL TILAS was Swedenborg's successor in the College of Mines, and has left some letters in which he describes his acquaintance with Swedenborg. (See Doc. II:1154.))

     ... I can not understand how it was that the letter of the Royal Secretary Schanberg came to me open at the sides and yet the outer cover unbroken; nor have I any opportunity to question our apocalyptic historiographer, Assessor Swedenborg, about it, since he left for Paris a few days before my arrival here. . .


          Amsterdam, May 2, 1769.



     (SAMUEL ALF, (1727-1796), professor of Latin Eloquence, Arch-dean of Linkoping, etc., was the stepbrother of J. H. Linden, and is famous as one of the greatest classical scholars of Sweden. He was the son of Prof. Peter Elvius, one of Swedenborg's teachers at Upsala, and he married a grand-niece of Swedenborg. His correspondence concerning Swedenborg with Count A. von Hopken is published in NEW CHURCH LIFE for 1898, pp. 107-109.)

     Linkoping, May 17, 1769.

My Dearest Brother,
     . . . . As to my Uncle, Assessor Swedenborg, I assure you I know him more [intimately] than per visiones and correspondentias angelicas. So this pater mirabilis is now in France! You should try to meet him there and arrange for me to become his heir, for I am greatly in need thereof, and moreover I have in my theological bookcase his APOCALYPSIS REVELATA, which in himself gave to me. His days must be hastening [to the close]. I only hope he will get safely home! Tomorrow I shall send your letter to His Excellency, Count von Hopken, to please him also with news of the old gentleman.

     Deus Tecum, optime et carissime frater! Vale. Your most faithful servant, FRATER.



     Amsterdam and Serdam,

     May 22, 1769.

     . . . . I spent the remainder of the day at Herr I. Schreuder's book store. He is one of the principal book dealers in Amsterdam, and is a very intelligent man.


Here I saw for the first time the latest works of our apocalyptic historiographer, the Swedish Assessor Swedenborg, published here.

     1. Delitiae Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali, post quas sequentur Voluptates Insaniae de Amore Scortatorio, ab Eman, Swedenborg. Sveco. Amstelod. 1768, 4:0, pag. 316, besides an Index.

     2. Summaria Expositio Doctrinae Novae Ecclesiae, quae per novam Hierosolymam in Apocalypsi intelligtur, ab Eman. Swedenborg, Sveco. Amst., 1769, 4:0, pagg. 67.



     Leyden, June 3, 1769.

     . . . . Professor Schultens, a thoroughly good and amiable man, whom I greatly esteem for his good, peaceable and fair views on theology, . . . asked me very eagerly for news of Bishop Lamberg, who during his sojourn in Leyden had private conferences with him in Hebrew.

     He also told me various things about our Assessor Swedenborg, among other things that he has quite lost credit at the Hague, in the following way: It had been stated in the newspapers that Voltaire had died, and they asked the Assessor if he had spoken with him in the world of spirits, whereupon he answered, "Yes," and added various circumstances; shortly afterwards this unfounded rumor of the Poet's death was contradicted in the newspapers, and the public was assured that he was living and feeling quite well.



     Amsterdam, June 17, 1769.

     .... Our Swedish apocalyptical historiographer, Assessor Swedenborg, left for Paris the day before my arrival here. His last incomprehensible works just published here are: 1) Delitiae Sapientiae de Amore conjugiali, etc. 2) Summaria Expositio Doctrinae Novae Ecclesiae, etc.

     [From Tidningar om Larda Saker, (News from the Learned World), Stockholm, 1769.]




     (S. J. ALNANDER, the author of a work entitled "Anvisning til et Utvaldt Theologiskt Bibliothek," (Aid towards the formation of a select Theological Library), Stockholm, 1763, in which Swedenborg for the first time is named as the author of the Writings published anonymously by him. (Doc. II:977.))

     . . . . . A few days ago Swedenborg arrived here from Paris. I have spoken with the old gentleman, who is now disordered in his head; I have to laugh aloud at his absurdities. London, July 4, 1769.



     London, September 10, 1769, Sunday.
     I preached today in the Swedish Church on the Evangelical text for the XVIth Sunday after Trinity. The subject of my discourse was: "The Dauntlessness of God's Children in Death." Among my listeners I must make special mention of Herr Assessor Emanuel Swedenborg, the illuminated apocalyptical historiographer.

     Shortly afterwards the Herr Assessor traveled by sea to Stockholm.* This man, on account of his remarkable doctrines, will surely come to occupy a unique place in the History of Learning of our times. I have learned to know him for the first time here in London; I often visited him during his short sojourn here, besides which we sometimes chanced to meet in the public walks. At such times I have quite politely, and with all the respect due to a man of eighty years, spoken with him concerning his System. But the old man is rather unclear; he stutters a little and expresses his confused thoughts in an equally confused manner; he always refers you to his published works, and at every objection the old gentleman spryly comes but with "Sensus Spiritualis," which has been revealed to him alone.
     * The following note was written in later, in the margin: "He afterwards returned to England and died in London, 1772, March 29th, in the 85th year of his age."


     On every other subject the old gentleman talks quite rationally, but as soon as you begin to mention Spirits he becomes quite crazy; wherefore, to the best of my understanding and conviction, the old gentleman is not altogether right in his head. I have taken dinner with him and on that occasion he was quite merry and full of fun.

     The old gentleman lived far off in the outskirts of the city, associating with hardly anyone; he was rather dirty, and his clothing soiled; his face and hands looked as if they had not been washed for many years. Otherwise he is a pious man and does nobody any harm; has a high opinion of his Sublime Doctrines; regards himself as actually a Great Prophet of God; is a trifle parsimonious, which is a fault of old age rather than a personal fault. The old gentleman has presented to me everything he has published during his late sojourn in London; of which I here copy the titles:

     1. A Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church understood in the Apocalypse by the New Jerusalem;* wherein is also demonstrated, that throughout all the Christian world the worship of Three Gods is adopted from the creed of St. Athanasius. By Eman. Swedenborg, a native of Sweden. London, 1769. pag. 1591 in large octave.
     * In the margin is written: "An Englishman to whom I lent this book afterwards always called the old gentleman on this account, 'The New Jerusalem Gentleman,' a well found name."

     This is nothing else than the Latin work printed in Amsterdam last spring: "Summaria Expositio Doctrina Novae Ecclesice. . . ." in quarto, which the Herr Assessor has now had translated and printed in English. I do not know whom he employed for the translation, but he himself has not the [requisite] command of the language.

     2. De Commercio Animae et Corporis, quod creditur fieri vel per influxum Physicum, vel per Influxum Spiritualem, vel per Harmoniam Praestabilitam, ab Emanuele Swedenborg, pag. 23, in 4:0. (Without any separate Title-page.)

     This is an entirely new work, recently completed in London, but just as incomprehensible as all the rest.


     On page 20 there occurs a rather entertaining "Memorabile," to use the Assessor's own word, to wit: He asked Our Lord to allow him to speak with one of the disciples of Aristotle, one of Descartes, and one of Leibnitz, in order to hear and, compare their Thoughts on this subject. His prayer was heard and the Assessor was permitted to be present at the discussion here described.

     3. An Answer to a Letter written to me by a Friend.

     This is only 4 pages in 8:0, and contains a short Account of the Assessor's Life; which I am inserting here* as such a small paper may easily get lost in time. One certainly does not weep in reading through it, least of all when the old gentleman tells about his being a member of "the Angelical Society!"
     * This document is inserted between pages 484 and 485 of the third volume of the Diary.-TR.

     Through my conversations with this remarkable old man I have become convinced of what Voltaire says quite fitly in one place: "il n'y a rien a gagner avec un Enthousiaste; il ne faut point s'aviser de dire a un homme les defauts de sa maitresse, n'y a un plaideur le foible de sa cause, ny des raisons a un illumine."*
     * There is nothing to gain with an Enthusiast: one must never be so bold as to tell a man the faults of his mistress, nor a pleader the folly of his cause, nor must one talk reason to an Illuminated."



     . . . . Old man Swedenborg has been here and put to press new insanities. We often had discussions together. When I preached in the Swedish Church last month I had the old man among my audience. London, October 20, 1769.



     1769, [before Dec. 27.]

     Dilectissime Viventium!

     . . . . Old Man Swedenborg is now in trouble on account of his Writings which have infected, among others, a Lector Gothoburgensis, Dr. Beyer who, it is said, has on his own authority been promulgating them among the youth of the Gymnasium. I can not write everything.


Horrenda Dictu! Sed inter nos, quicquid id est, non Religio sibi tuta videt. (Horrible to say! But, between you and me, whatever it is, Religion does not regard itself safe.)

     You will probably hear of the old gentleman in France. He has recently, in a printed letter, refuted a story that was being circulated of his having been ordered to leave Paris, and he calls on our Envoye in that city to witness against it. . . .



     (Baron K. G. SILFVERHJELM was the most zealous of the "magnetic healers" in the Exegetic-Philanthropic Society.)


     Various rumors concerning [Animal] Magnetism and my connection with it have been spread about, and I have no doubt they have reached your ears, Herr Professor. The Inledning [till Forklaringen om den Animala Magnetismen,] which I have published anonymously, will probably serve to illustrate the idea of Magnetism, and also my views on it. I submit my little Opus to you, Herr Professor, for examination, and I remain with the greatest esteem, etc., etc.



     [Dated] The Sick-bed in Norrkoping, Nov. 1st, 1787.*
     * As the consequence of a chill when he was overheated Liden contracted an illness which kept him bed-ridden for 19 years. His sick-room was a favorite meeting-place for literary men.

     It was a great delight to me to perceive from your welcome letter, recently received, and its enclosure, that I still retain a place in your remembrance; I hasten to express my hearty thanks for this two-fold courtesy. I have, indeed, heard discussions on Animal Magnetism, that much disputed subject I had already read the "Introduction" you sent, as it was sent to me by mail from Stockholm immediately after leaving the printer, bound together with another article which attempts to explain the marvels of Magnetism from Swedenborg's writings.


I must frankly confess that these pamphlets do not have any convincing effect upon me, although I have read them both with pleasure on account of their style, and also on account of the neat and able History of Magnetism which they contain. The subject is far from being strange to me inasmuch as I am probably the first Swede to have any knowledge of it.

     In 1774, was staying at Aix-la-Chapelle for my health; Mesmer had shortly before begun his wonder-cures in Vienna. All this sounded gratifying indeed to a cripple, for such I was even then; wherefore I made haste to further acquaint myself with it. The result of my investigations was that Mesmer was a great charlatan, a fact which is still further proved by his behavior of recent years. Subsequently, I read a great deal that has been written both for and against it in Germany and France. But as I have never had the opportunity of seeing and investigating the facts for myself I am bound to desist from passing judgment on it, continuing only to doubt. It is possible that there actually is something in it, but it will always be impossible and ridiculous to attempt the explanation of a physical effect from the conceits of Swedenborg and the world of spirits.
When the first enthusiasm has passed, the experiments call probably be continued in a more cold-blooded fashion and the results will then be more reliable. If anything of use to suffering humanity can thereby be gained, it must needs be a joy to everyone who has learned to appreciate the needs of the neighbor.

     And you can easily understand that in this case I shall not remain indifferent. I had supposed that you would have very little time to give to this new Science, Particularly as I had heard with pleasure that you were occupied at Upsala with the older sciences and those more closely allied to your future new position in life.* I supposed it was only my good friend, Captain Silfverhielm, who honored me with a visit on his return from France, that was the one who magnetized.


On the contrary, rumor tells me that you find pleasure in,-indeed have even adopted-the tenets of Swedenborg. I am inclined to doubt even this, and find it impossible to imagine how you can wish to explain the effects of Magnetism by Swedenborgianism, and still more incomprehensible does it appear to me that in such a case you can, with a clear conscience, become a Lutheran teacher. All the respect, friendship and love which I have for many years borne for you, induce me to earnestly wish, hope and pray that you will further examine and reconsider everything before taking the important step which I have been told you are soon to enter upon. Be a Swedenborgian, by all means, if it is necessary, but in such case do not enter the Ministry! How can an enlightened and honest man believe in the Bible and in Swedenborg's visions, at one and the same time? And how place the latter on a parallel with the former? If I am mistaken in my judgment, convince me of it. But do not mistake or misinterpret my candor, which does not arise from love of heresy-hunting but from love of truth, which I have always sought and loved. I can neither flatter nor deceive myself. A person does neither of these things on the brink of the grave, where I now already stand. Think not that I judge without having examined. I have read more of Swedenborg's writings than many of his followers. During one whole summer I was intimately associated with this remarkable man, during our simultaneous residence in London, in 1769. He presented me with a great many of his works published up to that time.
     * Silfverhjelm was then about to enter the ministry.-TR.

     I highly respected and loved him; I often discussed with him on Theological subjects but always received the same unclear and unsatisfactory answers which are characteristic of his writings In general. He was a pious and honest man, no deceiver, but most certainly himself deceived by his exaggerated and sickly imagination, an unfortunate inheritance from his well-meaning, learned and god-fearing, but somewhat super-fantastic father, Bishop Swedborg, who also had visions in his day. I could orally relate to you various conversations which we had, among them a rather remarkable one which I immediately committed to writing in London,* and which completely convinced me that the honorable old gentleman certainly was no Divine Messenger, but a weak, deranged man, as soon as there was any talk of the world of spirits.


However, I have already said both too much and too little in case you are already infected with this epidemic fanaticism. Excuse this expression, harsh, perhaps, in your ears. I write as I think. Truth and conviction impel me to make the statement. I have, thank God, learned to distinguish between Persons and Opinions. I am able to love the former without approving of the latter. I freely leave everyone in liberty to think according to his own conviction, for I myself wish to be granted the enjoyment of the same reasonable freedom.
     * We have thus far been unable to lay our hands upon this interesting document.-TR.

     I have found virtuous persons among all sects, and do not know of a single sect where I do not have some friends.

     From this, my dear Baron, you may judge whether I am intolerant or not. Excuse both my voluminosity and my open-heartedness; let the latter be a testimony of my friendship for you, and the former a witness of my old age. The day of my trial is nearing its close, and soon the longed-for day of rest will arrive. We may perchance never see one another again in this world, where we need not necessarily think alike, but must needs love one another. However differing here in matters of thought, we shall nevertheless meet again in a better, more perfect and more certain life, where all dissensions will cease, all Error disappear, and where we shall all be eternally united in God's blessedness and praise.

     I remain, my beloved Baron,
          Your most humble servant,
               J. H. LINDEN.



HAVING A GOOD TIME       G. A. MCQUEEN       1916

     "We have had a very good time" is a phrase frequently used to describe the delight experienced from being present at some social meeting or entertainment. Like many other forms of expression, there is involved in it more than appears on the surface. It may be that the time described as "good" was so designated because of its giving pleasure which was in agreement with the particular affection operating at the time with the person speaking. We know that what a man loves he calls good. It therefore follows that both the evil and the good can say they have had a good time, and yet be referring to distinctly opposite states. In the light of the Heavenly Doctrine we know that time signifies state,-state as to affection and thought. The true test as to whether we have really spent a good time will be found in a knowledge of the quality of the state which ruled in us during the time called "good." Was the source of the enjoyment in agreement with what we know to be right? Or was it based upon principles which would not bear inspection in the light of Truth? These are questions that are not likely to disturb the ordinary seeker after a "good time," but to the Newchurchman, aiming in a