[Photograph of John Pitcairn]

VOL. XXXVII      JANUARY, 1917          No. 1
     In the Writings of the New Church we are taught that a mountain always signifies love; and it may truly be said that the love of the Lord's New Church which filled the heart of John Pitcairn was a spiritual mountain. The greatness of a mountain is not fully realized as long as we dwell by its sides: a distance is required in order to estimate its proportions.

     A future generation will be able, better than the present, to judge of John Pitcairn's place in the history of the New Church. At present we can but guess at its meaning. It is known, in a general way, what Mr. Pitcairn has done for the Academy and the General Church of the New Jerusalem, in an ultimate sense. His work in this world is now finished, but the fruits of his love and intense activity will be reaped by those who are to follow after him. What these fruits shall be we can see only with the eyes of faith and hope,-visions of the day when the New Church as a whole shah be united in appreciation of the principles and uses of the Academy, and of the still more distant day when the Lord's New Church shall begin to come to her own in her mission for the regeneration and salvation of the universal human race.

     For all the great movements in the past history of the world the Lord has always raised up leaders endowed and prepared as His special instruments. Emanuel Swedenborg was that servant whom the Lord raised up and prepared for the supreme and incomparable mission. William Henry Benade was a servant raised up for a special mission within the organized Church,-the use of bringing to a focus those interior views of doctrine which had been gradually developed within the Church during a century of intellectual struggles, and most especially the recognition of that fundamental truth that the Gospel of the Second Coming is indeed the Word of the Lord. And Mr. Benade was sent not only to become the intellectual leader of the Academy movement, but to outline, organize and lead in the establishment of those practical uses, by which alone a distinctive and genuine Church Specific may be founded in this world.

     But Mr. Benade, the great New Church priest, would have been helpless, in an ultimate sense, had not the Lord raised up another servant to hold up his hands in the terrible struggle which followed upon the proclamation of the principles of the Academy,-a servant who also was endowed with special gifts, in order that a secure ultimation on this earth might be provided for that internal movement which the organized New Church as a whole, with incredible blindness, has now during forty years opposed and endeavored to stamp out.

     This servant was John Pitcairn, the friend who has so recently passed from our midst that we scarcely can realize as yet the loss of his bodily presence. It is not the loss of his ultimate support of the Church that will be missed so much as the inspiration of his ever active interest in all things of the Church and the mature wisdom of his counsel,-not to speak of his own genial friendship and the interesting news which the ever traveling "Uncle John" used to bring to us from the New Church in various distant parts of the world. But love does not die, it is immortally active, and we are all certain that in the world where he now is he can and will do far more for his beloved cause than he ever could in this lower existence.

     To write the life story of John Pitcairn is in one sense an easy task, for after his death there were found no less than thirty-six note-books and diaries, ranging from the year 1855 to the year 1914, in which at various times he jotted down the events and movements of his life. Some of these contain only a few pages of notes, others are complete diaries and itineraries of foreign journeys. Moreover, during his last lingering illness he was urged by his physician to write his autobiography in order to have something to divert his mind. This he was loath to do as he did not consider himself of sufficient personal importance to be preserved in the "amber" of an autobiography.


Nevertheless, a special secretary, Miss Cyriel Lj. Odhner, was engaged to note down his reminiscences, and though these were elicited with some difficulty, yet a vast amount of related material was accumulated and has been generously placed at our disposal.

     It is not our purpose, however, to place before our readers the minute details of John Pitcairn's personal career. He himself would have been opposed to such a proceeding, but we are sure that he would not oppose our using the outlines of his life as a scaffolding within which to construct a sketch of the history of the New Church during his days and in his environments. We will, therefore, utilize this opportunity, first to tell something of the Pitcairn family, and then present a brief account of the early history of the Pittsburgh Society. Since this Society reared our "Uncle John," and was the cradle of the Academy, its story certainly deserves to be recorded in the Annals of the New Church.



     In the counties of Fife and Perth in Scotland the name of PITCAIRN is one of great antiquity. The name itself is supposedly derived from the old Gaelic word "pit," meaning a croft or place of residence, and "cairn," meaning a memorial mound or heap of stones. From an estate thus named came an old and wide-branching family of great distinction in the history of Scotland, a noble house which for some seven centuries has produced a great many lairds and lords, beside numerous soldiers, magistrates, physicians, clergymen and statesmen. Notable in the history of the American Revolution was the Major JOHN PITCAIRN, of the British army, who with the cry, "disperse, ye villains, disperse!" led in the battle of Lexington, where he fell, mortally wounded. One of the sons of this John Pitcairn was the Ensign ROBERT PITCAIRN, who, while on a naval expedition, was the first to sight that isolated island in the Pacific Ocean which from him was named "Pitcairn Island."


     The genealogy of the house of Pitcairn has been written in a volume of 533 pages, entitled THE HISTORY OF THE LIFE PITCAIRNS, by Constance Pitcairn, (Edinburgh, 1905), but a careful search of this work has failed to establish any direct connection between the historic Scotland house and that more humble Scottish family from which the subject of our sketch descended. That there was a connection seems probable from the evidence of the Christian names common to both families. The first known ancestor of the senior house was "John Pitcairn, of Pitcairn, of that Ilk," the first laird of Innernethy, who, in the year 1250, had certain lands granted to him by his kinsman, Sir Hugh de Abernethy. And after him, throughout the centuries, there is a constant recurrence of names such as John, Alexander, Robert, Hugh, David, Margaret, Helen, Janet, etc., surnames which figure so frequently in the branches of the American New Church family of Pitcairns.

     Inasmuch as very many members of this family have been more or less prominently connected with the New Church, we may be pardoned for introducing an account of the more immediate connections of our friend, John Pitcairn,-a family tree which has been reconstructed after some research and which should not be lost to future generations.

     With the usual American indifference to ancestry, John Pitcairn never took pains to ascertain the names of his forebears any further back than to his grandfather, ALEXANDER PITCAIRN, (1), who was a manufacturer of Clocks in Johnstone, a small industrial town located in the county of Renfew, some ten miles west of Glasgow. This Alexander Pitcairn, (whose immediate ancestors came from Edinburgh), married Janet Currie, with whom he had three sons, Alexander, Robert, and John.

     I. Of these, the oldest son, ALEXANDER PITCAIRN, (2), was the first of the family to emigrate to America, where he settled in Pittsburgh, Pa., about the year 1830, and engaged in the manufacture of woven goods. He was also the first one to receive the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. Having been long dissatisfied with the doctrines of the Old Church he one day, (about the year 1847), spoke of his doubts and difficulties to a Scotch friend of his, Mr. Thomas Hogan, in Pittsburgh.


The subject of the Trinity was under discussion, when his friend said, "Come home with me and meet my wife. She has something interesting to tell you on that subject." The wife was Mrs. Katherine Hogan who had received the doctrines of the New Church through her sister, Mrs. Anna Aitken, and she now handed Swedenborg's TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION to Alexander Pitcairn, who quickly recognized the truth of the new revelation, and soon afterwards communicated his knowledge to his two brothers. Alexander has been described as a handsome, honorable man, a typical Scotchman in his straight-forward outspokenness. He died at Pittsburgh on September 23, 1888, at ninety years of age, leaving behind him five sons, Alexander, John, Robert William, and Andrew, all of whom were more or less intimately associated with the New Church.

     II. ROBERT PITCAIRN, (1), the brother of Alexander, was born at Crossley, Scotland, 1891, and came to America about the year 1830, residing, at first, in Lowell, Mass., and, finally settling in Guilford, Ohio, where he engaged in a successful business career. Through his brother, Alexander, he became acquainted with the writings of the New Church, and was a very earnest reader. He died Sept. 17, 1855, and his wife, Sean Edward, Feb. 18, 1887, at the age of 85 years. They had eleven children, of whom eight grew up and became members of the New Church.

     1) MARY, (born Aug. 25, 1828), who married Mr. Clark Ritchey, of Blairsville, Pa Later she moved to Pittsburgh, where she is still living. She and her daughter, Miss Janet Kitchey, are devoted members of the General Church of the New Jerusalem.

     2) ALEXANDER PITCAIRN, (3), was born at Lowell, Mass., August 29, 1831, and died in Pittsburgh, August 13, 1904.

     He became a very successful business man and organized the Excelsior Express Company of Pittsburgh. He also was a faithful member and generous supporter of the New Church, and married his cousin, Janet Pitcairn, the sister of Mr. John Pitcairn of Bryn Athyn. For many years before his death he was an invalid, confined to his bed; he was survived by four children.

     a) EDWARD PITCAIRN, (born Aug. 9, 1865), who is the Treasurer of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company.


     b) DAVID, (born Nov. 17, 1867), who is connected with the same company.

     c) AGNES, (born April 22, 1860), who is an active member of the Pittsburgh Society.

     d) HELEN, (born Nov. 10, 1862), who married Mr. Samuel S. Lindsay, Comptroller of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., and Secretary of the Pittsburgh New Church Society. She and her husband are well known members of the General Church, and all of their children have received their education in the schools of the Academy of the New Church in Bryn Athyn, with the exception of the seventh, who is still too young.

     3. JANET, (Mrs. Campbell), the third child of Robert Pitcairn, (1), was born Aug. 6, 1833, and died May 15, 1904. She was a woman of fine and strong character, with great executive and business ability. After a successful career as a business woman, she was married, late in life, to Mr. Andrew Campbell, who died Feb. 6th, 1861. She was an exceedingly active member of the New Church, hospitable, generous and great-hearted, and her house was always a social centre of the Pittsburgh Society.

     4. JANE, the fourth child of Robert Pitcairn, (1), was born May 25, 1836, and died May 15, 1883. She married, first, Mr. Robert Crum, and after his death, Professor Frank Wery, the New Church astronomer, formerly of Pittsburgh, now of Boston. By her first marriage she had two children: Mr. Robert Crum, who is connected with the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., and Ida, who married Mr. Andrew Campbell, the stepson of her aunt, Mrs. Janet Campbell; Ida Campbell and her husband reside in New York and are members of the General Church.

     5. EDWARD PITCAIRN, who still lives in Pittsburgh, where he was connected with the Pennsylvania Railroad.

     6. KATHERINE, married Mr. John K. Ruckenbrod, of Salem, Ohio; his daughter by a first marriage, Mrs. Abbie Boyle, still lives in Cleveland, a member of the New Church.

     7. MARGARET, (born September 1, 1838; died February, 1916), was a very active member of the New Church. Late in life she married the Rev. Herman C. Vetterling, a New Church minister, who for a few years was the pastor of the Pittsburgh Society.


In 1884 he became a convert to the teachings of Theosophy and Buddhism, and retired with his wife to California, where, under the Hindu pseudonym of "Philangi Dasa," he published an extraordinary volume, entitled SWEDENBORG THE BUDDHIST, and later edited a journal called THE BUDDHIST RAY, which claimed to be the organ of the "Buddhistic Swedenborgian Brotherhood" of San Jose, California.

     8. ARTEMAS PITCAIRN, (born June 13, 188; died April, 1905), the eighth and youngest child of Robert Pitcairn, (1), became associated in business with Mr. John Pitcairn, while both lived in Oil City, and was for many years his confidential secretary and right-hand man in the business of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. and other affairs. His home, during the most active part of his life, was at Tarentum, Pa., but his last years were spent in Pittsburgh. By tradition as well as conviction he was a Newchurchman, though never very active in the work of the Church. Three of his daughters, in 1886-7, attended the Academy Schools, but the family, as far as we know, is no longer connected with the Church.

     III. We come now to the immediate ancestor of the youngest branch of the family,-JOHN PITCAIRN, Sr., the father of them John and his wife received the doctrines of the subject of the present biography. He was the third son of Alexander Pitcairn, (1), of Johnstone, Scotland, and was born there on November 11, 1802. Gifted with marked talents for mechanics and invention, he conducted a machine shop in Johnstone, but failed in business, owing to misplaced confidence in an unscrupulous partner. After paying his debts he and his wife, with their two young daughters, emigrated to America, about 1835, and lived for a time in Brooklyn, and then in Paterson, N. J., where their daughter, Janet, was born. But his ventures did not meet with the success he had expected, and the family, after a few years, returned to Scotland. The lure of the new world proved too powerful, however, and the family,-now increased by three sons and a daughter,-in the year 1846 again crossed the Atlantic and settled this time in Pittsburgh, where the two elder brothers, Alexander and Robert, had made their homes.


From the New Church, and the whole family was baptized by the Rev. David Powell about the year 1849. John was a man of a somewhat stern and reserved nature, but of the most scrupulous sense of honor and uncompromising rectitude. He died at Pittsburgh on Nov. 28, 1884.

     His wife was a Highland girl, Agnes McEwen, of Argyleshire, born January, 1803, the daughter of Neil and Catherine, (Campbell), McEwen. Our informant, Miss Maria Hogan, describes John Pitcairn's mother as a most loving and lovable character,-of a disposition very similar to that of her grand-daughter, Vera,-sweet, kindly, self-sacrificing and spiritually minded. She loved to speak of the Word and the Writings and was a constant reader of both,-literally wearing out her copies. She died at Pittsburgh, April 19, 1891, at the age of eighty-seven years.

     John Pitcairn, Sr., had the following children:

     1. HELEN, (Mrs. Rush). She was born in Scotland, her mother being the first wife of John Pitcairn, Sr. Helen was a woman of great refinement and intelligence, and became a very warm receiver of the Heavenly Doctrine, speaking about it to everyone, whether her listener was of the New Church or not. She married Dr. Robert B. Rush, of Salem, Ohio, who was also interested in the Doctrine, though not a member of the New Church. She was the darling of all her half brothers and sisters, but died at middle age, March 1, 1874, without any children of her own. Her adopted daughter, Mrs. Bessie Sharp, of Salem, is a devoted member of the General Church.

     2. CATHARINE, (born, 1829; died, 1893). She married Mr. James Branyan, who owned a large farm in Christian county, Illinois. Both she and her husband were affectionate receivers of the Heavenly Doctrine, and had a large family.

     3. JANET, (born October 22, 1831). She married her cousin, Alexander, the son of Robert Pitcairn, (1). Throughout her long life she has been an active member of the Pittsburgh Society and a generous supporter of the local and general uses of the Church. Respected and beloved by all, she is now the senior member of the New Church in Pittsburgh, and the last survivor of her generation of brothers and sisters.


     4. ROBERT PITCAIRN, (2), was born May 6, 1836, and died in 1909. At an early age he left home to enter into the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad, in which he rapidly rose from one position of trust to another, until he became the General Agent and one of the Vice-Presidents of the great Company,-one of the most eminent railroad men of the country. Though in childhood he attended the New Church Sunday School in Pittsburgh, together with Andrew Carnegie, with whom he was intimately associated, he was, while away from; home, drawn into the social life outside the New Church, married out of the Church, joined the Presbyterian denomination and became one of its most eminent laymen. Personally, "he was a fine man," according to Miss Hogan, but this Chapter being the history of the New Church Pitcairns, we cannot enter into further details of the life of Robert Pitcairn, the Railroad Magnate.

     5. MARGARET, (Mrs. Starkey), was born May 18, 1838. Like her brother John, she was intensely devoted to the New Church, and she and Miss Maria Hogan were the first women selected for membership in the Academy after its first organization in 1876. After her marriage to Dr George R. Starkey, in 1882, her home at 1638 Green St., Philadelphia, became a special Social center of the early Academy. Here the severely critical Editorial Board of the WORKS FOR THE NEW CHURCH used to meet in clashing and flashing array of "Greek against Greek," the various papers and editorials and notes passing through the fire of the learning, doctrinal acumen and sparkling wit of men such as W. H. Benade, J. P. Stuart, N. C. Burnham, Louis H. Tafel, W. F. Pendleton, George R. Starkey, John Pitcairn, Walter C. Childs and others.

     Doctor and Mrs. Starkey, in the movement of the Academy to the country, were the first to establish their home near Alnwick Grove, now known as Bryn Athyn. Here the Doctor died, on June 18, 1896, and Mrs. Starkey, on November 27, 1904, leaving her property and most of her capital to her beloved Academy.

     6. JOHN PITCAIRN, the subject of our biography, was the sixth child of John Pitcairn, Sr. He was born at Johnstone, Scotland, on January 10th, 1841, but for further detail's we must refer our readers to the pages yet to come.


     7. HUGH PITCAIRN, the seventh and youngest child, was born August 26, 1845, and died July 14, 1911. Like his elder brother he left the parental home at an early age, was engaged in Railroad work for some years, afterwards studied Medicine and became a practicing physician at Harrisburg, Pa. Later in life he entered into diplomatic service and was for a number of years the United States Consul at Hamburg. He was of a strongly religious nature, and connected himself with the Methodist Church, of which he was an active and prominent member. No one of his family is connected with the New Church.



     The origin of the New Church in Pittsburgh has been somewhat difficult to trace. The Heavenly Doctrine was first brought West of the Allegheny mountains by John Young, a Philadelphia lawyer, who, in the year 1789, settled in Greensburg where, for thirty-seven years, he filled the office of Presiding- Judge of Western Pennsylvania. Judge Young was born in Scotland, 1762, and at the age of twenty-two emigrated to America. He was one of the few who became interested in the Heavenly Doctrines through attending the lectures of James Glen, in Philadelphia, in June, 1784, and soon became a most enthusiastic Newchurchman. It was he who, in 1788, solicited the subscriptions of Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, Governor Kane, and other eminent men, for the publication of an edition of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, (Philadelphia, 1789), and after his removal to Greensburg he was instrumental in bringing the Writings to the notice of a great many persons in various parts of the new Western country. In 1805 he married Miss Maria Barclay, of a well known New Church family in Bedford, Pa., and it was he who furnished copies of the Writings, to be circulated, page by page, to that eccentric but lovable New Church missionary, Jonathan Chapman, generally known as "Johnny Appleseed."

     Pittsburgh first appears in the Annals of the New Church in the year 1805, when Adam Hurdus,-a member of the Manchester society,-settled there for a short time.


It is known that he met Judge Young there, but found no other receiver, and, therefore, he packed his family and goods on a boat and sailed down the Ohio river, finally landing and settling at Cincinnati, where he became the founder of the New Church in that city.

     For many years we hear nothing further of any receiver in Pittsburgh, until 1832, When we find the name "Joseph Barclay, Pittsburgh," in the list of New Church addresses, published in the Journal of the "Western Convention" He Was probably one of the Barclays from Bedford, Pa, and his name continued on the 1st until 1839, When it disappeared and was replaced by the name of "Caleblsbister." At this time, however, a little circle was gathering in Pittsburgh, most of the members having been drawn, it would seem, from the neighboring New Church circles in Bedford, Greensburg, and Wheeling.

     In the year 1841 we find the following communication from Pittsburgh in the Journal of the Central Convention:

     You will be pleased to learn that in the city of Pittsburgh, where perhaps it was heretofore thought there were no receivers of the New Church doctrines, enough has lately been, seen and felt to awaken the attention of at least a few to these doctrines. The prospect is now encouraging. We may count at least eight or nine who, I think, have sincerely embraced the truth, and a half dozen others who have commenced reading. We hope soon to be able to increase the number of our books, and to assemble ourselves in some kind of organized form for mutual instruction. On Several accounts we should be much delighted to receive the visit of a New Church clergyman, and we hope the Lord will soon make this provision for us. Several of our children require baptism, and at least one adult. My sincere Prayer is that the Lord may build up his New Church in His own time, and that we may all be humble instruments in His hands to accomplish this great and glorious purpose.

     This communication, dated May 27, 1841, is signed by "A. J. Cline," who, as we learn from other sources, was Andrew J. Cline, Esq., formerly of Bedford, Pa.;-a highly respected gentle man who has been termed "the father" of the New Church in Pittsburgh. His letter led to a correspondence with the Rev. Richard De Charms, who, in November, 1841, Paid a memorable visit to the Pittsburgh Circle, to sow the seeds there of a movement which, after many years, resulted in the founding of the Academy of the New Church.


In his usual lively style Mr. De Charms describes his visit as follows in THE NEWCHURCHMAN for January, 1842, P. 433:

     On Monday, I proceeded on my way to Pittsburgh, stopping only while the stage changed horses at Bedford, to see my particular friend, that affectionate member of the church, S. M. Barclay, Esqr., but remaining two days at Greensburg. Here is a large portion of the family of the late Judge Young, whose long and affectionate adherence to the New Church will not soon be forgotten. O how my heart yearned with many a tender and fond recollection while I enjoyed once more the lavish hospitalities of his venerable roof. I could hardly realize that he himself was not there in bodily presence-just in the other room, pouring over those works of priceless wisdom; which he so much loved to study. I am sure his influence was on our spirits pointing them and leading them upward to their better and eternal home! May that influence descend and rest as the dew of Hermon on the hearts of those he loved and has left on earth! Three of his daughters, at their own suggestion, proceeded with me to Pittsburgh, and helped to constitute the society which was about to be instituted there. Mrs. Foster, the Judge's youngest daughter, wished to have her child baptized, and was desirous that the sphere of the sacred ceremony might be warmly shed upon the budding association. She was accompanied by her husband, who cordially united with her in the baptismal ceremony, although not yet himself a formal member of the New Church; and I feel it to be my duty to acknowledge here, with thankfulness, that he contributed liberally towards defraying the expenses of my journey.

     Arriving in Pittsburgh, I discovered, with regret, that I had made a mistake in the letter which I had written to announce my coming. Owing to the press of my many engagements, and the consequent hurry of writing several letters to the different places at which I was to officiate, I had unconsciously named the Baltimore for the Pittsburgh time so that the brethren in Pittsburgh were not looking for me till the following week. They were, therefore, not so well prepared as they wished. It was their desire to have procured some regular meeting house for me to preach in, and to have announced the preaching in the public papers. As it was, the meeting house of the Campbellite Baptists, or Disciples, could have been procured, but I preferred not preaching in a place consecrated to the worship of the old church. For I have not, heretofore, felt myself free, in such places, to preach New Church truths. There is something that restringes my spirit and hampers my utterance. I do not like to go into any man's house and pull it down, over his head. If the New Jerusalem were only a sect of the old Christian church, it might not be so. But, perhaps, I am here only confessing my weakness or my error. For why should not the preachers of the New Church go and teach in the houses of the Old Church, as the Lord and his disciples did in the synagogues of the Jews?


But such is my case; and whether it be well or not to confess it, the fact will explain why the brethren did not try to get an Old Church place of worship for me to preach in, and why our meetings were held in the private house of Brother J. H. Mellor. As he is the organist of an Episcopal church in Pittsburgh, and was not able to procure a substitute on the Sunday I was there, our meetings for worship were appointed in the afternoon and evening of that day, and a meeting was held at his house on the previous Saturday evening for the institution of the society. This arrangement was made because there was not time for all the exercises on the Sunday. A constitution having been drawn up, matured and adopted, it was signed, with the usual formalities, by eight persons on Saturday evening, and they were pronounced a society, with a benediction, under the title of "The New Jerusalem Society of the city of Pittsburgh and its vicinity." Two or three more members, who could not be present on Saturday, signed the constitution next day. In the afternoon of the Lord's Day, a discourse was delivered on baptism, and five were baptized, namely, Anna Aitken, an intelligent native of Scotland, whose husband, now deceased, was a lecturer on phrenology, and lived, with his wife, for some time in Pittsburgh without being able to find any New Church people there,-Henry Mayer Cline, an infant son of Andrew J. and Ann Cline,-Mary De Charms Foster, the infant daughter of Henry G. and Mary Jane Foster,-Louisa Price, and Charles Chauncey Mellor, children of John H. and Julia Ann Mellor. And in the evening a discourse was delivered on the Holy Supper, and that sacred ordinance administered to five communicants.

     I have not room here to say all that I could wish of the prospects of the New Church in Pittsburgh. I do not believe that the Church, as a visible body, can permanently abide, and grow prosperously, here, or anywhere, without the regular administration of its ordinances, and the continued preaching of its doctrines, by properly qualified ministers, set apart and supported in their office. All societies that begin without looking sooner or later to a provision of this sort, will sooner or later become extinct. New Church history already records facts in proof of this assertion, were it not manifestly true in the nature of things. Our brethren in Pittsburgh are aware of its truth, but their worldly circumstances are as yet not such as to afford them the pecuniary means of acting accordingly. The plan has been suggested, however, of uniting the various receivers of our doctrines in Pittsburgh and its vicinity with those in Steubenville and Wheeling, in a combined effort to support a minister between them. I have confident hopes that this plan will be carried out, and that it will be eminently conducive to the growth and health of the Lord's New Church in that quarter.

     We cannot forbear to add here from the Reminiscences of Mrs. Anna Aitken, ("auld Auntie Aitken"), concerning the same memorable occasion, as published in NEW CHURCH LIFE for 1891.


Mrs. Aitken was then the last surviving member of the original circle in Pittsburgh, a veritable "mother in Israel;" she was what may be called "a character,"-a most enthusiastic New Church soul, bright, keen, witty, and speaking with the quaintest Scotch accent. She and her husband, Andrew Aitken, had received the Heavenly Doctrine in Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1840, and in the summer of the same year emigrated to America and settled in Pittsburgh, where her husband died on February 18th, 1841.

     Mrs. Aitken thus describes the finding of companions in faith, and the first formation of the Pittsburgh society:

     An acquaintance of ours to whom we had talked about religious matters a good deal, and had acquired some knowledge regarding the claims of the New Church, was attracted to a volume which he saw lying upon the counter in a store where he happened to have some business, and on opening it, found it was Mr. Barrett's Lectures, and on inquiring as to who owned it, was told that it belonged to Mr. John Mellor, and, further, that he was a believer in views therein contained. He lost no time in finding that gentleman, telling him about me, and how anxious I was to find even one individual who could sympathize and reciprocate in the acknowledgment of the worth of the treasures of heavenly wisdom vouchsafed to the world in these latter days, and which often caused me to pause and ask myself, "Can it be possible that of all the multitudes of church-goers whom I meet on Sunday on their way to the many places of worship, not one among the number knows anything about the good tidings except one solitary woman?" and frequently questions arose in my mind causing me uneasiness; but the Arm of Truth invariably upheld me, and in the conflict I always came out the conqueror, and more and more confirmed in my convictions of the Divine Origin to which the Doctrines lay claim.

     Your readers may believe me when I tell them how much pleased I was, when, one day, two strange gentlemen called upon me, (I was then living at the house of my sister in Allegheny). They told me they had heard that I was alone, and wanted so much to find if there were any Newchurchmen in or about the neighborhood. I told them of my trouble, and showed them some of the works which we had brought with us from Scotland, and, of course, we became friends at once. Mr. Mellor invited me to his house, where afterwards the Society was formed.

     I am unable to give the particulars as to how it was brought about that the Rev. Richard De Charms visited us, but I remember how diligently we tried to hunt everywhere to find if others might possibly be found. The NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE had the name of Mr. Caleb Isbister printed in the list of Isolated Receivers. Him we found living at Sharpsburg, about six miles from the city.


He was immediately notified that his presence was invited to meet a few friends who were endeavoring to make some arrangements to have meetings, etc. Ere this, however, I may mention that the name of Mr. Andrew Cline was added to the number, and Mr. George Smith, who had lately arrived from Lancashire, England, and was a firm believer as well as the rest of us, which is a point not to be lost sight of as earnest and sincere acceptance of the great Truth of the Second Coming of the Lord may be said to be a great centre from which may flow a genuine desire and effort to give fixedness and stability to conviction. Well, as I have said above, it remains a mystery to me by what means the event was brought about, but well do I remember that sacred day in the month of November, 1841, when I was invited to the house of Mr. John Mellor, and there I met the parties above alluded to, and Mr. and Mrs. Foster, whose infant daughter, along with myself, was baptized by Mr. De Charms. It seems to me that prior to the meeting, perhaps a day or two, a constitution was written out by him, assisted by Mr. Cline. This was read and approved and our signatures affixed to it before the society was formally organized. I must not forget to state that Miss Elizabeth Young, (who afterward became Mrs. Woods), daughter of Judge Young, who was but recently deceased, was along with her sister, and also signed the constitution.

     Of the persons attending this first-New Church meeting in Pittsburgh, (which, by the way, the place on Saturday evening, November 6, 1841), but little is recorded. Besides the Persons mentioned above, there was present also a Mr. D. W. Coats, of Allegheny, of whom we know nothing but the name. Of Mr. A. J. Cline, we have already mentioned all that we know. Mr. John H. Mellor, the bookseller and organist, was probably the son of Mr. James S. Mellor, an old and faithful member of the New Church in Wheeling, West Virginia, and he himself remained for many years the most steady and representative member of the Pittsburgh Society during its days of small beginnings.

     Caleb Isbister was for many years the president of the little society, an office which, according to the Rev. David Powell, he was "utterly incompetent to fill." Mrs. Foster was the oldest daughter of judge Young, of Greensburg; and Elizabeth Young, (afterwards Mrs. Woods), was her younger sister. They were soon joined in Pittsburgh by the youngest sister, Mrs. Clopper. And Mrs. Aitken soon had the happiness to be joined in the New Church by her two sisters and their husbands,-Katherine, who married Mr. Thomas Hogan, and became the mother of two strong members of the Church, Miss Maria Hogan and Mrs. Norris,-and Margaret, who married Mr. Carnegie, a strong Newchurchman, and became the mother of the famous philanthropist, Andrew Carnegie.


Soon, also, other folks came over from Scotland and joined the Pittsburgh Society,-Alexander Pitcairn, and his two brothers, Robert and John; but all, not only the Pitcairns and the Carnegies, but all the others mentioned above, were in limited financial circumstances in those days, and could do but little for the cause of the New Church.

     In his second report to the Central Convention, (May 17, 1842), Mr. A. J. Cline mentions that the society in Pittsburgh now numbers twelve members, and that they have had meetings regularly every Sabbath. "We assemble together in the afternoon, use the book of worship, read from the Word and the Writings of the Church, and conclude by reading a sermon. Our reading is frequently arrested by remarks made by one or other of the members present, and thus useful discussion is often elicited and mutual instruction received." The cause of New Church Education was from the beginning close to the heart of the Church in Pittsburgh. "Are the children of the New Church in this country adequately provided for?" asks Mr. Cline. "Have they a proper supply of books, and is there abundant available means of promoting their spiritual growth and improvement in the Church? Might not something more be done than has yet been done for the purpose of convincing parents generally of the great importance of this sacred trust, and of the duty which devolves on them of rendering a strict and solemn account thereof to the Lord?"

     In the Journal of the Central Convention for 1845. We find the following report from Pittsburgh, signed by Caleb Isbister:

     In giving an account of the state of our society for the last year, I would say, that it has been prosperous. We have come out before the public, by having engaged a public room for our meetings on the Sabbath. Previously they had been held at the private residence of our much respected leader, A. J. Cline, Esqr. We have had a visit from the Rev. Mr. Powell, of Steubenville, O., who delivered some very interesting lectures, and baptized quite a number of children and adults. We have also given publicity to our library, by publishing a catalogue of the books in it, and inviting the public to the use of it.


One or two persons have joined the society as members; and there are several others who are regular attendants at our meetings. We have made some attempts at a Sunday School, by assembling the children together once a month. Our meetings are now held in the Rev. Mr. Todd's school room, Allegheny City.

     We have to regret the loss of the services of our much respected leader, Andrew J. Cline, Esqr., who has truly been a nursing father to this society. He is removing to Holidaysburg. We shall have to content ourselves as a weaned child; but our Lord may have appointeh him to gather into His kingdom others also, whose dwellings are not with us. The religious worship of the society is now led by leaders, who are appointed, for a limited period, from amongst the members of the society.

     This is the last report from the Pittsburgh Society to be found in any of the printed journal's of the Church, until the year 1858,-a silence thirteen years long! The history of the society during this interval must, therefore, be filled out from old letters now preserved in the Academy Archives,-chiefly those of the Rev. David Powell.

     Our younger readers will ask, Who was David Powell? He was a New Church minister, the son of David Powell, Sr., who was also a New Church minister, one of the very earliest in the Church. David Powell, Sr., was a brother-in-law of the Rev. Thomas Newport, who received the doctrine of the New Church in the State of Delaware in the year 1799; soon afterwards he moved to Lebanon, Ohio,-some twenty miles to the northwest of Cincinnati,-where he began to evangelize among the new settlers with the result that in 1812 he was able to form a New Church circle, known as the "Turtle Creek" Society, and, in 1832, helped to organize the "Western Convention of the New Jerusalem," which in 1848 resolved itself into the Ohio Association and united with the General Convention.

     David Powell, Sr., received the Writings in 1798, through Mr. Newport, and in 1817 formed a small New Church society at Steubenville, Ohio, on the Ohio river, some twenty-five miles north of Wheeling and about the same distance from Pittsburgh. He was ordained by Adanu Hurdus, and died in 1823, a faithful, earnest and much beloved man.

     His son, David Powell, Jr., was born at Steubenville in 1909, and for many years conducted a school there, but gradually entered into the missionary work of the New Church, and in 1842 was ordained by the Rev. C. J. Doughty, of New York.


He served successively at Danby, N. Y.; Wheeling, West Virginia; Pomeroy and Middleport, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and finally at Darby, near Philadelphia, where he died, July 5th, 1854. Mr. Powell was, doctrinally, one of the soundest and strongest men in the Church, and was the closest friend and supporter of the Rev. Richard De Charms in the Central Convention. After his removal to Darby he became intimately associated with his younger friend, William H. Benade, and it was Mr. Benade who, in 1856, edited and published the AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF THE REV. DAVID POWELL.

     From the letters of Mr. Powell we learn that in January, 1845, he delivered a course of six lectures in Pittsburgh to audiences of from, 100 to 150 persons, baptized ten children and administered the Lord's Supper to twelve communicants. The lectures were delivered "in the chapel of Mr. Tassey, who gave notice in the city papers that he would, next Sunday, deliver a lecture in answer, to explain and defend the Orthodox doctrine of the Trinity."

     In February and March, 1846, Mr. Powell was again at work in Pittsburgh. The society had now rented a school room in Allegheny City, meeting every Sunday. "I think good was done to the Society itself, for an impression had previously prevailed that 're-baptism' into the New Church was unnecessary. This matter was pretty freely discussed on both sides. After I had presented the subject in its true light, as I understand it, I left them free to think of it for themselves. It had the result, however, that before I left nearly all who had not been baptized into the New Church came forward and received that ordinance. The last Sabbath was a very pleasant day. Just twelve received the ordinance of baptism,-ten adults and two youths. After this about twenty partook of the sacrament of the Holy Supper. The Society has fully doubled within the last year in resident members, though Mr. Cline and family have moved away."

     In July of the same year he writes: "The Messrs. Highbys may now be looked upon as receivers. . . .


I had also the pleasure of learning that a few strangers who came to hear my lectures and sermons last winter, have continued to attend the meetings of the society ever since."

     Continuing his monthly visits to Pittsburgh, from Steubenville, where he was located, Mr. Powell writes on October 5, 1847: "In, Pittsburgh about twelve weeks have been spent. During that time twenty-seven public discourses were delivered in the Hall of the 'President Engine House.' This is where the Society now hold its regular meetings every Sabbath." In December of the same year he writes: "I still preach in Pittsburgh the first two Sabbaths of each month. In the afternoon I am engaged in giving a series of discourses contrasting the New Church doctrines with the leading views of the Old." . . . "I now look upon Pittsburgh as an important point in our Church, second only to Cincinnati in the West."

     In October, 1848 Mr. Powell settled as resident pastor in Pittsburgh, at a yearly salary of $400.00. The "Apollo Hall," on Fourth Street, had been rented for the services. The attendance was steadily increasing, Mr. David McCandless and Mr. J. J. Henderson being among the new receivers. During the year there was great excitement in the city on account of several prominent members of the Presbyterian Church being tried and excommunicated on account of Swedenborgian "heresy."

     From the letters of the year 1849 we learn that an addition of twenty members had been made during the: past year, and that there were now fifty adult members, with twenty children in the Sunday School conducted by Mrs. Anna Aitken. (Andrew Carnegie and John Pitcairn were among the pupils in this school.)

     In, the year 1850 some of the new converts began to give a great deal of trouble to the minister, especially a group of three or four ratiocinating lawyers who had developed notions of their own about the non-eternity of the hells and the lawfulness of intercourse with spirits; the patient minister reasoned in vain with them; the contributions to the Church began to fall off and in September, 1850, Mr. Powell was forced to terminate his engagement in Pittsburgh and return to Steubenville.

     For seven or eight years now the history of the New Church in that city is almost a blank.


The society had no resident pastor, and no annual reports have been found in any of the contemporary journals of the Church. The Central Convention had become defunct, and the Pittsburgh Society did not join the General Convention until 1859. Moreover, we have seen it stated in print that the Book of Records of the Society has disappeared, which would be unfortunate, if true. Investigation should be made in Pittsburgh. As late as 1891 the book was still preserved, for Mrs. Aitken, in her "Reminiscences," published in NEW CHURCH LIFE for that year, says that "having procured the Society Journal, I find a pretty full and accurate account has been kept."

     From a letter by the Rev. W. H. Benade to the Rev. J. P. Stuart, dated May 24, 1853, we learn that he had just visited Pittsburgh, (though probably not his first visit). "I managed to get as far as Pittsburgh, week before last, but could not spend more than that week with them. There is some little stir among the Calvinists of the place; some inquiry among intelligent men. If they only had more frequent preaching I think something could be done there. I baptized nine persons, three adults and six children."

     In another letter to Mr. Stuart, dated Jan. 22, 1856, Mr. Benade says: "Through Mr. De Charms I hear that our friend, Courtney, and other lawyers of Pittsburgh, have started anew some old notions,-about the contradictions of Swedenborg, the non-eternity of hell, the final restoration of al the wicked to heaven, and man's non-free agency in spiritual matters. Why is it that so many of our seemingly strongest men will not read as they should? And how can they find such doctrines in Swedenborg? They propose publishing a book for private circulation, containing 200 questions."

     In 1858 we find in the: Journal of the Pennsylvania Association a printed report concerning a visit by Mr. Benade to Pittsburgh. Starting from Philadelphia, July 10, he stopped on his way to Altoona "to call on some members of the Church who had recently taken up their residence there." These were Mr. John Pitcairn, Sr., and his wife, who for a time lived at Altoona with their son, Robert.


Arriving in Pittsburgh, Mr. Benade was the guest of Mr. David McCandless, and on this occasion baptized six adults and four children. Concluding his reports he states that "Upon no former occasion have I experienced so pleasant, so warm and earnestly devout a sphere of worship in that city as at that time."

     On August 25, 1859, "the First Society of Pittsburgh and Vicinity" was admitted into the Pennsylvania Association and thereby became affiliated with the General Convention. During 1859-1860 the Society received visits from various New Church ministers, T. P. Rodman, B. F. Barrett, W. H. Benade, and Abiel Silver. Mr. Henry Higby was then the president of the society, and John J. Henderson, secretary. In 1860 they were visited by the Rev. J. C. Ager and the Rev. A. E. Beaman; they now had regular services in a large upper room on Fourth Street, between Wood and Market Streets, Mr. L. J. Koethen being the leader, and Mr. E. Westervelt the superintendent of the Sunday School. In 1863 the Society secured the regular ministrations of Mr. Benade "for a portion of the year." And in 1864 they were able to rent and furnish a hall at the corner of Sixth and Wood Streets and to call Mr. Benade to become their resident pastor.

     Henceforth the reports from Pittsburgh became regular, and from them the history of the New Church in that city may be easily reconstructed. The main features will appear in the biography of John Pitcairn.

     (To be continued.)


     "And it shall be our justice, if we observe to do all these commandments before She Lord our God, as He hath commanded us." (Deut. 6:25.)

     By the commandments of the Lord are meant not only the Ten Commandments that were delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, but also every truth of the Word. Every truth that has been revealed by the Lord is a commandment that is to be lived. There is no truth in the Word that is not intended to be lived, for every truth of the Word has relation to life.


There are indeed many things which appear to be of faith only; as, that there is a God; that the Lord who is God, is the Redeemer and Savior; that there is a heaven and a hell; that there is a life after death; and many others. It appears as if these and similar truths were not to be lived but are only to be believed. This, however, is but an appearance. Every truth is to be lived, for there is no truth that is intended to be received by the understanding only. Truths are to enter into the will also, and thus they are to be loved, and man is to will to do them from love.

     But take, for example, the truth that the Lord Jesus Christ is the only God and that consequently He is the Creator, Redeemer and Savior, how is this truth to be lived? This truth is lived by a man when he looks to the Lord in his daily life, when he shuns evils as sins against Him, thus when he shuns evils for the Lord's sake, that is, because the Lord has commanded that evils are to be shunned. This truth is lived also when man in his worship has regard to the Lord only, when he sees the Lord Jesus Christ before himself in spirit and directs his prayers to Him only. When a man does this he lives the truth that the Lord Jesus Christ is the one only God.

     It is moreover a doctrine of the Church that all things of the will and all things of the understanding are together in the works that are done by the body. The body can do nothing of itself. Every least thing that is done by, the body is done from the will by means of the understanding, and, therefore, such as are the will and the understanding such are the deeds of the body. From this it follows that the truths that a man knows and believes and loves he also lives. He lives every single one of them. They are present in all his deeds and qualify them. Man acts from his love in accordance with his faith; and faith consists of truths, and consequently all the truths that are believed by man are in his works, and thus are lived.

     But by works are meant not only acts but also speech, and, therefore, the Lord said: "I say unto you, that every idle weird that man shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned." (Matth. 12:36.) This shows that man's words are a part of his deeds and that these also are included in his works according to which he will be judged after death.


To take the Lord's name in vain, that is, to blaspheme the Lord and the Word, is to do what is evil. To speak ill of the neighbor, and thus to endeavor to destroy his good name is to do evil to him. In general, to speak against what is good and what is true, is to commit evil deeds, and he who does this lives contrary to the commandments of the Word. But he who speaks becomingly and reverently of the Lord and of the Word, lives well. And he who speaks well of his neighbor lives well, for he lives a life of charity. Thus, he who speaks in favor of the truths of the Word does good. The truths of the Word have been given in order that they may be thought and in order that we may talk about them. They are to be preached in the churches, we are to teach them diligently to our children and we are to converse about them. All who love the truths of the Church like to talk about them, "for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." (Matth. 12:34.) There is no Divine truth that we may not talk about, for there is no truth, no matter how interior, that may not in a certain manner be understood by man. Consequently there is no truth that is not to be lived. Those truths that appear to be of faith only are not things that are simply to be stored up in the memory and then to be of no use. Truths such as these, that there is one God, that the Lord Jesus Christ is that God, that there is a heaven and a hell, that there is a life after death, are truths that are to be lived as well as the Ten Commandments. And they are lived by man when he never speaks against them but speaks in favor of them, and when he imparts them to others when opportunity is given. A commandment given to the sons of Israel was that they should speak of the Lord's words, for it was said to them: "Ye shall teach them to your children, speaking of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." (Deut. 11:19.) This command was given not only to the sons of Israel but to all men.

     Thus to speak in favor of the truths of the Word is to live those truths, it is to do the Lord's commandments. And this is one way in which those things which appear to be of faith only are to be lived and ultimated.


     Furthermore, it must be borne in mind that there are not only works of the body, but there are also works of the mind. The works of the body are the speech and the acts, and the works of the mind are the thoughts, intentions, and endeavors. Thus by living the truths of the Word is meant not only to ultimate them in the works of the body, but also to think about them, and to think from them, for we are taught thus in the Writings: "To commit knowledges from the Word to life is to think from them, when one, left to himself thinks from his spirit, and also to will them; and do them; for this is to love truths because they are truths;" (A. E. 193.) Thus to think from the truths of the Word is to commit those truths to life. This is also what the Lord taught when He said to those who asked Him what they should do that they might work the works of God. His reply was: "'This is the work of God, that ye believe in Him whom He hath sent." (John 6:28.) A man's faith and his thoughts are one, for he thinks those things that he believes to be true. And if a man when he is alone, when he is not in the sphere and under the influence of others, if he then thinks from the truths of the Word, then he lives the truth, then his spirit lives it, and the spirit is the man himself. If a man when he is alone thinks that there is a God, that the Lord Jesus Christ is that God, that there is a heaven and a hell, that there is a life after death, and other truths that appear to be of faith only, he then lives those truths in his spirit, and consequently they are also ultimated in the works of the body.

     Evil thoughts as well as evil deeds are works of darkness, that are to be shunned, for it is said in Isaiah: "Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts, and let him return unto the Lord, and He will have mercy upon him, and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon." (55:7.) Moreover, we are forbidden in the Word to take thought for the morrow, or to take thought for raiment. To break this command of the Lord is to do evil. Consequently to think evil is to do evil. And to think from the Word, to think what is good and what is true, is to do that which is well pleasing to the Lord. To do the truth is to think that it is so. When a man hears the Word read or when he reads it at home, if he then thinks that what he hears or reads is true, and permits no doubts to enter his mind, he then lives even those truths which appear to be of faith only.


     It is said in the Word that man after death will be judged according to his works, but by this is not meant that he will be judged according to his works such as they appear outwardly before men. By the works according to which man is to be judged are meant the intention and the thought that are in the works. Thus man will be judged according to the works of his spirit rather than according to the works of the body. For the works of the spirit are in the works of the body, and such as are the works of the spirit such are the works of the body. Intentions and endeavors, as well as thoughts, are works of the spirit. He who is regenerating constantly intends and endeavors to think from the truths of the Word and to live them. His constant intention and endeavor is to understand the truths of the Word more and more interiorly and to love them more and more perfectly and thus also he lives even those truths that appear to be of faith only.

     It may be seen, therefore, that there is no truth in the Word that is not to be lived. There is no truth that does not have relation to life. A doctrine that does not regard life and does not lead to the good of life is not a truth; it is a falsity and a dead thing. Truth and life are inseparably conjoined. They also who shun evils as sins over truths for the sake of life. Every truth that a man learns increases the light in his understanding. Thus the more truths a man possesses the more perfectly can he believe in and love the Lord and the more clearly does he see how to do His will. Thus every truth of the Word has relation to life, every truth is a commandment that is to be lived, "And it shall be our justice, if we observe to do all these commandments before the Lord our God, as He hath commanded us."

     The Lord's commandments are not truly kept unless they are kept from love and faith. Within the good works of the body there must be the good works of the spirit. Every one could be compelled to do the Lord's commandments externally, but no one can be compelled to love the truth and to have faith in it. The Jews, for example, were driven by means of punishments and miracles to keep the law, for they were unwilling, and, therefore, unable to love the Lord and to believe in Him. They kept no commandment and no precept from love, thus not from freedom, and so they were a race of servants.


The Lord came into the world to gift men with freedom, for He came to establish an internal Church, a Church in which men were not to be compelled to do His commandments, but in which they were to do them from love, thus from freedom, The Lord, therefore, said to His disciples: "Henceforth I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what His Lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of My Father I have made known unto you." (John 15:15.) At the time of the Lord's Coming the Church on earth consisted of servants, but after His coming the Church was to be constituted of free men, of the Lord's friends, of such as served Him from love. Any one who keeps the commandments of the Lord for external reasons only, is a servant, and is not of the Church. The Church consists of free men. It consists of those who are free themselves and are willing that all others should be free. That man may be of the Church, therefore, he must keep the truths of the Word from love.

     And so far as any one does all the commandments of the Lord from love so far he is just, that is, so far he acquires charity to the neighbor, for by the just are meant those who are in charity. The Doctrines teach that all those who are in the good of charity are called the "just," not that they are just from themselves, but from the Lord, whose justice is appropriated to them. "They who believe themselves just from themselves, or made so just that there is no longer anything of evil in them, are not among the just, but among the unjust; for they attribute good to themselves, and also feel self-merit on account of it, and such can never adore the Lord from true humiliation; so that those who in the Word are called the just are those who know and acknowledge that all good is from the Lord, and that all evil is from themselves, that is, is theirs from hell." (A. C. 5069.)

     Justice is acquired so far as man exercises justice; and he exercises justice as far as he acts with his neighbor from the love of what is just and right; justice dwells in the good itself or in the use itself which he does.

     Thus so far as any one does the truths of the Word from love so far he receives justice from the Lord, according to these words: "And it shall be our justice, if we observe to do all these commandments before the Lord our God, as He hath commanded us." Amen.




     In considering the subject of Spiritual House-building, we find it necessary to refer briefly to certain well-known teachings of the Heavenly Doctrine, one of which is that when we come into the spiritual world, after our decease in the natural world, we are in the human form, as perfectly, indeed, as it is possible for us to be.

     The belief that men and women, when they depart into the spiritual world, on arrival there become minds without form, which fly about in the air, is erroneous. On one occasion Swedenborg told the good spirits of this belief, and they became indignant, and requested him to declare the truth that they were in a perfect human form, with faces, eyes, ears, arms, hands, and feet. The angels wonder and are grieved at the ignorance that prevails on the earth with regard to this truth, that man lives altogether as man when he comes into the spiritual world.

     Admitting this well-known doctrine, we must also consider another akin to it, that of home and habitation in the spiritual world. In the natural world we find no idea so universal and absorbing as the idea of home, a dwelling, a house to Five in. The correctness of this statement is fully borne out in the commercial world. No branch of trade receives more general attention than that of the building trade, thus-illustrating the universality of the idea of home in the common mind. This is true of the spiritual world. In the Writings we read, respecting the habitations in heaven: "I have several times spoken with angels, and said that at this day scarcely any one would believe that they have habitations and mansions, some because they do not see them, some because they do not know that angels are men, some because they look upon heaven as empty space and believe angel's to be ethereal forms who live in ether." (H. H. 183.) But that there are houses in which we live when we come into the other world is clearly taught. Swedenborg says, "As often as I have spoken with the angel's, face to face, so often I have been with them in their houses." (H. H. 184.) He also tells us that their houses are like the houses upon earth, with parlors, rooms, and bed-chambers; and round about are gardens, shrubberies, and fields. (H. H. 184.)


     Another well-known doctrine to which we must refer briefly in considering this question of spiritual house-building, is that the kind of men and women we will find ourselves to be when we come into the spiritual world, and the kind of houses we shall live in there, will depend altogether upon the kind of men and women we are while here. No one becomes an angel, or comes into heaven, except one who carries the angelic quality with him out of the world. (D. P. 60.) The houses we shall live in the other world will vary according to every man's state; magnificent for those who are in higher, less so for those who are in inferior states. Man carries along with him into the other life all things which he had known in the life of the body, nor is anything wanting. (A. C. 7502.)

     We find, then, these three things to be true that man after his decease in this world, lives as a man in the spiritual world; that he lives in a house there; and that the kind of a house it will be depends upon the kind of a life he led while in, the world.

     By way of application, I will relate a story told by the Rev. Oliver Dyer. Some fifty years ago there was a drunken carpenter in Lockport, N. Y., named Alton, who was noted for shiftlessness and dishonesty. His wife was an industrious woman, who did a, good deal of work in the family of a gentleman named Mitchell, who was a member of Congress for that district. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell took a deep interest in Mrs. Alton, and resolved to give her a permanent home. For that purpose Mr. Mitchell arranged to have a small house built on a lot which he owned in that part of the town, which was known as Pioneer Hill. Hoping to encourage Alton he gave him the job of building the house, without letting him know for what purpose he was having it erected. While Mr. Mitchell was absent in Washington, Alton went on with his job, spinning it out through the fall, winter and spring, and cheating his employer both as to the lumber and the work he put into the house, in every way that he possibly could. When Mr. Mitchell returned, in the middle of the summer, Alton told him that the house was all finished in the best style, adding: "There ain't a better but house on Pioneer Hill than that house of yours."


"Very well," said Mr. Mitchell, "then you go home and tell Mrs. Alton to move into it, and here is a deed to her for the property. So you see, Alton, that you will have a nice house as long as you live." Alton took the deed, and walked away like one in a dream. The old villain was dazed at the discovery that, instead of having cheated his friend, he had been persistently and elaborately cheating himself. "Oh, ef I'd only a knowed it was my own house I was a buildin'," he muttered over and over again. He never got over the chagrin occasioned by the discovery of his folly, but felt its sting grow constantly sharper, as the defects in the house, which were due to his dishonesty, became more and more apparent with the lapse of time.

     This story seems to, be particularly appropriate in connection with the Subject of spiritual house-building. People are apt to cheat themselves, spiritually, in the same way as did this unfortunate man, Alton, materially. In trying to put unsound timber or unfaithful work into the house of another, they are surely giving character to their own eternal residence, and the more successful they are in cheating others as to the things of time, the more terribly: they cheat themselves as to the things of eternity. "With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured unto you again." (Matt. vii, 2.)


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     Friends of the Academy will be interested to know that the exact date of the founding of the Academy has at last been definitely ascertained. The original book of records, kept by Mr. Benade from 1874 to 1877, and then handed over to the Rev. J. P. Stuart, has never been found, and none of the four founders could recall the date of the initial meeting in Pittsburgh, in the year 1874, but in going over some financial records, in 1891, Mr. Walter C. Childs found an old check for $500, Mr. John Pitcairn's first contribution to the Academy, dated January 14th, 1814. This recalled the first meeting, and January 14th was henceforth celebrated as "Founder's Day."

     Quite recently, however, a long lost diary, kept by Mr. Pitcairn during the year 1874, has turned up, and in it there was found the following entry under Monday, January twelfth: "Mr. Benade, Frank Ballou, Walter C. Childs and myself lunched together today. Organized a New Church Club by electing Mr. Benade President, W. C. Childs Secretary, and Frank Ballou Treasurer." From an entry under private expenditures, during the same year, we find that the check for $500 was written two days after the initial meeting of the founders.

     From THE YOUNG NEW CHURCH MAN for October, 1916, we learn that the roll of Volunteers from the New Church in Great Britain now numbers 1,261. Accrington, the largest society of the General Conference, heads the list with 120 volunteers, while Radcliffe follows with 109. The list of young men killed is growing more and more appalling, being seventy-one up to October; we do not know the number of those wounded or disabled. If this represents the loss of so small a body as the New Church (numbering in Great Britain a little over six thousand members), what must be the loss in the Empire as a whole? Our contemporary has been publishing a portrait gallery of the fallen young heroes,-mostly handsome lads of 18 or 19 years, many with well known New Church names and of the fourth and fifth generations in the Church.


Never has the New Church passed through such times of trial, and the end is not yet in sight.

     The Rev. J. F. Buss, in the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for October, 1916, calls attention to "the striking coincidence in positions taken and conclusions reached," between the paper on "The Divine Human," by Prof. Odhner, in NEW CHURCH LIFE for July, 1916, and a paper on the same subject by Mr. Buss, published by him in MORNING LIGHT, thirty years ago. After comparing the two articles in parallel columns of amazing similarity, Mr. Buss observes: "It is the truly remarkable similarity of thought, reasoning and conclusions of two independent thinkers and students of the Doctrines, as exhibited in articles published at an interval of thirty years, which has led us to reprint the earlier of the two in the present issue; and thus to give all New Church students who have access to Mr. Odhner's article-and Mr. Odhner himself-the opportunity of reading his and our own side by side. They may thus find greater help in their study of the sublime and profound subject concerned, than by the reading of either by itself."

     For the very same purpose we reproduce the paper by Mr. Buss in our present issue, with the observation that Mr. Buss states in a nutshell and with wonderful clearness the identical position which has required many pages in several issues of the LIFE for development and exposition. It should be remembered, however, that these articles represent only the convictions of the individual writers, and do not, as far as we know, represent a view generally adopted in the New Church.

     Mr. O. E. Prince, of London, has presented a series of interesting sketches of "Continental New Church workers" in the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, the sixth of the series dealing with the aged Prof. Charles Byse, of Lausanne, Switzerland. It appears that M. Byse was of the ancient denomination of the Vaudois or Valdenses, a primitive sect of "Reformers before the Reformation," which has survived through ages of incredible persecutions.


We have long looked upon them as a possible field for the New Church, on account of certain truths of faith which they held in common with us. M. Byse, we learn, was one of the founders of the "Society Vandoisei de Theologie," which is still flourishing.

     The story of his conversion to the New Church brings to light the name of a "Nicodemus" who has not been very well known in the history of the New Church in France. "It was in January, 1880, that M. Byse first became acquainted with the Writings of Swedenborg. He preached for a few months at Jouy-en-Josas, (Seine et Olise), near Versailles, in a chapel frequented by the Mallets, a family of bankers in Paris. The head of the firm, Baron Alphonse Mallet, finding that his preaching diverted from that of other ministers, spoke to him about Swedenborg, having subsequently long conversations with him on the subject, besides an active correspondence. Baron Mallet held a very high position among French financiers, being 'Regent de la Banque de France, president of the Compagnie Generale d'Assurances sur la Vie. etc. It was through him that M. Byse also made the acquaintance of M. and Madame Chevrier, of Paris, who are not unknown to English New Church people."


      (Adopted from the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for October, 1916, where it is reprinted from MORNING LIGHT of June 26th, 1886.)

     One day, very shortly before the Jewish feast of Pentecost-corresponding to our Whitsuntide-somewhat less than nineteen hundred years ago, the eleven disciples of the Lord were assembled together in an upper room, the doors of which they had closed and secured for fear of the Jews, who, a few short weeks previously, had brought their Master, JESUS, to a shameful and cruel death. Since that tragic event, several individual disciples had reported to the remainder that the Lord was alive, and they had seen Him.


Such a marvelous report those who had not had sensible evidence of the fact were slow to believe; and, on the day referred to, they were conversing together about the matter. And, while they were thus talking an event more remarkable still, perhaps, occurred; for, suddenly, without any announcement, without any forcible or other opening of the bolted doors, without any discernible means of ingress, "Jesus Himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, 'Peace be unto you!' But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. And He saith unto them, 'Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts? Behold My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see Me have.' And when He had thus spoken, He showed them His hands and His feet." (Luke xxiv. 36-40.)

     The significance of these words for Newchurchmen is different from, and incomparably superior to, their significance for those who are not of the New Church. To the latter, they are simply a record of "facts," and convey no meaning beyond the one that the things the words state are facts. To the Newchurchman, however, the lord has now, in making His Second Advent, revealed the Spiritual Laws which are capable of making these "facts" intelligible. And for the purpose of showing the significance these words bear for Newchurchmen, we cannot do better than produce some of the statements of the Writings of the Church, as to what it is that the passage teaches. It teaches, seeing that "flesh and bones," "hands and feet," are the "ultimates," or the lowest and last things belonging to a human being, that the Lord glorified this lowest part of His own human nature, and took it with Him into heaven. (A. E. 41, 513, 619, 1087; A. C. 10044, etc.) It teaches, that, contrary to the manner of men, the Lord took with Him, from the whole human body, even as to the flesh and bones, and declared that He was; then, a man, not only as to the spirit, but as to the body as well. (T. C. R. 170; H. H. 316; A. C. 1729, 5078.) It teaches, further, that whereas, before the Incarnation, Jehovah, or the Father, could only communicate with men in the world by temporarily assuming the person of an angel-who has not "flesh and bones"-after His glorification, He could effect such communication in His own Person, because He then had "flesh and bones," and was Jehovah-Man in the fullest possible sense. (A. C. 9315.)


It teaches, also, as a consequence of this, that "God is now more a man than the angels." (A. E. 1112.)

     According to these statements, therefore, the Lord now has a body, including "flesh and bones," and "hands and feet." But, nevertheless, He, having such a body, passed through closed doors; and, on several occasions, after manifesting Himself, He suddenly, and as if miraculously, became invisible.

     Now, the question arises, Was this body which the Lord possessed after His resurrection, similar in character to that which He possessed during His life in the world? Was this body, with its "flesh and bones," its "hands and feet," like ours? Was it, in a word, material. The fact that it was not subject to the laws of matter; that it could, and did, pass through closed in and bolted doors; that it could, and did, become instantly invisible; that it could be, and was, seen, without being recognized, by those who were the Lord's intimate companions during His earthly life, and who were actually thinking and speaking about Him at the time-as occurred in the "walk to Emmaus;" all these things go to prove most conclusively that the Lord's body, after His resurrection, was not material. But more the Doctrines of the Church tell us it was Divine, (A. E. 1112, etc.); and they assure us, also, as a universal truth, that, in what is essentially Divine, there is, and can be, nothing material. (A. C. 5576.) According to New Church doctrine, therefore, the Lord's resurrection body was not material; and, to speak of it, or think of it, as being material-to designate it a "Divine-Material Body," for instance-is contrary to those doctrines.

     But there is another point. Since the Lord's resurrection body was Divine, it was Infinite. We are, indeed, expressly told, in the Writings, that by glorification the Lord's body was made into the likeness of His soul, which was, and all along had been, the Infinite Jehovah Himself, (A.C. 10,125; H. H. 316); and, in another place, that "His very body became Jehovah." (A. C. 1729.)


And what is Infinite can never be seen, in its own true intrinsic character, by any finite creature. (T. C. R. 28.) We are sure, therefore, that the Lord's resurrection (or Divine) body, being Infinite, was not seen, in its own true intrinsic character, by the disciples. They saw it, true, but as though it was of a certain size and shape: its size capable of being measured by space, and its shape capable of being seen and compassed by the eye of man. But what is Infinite cannot be measured by space; for, to be thus measurable, it would have to have bounds or limits; it would have to end somewhere; and in the Infinite, bounds, limits, and terminations cannot exist. Nor again, can that which has no spatial limits be an object of sight, to a finite creature. This is perfectly obvious.

     But the Lord's body, before and at His crucifixion and burial, was finite and material; and it could be seen, and was seen, in its own intrinsic character, by all who fulfilled the necessary conditions of seeing any natural object. After His resurrection, as we have seen, this was not the case. In the interval between His burial and resurrection, therefore, some very great and important change, in the body of the Lord, must have taken place. And the change was its being made Divine. Everything wherein His body, after His resurrection, differed from His body before and at His crucifixion and burial, was the result of this fact: the fact, namely, in the interval, it had been "made Divine."

     This, therefore, is the key to the whole matter. But the meaning and force of this statement, that the Lord's body was "made Divine," seems to have been very seldom Clearly discerned and firmly grasped. To understand it properly, it is necessary that we should know that all things that exist were created by the Lord out of Himself. (D. L. W. 197, 198.) Creation out of nothing is wholly impossible, (T. C. R. 76), and the idea of it intrinsically absurd. The true doctrine is that the Lord Himself is the only Substance, out of which all the things that are were created by Him. (D. L. W. 197, 198.) In Himself, however, the Substance which the Lord is, is Infinite and altogether Divine. But, when He created objects and creatures out of Himself, they thus became finite, and were, consequently, from the moment of their creation neither Infinite nor Divine. (T. C. R. 29.)


The lowest of all created things is matter-whether we can define it or not; and the lowest of all the things belonging to man is his material body. And our Lord's material body, while He was in the world as a man, was, in this respect, exactly like ours. It, consequently, was a created object, finite and material, and not either Divine or Infinite. By creation, therefore, the Divine is made material. By the creation of the natural humanity of our Lord, through the means of the Virgin mother, the One Only Divine Substance was made into a particular material body, in what, with sufficient accuracy for our present purpose, we may call the usual way. By glorification, however-which took place gradually, and by means of temptations-He, in the end, made this material body Divine and thus He effected in it an exactly contrary process to that by which it was brought into existence as a natural objection the natural world. And this was done-although never done save in His case-in accordance with a fixed Divine Law, which is revealed, in the Writings of the New Church, in the following statement:

     The Divine Itself is pure love; and pure love is as a fire more ardent than the fire of the sun of this world; wherefore, if the Divine Love, in its purity, flowed into any angel, spirit or malt, he would latterly perish. . . . Lest, therefore, the angels should be hurt by the influx of heat from the Lord as the Sun [of heaven], they are individually veiled by a certain thin and suitable cloud, by which the heat flowing in from that sun is tempered. Unless, therefore, the Lord's Humanity were Divine, it could never have been so united to the Divine Itself, which is called the Father, that they might be one, according to the Lord's words in John xiv. 10, and other places; for what so receives the Divine must be altogether Divine. What is not Divine would be completely dissipated by such a union. (A. C. 6849)

     This is the doctrine: if the Divine should be brought into immediate contact with any created thing, that created thing would be instantly and entirely dissipated by the contact. It would "utterly perish." Now this was exactly what took place in reference to the Lord's material body-which, being material, was "not Divine." By the process of glorification-of which temptations were the means the Lord, gradually and successively, brought down the Divine Itself, which was all along in Him as His soul, nearer and nearer to His material body, which was the lowest part of His humanity, and, consequently, the East to be glorified.


After the material body, being already dead, was placed in the sepulcher (see DE DOMINO, p. 42), the Divine Itself was brought right down to it, and thus into immediate contact with it. And the inevitable result of this was, that which is asserted in the doctrine already quoted: the material body of the Lord, that is to say, was instantly and "completely dissipated," and "utterly perished."

     But here we must be on our guard against ascribing to the phrase "was completely dissipated," or "utterly perished," an erroneous meaning. It cannot well mean resolved into the elements of nature-earth, aqueous vapor, gas, etc. This resolution into the elements of nature is what happens, gradually, to the body of a man, after being placed in the grave. And the Lord differs from men in the respect that, while men leave their bodies in the grave never to resume them, He rose from the sepulchre with His whole body complete, and took it with Him into heaven. (T.C.R. 109, 170; H. H. 316; A. E. 41, 1087.) And there is, in the case of the dead bodies of men, no immediate contact of the Divine Itself to effect their dissipation. That is effected simply by the withdrawal of the spirit from the body. But, in the Lord's case, as the whole doctrine of His glorification testifies, the immediate contact of the Divine Itself, with His material body, happened. The "complete dissipation," the "utter destruction," which would result from immediate contact with the Divine Itself, cannot be less than absolute cessation of existence, in respect both to the complete object and to its constituent elements. And this conclusion is confirmed by the consideration that, when a dead body is resolved into the elements of nature, it does not "utterly perish." For it does not utterly cease to exist; it continues to exist, but in a different form. The "complete dissipation," or "utter destruction," with which we are concerned may, therefore, be described as the process of "decreation." And this would take place, by the thing which undergoes the process being absorbed by [or, resolved, or taken back, into] the Divine, in immediate contact with which it had been.


     This, then, is what became of the Lord's material body. After its burial, it absolutely and finally ceased to exist, as a finite and created thing-and this, both in its entirety and in respect to its constituent elements-and was, absolutely and finally, taken up into, or absorbed by, the Divine in which it originated. And thus it was "made Divine." From that moment, therefore, being absorbed by the Divine, or "made Divine," it ceased to have any separate existence at all; it became Jehovah Himself; and, being Jehovah, or essentially and truly Divine in its own right, it had put on all the characteristics of essential Divinity; it could not possibly, therefore, be subject to the laws of matter, or space and time; as it was in itself, moreover, it could not even be seen, or known, by any man, spirit or angel.

     Granting this to be true, the further question arises. Did the disciples, then, not see the Lord's body at all? Were they, in supposing they saw it, the victims of a delusion? They did see it. He Himself "showed them. His hands and His feet." The truth that they did not, because they could not, see it as it was in its own, intrinsic nature and essence, affords no countenance to the suggestion that they were deluded: it simply testifies to the fact, that, whereas the Lord's body was Divine and Infinite, they were only human and finite. They were, then, not deluded. What they saw was the body of the Lord, although not as it existed in Him. More precisely, perhaps, what they saw was a real presentation to their senses of the Lord's body, by Himself. He revealed Himself to them; and they saw Him-in agreement with the universal spiritual law-according to their states, (A. C. 3235, 8814, 8519, and many other places), which "states," of necessity, included their conceptions of Him. And this is the way in which, we would submit, it was effected. They were in a spiritual State; and the Lord Himself flowed into, or acted upon, their spirits in such a manner as to affect their senses in accordance with the laws which govern all sensation in the spiritual world. He thus descended-still in agreement with spiritual law-into the region of their senses; and there they saw Him, as they remembered Him and as they thought about Him.


They remembered Him as a man like themselves; they saw Him in that guise-"He showed them His hands and His feet:" they thought of Him as wounded and mutilated; they saw Him in that condition-"He saith to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger and behold My hands; and reach hither thy hand and thrust it into My side; and be not faithless but believing.'" (John xx. 27) According to one spiritual law, they could not see the Lord, as He was in Himself, at all; according to another spiritual law they could see Him, but only in accordance with their states, their recollection of Him and their thoughts about Him-and thus they did see Him. And they were assured, by the sight, that He was their Lord, and that He was risen indeed. For His New Church, in conclusion, the Lord declares, by the means of this incident, that He is, now, no longer such a man as we are; that He is not even an angel, or a spirit, as the created inhabitants of the spiritual world are: that He is, while altogether Divine, "more a man than the angels," (A. E. 1112); and, in a word, that He is "JEHOVAH-Man." (A. C. 9315.)



     In the earliest days of the Christian Church the converts from the gentile world received orally from the apostles the first elements of instruction in Christian knowledge, and the neophytes who were being taught were designated as "catechumens," from a Greek term meaning oral instruction. Gradually there arose the need for formulated and written instruction, setting forth in a simple and definite manner the fundamental truths of the Christian religion, not only for the benefit of new converts from without, but also and chiefly for the religious education of the children and young people within the Church. Various little works of this character were written, some by the ancient Fathers, and others by theologians during the Middle Ages, but it was Luther who in the year 1525 first gave the title of "Catechism" to a book of elementary instruction in Christian doctrine. Luther's "Larger and Smaller" Catechisms were soon followed by Calvin's "Geneva Catechism" of 1536; the "Heidelberg Catechism" of 1562; the Roman Catholic "Tridentine Catechism" of 1566; the Church of England "Catechism" of 1604; and the "Westminster Catechism" of 1647.


     These are the "Catechisms" spoken of in the Writings of the New Church; and since in each of the great historic Catechisms the explanation of the Ten Commandments forms the most important part, Swedenborg often uses the terms Catechism and Decalogue as if synonymous, as in the following instances: "Is not the Catechism the doctrine of the universal Christian Church, teaching repentance?'' (A. R. 531.) "What is the Decalogue at this day but like a closed little book or document, open only in the hands of infants and children? Say to anyone of mature age, Do not do this, for it is against the Decalogue! and who will listen? . . . An experiment was made with many in the spiritual world, and when the Decalogue or Catechism was mentioned they rejected it with contempt." (D. P. 329) And in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION the whole fifth chapter is entitled "The Catechism or Decalogue explained in its external and its internal sense."

     After the General Conference of the New Church had been organized in Great Britain, in the year 1789, the first effort for the religious instruction of the young in the new body appeared in the form of A CATECHISM FOR THE USE OF THE NEW CHURCH, composed by Robert Hindmarsh and published by him in 1790. Since that time a great number of other New Church Catechisms have been published not only in England and America but also in Sweden, Germany, and other countries. They are all very much alike in their bareness of outline and absence of confirmatory Scripture quotations. While all of them very faithfully call attention to the spiritual and celestial senses of the Ten Commandments, as indicated in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, but little attention is paid to their natural-moral sense, and they are consequently of small ethical and educational value.

     In the work of religious instruction in the schools of the Academy of the New Church it has not been possible to use any of the New Church Catechisms hitherto published, and strong objections have been raised against the use of any Catechism whatsoever.


In part these objections have been founded upon a natural repugnance against the old method of formulated questions and answers,-the questions often pedantic, and the answers stiff and stereotyped,-but possibly the greatest objections have been directed against the idea of repeating the answers from memory, turning into forced labor that which should be a play of love and delight.

     The Word and the Writings, these have been our only religious text-books now for forty years, and no one can charge that on this basis the religious education in the Academy has not been crowned with abundant success. Despite this, the demand has grown up and has become more and more urgent, for a text-book, or a series of text-books, for religious instruction in the day-schools and Sunday schools and the homes of isolated members of our Church,-special works more adapted to children and young people, accommodating to their states the revealed truth by means of generalization, simplification, illustration and application.

     The Catechism on the Ten Commandments here presented is an attempt to supply this demand in respect to one special subject and for one special class of pupils. It is the result of several years of study while teaching classes of young people in the Academy schools; It has not been written for children, but for boys and girls between fourteen and sixteen years of age. It was found easier to write out an extended study than to compose a simpler work for younger children, but it is hoped that someone may be able to draw up a smaller catechism either directly, or by a simplification of the present work.

     The various Catechisms both of the Old Christian Church and of the New have been carefully investigated and compared in the preparation of the present study. Valuable suggestions have been received from many of these sources, but they have been insignificant in comparison with the inexhaustible store of natural-moral and spiritual-moral truths revealed in the Writings of the New Church. Most of the statements in the present work are drawn directly from the Heavenly Doctrine, but the language of the latter has been paraphrased and references to the Writings have been omitted, though preserved in case of future need.


     Simple headings have been introduced instead of direct questions, but the headings can easily be turned into questions by the teacher. The statements beneath the headings are not intended to be memorized, but to be studied at home so as to reach the understanding rather than the memory. The Scripture passages, however, or at least some of them, should by all means be committed to memory, in order that the interior truths of faith may be founded forever on the bedrock of natural truth in the literal sense of the Word.

     It is with great diffidence that the author presents this experimental work, knowing as he does how much more might have been said that has been left unsaid, and how much better the statements might have been expressed. In the busy life of the teachers in the Academy there is little if any time left to any one in which he may assist another by examination and suggestive criticism of any special work. Being thus unaided, the task of breaking the way in an untried field is beset with many difficulties. The CATECHISM, now to be published seriatim in the NEW CHURCH LIFE, is presented here chiefly in the hope to elicit criticisms and suggestions, before a revised edition is offered for publication in the permanent form of a book. C. TH. ODHNER.



     1. A Catechism. The term "Catechism" is derived from a Greek word meaning recitation and oral instruction. A Catechism is a brief manual of religious instruction, and in every Catechism the Ten Commandments form the principal part. The meaning of these Commandments has been revealed in a new and interior light in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem.

     2. The "Decalogue." The "Decalogue" is from the Greek name for the "Ten Words," or Ten Commandments, which God gave through Moses to the children of Israel after their deliverance from Egypt.


     3. How the Decalogue was given. Jehovah God descended by His angel upon Mount Sinai and there proclaimed the Ten Commandments out of a fire from the inmost heaven: There were thunders and lightnings, and the voice of a trumpet exceeding loud. Then Moses came down from the mountain, and Jehovah God spake through him to the assembled people.

     4. How the Ten Commandments were written. They were written by the finger of God in the Hebrew language upon two tables of stone which were afterwards placed in the Ark of the Covenant; this Ark was kept in the Tabernacle and later in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem.

     5. Why they were written on stone. They were written on stone because stones signify the fundamental and eternal truths of the Word in the letter. And to write upon stone signifies that these are to be inscribed upon our memory and our life forever.

     6. Why there were two tables. There were two tables in order to represent the covenant or conjunction between the Lord and His Church, which takes place when men obey His commandments in a life of love to Him and of charity towards the neighbor.

     7. The meaning of the first table. The first table teaches our duties to the Lord, which are: to acknowledge Him as our only God; to have faith in His Word; and to worship Him in holiness according to its Doctrine.

     8. The meaning of the second table. The second able teaches our duties to our neighbor, which are not to do any harm to him either in deeds, or in words, or in the desires and intentions of our heart.

     9. Where the Decalogue is to be found in the Word. It is to be found in the twentieth chapter of the book of Exodus, and again in the fifth chapter of the book of DEUTERONOMY, a name which signifies "the Second, Law."

     10. Why the Decalogue is most holy. The Decalogue is of all things the most holy, because it is a summary of all Divine Truth, containing as in a central point the whole of all true Religion.


     11. The Ten Commandments more ancient than Moses. The laws contained in the Decalogue were known in the Ancient Church, before Moses, but when that Church was destroyed by idolatry, the first three Commandments were lost, and the rest of the Commandments were regarded merely as laws of civil and moral order, and not as laws of spiritual life.

     12. Why the Commandments were given anew with so many Divine signs at Sinai. They were thus given in order to impress upon mankind forever that the Commandments are Divine throughout, and that to sin against them is to sin, not only against the world, but also against heaven and against God.

     13. Why it is necessary to shun as evils as sins against God. If we abstain from doing evil merely from fear of the world, the love of evil still remains within us. But if we shun evil from fear of sinning against God, then the Lord can enter into us and overcome the root of the evil in our heart.

     14. Why the Commandments are Ten in number. It is because the number ten always signifies that which is complete and perfect. The evils forbidden in the Ten Commandments contain within them all the evils that can ever exist. And each Commandment is as it were a Divine Finger, pointing and leading to the way of life.

     15. How the Ten Commandments are interiorly connected. They are so connected within that if from set purpose we act against one of the Commandments, we then in our heart act against all the others. But if, from fear of sinning against God, we abstain from the evil forbidden in one of the Commandments, we then in our heart abstain from all the other evils.

     16. Why, in the Ten Commandments, we are forbidden to do evil rather than commanded to do good. It is because no one can do any genuine good so long as he remains in the love of evil and the life of sin. Good cannot enter until evil is removed, and Repentance is therefore the first step to Regeneration.




     And God spake all these words, saying, I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants. Thou shalt have no other gods before My face. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or of that which is in the earth beneath, or of that which is in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. For I, Jehovah thy God, am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me; and doing mercy unto thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments.


     And God spoke all these words, saying:

     1. What is meant by "all these words." They mean the Ten Commandments, which are called "words" because they are eternal and infinite Truths for all on earth and for all in the heavens.

     I am Jehovah thy God. 2. What is meant by the name "Jehovah." "Jehovah" is the most ancient name of the Lord among men, and it means, in the Hebrew language, "He who was and who is and who is to be." It is the most holy of all Divine names, because it signifies the inmost Esse or "Being" of the Lord.

     This is My name unto eternity, and this is My memorial from generation to generation. (Ex.3:15.)

     3. What is signified by the words "thy God." As "Jehovah" always refers to the Divine Esse, which is the Divine Good, so "God" always refers to the Divine Existere or Manifestation, which is the Divine Truth, in which the Lord stands forth and is revealed in His Word.

     Who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants.


     4. The meaning. These words mean that the Lord Jesus Christ has redeemed the human race from the dominion of hell, and that He will to eternity redeem and save everyone who looks to Him and keeps His commandments.

     I will redeem them from the power of the pave; from death I will deliver them. O death, I will be the plague; O grave, I will be thy destruction. (Hos. 13:14.)

     Thou shalt have no other gods before My face.

     5. What is meant by "other goes." By "other gods" are meant infernal falsities; the worst of all falsities is the belief that there is any other God than our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.

     We are in the Truth, in Jesus Christ. This is the true God and life eternal little children, keep yourselves from idols. (John 5:20, 21.)

     Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image.

     6. What is meant by a "graven image." A graven image means any imagination of man that he is wise or good or great from himself, or worthy of anything like the love and worship which belong to the Lord alone.

     Nor any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or which is in the earth beneath, or which is in the waters under the earth.

     7. What is meant by every such "likeness." By "likeness" is meant every form of pretense and hypocrisy, deceitfully hiding what is evil under the semblance of goods and truths such as are from the Lord in the things of heaven, of the Church, and of the world.

     Woe onto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like onto whited sepulchers, which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but are within fall of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. (Matth. 23:27.)

      Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.

     8. The meaning. These words mean that such things are not to be cherished, either in the will of heart or in the thought of the understanding.


     For I, Jehovah thy God, am a zealous God.

     9. What is meant by a "zealous God." It means that the Lord, who is nothing but mercy, compassion and love, nevertheless appears as if indignant and angry, to those who disobey His commandments.

     As I live, saith the Lord Jehovah, I Lave no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live: turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die, O house of Israeli (Ezek. 33:11.)

     Visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me.

     10. The meaning. The meaning of these words is that evil begets falsities, and these again bring forth further and worse evils and falsities, so that hereditary evil is constantly growing with such families and nations as are not willing to repent. It does not mean that any one is condemned on account of his ancestors.

     When the son hath done that which is lawful end right, and hath kept all My statutes and hath done them, be shall merely live. The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shah not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shell the father bear the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be open him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. (Ezek. 18:19, 20.)

     And doing mercy unto thousands of them that love Me and keep My Commandments.

     11. The meaning. These words mean that those who, by obeying the Commandments, open their hearts to the Divine Love, shall receive all the blessings of eternal happiness.

     Bleared are they that do His commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. (Rev. 22:14.)


     Thou shalt have no other gods before My face.

     12. Why this is the first of the Ten Commandments. It is the first because the acknowledgment of the One Lord is the gateway to the church, to religion, and to eternal salvation. That which is first reigns supremely in all the things which follow.


     Am not I Jehovah? And there is no God besides Me: a just God and Savior; there it none besides Me. (Is. 43:1.)

     13. The literal meaning of this Commandment. It means, first of all, that we must not acknowledge any other god than the One God, nor worship any idol, as the heathen do, nor pay divine honor to any mortal, be he living or dead.

     The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, the work of men, hands. They have mouths, but they speak not; eyes have they but they see not. They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breadth in their mouths. They that make them are like unto them: so is everyone that trusteth in them. (Ps. 135:15-18.)

     14. The deeper natural meaning.

     It means that no one except God, and what is from God, is to be loved supremely. For any person or any thing that is loved above everything else, is regarded as God and Divine by one who so loves.

     Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah: and thou that love Jehovah thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. (Deut. 6:4, 5.)

     15. The spiritual meaning of the First Commandment.

     Spiritually it means that we are not to believe that there is any other Divine person than the Lord Jesus Christ, for He is Jehovah God Himself, visible in human form.

     For in Jesus Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. (Col. 2:9.)

     16. How the Lord is visible in human form. To the angels the Lord is visible as the Divine Man in the sun of heaven; and by spiritual men on the earth He is seen in His Word, for He speaks to us there as the Divine Man. There can be no conjunction with an invisible God.

     No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath made Him manifest. (John 1:18.)

     17. That we are by all means to acknowledge the Divine Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. There is a trine in every perfect thing, and in the Lord, who is Divine perfection, there is a Trinity of three essential qualities, which in the Word are called "Father," "Son" and "Holy Spirit."

     And Jesus came and spake unto them saying, All power is given unto Me in heaven and on earth. Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. (Matth. 28:16. 19.)

     18. What is meant by "the Father."


"The Father" is the Divine Soul of the Lord, the Infinite Love, which is the fountain of all creation, the Divine Substance in which we live and move and have our being.

     Philip saith unto Him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? (John 14:8, 9.)

     19. What is meant by "the Son." "The Son" is the Divine Body of the Lord, the Human which He assumed and glorified on earth, thus the Divine Form in which the Divine Love is forever manifest to angels and to men. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld Hip glory, the dory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14).

     20. What is meant by "the Holy Spirit." "The Holy Spirit is the Divine Operation and Sphere of the Lord: the Spirit of Truth which proceeds from His mouth, by which He is present in heaven and the church and brings salvation unto men.

     I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. (John 14:18.) And He breathed open them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit. (John 20:22.)

     21. A natural illustration of the Divine Trinity. It may be illustrated by the sun of this world: the fire of the sun corresponds to "the Father;" the disk or form of the sun corresponds to the "Son;" and the heat and light radiating from the sun correspond to "the Holy Spirit."

     22. Another illustration. "The Father" may be compared to a man in a dark room, who has been heard but not yet seen. "The Son" may be compared to this man opening a window and showing his face. And "the Holy Spirit" may be compared to this same man opening the door and going forth to teach and work among his people.

     23. The inmost or celestial meaning of the First Commandment. The inmost meaning is that the Lord Jesus Christ is to be not only worshiped but also loved above all things, for He is Love itself and Wisdom itself, infinite and eternal, omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent to save all those who love; Him and keep His commandments.

     If ye love Me, keep My commandments. (John 14:15.)


     24. How a man sins against the First Commandment in this inmost sense. A man sins inmostly against this Commandment when he loves himself above all things; for when he so loves himself he loves only that which is his own; and since that which is his own is nothing but evil, he then in reality loves evil itself, and thus I hates what is good, and most especially he hates the Lord who is Good itself.

     He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, be it is that loveth Me. (John 14:21.)



     Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain. For Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.


     Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain.

     1. The meaning of "the name" of God. By "the name" of God is meant not only His actual names, such as Jehovah, God, Jesus, Christ, and the Lord, but also the whole Word of the Lord, and every Divine truth by means of which God is known and worshiped.

     And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True,-and His name was called The Word of God. (Rev. 19:11, 13.)

     2. What is meant by taking His name "in vain." It means every kind and degree of profanation, whereby the holy things which are of the Lord and of heaven are mingled with the filthy things which are of hell.

     Give not that which is holy onto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you. (Matth. 7:6.)

     For Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.

     3. What is meant by "not holding guiltless."


It means that profanation, so far as it becomes internal and confirmed, is an evil which cannot be removed from man, either in this life or in the other, for it has so mingled and joined the things of heaven with the things of hell, that they can hardly be separated from one another.


     Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain.

     4. The meaning of this Commandment in its natural sense. It means that we are not to profane any Divine name by using it in a vain and worldly manner, or in coarse and filthy oaths, or in angrily cursing our neighbor, or in calling upon the Lord to bear witness to a lie.

     5. What is meant by using it in a vain and worldly manner. It means to use Divine names, or words imitating Divine names, in thoughtless exclamations or exaggerated statements, in order to give force to empty words.

     I say unto you, that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. (Matth. 12:36, 37.)

     6. Why boys and men desire to swear. Boys desire to swear in order to appear strong and manly; and men desire to swear in order to lend the appearance of truth and strength to doubtful or untruthful statements. The use of profane language is a sure sign of moral weakness, not of manliness and truthful strength.

     But shun thou profane and vain babblings, for they will increase unto more ungodliness. And their words will ear as a canker eateth. (2 Tim. 2:16, 17.)

     7. The real harm in swearing. The real harm in the habit of swearing is that it opens the mind to the evil of profanation. A person who takes pleasure in mingling what is heavenly and Divine with the filth of the streets, after a time can no longer think or speak of anything that is pure and holy without defiling and profaning it.

     Not that which goeth into the month defileth a man, but that which cometh out of the month. For out of the mouth proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornication, theft, false witness, blasphemies: these are the things which defile a man. (Matth. 15:11, 19, 20.)

     8. The effect of cursing. To curse anyone is to wish eternal damnation with all the torments of hell upon him.


The Lord, who is mercy itself, does not curse or damn anyone; only devils do so, and he who curses his neighbor attracts the devils and thus brings back the curse upon himself.

     How shall I curse when God hat not cursed? Or how shall I defy when Jehovah hath not defied? (Numbers 23:8.)

     9. The kind of oath that is allowable. Where the law of the land so requires, it is permitted to swear by the name of God when a person gives witness before the law, or on solemn occasions as when men are inaugurated into offices of great responsibility.

     10. Why the Lord commanded "Swear not at all." The Lord so commanded in order to teach men to rely upon the internal strength of truth itself, and not upon external strong language. Men who speak from conscience simply affirm that a thing is so or not so, and they are unwilling to mention Divine things in connection with things that are merely external and of the world.

     But I say unto you, Swear not at all-But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay, for whatever is more than these cometh of evil. (Matth. 5:35, 37.)

     11. The meaning of the Second Commandment in the Spiritual sense. It means that we are not to profane the Word, which is the spiritual name of God, either by casting contempt and ridicule upon it, or by perverting it through false teaching, or by denying its truth and holiness.

     12. How men cast contempt and ridicule upon the Word. This is done when the sacred Book is handled carelessly or with disrespect; or when names and expressions from the Word are used in cheap jokes and profane witticisms; or, worse still, when the Word itself is held up to laughter on account of its ancient style and "old fashioned" teachings.

     13. How the Word is profaned through false teaching. It is thus profaned when men pervert its true meaning by explaining it according to their own notions and not according to the Lord's own Doctrine. This is especially wicked when it is done in order to gain dominion over the souls of men.

     14. The lot of those who deny the truth and holiness of the Word.


So far as anyone confirms himself in such denial from hatred of religion, he closes heaven to himself and opens the way to hell; and if he also seeks to impart his denial' to others he becomes a spiritual murderer.

     But whosoever shall offend one of these little ones which believe in Me, it were better for him that a mill-stone were hanged about his neck, sad that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. (Matth. 18:6.)

     15. The meaning of the Second Commandment in its Celestial Sense. It means that we must above all things shun the evil of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, which is the same as profanation of the spiritual truth of the Word as revealed in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem.

     And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; bat whosoever speaketh against the Hob Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come. (Matth. 12:32.)

     16. What is meant by "speaking against the Son of Man." "The Son of man" here means the external form of the Divine Truth. There are many who from ignorance and thoughtlessness profane external truth, and these can be forgiven because there is no internal profanation in their minds. It is, the deliberate profanation of internal truth that is meant by "speaking against the Holy Spirit."

     17. Who those are that blaspheme against the Holy Spirit in a deeper sense. They are those who have rationally understood and acknowledged interior Divine Truth, but have nevertheless remained to the end of life in the lusts of evil and the life of sin. Such cannot be saved, no matter how ardently they may profess faith in the Lord.

     Either make the tree good and its fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt and its fruit corrupt; for the tree is known by its fruit. (Matth. 12:33.)

     18. Who those are that blaspheme against the Holy Spirit in the deepest sense. The deepest kind of profanation is committed by those who have not only acknowledged, but have also loved and lived according to spiritual truth. When such fall back into the lust of evil, and then excuse and confirm their evil by interior perversions of the truth, they have joined truth to evil and falsity to good in a most profane and almost inseparable mixture.


     No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God. (Luke 9:62.)

     19. That very few commit this most horrible evil. Such are very few at this day, for few understand and love interior Divine Truth, so as to be able to profane it. Nevertheless, it can be done, and the possibility remains as a supreme warning to the members of the New Church not to mingle the cold with the hot, and the old with the new.

     I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot; I would thou wert cold or hot. So, then, because thou are lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of My mouth. (Rev. 3:15, 16.)

     20. The lot of profaners in the other life. They are direfully tormented according to the degree of their profanations. They cannot be received in heaven, for they are hypocrites; and they cannot be admitted into hell until everything of goad has been torn asunder from the evil within them.

     21. The lot of those who until the end of life have feared to profane the name of the Lord. But unto you that fear My Name, the Sun of Righteousness shall arise with healing in His wings. (Mal. 4:2.)

     (To be continued.)




     Agreeably to our promises to several of the members of the New Church in Allentown to make a campaign in their city, we spent the first nineteen days of September with them. We began work at once, and were greatly surprised to find that Allentown was the easiest place that we had entered to gather and hold a large crowd. It was not long before we surpassed our former record of twelve books after one speech. The first Saturday night we chose the north side of Hamilton and 8th St., about forty feet north on Eighth, where, according to our permit, we had a perfect right to speak. The subject of the talk was the Second Coming of the Lord. The whole of the town seemed to be out on Hamilton St. that night, and in a little while the entire end of Eighth St. was blocked. The talk lasted for about half an hour, after which the car was besieged with those who desired to purchase books. Thirty-seven copies were sold, which was all we had with us in the car, and there were a number of persons whom we had to disappoint. This spot seemed so well adapted for our work that the following Monday we tried it again. But I had no sooner started to play the piece that was to attract the crowd, when the policeman stationed at the cross-roads began to draw near. "Nothing doing," he shouted, "I know you." At first I was inclined to keep right on, but the officer came over to the car and informed me that if we proceeded further he would have to arrest us. "But we have a permit,'' we remonstrated. "Let's see the date," returned the Representative of the Law. I produced our permit. "It won't do," he said. "I got orders this morning not to let you speak!" You can well imagine our indignation and disgust at having our permit revoked without being informed of the fact. We were sure that the policeman must have mixed up his orders. Therefore, assuring ourselves that we would get him into trouble, we set out hot-foot to the police station. There we found the chief and poured out our indignation. "That's right," he said, "he was just obeying orders. You see, I had about eight complaints the other night when you blocked Eighth St. I was just coming up to stop you, but you finished before I got there." He told us that we had better confine our talking to the "Centre Square," where everybody else did theirs, or else go down to Second and Hamilton in the slum district Where the Salvation Army usually held forth.

     Shortly after this Theodore tried speaking down in the slums. It was a very interesting experience. He had chosen the subject of the Trinity, and with little trouble he gathered a crowd of more than a hundred around the car. None of the men in the crowd had their collars on and most of them were in shirt sleeves and suspenders.


I heard one fellow in front of me remark, "Aw' give 'im a bottle of beer, Bill," but this was by no means typical of the general attitude of the crowd. Most of them listened with attention, and to our surprise we sold seven copies of HEAVEN AND HELL after the speech. I have no doubt the address stood out in strong contrast to numerous Salvation Army meetings which had been held in the same spot.

     The following Saturday evening it was nine o'clock before we could get a place to speak in the Square. We had lots of competition. In one corner a Salvation Army crew were holding forth. At another end a Socialist speaker held a crowd. Against such opposition we had the temerity to try and draw another crowd. We were quite fortunate, for in about two minutes we had attracted all the Salvation Army crowd and some of the Socialist listeners. You can never realize the full joy of speaking until you have addressed a street crowd under conditions of competition. You realize every minute that you are speaking that you have got to speak clearly and incisively. You have got to hold the interest moment by moment, or the audience will start drifting away. If I may so express it, in street speaking the audience is a human speedometer registering continually the interest of the speaker. As one warms to a theme and brings it out clearly one's audience grows as if by magic. And it is hard to express the sinking feeling that one has when he sees his crowd melting away. It is a game of energy and vivid portrayal of ideas and brings with it an intense excitement and joy. If the young men of the Church could realize the joy of this work and the use of it, I do not believe we would have enough room in the Theological School to seat the candidates.

     So we worked on throughout our stay in Allentown, ever looking forward to the four Hall addresses that should crown our stay.

     The last evening that we spoke on the street in Allentown, T. P. had the first speech. We had the car backed up to the curb, and in a short while he had blocked the pavement with the crowd that gathered.-He was just bringing the speech to a close, when the sergeant of the police came and stopped him, telling him that he would have to get his crowd in the middle of the square and not on the pavement. Of course, this was impossible with the car. So we got a box from a store and made a speech from it in the middle of the square. We found that a box has many advantages that the car lacked, such as getting closer to your audience.

     During our stay in this town we utilized the press to the full, nor did we have to pay for most of our publicity. We managed to get acquainted with three of the editors, and through this pull to get six sermons published in the daily papers. With the editor's permission I will here reprint one of these from the ALLENTOWN DEMOCRAT, of Sept. 14:

     Theodore Pitcairn, the son of the late John Pitcairn, addressing a crowd in Centre Square last evening chose for his text, "Have I been so long time with you and hast thou not known me, Philip? He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." John 14:9.


The speaker said: "Philip had been with the Lord for many months. He believed that He was the Son of God, And yet the Lord said that Philip had not known Him, because he did not know that the Lord and the Father were one, as we read in John 10:30. He had thought of the Lord and the Father as two distinct persons.

     The Lord was grieved at this misapprehension, and tried to explain to Philip that they were not two persons, but that they were one person, and that he who had seen the Son had seen the Father also, because the Father was in the Son as the soul is in the body. If the Lord were on the earth now, He would doubtlessly say, "Have I been so long time with you and have not known me Christians, have been two thousand years with you, and have ye not yet known me." "Have you not read that in Christ 'dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead,' Col. 2:9. Whence then this doctrine of three persons? Read the Old Testament where it says, 'And it shall be said in that day, lo this is our God we have waited for Him and He will save us, this is Jehovah we have waited for Him, we will be glad and rejoice in His salvation,' Is. 24:9. And again, 'And He saw and behold there was no man, and He wondered that there was no intercessor. Therefore, His own arm brought salvation unto Him,' Is. 59:16. 'Now, Seeker After Truth, consider these quotations. Is the Lord Jesus Christ Jehovah's right arm or is Her not? If He is not, then is Isaiah a false prophet, because there was an intercessor besides Jehovah's right arm. If He was Jehovah's right arm then He was not a separate person from Jehovah. The conclusion we naturally come to is that the Lord Jesus Christ was Jehovah God manifested in the flesh. Let us, therefore, say with Thomas to the Lord Jesus Christ, 'My Lord and my God,' and he will give us his promised blessing. 'blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed,' John 20:29."

     There will be a regular Swedenborgian service at Hamilton Hall, 836 Hamilton street, next Sunday at 10:30 sharp. The subject of the sermon will be the internal sense of the Isaac and Rebecca story. In the evening at 7:30 Mr. Alden will talk on the Second Coming, and Mr. Pitcairn on the Trinity.

     Our Hall addresses here were by far the most successful, especially the last one we held, at which there were fifty persons present. Many of them stayed to talk to us and we sold quite a number of the more expensive volumes that we had along with us.

     The work in Allentown has been kept up continuously since last summer. Rev. E. S. Price, the pastor of the society, conducts this service once a month, and T. P. and myself fill in the remaining Sundays. As yet there has not been any permanent convert from the Old Church, but scarcely a Sunday passes without a visit from some one directly or indirectly interested by this summer's work. All such work must be followed up systematically, and with undying enthusiasm and confidence, and then results are bound to follow. K. R. A.


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. At the "Friday Supper" on Dec. 15th, Bishop N. D. Pendleton read the following announcement: "On the first of January, 1917, Bishop W. F. Pendleton will retire from all work connected with the Bryn Athyn Society. Much to his regret the Bishop is compelled to take this step on account of his health. We are all moved with sorrow, but we have all known for some time that this step would be inevitable, sooner or later. Let it be some consolation to us that we hope and expect to see him frequently in the chancel whenever he feels so disposed. For the information of the Society I will state further that the Pastor, with the Council and Board of Finance, are now actually considering the needs of the situation, and every effort will be made to meet those needs as adequately as possible. It may become necessary to communicate with you further, as a society, in regard to this matter. At the present time, however, nothing more definite can be stated. It may be of interest to add that Bishop W. F. Pendleton will continue his teaching in the Theological School."

     A Sunday evening class for the young men of the Society has been opened by Bishop N. D. Pendleton. Several smaller circles of the young men have been meeting with the various ministers and professors for a number of years past, to receive instruction in the Doctrine of the Word, Church History, Conjugial Love, and other important subjects, but Bishop Pendleton's present class is the first opportunity for all the young men to unite in religious instruction and discussion in a semi-social sphere, and as the utmost freedom is provided for the asking of questions on present-day problems in the Church, there has been a growing attendance and steadily increasing interest.

     The "Younger Generation" Club had an unusually interesting meeting last month when Mr. Paul Synnestvedt gave a very able talk on the "Adamson Eight Hour Law. After his address Mr. Synnestvedt volunteered to answer any questions that might arise in the minds of his auditors, and a lively shower of questions followed.

     The cathedral is progressing as rapidly as can be expected in any such artistic operation. Just recently all the scaffolding has been removed from the interior of the chancel, and a new idea is given of its future beauty and grandeur. A work of peculiar artistic value is seen in the monumental screens which will eventually divide the small side chapel from the great nave. These screens have been worked out entirely upon the premises. The artist who designs them is spending his entire time and energy on them, and his plans are executed under his immediate supervision by craftsmen who understand their work thoroughly. The result is most gratifying and beautiful, and one may stand for hours admiring a single screen, into whose symmetry has been wrought so much charming variety

     The Social Life of Bryn Athyn flows on, as ever at high-tide; at least so it seems to your correspondent. So rapid and changing are its aspects that dignity and space do not warrant our narration of them; we would, however, refer the reader to the pages of the BULLETIN for particulars. K. R. A.


     PHILADELPHIA, PA. The chief social event during the autumn was the "Fair," which was held on Nov. 20th. The assembly room was prettily decorated, and the tables loaded with useful and dainty articles, the sale of which realized the sum of $186.00. The proceeds this year are to go toward the purchasing of a piano for the church. We were honored by the presence of a number of guests from Bryn Athyn,' who added greatly to the jovial spirit prevailing. The winter work of the society is now in full swing, and the services, classes and other meetings held regularly. F. A. D. S.

     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR. The fall trip opened with a visit to WINDSOR, Ont., where, on Sunday, October 15th, services were held at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Bellinger. Ten persons were present, of whom nine partook of the Holy Supper. On the two following evenings doctrinal classes were held, the first in Windsor and the second across the river in DETROIT.

     Returning to Kitchener for a few days, I then went to PITTSBURGH, where, in the evening of October 29th, at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Schoenberger, I gave an account of Extension Work done in Canadian Northwest, to a gathering of members of the society. Twelve days, from October 28th to November 9th, were spent at MIDDLEPORT, OHIO. When we tell that during this time seventeen meetings of various kinds were held our friends will know that the Church of Middleport is still very much alive, despite lasses by death and removal. These meetings included two Sunday morning services, four missionary services, two children's services, four doctrinal classes, three ladies' meetings, and two men's meetings. At the Sunday morning services the attendance was about twenty-five persons. On the second Sunday the Holy Supper was administered to fourteen communicants. The missionary services were well advertised, both in the papers and by circulars; yet the attendance of strangers was not large, except at the last of the series, when the novelty of the subject, "Marriages in Heaven," probably attracted a considerable number, there being about twenty-five persons present who were not of the New Church. One of the doctrinal classes was preceded by a supper, which afforded an opportunity for a pleasant social time. All of the various classes were well attended.

     From Middleport I went to CINCINNATI for five days. Services were held on Sunday, November 12th, at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Merrell, at which ten persons were present, among them Mrs. Hollingshead, of Louisville, Ky., a former Academy pupil. Dr. George Strohbach was baptized into the New Church. At the Holy Supper there were five communicants. Three doctrinal classes were also held.

     Two days were spent with Mr. and Mrs. William Parker at CLEVELAND. The first evening we had a doctrinal class, at which four persons were present and the second evening I attended the annual bazaar of the Cleveland Society, and had the pleasure of meeting a number of the members.

     The next point visited was ERIE, Pa., where I remained for six days. Erie pretty nearly: if not quite equaled Middleport for a record of meetings; for besides the services on Sunday morning, November 19th, there were five evening gatherings and two afternoon classes for children. At the Sunday morning services there was an attendance of twenty, of whom thirteen partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening there was doctrinal class. Monday evening a box social was held at the house of Mrs. Glenn. Tuesday evening there was young people's doctrinal class, which is a new use entered into here.


Wednesday evening a delightful social evening was spent at the house of Dr. and Mrs. Cranch, who provided a most excellent program of entertainment. On Thursday evening, at the new home of Mr. and Mrs. Edro Cranch, a Thanksgiving service was held.

     Finally, three days were spent at BUFFALO Where I call occasionally to visit old time New Church friends. At my visit last spring the pastor of the Buffalo Society, the Rev. Clarence Lathbury, kindly invited me to preach when I call again. I availed myself of this privilege on Sunday, November 26th. On Mr. Lathbury's invitation, I also conducted the regular doctrinal class on Sunday evening. F. E. WAELCHLI.

     PITTSBURGH, PA. Perhaps a few items from this busy center of church and school activity would not be amiss.

     The opening of our school with an enrollment of twenty-one, (since increased by one), took place on October 2nd, having been delayed by the State Quarantine against infantile paralysis. An added period each day has about made up for the lost time, and very satisfactory progress is being made.

     No pupils from this school are ever likely to be at a disadvantage When they leave us? With a second teacher, (Miss Vida Gyllenhaal is with us "Owl, we are carrying the children up to the eighth grade.

     Our Sunday School is also flourishing, having now an average attendance of 30. Here Is where we are getting in touch with several new families. Mr. Percy Brown and Miss Gyllenhaal are now helping with this work, which has increased in sphere even more than in numbers.

     Perhaps the most encouraging development of all, however, has been the attendance at our weekly doctrinal class. The average here has increased over fifty per cent., and the pastor is correspondingly happy, since the study of the Heavenly Doctrine and the habit of thinking in their sphere, is the only thing that can preserve the Academy branch of New Churchmanship. We need also some center of a society home sphere where matters of common interest can be considered.

     Instead of a District Assembly this year we had a session with our new Bishop on Friday, Oct. 9th, as he was returning from the West. Visitors upon that occasion, both from Glenview and Bryn Athyn, added much to the sphere, especially at the supper which preceded the Bishop's address and discussion of a suitable time for our District Assembly hereafter. It seems that we shall have to give up October, as our present Bishop cannot well be away from home for three consecutive Sundays, and both Glenview and Chicago had established that date before us.

     Socially, we shall not have so very much to report this year, owing to the lack of young folks. On Hallowe'en, however there was a dance, arranged by our new Social Committeeman, Mr. August Troutman; and the Harvest Festival on December 1st was the occasion for a gathering of all the clan. Especially gratifying was the number of things made and sold here for the benefit of the mortgage fund. While not all of the staple articles obtained, at wholesale, were taken, still every other respect the affair was very successful, and a great credit to the hard-working committee, who had all the benefit of the experience of former years. Over $300 was realized.

     The "Little Theatre" Company gave a "Free Show" on the following Wednesday, which was very much enjoyed, and deserves mention. First was a one act play depicting most vividly the sufferings of the Pilgrims under Gov. Winthrop, while awaiting the arrival of a ship from England. Next came the comedy sketch, "What Happened," by two of our young ladies, followed by a beautiful dance of eight maidens, representing various flowers.


Last of all was the morality play of "Every Girl," who, after rejecting the life-company of mirth, great wealth, knowledge and others, finally chooses health, work, and love. To render this type of play convincing and dramatic requires not only good poise, but good elocution. We consider that Mr. Herman Lechner, the leader in this company, is to be thanked not only for our entertainment, but for the promise of the future, involved in such training.

     The ladies' meetings this fall have been especially busy and enjoyable, and the Philosophy Club has continued the reading of the RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY and, incidentally, "settled" all the social and political questions of the day.
H. S


      UNITED STATES AND CANADA. The Rev. Clarence Lathbury, lately of Buffalo, has accepted the pastoral charge of the Cleveland society, succeeding the Rev. John R. Hunter, who is now ministering to the society in Los Angeles, Cal.

     The Rev. Herbert C. Small, formerly of Bath, Me., has accepted a call to the Toronto, (Convention), society, a pulpit which has been vacant for some years.

     BRITISH GUIANA. The Rev. G. G. Pulsford, a minister of the General Convention, in the MESSENGER for Nov. 22, presents a report of his recent visit to Georgetown, formerly known as Demerara, from which we quote the following interesting items:

     "I left New York via the steamship 'Guiana' of the Quebec line, en route for Georgetown British Guiana, on July 29th, and had a most delightful trip of about sixteen days, arriving at Georgetown on Sunday, August 19th.

     "On the voyage I had the good fortune to be fellow traveler with Rev. R. Weinhold, of the Moravian Church, whose pastorate is on the island of St. Kitts. We had several pleasant conversations, and he took with him copies of two or three of the works of Swedenborg, together with some tracts, expressing himself as very much interested, especially with the doctrine of the Lord.

     "Arrived at Georgetown, I went to the New Church Mission at the corner of Light and Robb Sts., in Bourda, Georgetown, where I found Rev. F. A. Wiltshire preaching to a congregation of about twenty-five persons. At the close, of the services, an informal meeting was held, and it was decided that there should be several lectures, to be held in the town hall if possible. The mission consists of fifty-three persons, holding religious services twice or three times a week, together with Sunday School and Young People's League. The Sunday School has an average attendance of about forty persons, old and young. The League has about twenty members, and the president is Hugh W. Edgehill, of 5 Brickdam, Georgetown.

     "The peculiar thing about this mission of the church is that the preacher and all the members are black people with the one exception of Mr. Edgehill. Among the members are Messrs. Massiah and Spooner, who have been studying the doctrines under Rev. Wm. Worcester, by means of correspondence, for some time. They are very energetic and anxious to spread the news of the New Church by every means in their power. Mr. Nieuweller, one of the members, who is a conductor on the street cars, always keeps by him a quantity of the literature, carrying it with him on his car, for the purpose of presenting it to any who may desire to read.

     "It may not be out of place here to state that Georgetown was one of the first places in the world where the New Church truths were preached. James Glen, identified with Hindmarsh and others in the establishment of the first organization of the New Church in London in 1783 and 1787, was a planter in this colony, and preached the doctrines there.


He also preached in this country in the year 1784. The records of the colony, as contained in the newspapers of the time, show that a society established there continued until about 1844 from the beginning of the century. After the death of James Glen, on September 9th, 1814, the management of the Society passed into the hands of Henry William Wells, who styles himself "Teacher and Lecturer of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, a faithful and loyal subject of His Britannic Majesty, and servant of the Lord in South America."

     "Mr. Wells preached and taught until about 1840, but the material, contained in the files of contemporary newspapers, is meager. It is noted that in the Guide to Georgetown, published in 1822, the New Jerusalem Society, whose Expositor was Henry W. Wells, N. H. M., is one of two church organizations then existing in the colony and advertised in the Guide. The other organization was the Angelican Church. By the way, it may be noted that Mr. Wells suggested to the Government of Great Britain that it would be eminently proper to disestablish the Angelican Church and replace it with the New Church. History however, leads us to suspect that the suggestion was not accepted by the Government.

     "The English Government freed the slaves about 1836. It appears that after this event the white members of the church in the colony most probably decided to return to their native countries, Scotland and England and within a few years the Society had dwindled until it no longer had sufficient members to continue its labors. There were left behind, however, certain ideas in the minds of the black people connected with the members of this Society that made it comparatively easy for Mr. G. Gay Daniel, a native of Barbados, and a colored man, to begin the organization of the present Mission about forty years after the demise of the original Society. It is believed that between the years 1880 and 1890 the present Mission was begun, appealing to the black people only, and upon Mr. Daniel's departure for the United States, Mr. Wiltshire continued it, removing the Mission to his own property, and finally building a meeting house."

     INDIA. In the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY for Nov 18, the Rev. S. J. C. Goldsack,-the minister of the Glasgow Society whom the General Conference recently sent to India as an evangelist to the Gentiles,-describes his journey and arrival in Bombay. On the P. and O. boat Mongolia he met a Parsee gentleman who "proved to be a brother-in-law of gentleman in India whose name I have as being interested in Swedenborg." Among the six Old Church clergymen on board there was none who "knew anything at all of Swedenborg or the New Church." "On account of the war our course was a very unusual one and was kept secret."

     "Until we reached Port Said, passengers always had their life-belts near them. Twice we were drilled in putting them on and taking our places by the boats to which we were allotted.

     "One morning in the Mediterranean, alarm ran through the ship; for our gun was fired several times in quick succession, and the Mongolia's motions were extraordinary. All hurried on deck, and at no great distance we beheld a dreaded submarine. Passengers in night attire or half dressed assembled by the boats, and all put on life-belts, and awaited events. However, nothing serious occurred and in the course of an hour or so all were in a normal state and ready to smile over the matter. What really was the trouble we may never positively know, but the news that we heard at Port Said deepened the gratitude we felt at our safety.


     "At Aden, I with many others, transhipped to the Salsette for the final stage of our journey, and on the morning of Wednesday, October 11th, Bombay was sighted, and about 2:30 I put my foot on Indian soil. I received an extremely kind letter from Professor Bhatt on board, domestic joys preventing him from meeting me. But on leaving the Customs Office I rejoiced to hear my name and to be accosted by Mr. B. A. D'Sylva, who had come at Mr. Bhatt's request. He warmly greeted me and took me to the Great Western Hotel, where later in the evening Mr. S. J. Patel and Mr. R. W. Gandi called upon me. They confirmed Mr. Bhatt's assurance that the President of the Hindi Swedenborg Society, Mr. A. E. Penn, would reach Bombay on the morrow (Thursday, October 12th). I found his card in my room this morning, and while waiting for his return I have written this letter. I shall post it after we have met. With love to all in Britain."


Mid-Year Council Meetings 1917

Mid-Year Council Meetings              1917


     Special Notice.

     The Consistory of the General Church will meet at Bryn Athyn, Pa., Tuesday, February 6, 1917, at 10:10 a. m., and 3 p. m.; and on Wednesday, 9:30 a. m. and 3 p. m. The Council of the Clergy will meet Thursday, 10:30 a. m. and 3 p. m.; and Friday, 9:30 a. m. The Joint Councils will meet Friday, February 9, at 3 p. m. and Saturday, February 10, at 10 a. m.


     In all ages of the world feasts have received religious sanction. Descriptions of such constitute a prominent feature of the Bible. We have, for example, the Feast of the seventh new moon or Feast of Trumpets, the Feast of the Sabbatical Year, the Feast of Jubilee, the Feast of the Passover, the Feast of Pentecost, the Feast of Tabernacles, etc. They all had an important significance to, the Israelites, and they were attended by services of joy and thanksgiving. They called to remembrance the mercy of Jehovah and His continual presence among men and they were times of confession of sin and reconsecration to the Lord. They were also intended to cultivate the spirit of fellowship.

     With the Most Ancient and Ancient Churches, prior to the Israelitish age, feasts had a deep spiritual significance which was lost sight of in the later days. They are referred to in the ARCANA COELESTIA in the following words:-

     "In general, feasts, both dinners and suppers, took place in ancient times within the church, in order that they might be consociated and conjoined as to love, and that they might instruct each other in the things of love and faith, thus in the things of heaven. Such at this time were the delights attending meals; and they were the end for the sake of which the dinners and suppers were held. Both mind and body were thus nourished at the same time and correspondingly. By this means they had health and long life, also intelligence and wisdom, and also communication with heaven; with some, open communication with angels.


But as in course of time all internal things vanish, and pass into external things, so did the ends of feasts and meals, which at this day are not for the sake of any spiritual conjunction, but for the sake of worldly conjunction; that is, gains, honors, and pleasures. Hence there is nourishment of the body but none of the mind." (7996.)

     It is frequently supposed that feasts and other physical enjoyments are inconsistent with the highest spiritual life; that as we progress in spiritual life we naturally put off all external and physical enjoyments as of no value to the interior life of the soul. This is not the teaching of Divine Revelation. When a man rises in spiritual thought and life he does not thereby put off the external things, but he subordinates them to the spiritual. He does not cease to eat, for example. but he eats for the Sake of use, and not for the indulgence of the flesh. His spiritual attainments lead him to cultivate the senses all the more perfectly, that they may be a more perfect instrument through which the soul can function. A tree in putting forth its upper branches does not deny its own roots. Good roots are essential to good branches and good fruit. So the truly spiritual man does not refuse physical enjoyments. At times he comes down into them and enters into them with a hearty and delighted spirit. He enjoys them the more fully because he enjoys them unselfishly. He is happy because of the spirit of fellowship that he cultivates and the sphere of love that he gives forth. The man who denies himself all external enjoyments and shuts himself away from the world is not truly righteous, but is self-righteous and self-deceived. He is a religious fanatic. Our Lord Himself attended a marriage feast in Cana of Galilee, and when they ran short of wine supplied it to them by a miracle. One parable is graced with the marriage supper of the Lamb, and in another parable there is music and dancing on the return of the prodigal son.

     Thus there are feasts even among the angels of heaven, and that is especially our theme today. A friend of mine who recently began to read CONJUGIAL LOVE was much surprised to read the description of a dinner in heaven. Actual food placed on an actual table and actually eaten by angels!


Was all that literally true, or was it symbolic? In the beginning of the story Swedenborg declares that the things related were "not fictions, but things actually done and seen." (C. L. 1.) Why not! The spiritual body is as real and substantial as the physical. It eats and drinks, wakes and sleeps, and performs all the functions that the physical body can perform. But we cannot recognize it with our physical senses because it is formed of altogether different substances from the physical.

     "There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body." The natural body is composed of the substances of this world, and the spiritual body is composed of the substances of the spiritual world; and the two worlds or planes of life are separated by a discrete degree. Matter cannot recognize spirit, and spirit cannot recognize matter. Yet "when spirit touches spirit the result is the same to sense as when matter touches matter." As the spiritual body is formed of spiritual substances it lives in a world of spiritual substances like itself. That world is not an empty or shadowy world, but is filled with every variety of objects which appeal to the senses of the spiritual body. Scenery for the eyes, voices and music for the ears, odors for the nostrils. The sense of taste, however, is much more refined than the taste of the physical body, and is allied to the smell. The sense of touch, and all the senses, are far more exquisite, and contribute far more to real enjoyment than the corresponding senses of the physical body. Eating and drinking are among the enjoyments of heaven; but they are never enjoyed for their own sake, but always for the sake of the spiritual eating and drinking to which they correspond. Our spiritual food is heavenly good; our spiritual drink is heavenly truth.

     We read: "In heaven, as in the world, there are foods and drinks, there are social and festive meals, and with those of exalted station there are tables spread with sumptuous banquets of choice and delicious viands, whereby they are exhilarated and refreshed in spirit. And there are and sports, and exhibitions, and music and song, and all these in the highest perfection. And such things give them joys; but not happiness.


This is within joys, and thence from joys. Happiness within joys makes them joys indeed. It enriches and sustains them, that they do not become paltry and do not cloy. And this happiness every one has from the performance of use in his vocation. There is certain latent vein within the affection of the will of every angel which draws the mind on to do something. By this the mind tranquilizes and satisfies itself. This satisfaction and this tranquility induces a state of mind receptive of the love of use from the Lord. And from the reception of this comes heavenly happiness, which is the life of their joys before mentioned. Heavenly food in its essence is nothing else than love, wisdom and use together,-that is, use from love by wisdom. Wherefore in heaven food for the body is given to every one according to the use that he performs-sumptuous to those who are in eminent use, moderate but of exquisite flavor to those in a medium degree of use, simple to those in inferior use, but none at all to the indolent." (C. L. 6.)

     An account of a feast or dinner in heaven is beautifully given in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, and also in the first chapter of CONJUGIAL LOVE. Ten spirits newly arrived from the earth were taken from the World of Spirits up into Heaven temporarily to see its glory before their final preparation for their heavenly home. They were admitted to a garden where they saw rows of trees of great variety and beauty winding outward in spiral forms from the spacious center where stood the tree of life. After the spiritual meaning of the wonders they saw was explained to them by an angel, a messenger came and invited them to eat bread with the prince of the angelic society to which the garden belonged. Two attendants gave them garments of fine linen, saying, "Put on these; for no one is admitted to the prince's table unless arrayed in the garments of heaven." Their attendance at the dinner is thus described:

     "And they made themselves ready, and accompanying their angel were led into an uncovered portico, an ambulatory of the palace, and awaited the prince; and there the angel presented them to the great men and magistrates, who also were waiting for the prince. And lo, after a short time, the doors were opened, and by a wider door on the western side they saw him enter in the order and pomp of procession.


Before him went the chief counselors, then chamberlains, and after them the chief men of the court. In the midst of these was the prince, and after him courtiers of various degree, and lastly guards, numbering in all a hundred and twenty. The angel, standing before the ten newcomers who now appeared from their apparel as inhabitants, approached the prince with them and reverently presented them; and the prince, as he passed, without stopping, said to them, "Come, dine with me." And they followed' into the dining-hall, and saw a table magnificently spread. In the middle of it was a high pyramid of gold, with a hundred small dishes in triple order upon its forms, on which were cakes, condensed must of wines, and other delicacies made of bread and wine together. And through the center of the pyramid there issued as it were a fountain- springing with nectarine wine, the streams of which divided themselves from the top of the pyramid and filled the cups. On either side of the high pyramid were various heavenly forms in gold on which were dishes and plates filled with food of every kind. The heavenly forms which held the dishes and plates were forms of art from wisdom such as in the world no art can produce and no words describe. The dishes and plates were of silver, graven around in relief with similar forms on a level with their supports. The cups were of pellucid gems. Such was the furniture of the table." (C. L. 14.)

     Now, wherein is this story of value to us? To the casual reader it is the description of an angelic feast, and nothing more. But when once we have learned that all things in the spiritual world are correspondences of the states of the people there we at once recognize a profound spiritual meaning in every particular of this feast. Garments, houses, tables, dishes, drinks, foods, offices and stations in life, in all their particulars, have a deep spiritual signification. Sometimes it is said that the descriptions of priestly garments of the tabernacle and of the ancient feasts, as found in the Bible, are not worthy of Divine revelation. They would not be, indeed, were it not for their spiritual signification.


They are the clouds which veil the spiritual sunlight. So it is with Swedenborg's relations of things heard and seen. They are actual facts indeed, as he again and again assures us, but they need to be studied interiorly. Every story opens up vast depths of spiritual meaning, and when spiritually discerned every story brings a flood of light to the soul.

     The guests in the story were clothed in garments of fine linen before coming to the table of the prince, to indicate a change of state and thence purification of the thoughts. The uncovered portico leading to the palace denotes further preparation and progress toward more interior life. The prince of the society is one who is more humble than the rest, who is in the greatest love of serving, having cultivated that love during his life in the flesh, and hence is in more interior wisdom than others. In heaven there are various orders and degrees as on earth, with this difference that those attain to the highest offices in heaven who were the most humble on earth and desired nothing so much as to serve others in the love of the Lord and the neighbor. The opening of the doors of the palace would be simultaneous with the opening of the inner doors of the mind and the entrance into a new state of life. The prince, who came through the opened doors, was seen in the midst of a large company of attendants because the midst represents the most interior state of the angelic society, as before the tree in the midst of the garden represented the most interior state of perception. The number of the prince's attendants was one hundred and twenty, representing all the goods and truths of heaven. The invitation, "Come, dine with me," represents the Lord Himself inviting all His children to come to Him and Partake of the goods and truths of His Word. Sitting at a table denotes a state of receptivity, a desire for spiritual food; and sitting together denotes fellowship and conjunction. The golden pyramid, rising high in the center of the table denotes celestial good, from which all nourishment proceeds. The hundred small dishes in triple order upon the forms of the pyramid point to all external truths of the Word which are receptacles of internal truths, and which are in three degrees. The cakes, condensed must of wines, and other delicacies made of bread and wine together, represent the heavenly truths of the Word received in love and thus becoming a nourishment to the soul.


The fountain of nectarine wine issuing from the tap of the pyramid is pure spiritual truth flowing out of the Word to nourish the understanding. Every form of food was of bread and wine, and the bread itself in its various forms was made with wine. Bread denotes good and wine truth, and of these two all things of heaven consist. The bread being made with wine means that all genuine good is formed of truths. Without truth good is not good, and without good truth is not truth. If a man has the truths of the Word and is not at the same time in a good life, his truth, after death, will be turned into falsity; his light, which he thought heavenly, will be turned into the lurid light of hell. And, on the other hand, if a man seems to be in a good life, but has no love for learning the truth, his good after death will be seen to be spurious good; he will reject the instruction and leadings of angels, and will gravitate downwards. Good and truth are the essential elements of the soul. They are the "feast of fat things well refined" which the Lord provides for all people. We must come to the table of the Lord while here on earth; that is, to the interior spiritual table, where we are nourished with the precious truths of Revelation, received in the love of them, if we would sit at the table of the Lord in heaven and enjoy the fellowship of angels.

     This heavenly state is compared to a mountain. "And in this mountain shall Jehovah of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things." A spiritual mountain is an exalted state of the soul, as a physical mountain is a great elevation of land. A mountain is a symbol of heaven, but he who is in an exalted state of the soul is already in heaven and in consociation with the angels, though he be not conscious of it; and when he enters into an angelic society after death he enters outwardly into the company that he has already made his own by his life on earth. And whether in the flesh or out of the flesh he enjoys daily in his inner life "a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined."



TWO SALOMES       Rev. ALBERT BJORCK       1917

     "But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them and pleased Herod." (Math 14:6.) "And when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices that they might come and anoint Him." (Mark 16:1)

     Every human being has within him a longing for peace. But this longing differs in different states and in different stages of development. And it is equally true that human conception of what peace means, or is, also varies greatly and in accordance with our understanding, experience, and state in general. Still, it may be said that the feeling of being undisturbed, the consciousness of being free from interference, whether in pursuing certain ends, or in the possession or enjoyment of what we most desire, gives to men a sense of peace.

     When children, we become restive and irritated when our desires for the moment, whatever they may be, are interfered with, and it is only through long and loving training that we can learn to find peace in obedience to those wiser than we. As the individual matures, and his character develops, many different influences tend to disturb his peace; but they may be classed under two general categories: external conditions and influences from others which prevent him from enjoying in full the things that delight him, or to pursue unhampered the ends his desire has set before him as the goal to strive for, or on the other hand considerations or sentiments within the man himself, which do not allow him to enjoy in peace what he would like, if his desires were in unrestrained freedom. And, of course, both kinds can and mostly do combine to disturb men's peace.

     If we have had loving and wise guidance during childhood and have been trained to obey those wiser than we, without rebellion and in love, and have learned to find peace and security in this, then that training may, in later years, develop into a disposition to obey the Lord's revelation in His Word, to keep His Commandments, and to find our peace in that obedience.


So can we grow into a perception of and trust in His loving Providence, and become able to bear the difficulties, the burdens and sorrows that life in the world is bound to bring, and yet preserve peace in, our inner mind.

     But even with such a training in childhood the acquisition and preservation of a sense of peacefulness is a slow and laborious process, and most of us have to get many a severe lesson in the school of life before we can possess it. It is the greatest blessing we can get. The name "Jerusalem" means literally "the possession of peace" and when we have that kind of peace established in us we have reached to the city on the mountains, the elevated state where the temple of God is built.

     The selfishness inbred in human nature may be so strong by inheritance that many, despite the best of training, constantly rebel against the obedience that the Lord's commandments demand of us, and we find pleasure and peace of mind only when we follow our own selfish desires in disregard of the Lord's commandments.

     In such cases the inner voice of conscience, developed in us through training, which puts before us as; a duty to shun as sins the evils forbidden in the Commandments, becomes hateful in our eyes, a disturber of our peace, and our love for the unrestrained giving-in to our desires and enjoyments of the pleasures they promise us will seduce our understanding and breed thoughts and plans for circumventing or avoiding the demands of the Lord for obedience to His Commandments.

     Every time we give in to the evil desires of selfishness, we will find restraints of the Lord's Commandments more irksome, and we will regard them less and less, developing a pride in our own intelligence of what is good for us that takes no account of the moral laws except as conventional rules, which we observe in a measure for the sake of our prestige with men, but which we would rather altogether shake off or stifle in order to be altogether free to do what we please, openly and unrestrainedly, and so have the peace which in such states is the only peace that men can understand.

     Love for doing according to our own selfish lusts and desires in disregard to the Commandments of the Lord, if we give in to it and join our understanding to that love, will soon make us disposed to listen to the daughter of that love, which is the lust for unrestrained, entirely shameless enjoyment of evil, and which holds that up as a promise of peace.


     These facts belonging to men's spiritual life are pictured to us in an unmistakable way in the description from human life at the time the Lord lived on earth in the 14th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew which constitutes our text.

     Herod the Tetrarch, the son of Herod the Great, desired to marry his brother Philip's wife, Herodias.

     Herod the Great, who was king of the Jews when the Lord was born, and whose desire to kill the new-born truth was so great that he gave command to slaughter all the male children of Bethlehem under two years of age, stands as the embodiment of the pride of self-intelligence which then ruled in the church,-an intelligence which falsely interpreted the Law and the Prophets to further its own selfish end, and furiously sought to slay the Divine truth of unselfish love, to destroy all the truths in the Word that made it the "House of Bread" for men. His whole character and history is a corroboration of this representation in the story of the Gospel.

     But the false and destructive rule of that pride could not prevent the Lord from revealing in a human life the Divine qualities that are the eternal human qualities, the qualities of unselfish love, formed and given shape and expression by obedience to Infinite truth.

     But, although the pride in self-intelligence does not regard the commandments of love, still it cannot attain to peace, not even the peace of the world giveth, for it always comes in conflict with its own family, the same pride from selfishness in others, on the one hand, and on the other, with the common perception among people that there is a higher wisdom which gives rise to moral precepts among men.

     When Herod the Great was gathered to his kind, his son, Herod Antipas, was made tetrarch or ruler over part of the land.

     Herod Antipas, "that fox," as the Lord called him, embodied in his life as a ruler that cunning of the human understanding which, recognizing the power of religious truths among the people, adopts religion to a certain extent in its conduct externally as a matter of good policy, professing respect for the moral law.


     In the letter of the Word Herod the Tetrarch stands for and represents such cunning wherever and whenever it exists. For a time he heard John the Baptist gladly, and also wanted to see Jesus, expecting to witness some wonderful miracle. But there was nothing real in it, no genuine desire to be taught by the truth of righteous dealing and so be brought into the presence of the Lord, It was nothing but cunning make-believe lust of falsifying and deceiving for the sake of evil pleasure. Such cunning deceit joins itself to the love of living according to selfish lusts, and stifles or imprisons the moral considerations that stand in, the way. When John told Herod that it was not lawful for him to marry his living brother's wife, he imprisoned John, and married her.

     For the sake of, appearance such men still feign a certain respect for the moral law, as Herod "feared John, and kept him safe" and "was perplexed;'' and though he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him a prophet.

     But the love of living according to the selfish lusts, which love is represented by Herodias whom Herod had unlawfully married, chafes even under such pretended deference to morality, and the daughter of that love is the lust for the altogether shameless, unrestrained enjoyment in evil. That lust flatters, cajoles, and carries away the rest of decency in the understanding, cunningly held for the sake of appearance, as Herodias' daughter by her artful ways and seductive dancing made Herod promise her anything she wanted; and as that love desires nothing but the removal of all restraints, even the appearance of deference to the commandments of morality is finally abandoned.

     When the enjoyment in evil is unrestrained it brings the sense of peace while the enjoyment lasts, and it is a significant fact that the daughter of Herodias was named "Salome," which means "the peaceful."

     After Herod had killed John he had some remorse on account of fear, and when he heard of the wonderful things which Jesus did, he thought that John had come again from the dead, which was true in a sense that he did not know.


But he was quite willing to let the priests condemn Jesus to death, though both he and the priests were anxious to make the Roman governor the tool of his execution, for thereby it would have the appearance of a legal act.

     When once the human understanding has joined itself to the lust of an evil life, it co-operates with the human desire for appropriating the holy things of the Lord in religion to its own selfish ends, priding itself in its own holiness, and exercising dominion over others through the truths that were given for the salvation of men. This lust is represented by the high priests who condemned the Lord, and wherever or whenever it exists among men, it shows itself in love of gain for self from holy things, which love, when it is crossed, breeds enmity, hatred, cruelty and violence.

     When kings or rulers of nations are incited and led by their selfish loves, their reverence for religion and their love for their people is only put on for the sake of appearances, the means of cunning for achieving their selfish ends under the guise of righteousness, and they join forces with those priests who use the influence over the people their office gives them for the gratification of their own lust of dominion. Then the restraining influence of the Commandments of God over evil is first done away with, and later the unselfish love from the Lord in men is condemned to death, sacrificed on the altar of selfishness and lust of dominion, and hatred, cruelty and violence are preached, in the name of the law, of necessity, as a duty to one's country, and even to the laws of religion.

     Pilate, as the representative of the civil law, was made the tool for executing the judgment of the priests and the secret desire of Herod, and the unthinking masses followed the cry of their priests and rulers, as the masses today follow the word of their leaders and priests.

     The vision of unrestrained enjoyment of every selfish and evil lust had danced before the eyes of Herod, holding out to him that enjoyment as real peace, and he refused to intercede for the Lord when Pilate turned! Him over to the Roman authorities. He sent Him back to Pilate as an echo of John whom he had killed, a disturber of his peace, and if He also was done away with, Herod might do as he pleased in peace. That peace is Salome, the daughter of Herodias.


     The Gospels themselves do not mention Herodias' daughter by name, but we know it from Josephus, who lived and wrote at that time. It is as if those who were the human means for giving us the Word of God in the Gospels had been divinely restrained from giving the deceitful name of "the peaceful" to the lust of an altogether unrestrained enjoyment in evil, which in reality is the very opposite to peace, and never can lead to peace, but breeds and always will breed violence, and hatred, and cruelty, and destroys true human life.

     But there is another Salome, who is mentioned by name in the Gospels. Mark tells us that she was one of the three women who came to the sepulchre early in the morning on the first day in the week, and he also tells us that she was present at the crucifixion, on both occasions in company with the two Marys, Mary the mother, and Mary Magdalene.

     This Salome was the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of James and John. She is only mentioned by name in these two places, and the Gospels tell us very little about her, but it is easy to see what kind of peacefulness she stands for and represents.

     If Herodias' daughter, Salome, stands for the evil peace that the world can give, Salome the mother of James and John stands for and represents the peacefulness that follows obedience to the Divine commands.

     We know that John and his brother, James, represent the human understanding of the Lord's teaching that true life is to be found in love of God and in love of the neighbor. These two loves are brothers, as Simon and Andrew, hearing and obedience, are brothers. And the human affection that can become the mother of these two loves, love to the Lord and to the neighbor, is represented by this second Salome. In her we see represented that love of peace which in all conditions of life looks to the commandments of righteousness and mercy, given to men by the Lord our God who is Infinite love, and which in obedience to them seeks and finds peace of mind.

     That peacefulness can be found in many a simple soul whom we are apt to look upon as ignorant and without much understanding.


But even if the intellectual side is often but little developed with them, their obedience to God and His will, and their trust in His Providence produce in them a wisdom that intellectually superior people often lack, an inner wisdom or perception that is a gift of God as a reward for their obedience, and which can become the father of a genuine love of God and of the neighbor. Salome was married to Zebedee, which name, literally translated, means the "Gift of Jehovah," and Salome was the mother of James and John.

     This Salome, with Mary the mother, and Mary Magdalene, stands sorrowing near the cross as a powerless spectator when men crucify the living truth of unselfish love.

     The affection of the truth which tells us that God is love, and which leads men to His love, is Mary, the mother of the Lord's human life. The affection of the truth that evil is to be shunned is Mary Magdalene, out of whom the Lord had driven seven devils; and the peacefulness of mind that comes with simple and faithful obedience to the Lord's commandments is Salome.

     If these three affections should die out from the race of men, the Lord's Divine Truth could never again be raised to life on earth, for there would then be nothing in men to respond to His love. But these affections never die. They lived sorrowing when He was crucified, and they are alive and sorrowing whenever and wherever the love from Him in men is sacrificed on the altar of selfishness and sinful desires.

     They came early in the morning the first day of the week, and beheld the stone rolled away from the grave.

     These three affections in men are the first ones to see the spirit of the Lord's love and truth risen from the sepulcher which the dogmas and traditions of men have constructed out of the letter of the Word, though Mary Magdalene alone is the first to see the risen Lord himself. For it is the experience of the power of the truth that saves from evil which first recognizes that truth as the very living form of the Lord Himself, who came to save men from their sins. And now as ever men are unable to see and recognize the Lord's life unless they feel the need to be saved from evil, and love the truth that can save them, for they that be whole need not a physician, but those who are sick.






     As has been stated before, John Pitcairn, the subject of our sketch, was born in Johnstone, Scotland, on January 10th, 1841. His parents did not, at that time, know anything about the New Church, but, as if by a happy predestination, the infant escaped the baptism of the Old Church. The father was inclined to skepticism and failed to accompany the mother when she brought the bairn to kirk; the straightlaced "meenister" refused to administer the sacrament except on condition that the father also should come, which made the mother so indignant that the baptism was indefinitely postponed.

     In October, 1846, the family, for the second time, migrated to America and now settled in Pittsburgh, where the parents and all the children were baptized into the New Church by the Rev. David Powell. When about six years of age John was brought to the New Church Sunday School, then conducted by "Auntie" Anna Aitken, the same school that was attended by his somewhat older friend, Andrew Carnegie. The latter, some fifty years later, met John in a hotel in New York. Turning to a group of business friends, Andrew said gaily, "Ah, here comes my Swedenborgian friend, John Pitcairn. We went to Sunday School together, and used to study Hebrew under Bishop Benade. He used to tell us there were no vowels in the Hebrew, but I know better now." To this John replied, "Andy, a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Drink deep or touch not the Pierian spring." Whereupon Andy turned to his friends, saying, "Well, come on, boys, we must be going."

     John Pitcairn received a grammar school education in the public school in Allegheny City, where his principal teacher was John Kelly, who afterwards became famous as an educator, while among his classmates were Henry W. Oliver and Henry Phipps, who later became very prominent in the development of Pittsburgh's industries.


"Mr. Kelly may have spared the rod," Mr. Pitcairn used to say, "but he certainly did not spare the strap. It was wound round his hand twice and would often land without warning on the back of some miscreant." We doubt if John suffered much from it, if the boy was anything like the extremely industrious and orderly man.

     At the age of fourteen years John found it necessary to leave school in order to earn his own living. Having secured a position as office boy with the General Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad, at Altoona, he left the parental home on his fourteenth birthday, January 10, 1855, and set forth on his eventful career with the WORD and Swedenborg's TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION in his knapsack. They had been placed there by his devoted mother. Surely, no boy ever started out in life with better guides, nor were they neglected by the young traveler.

     In Altoona he stayed with his elder brother, Robert, who was clerk and telegraph operator to the General Superintendent. "In about three months' time I learned telegraphy," says Mr. Pitcairn in the notes dictated to Miss Odhner. "At this period in the development of telegraphy, there was attached to each instrument a tape to record the messages, and but few of the operators could read by sound, but after a few months of practice I could read easily without the aid of the tape."

     "Those were busy days for railroad men, there being no night forces and no limit to the hours in case of necessity. I slept upstairs above the office; there was an operating machine beside the bed, and one was liable to be called upon at any hour of the night to dispatch important messages. My regular office hours were from half past seven in the morning, until nine o'clock in the evening, with an occasional evening off, and in emergencies I was called upon to be on duty all night. However, with the exception of an occasional message in the evening, I had but little to do, and could devote the time to reading.

     "My favorite author was Shakespeare, with whom I was very familiar, and I committed long passages to memory without any effort, and remember to this day. Among the poets there were Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Pope, Grey and Campbell.


     "An important influence in my life was exercised by Mr. Enoch Lewis and his wife. Mr. Lewis was the Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and his office was in the same building as that of the General Superintendent. The Lewises were highly cultured and refined people their frequent invitations to visit at their house were a great source of pleasure and profit. They were Unitarians, or Hicksite Quakers, quite liberal in their views, and broad-minded enough not to be shocked at my occasional Sunday morning fishing expeditions, and to tolerate one whose religious convictions differed from their own. Mrs. Lewis guided my reading by suggesting appropriate books and opining her library to me. Among the works which I found here were Bayard Taylor's Travels in Central Africa, India, China and Japan, Livingstone's Africa, and the novels of Dickens, Scott, Irving, and others. A pleasant acquaintance was formed with Mrs. Lewis' nephews and nieces, the children of Mr. Justice, of Philadelphia, who occasionally visited Altoona. It was thus that I made the acquaintance of Mr. Theodore Justice, who was about my own age, now a prominent Philadelphian, and his charming sister, Mary, afterwards Mrs. Steele. The delightful week I spent in 1857 with the Justice family in Philadelphia, at their invitation, and their kind reception, from a very pleasant memory connected with sight-seeing around the interesting city, with its memorial halls, museums and art galleries.

     "During the summer I would frequently get up at half-past three or four o'clock in the morning, to fish for trout in the small mountain streams, returning in time for breakfast. This sport has ever since been my favorite recreation. My visits home were of monthly or semi-monthly occurrence. I left Altoona on Saturday evening, by the night train, arriving at Pittsburgh about one o'clock a. m. After that there was a walk of about three miles, satchel in hand, before my home was reached,-for there were no street cars then. I returned to Altoona the following night, Sunday.

     "I shall never forget the friendly consideration of the General Superintendent, Herbert J. Lombaert. He treated me as a son, and I was greatly appreciative.


He often invited me to his house and provided opportunities for me to study and read, and thus make up the defects in my schooling. His example was that of a man always on duty and he appreciated the same virtue in others. As a consequence 'Johnny' would run his legs off, with important messages, to look up Mr. Lombaert in case of his absence from the office. Later, when he became Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, he urged me for Assistant Superintendent of the Philadelphia Division, but as I was considered too young, another man, Stephen R. Darlington, was chosen for the office. I was afterwards offered the position of General Superintendent of Telegraphs for the whole road, but I had caught a glimpse of the immense possibilities of railroad development and would not allow myself to be diverted into other directions.

     "I have always regarded my experience and training in the railroad service as of utmost importance in the development of character. The railroad service at that time resembled the military service more than any other occupation. Prompt and absolute obedience, so necessary in the development of the youth, made a basis for the wise government of the man when he was called upon to exercise authority. The principle involved is that the child and the youth should not do his own will, but the will of his parent, or guardian, and the adult should not do his own will, but the will of the Lord, as expressed in His Commandments and the principles of Truth and Justice."

     The following quotation well illustrates the conditions under which Mr. Pitcairn's first business experiences were gathered:

     "As the Altoona Office was then the organizing and operating center of the road, the work imposed on its administration involved originating and directing details covering almost all phases of railroad management, which in these days of enlargement are distributed among the transportation, motive power, engineering, comptroller's and traffic departments. It was a veritable university of railroading, and opened up opportunities to toil with great railroad problems which daily presented themselves on a newly opened trans-mountain line."*
     * William Bender Wilson, in a biographical sketch of ROBERT PITCAIRN, p. 12.


     There was little time for leisure during these years, but from John Pitcairn's Diary for 1855-8 we see that in his spare time there were early morning jaunts, an occasional picnic or surprise visit home, fishing, swimming, skating, and other sports that boys love.

     In 1855, on July 17th, John commenced to keep the first of his many diaries, in a fine, neat, regular handwriting, very much the same as in his last days. The entries at first are chiefly observations on the weather and on the frequent accidents on the railroad. On August 1919, 1855, we find the entry, "I went to Church and Sunday School," the first of many similar brief entries. Very often we find: "Robert went serenading tonight," but John was still of too serious a mind to go gallivanting. Often, again, we find entries telling about walks with "Tom," the latter being Thomas Carnegie, the younger brother of Andrew.

     Under April 20, 1856, we find his first important financial entry: "Robert gave me nine cents. I went home this morning. Went skift riding." On February 22, 1857: "I went to Sunday School this afternoon. There was a Syrian, preacher in the Presbyterian Church today, but I did not go." On April 29th, he made his first visit to Philadelphia as the guest of Mr. Justice, with whom he also spent the week of Christmas, 1857.

     In 1858 his parents removed to Altoona, while John returned to Allegheny City in order to attend school for nine months. Having finished this, his last period of regular school training, he joined his brother, Robert, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, where the latter was Assistant to the Superintendent of the Western Division of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad. At Fort Wayne he was employed in the office as telegraph operator, and when Robert returned to Altoona to become the Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, John became his successor at Fort Wayne, acting also in the capacity of train dispatcher.

     In 1860, though but nineteen years of age, John Pitcairn secured the responsible position of secretary to George C. Franciscus, the Superintendent of the Philadelphia Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He now removed to Philadelphia, where he at once associated himself with the New Church society worshiping in the little temple on the northeast corner of Cherry and Claymont streets.


This society had been organized by the Rev. W. H. Benade in 1854, after his resignation from the pastorate of the Philadelphia First Society; the temple was erected and dedicated in 1856, and the Society united with the Pennsylvania Association and the General Convention in 1857 For several years Mr. Benade had been paying regular pastoral visits to Pittsburgh and in consequence was well-known to Mr. Pitcairn who naturally chose him for a spiritual guide, philosopher and friend. Here, also, he entered at once into the distinctive social life of the Church, becoming especially intimate with the families of Mr. B. F. Glenn, J. W. Scott, F. E. Boericke, Rudolph L. Tafel, and other staunch members of that Society which was destined to become the nucleus of the Advent Society and to provide the first home for the Academy of the New Church.

     Such was the confidence of the railroad authorities in the reliability of their young employee that John Pitcairn, on February 22, 1861, was chosen to take charge of the special train which carried Abraham Lincoln from Harrisburg to Philadelphia on his way to the inauguration in Washington. The transportation was carried out with the utmost secrecy, as the Allan Pinkerton Detective Agency had discovered that plots against Lincoln's life had been hatched by conspirators in Baltimore. This interesting incident has been described by Mr. Pitcairn himself, as follows:*
     * See THE BULLETIN, Bryn Athyn, April, 1916.

     "Early in the month of February, 1861, Abraham Lincoln left his home in Springfield, Illinois, on his way to Washington to be inaugurated as President of the United States. On his journey he was, what was termed at the time, 'swinging around the circle,' delivering addresses at various State capitols and other centers: Indianapolis, Columbus, Harrisburg and Philadelphia. The country was in a high state of tension and apprehension for his safety, and his movements were watched with intense interest.

     "He arrived at Philadelphia in the evening of February 21, and put up at the Continental Hotel.


     "At the time I am describing, I was train dispatcher and secretary to George B. Franciscus, Superintendent of the Philadelphia Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which extended from Philadelphia to Harrisburg. On the evening of Mr. Lincoln's arrival in Philadelphia, I accompanied Mr. Franciscus to the Continental Hotel, and remained in the lobby.

     "Mr. Franciscus was shown to Mr. Lincoln's room, where, in addition to Mr. Lincoln, he met Allan Pinkerton, the famous detective, Samuel M. Felton, the President of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and one or two intimate friends of Mr. Lincoln.

     "There had been rumors of a plot to assassinate Mr. Lincoln as he passed through Baltimore, and Allan Pinkerton had detectives on the Northern Central Railroad (which was the route Mr. Lincoln was to take from Harrisburg on his way to Washington). There was positive evidence of a conspiracy. Mr. Felton also had independent evidence from private detectives employed by him confirmatory of the conspiracy.

     "The plot was disclosed to Mr. Lincoln, and he was urged to go direct from Philadelphia to Washington incognito the same night. This Mr. Lincoln positively declined to do, saying that he would keep his engagement at Harrisburg, where he was to deliver his last address, after which he was at their disposal. Arrangements were then made for him to go from Harrisburg to Washington incognito.

     "Early on the following morning, Mr. Lincoln raised a flag and delivered an address in front of Independence Hall,-immediately after which we left for Harrisburg by a special train, consisting of two cars, in which were Mr. Lincoln and quite a number of prominent politicians. I carried with me an instrument to attach to the telegraph wire in case of necessity. We arrived at Harrisburg about noon without incident.

     "After the reception and address before the Pennsylvania Legislature, Governor Curtin,-the 'War Governor,' as he was called,-retired with Mr. Lincoln to his mansion, ostensibly to enable Mr. Lincoln to rest. Towards dusk a closed carriage was taken to a public road crossing about a mile east of Harrisburg, where I was waiting with a locomotive and ordinary passenger car. The only person with me was T. E. Garret, the General Baggage Master of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who acted as flagman to protect our special train.


     "The locomotive engineer and the fireman were ignorant of the fact that the President-elect was one of the occupants of the car.

     "Towards dusk, at the appointed time, a carriage drove up, out of which stepped Mr. Franciscus, Enoch Lewis, the Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Mr. Lincoln, and his intimate friend, Colonel Ward H. Lamon, all of whom entered the car. Mr. Lincoln wore a light brown felt hat, and a traveling shawl, which it was customary for gentlemen to wear in those days.

     "I called in the flagman, and we started for Philadelphia. The car was not lighted except by a lantern which I carried.

     "The first stop we made was west of Lancaster for water for the locomotive. The next stop was at Downingtown to take water, where all the gentlemen, excepting Mr. Lincoln, stepped out for a sandwich and a cup of coffee. I asked Mr. Lincoln if I could bring him anything, and he requested me to bring him a cup of tea and a roll.

     "We then proceeded to West Philadelphia, where Allan Pinkerton was waiting with a carriage into which Mr. Lincoln, Col. Lamon and Mr. Pinkerton stepped, and were driven to Broad and Pine Streets Station. Mr. Lincoln occupied a section of a Woodruff Sleeping Car, arriving incognito in Washington early the following morning, greatly to the relief of the few persons who were in the secret, as well as to the public at-large.

     "After the safe arrival of Mr. Lincoln at Washington, sensational accounts were published as to the incognito trip of Mr. Lincoln to Washington and the disguise he wore. Harper's Weekly represented him as wearing a cloak and a Scotch cap.

     "In 1867, for the purpose of a true historical record of Mr. Lincoln's journey to Washington, I received a letter from Robert Pinkerton, son of Allan Pinkerton, requesting an account of the journey from me. Shortly afterwards letters were published from Enoch Lewis, George C. Franciscus and myself, testifying to the facts which I have related. A copy of these published letters, bound in Russian leather, was presented to me."


     On April 14th, 1861, Fort Sumter surrendered to the Confederate forces, and the Civil War began. John Pitcairn, who was an ardent abolitionist, wisely believed that he could serve the Union better on the railroad than in the field, though many of the young men of the Cherry Street society joined the colors,-so many, in fact, that it virtually broke up the New Church School which Mr. Benade conducted there. Some,-among them George DeCharms, a son of the Rev. Richard DeCharms, Sr. died gloriously in defense of the United States.

     John Pitcairn's position, in those troubled times, as secretary to the Superintendent of the principal railway system of the Northern States, was one of grave responsibility for a youth of twenty years. There was a constant moving of great bodies of troops, and Mr. Pitcairn was now appointed superintendent of the local railroad telegraph lines, and had to act also as chief train dispatcher and chief operator of the line between Philadelphia and Harrisburg. In fact, during the necessary absences of Mr. Franciscus from his office, Mr. Pitcairn frequently found the entire charge of the railroad devolved upon him. It is difficult to imagine how so young a man could possibly manage such a mountain upon his shoulders.

     When, in September, 1862, the Confederates invaded Maryland, Colonel Thomas A. Scott, then Assistant Secretary of War, sent Robert and John Pitcairn to Chambersburg, to take charge of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, which had been taken over by the Government. Robert had charge of the train service during the daytime, John at night. Trains were run without a time table, by special telegraph orders from Chambersburg, and great responsibility was attached to the office of dispatcher, involving, as it did, the movements of troops; Mr. Pitcairn's appointment to such a post as this is an evidence of the high estimation in which he was held.

     A few days after the battle of Antietam Mr. Pitcairn visited the battlefield, which is not far from Chambersburg. The troops had then all been moved away, Lee's to take advantage of the splendid chance to escape which McClellan had allowed him to reconnoitre his troops and gather strength for a new sally. The battlefield, littered with shattered muskets and ramrods, broken and unbroken shells and splintered trees, presented a desolate sight, the whole made infernally vivid by the atrocious stench which is the accompaniment of all battlefields.


     After these stirring scenes and events, Mr. Pitcairn returned to his regular occupations in Philadelphia, remaining there until the close of the Civil War.



     The business career of John Pitcairn may be said to have covered three general periods, viz.: Railway service, Petroleum and Natural Gas development, and Manufacturing.

     The first of these eras of wider usefulness opened in the year 1865, when Mr. Pitcairn was advanced to the position of Assistant Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, requiring his residence at Harrisburg. Here he remained but one year, when he was again advanced, being now appointed Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Philadelphia and Erie branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with headquarters at Renovo, a little railroad town on the banks of the western branch of the Susquehanna, situated in a veritable pot of the Allegheny mountains, in a region of steep embankments, annual floods, frequent landslides, forest fires and so forth, not to mention an abundance of fine trout and rattlesnakes.

     On assuming the charge of this difficult line, Mr. Pitcairn encountered a state of great demoralization in the organization, and it was here that his remarkable ability to detect the weak spots in any system, and to correct and re-organize, was first called into activity. Personal and rigorous inspection was his motto, as Superintendent, and it was his habit to cover the whole line under his charge-over a hundred miles-twice annually, on foot,* looking over every foot of rail and ties, inspecting every detail, and coming into touch with every branch of the service, even taking an engine from the hands of the driver.


By careful firing he was able to show the men how to reduce the coal consumption on his line to a degree considerably lower than the average.
     * He was an indefatigable walker, as the present writer often found to his cost. By Canadian trout-streams, over long, rough portages in the wilderness, or on board the ocean greyhounds, he would fairly walk us off our weary though much younger legs. On shipboard he was never satisfied unless he had filled his daily five miles of promenade around the deck. How we prayed for a squall that would drive him into the smoking-room! He was a cyclone of "kinetic energy."

     Far from becoming unpopular on account of his strict regulations, Mr. Pitcairn succeeded in gaining not only the respect and confidence of his subordinates, but even their affection, This was evidenced on the occasion of his resignation from the superintendency of the Middle Division of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad on July 1st, 1869, when the railroad employees, to the number of 200, gathered in the Ladies' Room of the Station and, through a committee, presented Mr. Pitcairn with a gold watch and chain as a token of respect. (He carried this watch to the end of his days.) Mr. Pitcairn, in return, invited about fifty of his former subordinates to take dinner with him.

     It was during these years of comparative isolation from the organic life of the New Church that John Pitcairn was thrown back upon the Writings themselves for the sustenance of his spiritual life. The Church becomes more and more prominent in his diaries,-entries telling in a few words about "theological talks" with various associates, often lasting until midnight, but with few encouraging results.

     Under March 20, 1866, we find this entry in his diary: "Went to Philadelphia on fast line. Transacted my business, and then went to Mr. Glenn's to fancy dress party. They had suit of Hamlet ready for me. About sixty, in costume. Kept up the fun until two o'clock in the morning."

     On May 30, of the same year, he states that he "left Harrisburg for Boston at 9 a. m.-met Philadelphia friends, Mr. Glenn, Mary Glenn, Nellie Ferreth, Fred. Scott, Mary Scott, and Miss Guernseg on Fall River boat." The purpose of the journey was to attend, for the first time, a meeting of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem, which was held at Boston, June 1-7, 1866. The simple entry in his diary reads: "Attended New Church Convention. Met Scammon, Hibbard, Silver, Goddard and James Reed."


     It was at this Convention that Mr. Benade, together with his friend, the Rev. S. M. Warren, inaugurated the movement for the publication of Swedenborg's remaining manuscripts,-a work which had been interrupted by the death of Prof. Immanuel Tafel, in 1863. At the Convention in Cincinnati, June 7-12, 1868, the scope of this work was enlarged so as to include "the thorough examination of all that are accessible of Swedenborg's unpublished manuscripts, and the publication, or duplication, of such as are found worthy of preservation." The last clause must have caused something of a fight in the Convention, for Mr. Benade always insisted that all of Swedenborg's manuscripts were "worthy" of preservation, but evidently the majority then thought otherwise.

     Mr. Pitcairn was present also at this Convention and was thus introduced into the sphere of the wider uses of the Church. As yet he could do but little, financially, for the work on the manuscripts, but it was here that his interest in this use was first kindled,-an interest which in after years made possible the continuation of this most important but very expensive undertaking. At this Convention, Mr. Pitcairn, as a prominent railroad man, was appointed chairman of the Committee on Transportation, in which capacity he served for several years, helping to secure reduced rates for the ministers and delegates attending the Conventions.

     A few more extracts from his diary of 1867: "July 14. Spent the afternoon at May's expounding New Church doctrines. Evening at Mr. Neilson's. Conversation on New Church doctrines." "September I. Allegheny City. Attended Church this morning. Sermon by Mr. Benade. Spent evening with Mr. McCandless. Prof. Tafel delivered address on "Modern Spiritism."

     In July, 1868, Mr. Pitcairn, for the first time, took an extended vacation,-ten memorable days. First, a trip down the St. Lawrence river, with a visit to his mother's Highland relatives, the McEwens, not far from Ottawa. Then from Montreal to New Hampshire, ascending Mt. Washington and witnessing the sunrise from the "Tip Top House." Finally, train to Portland, Maine, where the General Convention met that year, on July 13th. It was here that Mr. Benade succeeded in his long-cherished plan to arrange for the mission of Prof. Rudolph L. Tafel to Sweden, where the latter now began those tremendous labors which finally resulted in the ten great volumes of PHOTOLITHOGRAPHS and the three volumes of DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG.


     In March, 1869, the Rev. N. C. Burnham, who was the Missionary of the Pennsylvania Association, passed the Renovo on his way to Erie. Mr. Pitcairn requested him to stop there for a few days to deliver lectures on the Heavenly Doctrine. We find his account of these lectures in the NEW JERUSALEM MESSENGER, for 1869, p. 169. Mr. Pitcairn first describes Renovo as a "town situated in Clinton County, and as the point at which the principal shops of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroads are stationed."

     "We have now," he says, "nearly 2,000 inhabitants, although it is but five years since the town was located. The Rev. N. C. Burnham on his way to Erie, Pa., was induced to stop over and spent the 4th and 5th inst. with us, and lectured each evening in the ladies' room of the passenger depot. Although there was but a few hours' announcement of the first lecture an audience of from 60 to 70 of our most intelligent citizens assembled and listened with rapt attention for over two hours to an explanation of the Second Coming of the Lord, and the unity of the Godhead. Among the audience was a Presbyterian minister, who asked detailed explanations in regard to the quality of the Holy Ghost. The questions being asked in a respectful manner, and apparently for information, they were cheerfully answered by Mr. Burnham with a readiness and force that had a profound effect upon the audience. At the close of the lecture it was announced that New Church books could be obtained at our library or upon application to the writer, and it is confidently hoped that the interest awakened by the lectures will cause the Writings, which heretofore have received but little attention, to be sought for and read with avidity.-J. P."

     It is to this first effort that the New Church circle in Renovo owes its origin. Among the hearers of Dr. Burnham was Mr. Joseph R. Kendig, the chief clerk of the Pennsylvania Railroad repairing shops, then a member of the Winebrennarian sect, which called itself "The Church of God" and insisted upon Foot-washing as its chief sacrament.


Mr. Kendig became profoundly interested in the doctrines of the New Church and was so persistent a propagandist that he became known in the community as "New Jerusalem Joe." A fine, staunch Newchurchman was Joe, faithful to the end of life, which came on January 7, 1905. Though Mr. Kendig did not succeed in converting very many of his neighbors, he raised his own large family in the faith of the New Church, and his hospitable home in later years entertained many a New Church minister and youthful candidate in vacation times.

     Another convert through Mr. Burnham's lectures was Mr. Robert B. Caldwell and his wife, then stationed in Renovo. Mr. Caldwell afterwards moved to Toronto, Ontario, and was the chief means in preparing the way for the entry of the Academy in that city.

     The life in Renovo soon proved too confined for Mr. Pitcairn's active mind, and on July 1, 1869, he resigned from his position there to enter into wider opportunities as General Manager of the Oil Creek and Allegheny River Railroad. This line was a recently opened extension of the Allegheny Valley Railroad, connecting Pittsburgh with Oil City and the rich oil districts of northwestern Pennsylvania. The duties of his new office made it necessary for Mr. Pitcairn to divide his time between Oil City, Corry, Titusville, Petroleum Centre, and Oleopolis, with headquarters at Corry. He was constantly traveling, not only on the business of the railroad, but on his own ever widening affairs, and wherever he went he would always attend the services of the New Church in the cities where such were held.

     "1870, Jan. 23. Pittsburgh. Accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Henderson to hear Mr. Benade lecture on 'The Word.'" "Feb. 19. Looked at a property with a view of purchasing for Father," (which, not long afterwards, he did). "June 18. Phila. Attended General Convention of the New Church." "June 19. Attended Church this morning. Rev. J. R. Hibbard. Dined at Mr. Glenn's. Sacrament this afternoon. Spent evening at Iungerich's." "July 25. At Terre Haute. Went hunting for Prairie Chickens this evening. Shot eleven. July 26. Morning, shot seven; evening, shot eight."


This was quite a bag, but Mr. Pitcairn, in later years, took no pleasure in hunting, though he was an enthusiastic and tireless fisherman.

     In Pittsburgh, in the year 1870, the New Church rejoiced in the accession of a number of new receivers of the Heavenly Doctrine, among them "some young men of prominent families and of bright intelligence, who have come boldly forward and united with the Church by Baptism," to quote from a letter by Mr. Benade to Rev. J. P. Stuart, of March 14, 1870. The young men here referred to Were Mr. Franklin Ballou and Mr. Walter C. Childs, with whom Mr. Pitcairn became acquainted on the day of their baptism into the New Church, (February to, 1870). The accession of these two young men, with their unbounded enthusiasm, their active and aggressive Newchurchmanship, and their brilliant social gifts, gave a great impetus to the distinctive life of the New Church in Pittsburgh, and proved a great addition also to the life of John Pitcairn, who in them found friends of his own kind.

     One of the most thorough and satisfactory converts of Mr. Pitcairn's private missionary efforts was Samuel H. Hicks, at that time a clerk in the Corry office and destined to become, in later years, the founder of a New Church family, and one of the pillars of the Academy and of the Church in Bryn Athyn. Mr. Pitcairn's diary for 1871 opens with this entry: "Jan. 2. Mr. Hicks and myself went to Erie this morning to make New Year's calls. Made 29 calls and met 132 ladies. No liquor offered at any of the houses. Enjoyed the day exceedingly." Let this fact sink slowly and deeply into the mind of our younger readers! We continue with extracts from the diary: "Feb. It. In Philadelphia. Attended Church at Broad and Brandywine, Mr., Barrett officiating." "March 4. Pittsburgh. Attended Church this morning. Was received into the Church as a member." "March 12. Spent day at Corry. Discussed New Church matters with Mr. Hicks; also with a Mr. Williams, of Minnesota. The latter expressed himself as very much pleased."

     The. Rev. B. F. Barrett, mentioned above, was one of the most powerful missionary writers the New Church ever possessed, but, at the same time a most pronounced permeationist, antiseparatist, anti-authority, anti-priesthood, anti-every-Academy principle.


We cannot recall how many times he left the Convention and re-united with the Unitarian Church, and came back again to the New Church, and so on, but he kept the Convention in a constant turmoil for some forty years with his incessant pamphlets and controversies. At any rate, he made things lively, especially after the Academy came to the front. In March, 1871, he resigned from the pulpit of the Philadelphia First Society, and organized "the New Church Congregational Union," which later became known as the "Swedenborg Publishing Association," and finally as the "Nunc Licet Press." In the Philadelphia Society he was succeeded by the Rev. E. R. Keyes, an eloquent but superficial and adventurous convert from the Methodist Church. He kindled quite a straw fire, for a while, with the usual result.

     On June 9-14, 1871, Mr. Pitcairn was in Chicago, present for the first time as an appointed delegate from the Pennsylvania Association to the General Convention. It was at this meeting that the Convention, in spite of the opposition of the majority to Mr. Benade's unpopular principles, unanimously passed a resolution of gratitude for his long and faithful work as chairman of the Committee on the Reproduction of Swedenborg's Manuscripts,-Dr. R. L. Tafel having now completed the task outlined for him.

     After the Convention, Mr. Pitcairn made a visit to Nashville, Tennessee, to explore the "Mammoth Cave," and, on his return to Oil City, went on a fishing trip with Mr. Benade, with unknown piscatorial results. This was the first of many a journey which he made in the company of this inspiring friend.

     On September 17-18. Mr. Pitcairn was present in Pittsburgh, at an important meeting of the Pennsylvania Association, when that body was convulsed by a general revolution against its President, the Rev. Thomas Wilks, who-in addition to Welsh infirmities of temper-had developed spiritistic tendencies in his old age, (after many years of sound teaching and faithful service). In spite of almost unanimous requests, Mr. Wilks refused to resign the presidency of the Association, and as Mr. Benade and other leading members did not believe in the propriety of deposing a General Pastor, the Association took the unusual step of dissolving itself, leaving Mr. Wilks in sole possession of an empty title.

     (To be continued.)




     THE FIRST VISIT, 1915.

     "Bryn Athyn," 360, Essenwood Road,
     DURBAN, NATAL, S. A., June 23, 1915.

     Bryn Athyn, Pa., U. S. A.
Dear Bishop Pendleton.-
     I left Durban on Monday, May 31st, 1915, at 7:15 p. m. and arrived at Maseru, Basutoland, the terminus of my railway journey, at 9 p. m., Wednesday, June 2d. The Rev. S. M. Mofokeng and Chiefs Moshe Monyeke and Mphara were at the station with horses to meet me, and took me to Lacey's Private Hotel, where I stayed for the night.

     On Thursday, 10:30 a. m., we set out on horses from Maseru to the village of the Paramount Chief of Basutoland. The Rev. David Khaile met us and rode with us for an hour, then returned to his village, Bogate. At 2:30 p. m. we arrived at Mphara's village. Here we had lunch; and rested until 3:30 p. m., meeting about a dozen New Church natives, among them Mphara's wife and children, and Matiea, the leader of the circle here. Here also I was shown the first New Church building erected in Basutoland,-built by Mofokeng. It is about 20 feet long by 10 feet wide; is made of native brick; the walls are smeared and colored inside and outside; it has a reed and grass roof, and pews, without backs, made of the same material as the walls. The New Church natives were delighted to see a white New Church minister. I wonder if you appreciate the situation here. It has been impressed upon me by constant repetition. The natives of Basutoland had never heard of the New Church until Mofokeng commenced preaching it, nor could they read English and thus see for themselves, from the new books which Mofokeng obtained, that there was actually such a Church. They had to trust Mofokeng in a matter so vital. Most of them accused him of originating "the New Church" for his own advantage; and they were encouraged in such accusations by the various so-called Christian Missions here.


But Mofokeng persisted. He told me that many times he felt hopeless and that he had failed, but always his wife encouraged him. And so, at every place, I was saluted not only by Mofokeng's converts, but also by many others who formerly had doubted Mofokeng's word. It seems that many are well disposed towards the Doctrines of the New Church, but they want to be sure the New Church is really what is claimed for it by Mofokeng. I have been told many times by the natives here that the Chiefs, especially, like the New Church; and I am convinced of this in respect to Chiefs Moshe Monyeke and Mphara. They are, and have been from the beginning, Mr. Mofokeng's staunchest friends and supporters among the natives; and the Rev. David R. Khaile has been his strongest supporter and helper in the active work of the ministry. While in Basutoland I learned that the natives know very little about the New Church; indeed, they are like little children in many ways; but surely there must be something which they feel and which attracts them to the New Church! To me the Hand of Providence seems clearly visible in the work which has been done among this people. But to return to facts. We left Mphara's village at 3:30 p. m. and, after hard riding, arrived at the village of the Paramount Chief at 6 p. m.

     Here we found the Rev. Serutla, another of the native New Church ministers and pastor at Baroana Station, who had arranged an interview with the Paramount Chief. However, we were too late to see him that day, and so an interview for the following day was arranged, and I was lodged over night in a neighboring village.

     The next morning I met the Paramount Chief. He is a short, stout man, about thirty-three years of age, dressed in European clothes. We conversed by means of an interpreter, his native secretary. In reply to his questions I told him about the New Church and its doctrines, particularly wherein it differs from the Roman and Protestant Churches. He started a long argument about the Trinity and apparently knows his Bible well.

     At 3:30 p. m. Mofokeng, Monyeke, and I left the Paramount Chief's village, headed for Liphiring, at which place we arrived at 7:30 p. m. Moshe Monyeke is Chief or Headman of Liphiring and Mofokeng is Pastor there.


     On Sunday I held a service at Liphiring at 11 a. m. We followed the Liturgy of the General Conference. The service was held out of doors. About 100 natives and "coloureds" were present. The Rev. S. M. Mofokeng conducted the services and acted as my interpreter, and the Rev. D. R. Khaile read the lessons in Sesuto. I baptized two children, girls, and "blessed" twenty-three adults, men and women. I preached a short extempore sermon, which was interpreted sentence by sentence by Mofokeng. There was a great deal of singing, but without any instrument accompanying. The responses were prompt and of good volume. The members of the congregation had no books; everything was spoken and sung from memory. The men were all gathered on my right, as I faced them; the women on my left; and most of them sat on the ground. The sun was so hot I had to hold my umbrella over my head during most of the service. I wore my robes; Mofokeng and Khaile wore their surplices. The service commenced promptly on time, and lasted one and three-quarters of an hour.

     The "blessing" of the adults needs explanation. It seems that either Mr. Gibson or Mr. Ford, a Newchurchman residing in Cape Town, had told Mofokeng that it is unnecessary-to rebaptize those who have already received Christian baptism; and also that he, (Mofokeng), Serutla, Nyaredi, and Khaile,-the first three of whom have been ordained and the last licensed, by the Church of England and the African Methodist Episcopal Missions,-had the right to sprinkle the unbaptized natives, but not to lay hands on them and bless them. Therefore, in their baptismal ceremony they simply sprinkled water on the foreheads of the candidates, and waited for a white minister, ordained in the New Church, to come along and lay hands on them and bless them, thus to complete the baptism. I wished to fully baptize them, but they would not hear of such a thing, and so under the circumstances I considered it best to comply with their wishes.

     On Sunday afternoon, June 6th, at 4 o'clock, in the little church building, I administered the Sacrament of the Holy Supper to forty-nine communicants.


I used the General Church Liturgy, but adapted to conditions here. Mofokeng interpreted for me. We had to use wafers, imported from England, for bread. I had to hold the cup to the mouth of each communicant, as for some reason or other not one of them would touch the cup. As the church building is very small, it was overcrowded, and it was fearfully hot outside and inside. After this service the people were gathered together in a semi-circle, outside the little church, and I spoke to them about the Nineteenth Day of June.

     Every evening, while at Liphiring, I had long talks with Mofokeng and one or two others. On Saturday evening I had an interesting conversation with Khaile and Mofokeng. I like Khaile much, but Mofokeng is the better leader and organizer, and a hard worker. Without him I fear the others would accomplish little. Also Mofokeng seems to be very unselfish and generous, and to have implicit trust in Divine Providence. On Wednesday evening, for over two hours, I instructed Mofokeng, Mphatse and Monyeke in the Doctrines of the New Church. They listened intently and with great delight.

     At 10:30 a. m. on Wednesday, June 9th, I was driven in a cart to Tsakholo, the village of Chief Mojela Mosheslu, who is the big chief of the district in which Liphiring is situated. He has been favorably disposed to the New Church, and, according to native custom, being a visitor in his district I first had to visit him. We talked about the New Church and its doctrines, also about America, and the Great War; but we had no arguments. Chief Mojela impressed me very favorably. Mphatse and Monyeke accompanied me to Tsakholo. We returned to Liphiring at 2 p. m. On Thursday, at 7:30 a. m., Mofokeng, Mphatse, Monyeke, Andreas, (my cook and valet), and I, started for Baroana, which village we hoped to reach that day. However, we had to stay over night at Mphara's village, and arrived at Baroana at noon on Friday.

     William Mohalenyane Moshoeshoe is the big chief of the Baroana District, and he was my host at Baroana, entertaining me in one of his houses, the whole of which, consisting of three fairly large rooms, was placed at my disposal.


He is also favorably disposed toward the New Church. We had several conversations. Serutla is the New Church pastor at Baroana and Mphatse is his assistant.

     On Friday afternoon, June 11th, the New Church Conference of Basutoland met. The meetings were held in the little church building which stands in a grove of trees.

     In my address I emphasized the fact that the Lord builds the Church; that the Church belongs to the Lord, and not to any man or men; that the Church is with men or among men, and takes form in organizations; that men are granted the privilege of cooperating with the Lord in establishing and building up the Church; that two things are essential in all such work; the acknowledgment of the Lord and humiliation. In conclusion I made application to the New Church in Basutoland of what had been said, and exhorted those present never to lose sight of the truth which shines through- the literal sense of these words: "Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain." Mofokeng translated my address into Sesuto phrase by phrase.

     The reading of the Minutes of the Council of January 20th, 1915, brought out the fact that members of the Council not attending its meetings must give an excuse, and members late to the meetings a fined threepence.

     In my remarks as to my standing and powers I declared that I was acting without instructions from the Bishop of the General Church, even without his knowledge; that I could not and would not commit the General Church to any action; that I could make them no promises; but, that as a priest of the New Church, I could give them instruction in the Doctrines of the New Church, and would gladly do so.

     Mr. Mofokeng then expressed the desire that the Bishop of the General Church should take charge of the New Church in Basutoland. He explained that he had made the same request of the General Conference in England, but that the General Conference had taken no action in the matter. He spoke of their need of instruction and guidance, humbly acknowledging his own ignorance and feebleness; he stated that the natives were slow to believe his preaching about the New Church, because no white minister had appeared; and concluded with an appeal to be recognized by the General Church.


     Serutla, Nyaredi, Mphatse, Mphara, Monyeke, and others spoke to the same effect, but every one of them in their remarks stated that there are certain customs which they desire to retain, especially the custom of marrying with the giving of cattle. They also spoke about having more than one wife, stating it would be necessary to allow all those having more than one wife to keep all their wives, but that in the future they should not take any more wives. This applies principally to the Chiefs, some of whom have as many as a hundred wives.

     In reply I stated that in all probability it would be allowed them to continue their customs, certainly in those things which did not conflict with the Doctrines of the New Church. As to a plurality of wives, I said that it seemed to me just that those men, who at the time of entering the New Church had several wives, should keep them and support them, but they should not take new ones; and I also made it clear that the Doctrines of the New Church teach plainly that a man of the New Christian Church, as well as the man of the Former or Old Christian Church, must not have more than one wife at a time, that is, one living wife.

     Then the subject of the difference between the General Conference in England and the General Church in America was introduced by a question as to why the New Church was not one. I said in reply, that the New Church is one in heaven, but that on the earth there are, and probably always will be, many organizations of the New Church; that at present there are three well established organizations of the New Church; that all three organizations are founded upon the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg; that the General Church acknowledges those Writings as the very Word of the Lord in His second coming, thus actually as the Lord come a second time, as He had promised; but that the General Convention in America and the General Conference in England acknowledged those Writings as a Divine Revelation, but not as the Word of the Lord. I stated further that there is a difference as to government between the three organizations; that the General Church has an Episcopal form of government, but the other organizations have not such a form.


Furthermore, I taught them, in a general way, that the Priesthood belongs to the Lord. I did not think it wise to go further into the differences, and I was particularly careful to give the impression that all three are organizations of the New Church. It was not my desire to discredit in any way the General Convention and the General Conference.

     The natives expressed unanimously their preference for the Episcopal form of government; they want a Bishop. Many remarks were made along this line. Finally they asked me to write for them an application to the Bishop of the General Church that he assume charge of them and of their Church. Before consenting, I urged them to make sure that they really desired to do so. I even went so far as to say that, since their country is under the protection of the British Imperial Government, it might be to their greater advantage to be affiliated with the General Conference; but they adhered firmly to their request, to which, therefore, I assented. I promised to have the document ready for their signatures the next morning, and called a special meeting for the consideration and signing of the application.

     After a long hymn sung in Sesuto, I pronounced the benediction, and the meeting stood adjourned.

     Before supper was served another meeting was held, an infernal one of certain selected natives, to consider an important subject which arose out of a private conversation following the Conference meeting. The subject was "Re-baptism." Some of the natives have been baptized into the various denominations of the Christian Church. They consider re-baptism into the New Church not only as unnecessary, but also as a profanation. They hold that as the candidate is baptized once "In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" to repeat the baptism would be to make light of those holy words. We had a long and grave discussion of the subject, and nothing I could say would alter their opinion, except in the case of Mofokeng, who told me privately that he understood my point, but the others did not, and would not for some time to come. As ministers and laymen were together at this meeting, and as the ministers seemed afraid to express themselves plainly on the subject, I asked the laymen to retire for a few minutes; but found at once that I had made a mistake, for the ministers declined to talk on the subject at anything like a private meeting; I therefore recalled the others and told them I did not wish to have a private meeting, that the priesthood of the New Church should have nothing to conceal from the laymen, but that it was desirable and useful for both ministers and laymen occasionally to meet separately because of the greater freedom of speech afforded at such times as to certain subjects.


I told them then about the organization of the General Church, the Consistory, the Council of Ministers, the Executive Committee, the General Council, and the Joint Council, and explained the workings of those bodies. Then I returned to the subject of the meeting and stated it was theological, and one for the ministers to consider first and then to instruct the church about it. I promised to let you know their opinions upon the subject.

     On Saturday we had our special meeting. I had written the application desired and presented it at this meeting. At first it did not meet with approval, as no conditions were inserted, but later they agreed that it would be improper for them to make any conditions or restrictions or reservations. I told them, "The Bishop is a wise man, and you must not attempt to tie his hands," which argument appealed to them.

     A slight difficulty came to the surface in the morning; three "coloureds,"-half breeds of Dutch and Native parentage,-desired to be baptized by me. Serutla objected, saying they had not "repented" long enough. It seems to be their custom, (not a native custom, however), to make candidates "repent" for a certain number of months, I forget how many. Mofokeng did not sustain Serutla's objection. Therefore, after hearing both sides, I stated that I could not refuse to baptize them, which Sacrament was administered at the afternoon service. This was held out of doors. About 50 natives were present. The three "coloured" women were baptized, and five natives were blessed.

     In the afternoon I had a long talk with the Chief, Mofokeng acting as interpreter. The Chief seems to be genuinely interested in the New Church, and expressed the conviction that it would spread rapidly in Basutoland. He urged that everything be done according to order, which, of course, I warmly seconded.


     Nyaredi, the pastor at Qopo, urged me to visit his circle, and said the people there expected me, and the Chief of that District extended an invitation to me; but I had to decline the invitation, and wrote to the Chief to that effect, promising him that if I should visit Basutoland again, I would surely visit him.

     About seven o'clock on Sunday morning, we left Baroana for Bogate, where I was to preach that morning, and we arrived at Bogate at 10:30 a. m. Khaile is the Pastor at Bogate and is a capable man. He has no church building, but the headman of the village, who is favorably disposed-toward the New Church, has granted a site for one. The services were held in the open. About 150 natives, including children, were present. Khaile conducted the service; Mofokeng assisted him and acted as my interpreter. Two "coloured" men were baptized, and sixteen natives were blessed. The service went smoothly and I enjoyed it. The congregation seemed impressed and delighted. Greater order prevails in this congregation than at Baroana. As I have already stated, Khaile is Mofokeng's right hand man.

     The service in the afternoon was also well attended and went smoothly, Khaile and Mofokeng again assisting me.

     On Monday morning, at ten o'clock, we left Bogate for Maseru and arrived at Maseru at twelve o'clock. Here I stayed the night at Lacey's Private Hotel and caught the morning train to Durban, at which city I arrived at 4:30 p. m. Wednesday, June 16th.

     There are many comments to make on the state of the infant New Church in Basutoland, but I shall confine myself to the following:

     (1) The country is practically free of the white race, and therefore the inhabitants are in more or less of an uncivilized, simple state.

     (2) Hence, here is a magnificent opportunity for the True Religion to go in advance of "civilization," and to introduce a genuine civilization.

     (3) The natives are simple and trusting, and their trust must not be abused.

     (4) Hence we should make no promises except those we are certain that we can fulfill.

     (5) Only a few natives can read their own written language, but they appear to be bright and quick and no doubt they can easily be taught.


Indeed they are eager to have teachers.

     (6) Hence, here is an opportunity to teach the natives reading and writing, and, by translation into Sesuto, or by teaching them English, to supply them with profitable reading matter.

     (7) I would suggest that, if possible, two men be sent to Basutoland, when the time comes to send any man there. One man would be too lonely. It would be a good thing if an older, experienced minister could go, and a young man, either a minister or teacher, but one with a gift of languages. It should not be expected of such men that they should live in the country the year round, as the isolation and the climate would be hard on them. Mr. Wright, an English gentleman who has lived in Basutoland for 15 years, agrees with me fully in this suggestion.

     (8) I would like to express as positively and emphatically as I am able to do the conviction that, if we start work in Basutoland, we should start in a small way, and feel our way along, in order that we may not have, later, radically to alter our methods or to give up the work altogether. In other: words, we should be sure of having the men for the work and the money to properly support them.

     (9) Perhaps, as a beginning, I might make occasional visits for the sake of teaching the ministers and of being shown to the people and chiefs, but the Basutos ought not to bear the full expenses. I am sure the Durban Society would let me go on such visits.

     (10) The Basutos, through Mofokeng, had offered to pay all my expenses, but I asked for only ?3, which amount I received, although my total expenses were nearer ?10. I paid the difference out of my own pocket, as the visit was entirely on my own responsibility, nor do I regret doing so.

     Well, this is my report, and I trust it will assist you in adopting some policy, provided you receive favourably the application of the natives to take them under your supervision, that is, under the supervision of the Bishop of the General Church.
     Sincerely yours,


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     Mr. E. C. Mongredien, of London, who for a year or more has ably edited THE NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, (formerly called MORNING LIGHT), has been forced to relinquish his post in order to enter the British army. He will be succeeded as editor by the Rev. Isaiah Tansley.

     The Rev. John Whitehead is at present contributing to the pages of the NEW CHURCH MESSENGER a series of interesting and valuable little sketches of the "Early History of the New Church in America," which seem timely in connection with the approaching centennial celebration of the General Convention.

     THE NEW CHURCH WEEKLY for Nov. 29th publishes a long list of New Church books recently sent to the Rev. D. W. Mooki and his fourteen fellow-workers among the natives in South Africa. "The following five ministers are a Committee for the translation of the Liturgy into the Secwana and Serosa languages, which are the languages spoken by most of the native population of South Africa at the present time:-Rev. D. W. Mooki, E. K. Malekutu, J. N. S. Ngcobo, J. W. Q. Khasa and M. P. Mokhale."

     THE NEW PHILOSOPHY for October, 1916, (just received), presents the first installments of a new translation, by the Rev. Alfred Acton, of two of Swedenborg's preparatory works,-the treatise entitled A HIEROGLYPHIC KEY, and the tract on THE RED BLOOD,-both Of them important links in the development of Swedenborg's philosophical system. It is to be hoped that the whole series of treatises included in the volume of POSTHUMOUS TRACTS will now become accessible in a new edition, and that each with be furnished with a prefatory historical note.


     Mr. J. Howard Spalding, of London, who passed into the spiritual world on Nov. 20th, 1916, in the seventy-first year of his age, was one of the most prominent members of the New Church in Great Britain, especially in the work of the Swedenborg Society. A man of great culture and intellectuality, he was very active in the literary field of the Church, both as an essayist on Swedenborg in various magazines outside the New Church, and as a frequent contributor in the journals of the Church itself. He was also the author of several independent volumes. While his theological positions differed widely from those of the Academy, he was always a fair and friendly opponent, and he will be pleasantly remembered by those members of the Academy who had the privilege of becoming acquainted with him during the Swedenborg Congress in 1910.




     Remember the day of the Sabbath to keep it holy. Six days thou shalt labor and do all thy work. And the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God. Thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy man-servant slid thy maid-servant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is within thy gates. For in six days Jehovah made heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day. Wherefore Jehovah blessed the seventh day, and made it holy.


     Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.

     1. What is meant by the "Sabbath" day.

     "Sabbath" is a Hebrew word meaning rest, or peace. It was the ancient name of the seventh day of the week, and signifies the regenerate state, when man is willing to rest in the Lord and to be led by the Lord, and not by himself.


     Come unto Me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest for your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden light. (Matth. 11:28, 30)

     2. Why the Sabbath day should be remembered and kept holy.

     It should be remembered because every man should keep continually in mind the necessity of regeneration in order that he may be saved. And it should be kept holy because the regenerate state must not in any way be violated or profaned.

     Verily, verily I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the spirit is spirit. (John 3:3-6.)

     Six days thou shalt labor and do all thy work and the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God.

     3. What is meant by the "six days of labor."

     By the six days of labor are meant the struggles and combats of temptation which every man must endure in order to enter into the holy state of regeneration.

     There things I have spoken unto you that in Me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer. I have overcome the world. (John 16:33.)

     4. What is meant by "the seventh day."

     The seventh day is a holy slate of spiritual rest from temptations; it is the regenerate state itself, a state of perfect trust in the Lord, and of innocence and peace from Him.

     Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you; not as the world giveth give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. (John 14:27.)

     Thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy man-servant and thy maid-servant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is within thy gates.

     5. What is meant by not doing "any work" on the Sabbath day.

     It means that the regenerate man no longer acts from his self-will or his self-intelligence, but from the Love and Wisdom of the Lord.


     If thou call the Sabbath n delight, the hair of the Lord, honorable; and shalt honor it, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: then shalt thou delight myself in the Lord. (Is. 58:13, 14.)

     6. What is meant by "thou, thy son, thy daughter," etc.

     "Thou'' means the man himself; "thy son" means the truth of his internal understanding; "thy daughter" the affection of his internal will. "Thy man-servant and thy maid-servant" mean the truth and good of his lower natural man; "thy beast" means his most external affection; and "thy sojourner who is within thy gates" means the knowledges stored up in his memory. All these things, with the regenerate man, will be filled with the peace and blessedness of heaven.

     For in six days Jehovah made heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day.

     7. The meaning of these words.

      "Heaven" means the internal man; "the earth," the external man; "the sea," the things belonging to the senses of the body. The Lord "rests" when His kingdom has been established in all these things with the regenerate man.

     Wherefore Jehovah blessed the seventh day and made it holy.

     8. What is meant by the Lord blessing this day and making it holy.

     By "blessing" is meant the conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord. And by "making holy" is meant the heavenly marriage of good and truth within the whole of the man who has been born anew.


     Remember the day of the Sabbath, to keep it holy.

     9. The meaning of this Commandment in its natural sense.


     It means that six days of the week are for man and his labors, but the seventh day is for the worship of the Lord, which must not be disturbed or prevented by the pursuits of self and the world.

     10. Why this Commandment is the third in order.

     It is the third in order because the first of religion is to acknowledge that there is a God and that He is one; the second is to learn to know and love Him as He has revealed Himself in the Word; and the third is to adore Him in a life of internal and external worship.

     11. The origin of the Sabbath.

     It had its origin in the Ancient Church, and spread thence to all the nations of antiquity, as a representative day set apart to remind the people of the prophecy concerning the Messiah who was to come into the world in order to redeem mankind from the power of hell.

     And Jehovah God laid unto the serpent, I will pot enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy reed and bell Seed; He shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel. (Con. 3:15.)

     12. That the Jews did not understand the true meaning of the Sabbath.

     The Jews did not understand the meaning of any of their representative rites. To them the Sabbath meant only the slavish observance of an ancient custom, and they made it a day of living death, instead of observing it as a day of worship, instruction, charity and joy.

     And He said unto them, The Sabbath was made for man and not man for the Sabbath. Therefore the Son of Man is Lord also of the Sabbath. (Mark 2:27, 28.)

     13. Why the Lord abolished the Jewish Sabbath.

     It was abolished because the foreshadowing representatives ceased when all the prophecies were fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is the Sabbath itself.

     Let no man judge you in meat or in drink, or in respect to an holiday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days; for these are of a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ. (Col. 2:17.)

     14. What, in the Christian Church, takes the place of the Jewish Sabbath.


     In its place is celebrated the Lord's day, which is also called Sunday; for the Lord, on the first day of the week, arose from the sepulcher after His work of Glorification and Redemption had been completed. We may well call it Sunday, for the Lord is the Sun of all life.

     And very early in the morning, the first day of the week, they came to the sepulcher at the rising of the sun. (Mart 16:2.)

     15. How the Lord's day should be observed by us.

     The Lord's day should be observed by us as a day of rest from worldly labors, in order that we may then worship the Lord and receive instruction from Him in the things which belong to salvation and eternal life.

     16. Why there must be a special day for the worship of the Lord.

     If it were otherwise there would be no day common to all the people of the Church, in which they may unite in worship, free from worldly care, in a sphere of holiness and peace, and with a full realization of the manifest presence of the Lord.

     17. That the Lord's day is observed in heaven also.

     Even in heaven, which is an eternal sabbath, the angels perform their heavenly uses during the six days of the week, but the Lord's day is devoted to the praise and adoration of Him who is the all of their lives.

     18. The Lord to be worshiped every day.

     Our whole life should be a life of internal worship. And every day we should pray to the Lord, morning and evening, give thanks unto Him at every meal, and set apart a little while each day for the reading of His Word.

     19. Good works and recreation not forbidden on the Lord's day.

     We are not forbidden to do such work as may be necessary to maintain life and health, or to refresh the mind and body by innocent amusements; but we should not permit worldly things to disturb or prevent our worship of the Lord on that day.

     And Jesus saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? To save life or to kill? But they hold their peace. (Mark 3:4)


     20. The Spiritual Sense of the Third Commandment.

     To remember the Sabbath day, in the spiritual sense, means to shun every desire to be ruled by the love of self and the world, and to be willing to be led by the Lord in all things of

     21. What it means to be led by the Lord alone.

     We are led by the Lord alone when we do not trust in our own wisdom, but go to His Word, learn the Divine Truth there, and follow the path there shown to us.

     Thou wilt show me the path of life: in Thy presence is fulness of joy; at Thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. (Ps. 16:11.)

     22. The Celestial Sense of the Third Commandment.

     To remember the Sabbath day, in the celestial sense, is to keep always inmostly in mind the love and the thought of the Lord Jesus Christ, who by His temptation-combats conquered all hereditary evil in His human nature. Thus He established the Divine Sabbath in Himself and became the prince of Peace.

     For onto us Child is born; unto us a Son is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulder. And His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, the Mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. (Is. 9:6).

     23. Why we should always keep inmostly in mind this work of the Lord.

     As the Lord overcame all evil in the human which He inherited from the virgin so also He alone can overcome all evil in us. As He glorified His human so also He alone can regenerate the human with us, redeem us from hell, and grant unto us conjunction with Himself in the sabbath of heaven.

     If any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever will lose his life for My sake the same shall save it. (Luke 9:23, 24.)



     Honor thy father and thy mother, in order that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.


     Honor thy father and thy mother.

     1. What is meant by "honoring father and mother."


     By honoring father and mother is meant to love all that is good and true, and, in the supreme sense, to love the Lord and His kingdom.

     2. Why "honoring" signifies to love.

     To honor signifies to love, because there can be no respect and honor without love. Honor without love is rejected in heaven, because it is devoid of life and essence.

     This people draweth nigh unto Me with their mouth and honoreth Me with their lips, bat their heart is far from Me. (Matth. 15:8.)

     3. Why "father" signifies the Lord.

     Father signifies the Lord, because the Divine Love of the Lord is the first fountain and origin of all creation and the source of all spiritual life and eternal salvation.

     Thou art our Father; our Redeemer from everlasting is Thy name. (Is. 63:16.)

     4. Why "mother" signifies the kingdom of the Lord.

     Mother signifies the kingdom of the Lord because the Lord, our Father, is conjoined with Heaven and the Church, as a husband with his wife.

     For as the husband is the head of the wife, even so Christ is the heed of the Church. (Eph. 5:23.) The Jerusalem, which is above, is the mother of as all. (Gal. 4:26.)

     That thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.

     5. The "land" that the Lord gives to those who honor Him and His Kingdom.

     That land is the good of love in the Church and finally in Heaven. For by a "land," in the Word, is not meant the soil, but the people of the land, the Church among the people, and, inmostly, the good of love within the Church.

     6. What is me6nt by "prolonging" our days upon that land.

     By "prolonging" is meant the everlasting increase of love, wisdom, and useful work among us, as members of the Church in this world and hereafter.

     7. The position with the Fourth Commandment occupies in the Decalogue.

     The Fourth Commandment is intermediate between the two Tables.


It looks to the Lord on the one hand and to the Church on the other hand, and thus unites the love of the Lord with the love of the neighbor.


     Honor thy father and thy mother.

     8. The meaning of this Commandment in its natural sense.

     To honor father and mother means, in the natural sense, to love, respect, and obey our earthly parents, and those who stand in their place, and to cherish gratitude to them for the countless benefits which they have bestowed upon us

     Cursed be he that holdeth lightly his father or his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen. (Deut. 27:16.)

     9. The first reason for gratitude and obedience to own parents.

     The first reasons are that they were willing that we should be born, and that they have loved us better than themselves, nursing and watching over us as helpless infants, and implanting in our hearts celestial stores of innocence and affection.

     Hearken unto thy father that begat thee, and despise not thy mother when she is old. (Prov. 23:22.)

     10. Some further reasons.

     The further reasons are that, to the best of their ability, they have constantly provided food, clothing, protection and comfort for our bodies; and instruction and education for our minds, in order that we may become upright and useful citizens of our country.

     My son, bear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother. (Prov.l:8.)

     11. The greatest of all the reasons.

     The greatest of all reasons for gratitude and obedience are that our parents have provided for our spiritual and eternal welfare, teaching us the precepts of religion and leading us to the Lord, in order that we may become worthy members of His Church and, after death, angels of His heavenly kingdom.

     12. Who are our parents in a wider natural sense.

     By our parents, in a wider natural sense, are meant our teachers, and; the school in which we receive our education; for our teachers are the fathers of our mind, and the school is our alma mater or "nourishing mother," from whose breast we drink knowledge and intelligence in regard to civil, moral and spiritual life.


     O ye children, depart not from the words of my mouth, lest thou mourn at last and say, How have I hated instruction and my heart despised reproof; and have not obeyed the voice of my teachers, nor inclined mine ear to them that instructed me. (Prov. 5:11-13.)

     13. Who are our parents in the widest natural sense.

     In the widest natural sense our "father" is the law and the government of our country, and our "mother" is our native land; for these provide for our needs and our protection in general even as our parents provide for these things in particular.

     Let every son be subject unto the higher powers; for there is no power but of God: the powers that he are ordained of God. (Rom. 13:1.)

     14. Our duty to our country and its government.

     Our duty to our country demands respect for its chief ruler and his subordinate officers; devotion to the institutions of our nation and obedience to its laws; determination to live and work for our native land, and, if necessary, to die for it.

     Obey them that have rule over yen, and submit yourselves; for they watch for year souls as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief. (Heb. 13:17.)

     15. Disobedience the first of all evils to tempt a child.

     Every child is tempted first of all by the evil of disobedience, for as soon as his self-will develops he desires to follow it rather than the will of his parents.

     The rod and reproof giveth wisdom; but a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame. (Prov. 29:15.)

     16. The nature of the self-will with the child.

     In the self-will of the child, though at first it may seem innocent, there lurk the seeds of all the evils of the love of self, which, if uninstructed and unrestrained, will lead to every sin and at last to eternal misery.

     The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know in (Jer.17:9.)

     17. The evil that is first of all to be shunned.

     The first of all evils to be shunned by a child or young person is the evil of disobedience, for it involves all other evils, and is the entrance-gate to hell; but obedience involves all other goods and is the gate of entrance into heaven.

     As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous, therefore, and repent. (Rev. 9:19.)


     18. The foundation of obedience.

     Obedience, with the very young, must be founded on fear, at first the fear of external punishment; then the fear of shame and mental suffering; later the fear of eternal damnation, and finally the fear of the evil itself which leads to hell.

     The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. (Ps. 111:10.)

     19. The nature of parents who do not punish disobedience in their children.

     Parents who will not punish a disobedient child are neither wise nor merciful, for they encourage the evil in the child and deliver him to every misery both in this world and in the world to come.

     Whom the Lord loveth He correcteth, even as a father correcteth the son in whom he hath delight. (Prov. 3:12.)

     20. Why, as servants, we should obey our masters.

     Servants must obey their masters because otherwise no useful work can be accomplished among men. All men are servants, and the more willingly they obey, the more useful and honorable becomes their service.

     Servants, obey in all things Your masters; not with eye-service as pleasers of men, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. And whatever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord sad not as onto men. (Col. 3:22. 23.)

     21. That in obedience there is nothing of slavery or shame.

     Obedience alone opens the way to freedom and honor. He who has never learned to obey can never learn to control himself; self-control, or self-government, is identical with freedom.

     Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elders. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility, for God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble. (I Peter 5:5.)

     23. Why obedience is called "the first law, of heaven."

     It is everywhere so called because every law of heaven would be of none effect without obedience. The higher heavens rest upon the natural heaven, which is the heaven of simple obedience, for this virtue is the foundation of all order in heaven, and of all heavenly order on the earth.


     23. Why obedience is the foundation of order.

     It is the foundation of order because without obedience the will of everyone would fight against the will of all others, resulting in disorder in every family, disaster in every community, and lawlessness and destruction in every land. Society would perish like a ship's crew in mutiny against its captain, or like an army rebelling against its commander.

     24. The effect of obedience upon the mind of the child.

     By the habit of obedience the child gains the power of mental concentration, the ability of gathering together all the forces of the mind in the effort to do that which is commanded. This, again, fosters the power of self-compulsion in the endeavor to abstain from any particular evil.

     25. The most important effect of obedience.

     The most important effect of obedience is that it cultivates in the child the affirmative spirit, the spirit which answers "yea, yea" to the leading of parents, teachers, and most especially to the teachings of the Lord in His Word. This spirit leads to all intelligence and wisdom, and finally to eternal salvation.

     26. The opposite of the affirmative spirit.

     The opposite is called the negative spirit, which doubts and denies everything superior to its own limited knowledge and reason. It is the spirit of rebellion, which leads to all folly and insanity, and finally to the denial of Divine Revelation and to revolt against the Lord Himself.

     27. Our great Exemplar of obedience.

     The One whom we are to follow in the lesson of obedience is our Lord Jesus Christ in His human. The human which He inherited from the mother inclined, like our own human, to disobedience and rebellion against the Divine Will; yet He always conquered over the human will, and in the darkest hour said, "Not my will, but Thine, be done."

     28. The meaning of the Fourth Commandment in its spiritual sense.

     To honor father and mother, in the spiritual sense, is to love and obey God and the laws of His Kingdom. In heaven the angels, and the little children who come to them from the earth, know no other father than the Heavenly Father, and no other mother than His Kingdom which is His Bride and Wife.

     Call no man your father on the earth; for One is your Father, who is in the heavens. (Matth. 23:9.)


     29. Why the Lord's Kingdom and Church are called our spiritual mother.

     His Church is our spiritual mother, because as a mother gives birth to her children and afterwards nourishes and protects them, so the Church provides the means of spiritual birth, nourishes her children with spiritual food from the Word, and by her sphere and teachings protects them from falsities and evils.

     And I, John, raw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Rev. 21:2.)

     30. What is meant by "the Church."

     The word "Church" means, literally, "that which is of the Lord" among men. The distinct and visible Church consists of all those who openly acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as the only God of heaven and earth and worship him according to His Word.

     31. The meaning of the Fourth Commandment in its celestial sense.

     Our "Father," in the celestial sense, is the Lord Jesus Christ, as He has now revealed Himself at His Second Coming in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. And our "mother," in this sense, is the Communion of Saints.

     32. What is meant by the "Communion of Saints."

     By the "Communion of Saints" is meant the Church Universal throughout the world, which consists of all those, among Christians or Gentiles, who in simplicity believe in God and live in charity to the neighbor.

     33. The mission of the New Church to the Church Universal.

     The New Church is to be the heart and lungs to the Church Universal as its body, bringing to it the Divine light and life of the everlasting Gospel, and thus establishing by His Truth the Kingdom of the Heavenly Father from end to end of the earth.

     Arise, shine, for thy Light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. For, behold, darkness doth cover the earth, and gross darkness the people; but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy Light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. (Is. 60:1-3)




     Thou shalt not kill.

     1. The evil forbidden in the natural sense of this Commandment.

     It is the most enormous of all sins, the evil of murder, the destruction of human life, when deliberately planned by a heart full of hatred.

     What hast thou done? The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto Me from the ground. (Gen. 4:10.)

     2. Why murder is the most enormous of all sins.

     It is the most enormous because it is the lowest, grossest and most deadly of all crimes against the neighbor. It comes from the deepest of all the hells, and looks to the destruction of the entire human race. For this reason it is placed first among the evils forbidden in the second table of the Decalogue.

     3. That killing is not always the same as murder.

     Killing is not the same as murder, unless done from anger and hatred. It is not murder when done to defend our life, our home, and our country. It is not murder to execute a murderer according to the law in order to defend human society.

     4. The meaning of "killing," in a wider sense.

     In a wider sense it includes many evil passions, such as anger, violence, cruelty, and revenge, in all of which the spirit of murder lies hidden.

     5. The sins of this spirit among children and young people.

     The signs are shown very early in the love of quarreling and fighting, in the love of teasing and tormenting helpless animals, in the love of ruling over weaker comrades, and in the desire to "pay back" every slight offense. If unrestrained, these evil affections grow to the murderous love of hatred and revenge

     Thou shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. (Lev. 19:18.)

     6. The real harm in the love of taking revenge.

     To take revenge is to pay back evil by committing another and similar evil; it is the same as to transfer the evil of another person to ourselves and make it our own evil. And to cherish the thought of revenge; is to invite hell itself to enter and take possession of our heart.


     Avenge not yourselves; for it is written, Vengeance is Mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. (Rom. 12:19.)

     7. The opposite of the spirit of revenge.

     The opposite is the spirit of forgiveness. To forgive is to remove from our mind the thought of evil done to us by others.

     As we do this, the Lord can enter into our heart and remove our own evils.

     For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your Heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. (Matth. 6:14, 15.)

     8. The meaning of "killing," in a moral sense.

     To kill, in a moral sense, is to injure the good name and honor of our neighbor by tale-bearing, gossip and slander. These evils look to the destruction of his character and usefulness, which a true man values more than his earthly life.

     The tongue is a little member and it boasteth great things. Behold bow a little fire kindleth a great matter. And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity, and it is set on fire by hell. (James 3:5, 6.)

     9. The meaning of "killing," in the essential natural sense.

     It means, in its essence, to cherish the infernal passions of anger, cruelty and hatred, for within these evils the killing which is murder lies smouldering like fire in glowing coals beneath the ashes.

     10. The origin of anger and hatred.

     These passions arise from nothing but the love of self, which is the fire of hell in man. When this love is opposed it first bursts into the flame of anger, and when anger is long cherished it becomes enmity and finally a deadly hatred.

     11. The danger in giving way to anger.

     Anger is a sudden influx of evil spirits into the mind and the blood, shutting off the influx from heaven. In this state a man has lost control over himself and knows not what he is doing.

     12. The three essentials of hatred.

     To hate is to be continually thinking evil of the neighbor, continually intending evil against him, and continually striving to bring all evil upon him, in this world and forever.


     13. How the spirit of murder shows itself in hatred.

     If a person who hates another felt free to do what he would wish, without fear of the law, he would finally commit murder. In the other life this fear is removed, and the spirit then tries to commit that which he had inmostly desired to do while on the earth.

     Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. (Matth. 10:28.)

     14. What becomes of a hater in the other life.

     After death he casts himself into the hell of murderers, where all seek the life of everyone. But as he finds that life cannot be destroyed in the other world, he now employs his malice and cunning to destroy charity and faith among innocent spirits and men.

     He who loveth not his brother abideth in death. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. (I. John 3:14, 15.)

     15. The meaning of "killing," in a spiritual sense.

     Spiritually, it means the endeavor to destroy the spiritual life of men by persuading and seducing them away from faith in the Lord and from the life of religion.

     16. What is meant by "killing" in the inmost sense.

     At the bottom it means hatred against the Lord Himself, for this is the inmost fire blazing in the heart of hell. Above all things the infernals fear and hate Him who is Justice, Innocence and Love itself.

     If a man say, "I love God," and hateth his brother, he is a liar; for be that loveth not his brother whom be hath seen, how can he love God whom be hath not seen. (I. John 4:20.)

     17. Why hatred of the neighbor always includes hatred of the Lord.

     To hate a person is to hate also all those who love that person. The Lord loves everyone, and therefore it is impossible to hate any one without also hating the Lord at the same time.

     (To be continued.)



WORD AND THE WRITINGS       W. H. ACTON       1917

     A series of articles by me, in the N. C. QUARTERLY, on "The Word and the Writings" in their relation to the second advent of the Lord, has been made the occasion, from time to time, of adverse comment in the pages of the LIFE. As these animad-versions are of such a character as to produce, in the minds of those who have not read them, a wrong impression of what the articles actually teach, I ask permission, to call attention to one or two things that appear to have been overlooked in the criticisms to which I have referred. Without any intention on my part to enter into a controversy on the subject, I wish to point out that neither in the pages of the LIFE, nor in what you are pleased to call the Rev. G. C. Ottley's "brief but brilliant refutation" of my article in the January no. of the QUARTERLY, 1915, has a single argument I have adduced been touched, still less "refuted." Indeed, I fail to see how the position which I have endeavored to present can be overthrown, seeing that it is based solidly and rationally upon the Divine authority of the Writings themselves. In my final reply to Mr. Ottley in the QUARTERLY for last July, I pointed out that in no single instance has he even referred to, still less "refuted," the following arguments which are opposed to the claim that the Writings are the Word of God:

     1. The Writings are not, and nowhere claim to be, the Spiritual Sense of the Word, still less the Word in its Spiritual Sense; and, even if they were the Internal Sense, it would still be inadmissible to call them the Word in view of the explicit teaching that "the Celestial and Spiritual Senses are not the Word without the natural sense, thus until the Word is in its ultimate, which is the sense of the letter." (T. C. R. 215; S. S. 39; A. E. 1087.)

     2. Since the Internal Sense is the Soul and Life of the Word, like the spirit of a man, it can nowhere else appear and manifest itself than in its own body or ultimate, which is its external or literal sense.


     3. Hence also, the Lord has made His Second Advent nowhere else than by revealing Himself in the Letter of the Word,-the "clouds of heaven." This He has done by revealing the Doctrine of Genuine Truth, by which the Spiritual Sense-the "Power and Glory" of the Word are made manifest, but "only to those in the spiritual affection of truth." This is the universal teaching of the Writings concerning the "Coming of the Son of Man." See A. E. 594, 36; A. C. 9405-7; T. C. R. 776-7. It is, therefore, incorrect to say that the Lord has made His Second Coming in the Writings, except in the sense that these are regarded as the instrumental means by which He appears in the literal sense of the Word. The Lord's Advent is declared to be His manifestation of Himself in the letter of the Word as its spirit and life. There in the Letter, read and understood in the light of the Divine Doctrines now revealed in the Writings, can man see and draw near the Lord, interrogate Him and receive response, as is explicitly declared in S. S. 48, 97, 98; T. C. R. 222, 218; A. E. 36, 594, 1089. This was also represented by the urim and thummin in the ephod of Aaron, by which the Lord was consulted and responses made in the Israelitish Church. (DE VEREO 20; A. C. 9905; S. S. 44.) Moreover, since the Lord is in the Spiritual Sense of the Word "with His Divine, and in the natural sense with His Human," (Inv. 44), does it not follow that, as the Divine can be approached only in the Human, so in like manner the Spiritual Sense can be seen only in the sense of the Letter? and that when we see the Spiritual Sense there disclosed in the light of the Heavenly Doctrines, then and not until then, can we see the Lord in His Divine Human for the Father can be seen and approached only in the Son, (Jn. xiv:6-11). This is clearly set forth by Bishop N. D. Pendleton in his address to the recent Assembly: "These Writings were, therefore, to be regarded as a Divine revealing of the Human glorified, and as such they constituted the sole means by which His Second Coming could be brought about." This is, in fact, the teaching of the Academy as set forth in the WORDS FOR THE NEW CHURCH. (See Vol. I, p. 39, 46-7, 345.)


     In reply to Mr. Ottley I said that the practical tendency of the position taken by those who assert that the Writings are the veritable Word of God has been to emphasize the study of the Writings to the neglect of the study of the Word in its literal sense. For if the Writings are the Word of God, where Divine Truth is revealed clearly and rationally, what need is there to study the Letter where Divine truth is presented for the most part so obscurely?

     It is, indeed, true that the Word must be read according to Doctrine, and, in the New Church; according to the Heavenly Doctrine, which discloses the Spirit and Life contained within the letter. But to study the Doctrine even as the revelation of Divine Rational and Philosophical Truth, and not at the same time with the view to seeing the interior Divine Truths of the Spiritual Sense contained within the Letter, is to gather together the equipment of a miner, and not to apply it to obtain the precious treasures hidden in the earth.

     In regard to this I am happy to find myself in hearty accord with Professor Odhner, who must feel not a little surprised to find himself at variance with the Editor of the LIFE. For the sake of comparison I will set the two in apposition: [They are sequential in the electronic version, labeled "A" and "B," rather than in columns, as in the original text.]

     [A] In an excellent article which appeared in the JOUR. OF EDUCA., Oct., 1913, pp. 90-1, written for the purpose of urging that the religious instruction given in the schools of the Academy ought to be "based more directly upon the letter of the Word itself, instead of basing it immediately upon the Writings as the text-books of instruction." Prof. Odhner says, "For years we have realized that our students have been lacking in a knowledge of the letter of the Word, but we have not, perhaps, realized the full significance of such a lack of fundamentals.

     "The admitted weakness of our pupils in the letter of the Word is certainly a serious fault, a fundamental and far-reaching deficiency,-one that cannot be dismissed with slight regrets. . . . (The pupils) are immediately introduced to the Writings themselves, and; while there are continually references to the letter of the Word, for the purpose of confirming the Doctrine, there is no further study of it in systematic form."

     [B] The Editor of N. C. LIFE, carried away by the furor controvert and, writes, in reference to the change made in the QUARTERLY;-that the practical tendency among those who acknowledge the Writings as the Word of God has been to neglect the study of the Word: "But what are the actual facts in the case? For some forty years it has been the universal custom among the people thus accused, to read a chapter of the Sacred Scripture, daily in the family worship, while reading at the same time a lesson from the Heavenly Doctrine. Can this, in justice, be termed a neglect of the letter of the Word?" He then refers to the study of the Word in the original languages which has been an essential and distinctive feature in the curriculum of the Academy Schools; also to the "almost innumerable articles" on the history, geography, ethnology, etc., of the Word, and asks, "Do these facts support the charge that the practical tendency of those who acknowledge the Writings as the Word, has been to neglect the study of the literal sense.


". . . But we ask, however much we may have been at fault, what evidence is there that the letter of the Word has been more studied in those quarters of the Church where the Writings are not acknowledged as the Word of God?"

     It is readily admitted that there is no "neglect" of the Word or lack of reverence paid to it; but what is claimed in the N. C. QUARTERLY is that the study of the letter is neglected, that is, the systematic study of it. It is very manifest, even from the LIFE itself, that whilst there is abundant evidence of the study of the Writings, we do not find anything like the same systematic study of the letter; nor is there any systematic attempt to confirm the doctrines from the letter, which the Writings insist must be done if those doctrines are to have power. Although the Editor denies the tendency spoken of, he nevertheless admits the "fault," which he ingeniously proceeds to condone, in the case of those who agree with himself, by asking, what evidence is there that those who deny that the Writings are the Word, study the letter more? I think there is abundant evidence, at least, especially in the Sunday Schools and Bible classes; but unfortunately in these cases, though the Writings are read, there is little evidence that they are systematically studied. Truly do the Lord's words apply in both cases: "These things ought ye to have done and not to leave the other undone." For the Word cannot be understood without the Heavenly Doctrine; but the doctrine of the Church not confirmed from the sense of the letter of the Word has not power." (DE VERBO 20), A. E. 356, etc.

     But by the systematic study of the Word in the letter more is meant than the search for doctrinal confirmations, necessary indeed as this is. Neither is the study of the history, geography, ethnology, etc., what is meant, useful as these studies undoubtedly are, in aiding in the right understanding of the literal sense.


The systematic study to which I refer is that which will enable us to see the "spiritual which is within the natural," (A. E. 116e); in other words, will enable us to see the literal sense as the actual, living, natural form, of the spiritual sense, within; the spiritual world within the natural; the DIVINE of the Lord within His HUMAN.

     In reference to Mr. Ottley's "Rejected" communication, I may be permitted, perhaps, to point out two things; First: Whether thirty years ago I did, or did not, believe the Writings to be the Word of God in the unrestricted sense maintained by himself and the LIFE, has really no bearing whatever upon the truth of the falsity of the question at issue. Second: In seeking to prove what he is pleased to calf my "complete volte face," Mr. Ottley has forgotten that the letter from which he quotes to establish his conclusion was written against the idea that the Letter regarded in itself, and apart from interior spiritual contents is Divine and holy. In a somewhat lengthy correspondence with another Minister some sixteen years ago, I urged that there is a distinction to be observed between the Doctrine of Genuine Truth revealed by the Lord in the Writings, and the Spiritual Sense, which can be seen only in the Letter. My correspondent, though denying my conclusion, was both unable, and, as he also admitted, unwilling to discuss this matter; but my arguments were submitted by him to Mr. Ottley, who also refused, both at that time and some ten or twelve years later, to discuss them on the ground that our difference was "a mere matter of terms." Although I now recognize that in 1886 I did not see as clearly as I came to do afterwards, the essential distinction between the Doctrine of Genuine Truth and the Spiritual Sense, which it reveals, I never had the idea that the Writings are the Word in the ultimate sense taught by you in the LIFE of recent years, but only in the restricted sense spoken of in my article in the QUARTERLY. I well recall taking strong exception to the notion that the Writings are an ultimate literal form of the Word when it was first developed in the TIDINGS by the Rev. E. S. Hyatt. Mr. Hyatt held that "the letter of the Writings is a portion of the letter of the Word," though not the most ultimate of all," (1892, p. 84). "We must learn to regard the Writings as a literal form of the Word." (ib. p. 86.)


"If the Writings are the Word, the literal form of the Writings must be a literal form of the Word, and that the letter thereof is of the Word." This is set forth as "an incontrovertible conclusion." (ib. p. 86.) This is certainly not the view held by the founders of the Academy, nor by those who, like myself, spoke of the Writings as the Word only in the restricted sense of their being one with the Internal Sense, which is the very soul of the Word and the only means by which the Lord has made His Second Advent.

     If the Writings are acknowledged and studied as giving to the New Church an immediate revelation of Divine Doctrine from the Lord Himself, I fail to see how any additional weight is given to their Divine Authority by calling them, the Word of God to the New Church. This is a term applied solely to the Sacred Scriptures except when used to denote the Infinite Divine Truth which is beyond all finite apprehension On the other hand, I do see a very manifest danger that inevitably arises through the confusion of thought brought about by the failure to keep distinct the difference between the internal and external revelation of Divine Truth, or between the Doctrine of Genuine Truth revealed in the Writings, and the Spiritual Sense contained within the Letter, or, in other words, between the Light and the objects of spiritual thought and affection which that Light reveals.
     Yours faithfully,
          W. H. ACTON.


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. There is no season in the year that finds Bryn Athyn more gay and lively than the Christmas holidays. All the activities center around the one event,-the Christmas festival proper, which took place this year on the Sunday afternoon preceding Christmas day. In this event we find portrayed our deepest emotions and the central theme of our religious life, namely, the birth of the Lord on earth. As the years have rolled by there has been more and more effort to make the tableaux a living portrayal of the sacred events of the nativity. This year a distinct advance was made over everything that has ever gone before. Especially the last three tableaux-the visit of Mary to Elizabeth, and Mary's song of glorification, the appearing of the angelic hosts to the watching shepherds, and the nativity scene, were inspiring beyond description in their sublime and truly artistic combination of posing, singing, and recitation. The recitation of the Magnificat by Miss Elsie Synnestvedt, and the angel's sung by Miss Creda Glenn, were particularly inspiring. The success of the occasion was due to the hard and well directed work of the committee, which was composed of Misses Winnie Boericke, Constance Pendleton, Freda Pendleton, Jane Potts; and Mr. Winifred Howard.

     A moving feature of the Christmas celebrations for many years has been the address by Bishop W. F. Pendleton to the children. This year the realization that with the coming new year the Bishop would retire from the pastorate added much to the impressiveness of his remarks.

     At the end of the service the Boys' Academy and the Girls' Seminary, together with the College and Theological School, presented to our much-beloved Bishop a copy of CONJUGIAL LOVE, bound in morocco and inscribed with his name. In receiving this gift the Bishop made some remarks that deeply moved all who heard them.

     The event of Bishop W. F. Pendleton's retiring from the pastorate of the Bryn Athyn Society immediately created new problem. Ex-Officio, Bishop W. D. Pendleton is the pastor of our Society, but his time is so completely filled with the work of the General Church and the administration of the Academy that an assistant pastor has become an imperative necessity. A meeting was therefore called of the Bryn Athyn Society for the purpose of calling an assistant pastor. The Bishop submitted the names of the possible candidates, from whom the Rev. George de Charms was selected as the choice of the Bryn Athyn Society.

     During the holidays we were glad to welcome home again many of our old friends. Among these were: Richard Price, Richard de Charms, Francis T. Roy, K. E. Hicks, Harold Sellner, Arthur Wells, Geoffrey Childs, Bertrand Smith, Raymond Bostock, Fred. Grant, and Gerrit Barger. This influx of the "old fellows" always brings with it good times.

     The long expected return of Mr. Alfred H. Stroh, after an absence of more than ten years in Sweden, was hailed with pleasure by his old friends; he will probably remain here for several months. Steps are now being taken looking to the completion of the work of phototyping the remaining theological manuscripts of Swedenborg in Stockholm. K. R. A.


     PHILADELPHIA, PA. Our Christmas service was held on Sunday December 24. The Chapel was prettily decorated and a very full service was conducted by the Pastor, in the course of which Mrs. Donald S. Edmonds favored us with beautiful vocal selection. At 4 o'clock the same afternoon, a Children's Service was held, followed by a festival. Seventeen children were present, taking some part in the celebration. The Sunday School had learned a number of songs and verses for the occasion. The address by the pastor was on the subject of Christmas gifts and
especially on the meaning of the gold, frankincense and myrrh presented by the wise men. After the services representation was shown, Picturing the Wise Men following the Star to Bethlehem; a few pictures were thrown on the screen illustrating the nativity and explained for the children.

     The ladies prepared a pretty little basket of fruit and a mounted Biblical picture for each child, which was the source of great joy.

     The Sunday School class presented a Teacher's Bible to their teacher, Miss Dorith B. Soderberg, in appreciation of her work.

     On December 31st a New Year service was held in the morning, and the Holy Supper was administered in the afternoon.

     The meeting of the Advent Club was held on Thursday, December 14.

     President W. H. Alden, Jr., presented a paper on Single Tax, as put forth in Henry George's book, "Progress and Poverty, after which a lively discussion ensued. F. A. D. S.

     DENVER, COLO. Christmas Sunday in this city was a royal day as to weather,-mild, brilliant with sunshine, and with snow enough on the ground to supply the always delightful Christmas feeling.

     In the chapel the trees and the "representation" were in readiness for the children's celebration, giving a very agreeable touch of festivity to the room. The morning service was very rich in "good things" and gave great satisfaction to the considerable number who were present.

     At four o'clock the children came, eager to see the preparations that had been made for their service. They entered the chapel at the back and formed in line in the kitchen for the procession. When all was ready the door was opened and they marched into the auditorium carrying lighted candles, which they set down in front of the representation. Their songs, including the anthem in Hebrew, "Seoo Shearim," were sun joyously and heartily. When the time came for the distribution of gifts, first of all two little girls, Marion Allen and Mildred Bergstrom, were presented with copies of the Word, they having reached the age of seven years. This was the society's gift as a memorial of their baptism. Now came the merry time of receiving and opening the various packages handed to each child by the pastor. Special mention should be made of the gift from a friend of the Sunday School of "The Arrival of the Shepherds," Lerolle. The oldest child representing a family was called to receive the gift so that each family has one of these beautiful pictures to remind them of the Lord's birth and the shepherds' adoration. On Christmas day the Holy Super was administered at eleven o'clock. The number of those partaking was seventeen.

     November 17 was the time of the annual meeting of the society, and it was then decided to make some small improvements in the building that would better the facilities for our work. Since then a partition has been taken down giving more room in the kitchen; an end of the outside porch has been enclosed to make a store-room, and the roof of the porch shingled.


A large bench has been made for the auditorium, which increases the seating and adds to the dignity and attractiveness of the room. The unusually early coming on of winter and the spells of severe cold have hindered our progress so that the finishing up remains to be done when we have warmer weather. L. W. T. D.

     CHICAGO, ILL. Since the last LIFE letter the Sharon Church has enjoyed a period of progress and a season of good cheer. It is not only that the services have developed in spiritual content and devotional power, but the response on the part of the society has brought about fuller co-operation and greater spontaneity in the active uses and life of the society.

     This was especially manifest in the Christmas celebration whose preparation gave the elders almost as much pleasure as its carrying out gave the children. The celebration was held in the beautiful studio of the Fine Arts Building, where the society holds its regular meetings after the service of praise and glorification there was a stereopticon exhibit of scenes from the Lord's life on earth. A social gathering followed with a Christmas tree and presents for the children.

     The Ladies' Auxiliary holds its fortnightly meetings with great regularity. Its second bazaar, held before the holidays, besides proving a social success, brought in a substantial return.

     The monthly meetings of the pastor's Council have developed distinct social qualities in addition to their use as a clearing house for the discussion of problems of church life, local and general. Occasionally the pastor introduces some practical theological theme for general discussion.

     There have been more strangers and New Church visitors at the services than usual, resulting in the addition of two regular attendants. Three new pupils have joined the Sunday School, which continues its work with organized classes and courses of instruction. And, lastly, three babies have been born during the past month-all prospective members of the Sharon Church. D. H. K.


Pittsburgh District Assembly 1917

Pittsburgh District Assembly       HOMER SYNNESTVEDT       1917



     The Pittsburgh District Assembly will be held at 4928 Wallingford Street, on March 16-18, inclusive, 1917. All members and friends are cordially invited.
462 South Atlantic Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.




VOL. XXXVII MARCH, 1917          No. 3
     (A paper read at the Ninth General Assembly, Bryn Athyn, Pa., June 17, 1916.)

     We read in Ezekiel 11, 3-5:

     "And he said unto me, Son of Man, I send thee to the children of Israel, to a rebellious nation that hath rebelled against me; they and their fathers have transgressed against me, even unto this very day.

     For they are impudent children, and stiff hearted. I do send thee unto them; and thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God.

     And they, whether they will hear or whether they will forbear (for they are a rebellious house), yet shall they known, that there hath, been a prophet among them."

     This day, my brethren, hath this prophecy been fulfilled in your sight, for the Lord Himself, who as God Incarnate, was and is the fulfillment of all prophecy, has at this day in His Second Coming given unto us the full meaning of all these prophecies. The Son of man, who comes to us to-day, charged with the solemn mission of warning us, and delivering from the impending damnation all who will hearken, means nothing more, nor less, than the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. Here alone is to be heard the voice of the Divine Watchman. No less than of old is it incumbent upon us to listen to what his voice says, and nowhere is its message of more urgent import than in its revelation of the real internal state of the world called Christian, of which we are a part.


     "A rebellious nation that hath rebelled against me; they and their fathers have transgressed against me, even unto this very day."

     Let us hear the voice of the prophecy, concerning marriages within the Church, upon which depends the hope of real and consistent progress in the upbuilding of the great new church, crown of all the ages, which is now set before us, and to which we have been invited.

     The teachings upon this subject are especially set forth in three sets of passages, viz., HEAVEN AND HELL, 367-91 in the chapter on marriages in Heaven; in CONJUGIAL LOVE, 240-2, under the causes of cold and separation in marriages; and ARCANA COELESTIA, 8998, where is explained the law for the sale of a Hebrew maid-servant to a foreign master.

     The same law is also referred to, or involved in many other places, as in the APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED, in the explanation of the Sixth (A. V.-seventh) commandment. For our present purpose, however, it will suffice to read the passages which follow:

     "From what has now been said about the origin of conjugial love one may conclude who are in that love, and who are not; namely, that those are in conjugial love who are in Divine good from Divine truths; and that conjugial love is genuine just to the extent that the truths are genuine with which the good is conjoined. And as all the good that is conjoined with truths is from the Lord, it follows that no one can he in true conjugial love unless he acknowledges the Lord and His Divine; for without that acknowledgment the Lord cannot flow in and be conjoined with the truths that are in man.

     "Evidently, then, those that are in falsities, and especially those that are in falsities from evil, are not in conjugial love. Moreover, those that are in evil and in falsities therefrom have the interiors of their minds closed up; and in such, therefore, there can be no source of conjugial love; but below those interiors, in the external or natural man separated from the internal, there can be a conjunction of falsity and evil, which is called infernal marriage. I have been permitted to see what this marriage is between those that are in falsities of evil, which is called infernal marriage.


Such converse together, and are united by a lustful desire, but inwardly they burn with a deadly hatred towards each other, too intense to be described.

     "Nor can conjugial love exist between two partners belonging to different religions, because the truth of the one does not agree with the good of the other; and two unlike and discordant kinds of good and truth cannot make one mind out of two; and in consequence the love of such does not have its origin in any thing spiritual. If they live together in harmony it is solely on natural grounds. And this is why in the heavens marriages are found only with those who are in the same society, because such are in like good and truth and not with those outside of the society. It may be seen above that all there in a society are in like good and truth, and differ from those outside of the society. This was represented in the Israelitish nation by marriages being contracted within the tribes, and particularly within families, and not outside of them." (H. H. 376-379.)


     "With those who reject the holy things of the church from the face to the back of the head, or from the breast to the back, there does not exist any good love; if any proceeds apparently from the body, still there does not exist any in the spirit. With such persons goods place themselves outside of evils, and cover them over as clothing glittering with gold covers a corrupt body.


     "The reason is, that their souls cannot help being in discord, for the soul of one is open to the reception of conjugial love, while the soul of the other is closed against the reception of that love. It is closed with the one who has not religion, and it is open with the one that has. Hence it is not possible for two such married partners to dwell together; and when once conjugial love is banished, there ensues cold; but this is with the married partner that has no religion. This cold is not dissipated except through the reception of a religion agreeing with that of the other, if the latter is a true one.


Otherwise, with the married partner who has no religion, there ensues cold, which descends from the soul into the body, even the cuticles, in consequence of which he (or she) finally cannot bear to look his (or her) married partner directly in the face, or accost her (or him) in a communion of respirations, or to speak to her (or him) except in a distant tone of voice, or touch her (or him) with the hand, and scarcely with the back; not to mention the insanities which, proceeding from that cold, creep into the thoughts, which they do not make known; and this is the reason why such marriages are dissolved of themselves. Moreover, it is known,-that an impious person thinks meanly of his married partner; and all who are without religion are impious.


     "The reason is that with such persons good cannot be conjoined with its own corresponding truth; for, as was shown above, the wife is the good of the husband's truth; and he is the truth of the wife's good. Hence out of two souls there cannot be made one soul; and hence the fountain of that love is closed, and when this is closed, a conjugial state is entered upon which has a lower place of abode, and which: is that of good with another truth, or, of truth with another good than its own, between which there does not exist any concordant love: hence with the married partner who is in falsities of religion, there commences a cold, which is intensified in proportion as he (or she) differs from the other. Once in a great city I was wandering through the streets seeking a place of abode, and I entered a house where there dwelled married partners of different religions. As I was ignorant of this fact the angels spoke to me and said, 'We cannot remain with you in that house, because the married partners there are in discordant religions.' This they perceived from: the internal disunion of their souls." (C. L. 240-2.)

     "To sell her to a strange people he shall have no power. That this signifies not to those who are not of the faith of the church, is evident from the signification of 'a strange people,' as being those who are outside of the church, thus who are not of the faith of the church (see n. 2049, 2115, 7996); and from the signification of 'selling,' as being to alienate (of which just above, n. 8997).


In regard to this, the case is that those who have been born within the church, and from infancy have been imbued with the principles of the truth of the church, ought not to contract marriages with those who are outside of the church. The reason is that there is no conjunction between them in the spiritual world, for every one in that world is in consociation according to his good, and the truth thence derived; and as there is no conjunction between such in the spiritual world, neither ought there to be any conjunction on earth. For regarded in themselves marriages are conjunctions of dispositions of the minds, the spiritual life of which is from the truths and goods of faith and of charity. On this account moreover marriages on earth between those who are of a different religion are accounted in heaven as heinous, and still more so marriages between those who are of the church and those who are outside of the church. This also was the reason why the Jewish and Israelitish nation was forbidden to contract matrimonies with the Gentiles (Deut. vii, 3, 4), and why it was absolutely heinous to commit whoredom with them (Num. xxv,1-9). [2] This appears still more evidently from the origin of conjugial love, which is from the marriage of good and truth (n. 2727-2759). When conjugial love descends from this source, it is heaven itself in man. This is destroyed when two consorts are of unlike heart from unlike faith. From this then it is that a maidservant from the daughters of Israel, that is, from those who are of the church, was not to be sold to a strange people, that is, those who are outside of the church; for these would then betroth her, that is, would we conjoined with her, and would thus profane the things which are of the church; and therefore it is said that this is 'to act treacherously.'" (A. C. 8998.)

     It will thus be seen that the Heavenly Doctrine now revealed by the Lord for the formation and guidance of a new age, or a New Church, is clear and emphatic in the statement of the basic law of order against mixed marriages. Common sense teaches the same thing. If religion is anything with us it occupies the plane of our highest ideals and deepest emotions.


It is that from which we will think and conclude. It is therefore of the utmost importance that life partners should have common ground here, if anywhere. But in undertaking to carry out this law and especially to apply it when the time comes to ourselves, we are confronted by three giants with drawn swords. One of these is well nigh invincible. He has a flashing golden helmet and shield, and he radiates a rose colored refulgence from the flaming crimson of his tunic. When he shakes his curly locks there is a fragrance that: is well nigh intoxicating. He is armed with far darting weapons against which no ordinary defense is secure. His name is, "Sir Amour."

     Behind him, defending him on either flank, are two other knights, covered with a pale mantle of thought. These fight with net and trident. One is the doubt whether one has much religion to give away or to mix, and the other persuades that the desired one has true sympathy with our deepest aspirations, and is thus essentially one with us, although not formally so yet.

     Now this Sir Amour is a right valiant knight, and it is intended that he, with his two brothers, Humility and Charity, should ever fight for our protection and peace. But we are living in dreadful times of judgment and of internal division, and so we occasionally find ourselves under the necessity of withstanding him. Our judgment is sometimes brought into conflict with our natural feelings, and at such times it behooves us to hold a tight rein, and to wait until the state passes or until we receive further indications.

     The teaching of HEAVEN AND HELL, NO. 376, comes in here: "Conjugial love is genuine, just to the extent that the truths are genuine with which the good is conjoined." The heart alone cannot decide our choice,-a choice which is destined to last to eternity,-no more than the head alone without the heart. The good and the truth must be together in this choice.

     There are two means of guarding against being led by our natural affections into a marriage that does not have the Lord and the New Church as its center. The best is, to be forewarned, and not allow the love to go forth too far until there is scrutiny and some evidence of a real reception of the Church.


This is difficult and some are not so constituted as to make it likely that they will do so. However, it should be impressed upon the young as the best way.

     The other way is still more difficult, for it must undertake to control and deny the natural affection after it has gone so far as to have a hold upon the heart. Yet even this ought to be undertaken if it is clear to the understanding that there is no real solid common ground of religion. Genuine conjugial love must proceed from the mind as well as from the heart.

     To those in this case it has to be pointed out that the first love, which comes with such a full persuasion that it is eternal and unique, is not necessarily so at all. Time, or the arrival of a still more fascinating individual may change the state, and then there will be the same feeling toward the new object of adoration. It lies in the nature of this love itself to so persuade, that it is unique and eternal. But in reality it only becomes so by the subsequent conjunction of the understanding with rational and deliberate consent, and the staying power of conscience. The first love is only of the will or heart side which may or may not become the real thing. It needs testing, and scrutiny, both from the ground of human prudence, as to external similitude, and from Divine revelation as to internal similitude. But to repeat, the only really good protection from getting on the wrong side with Sir Amour is to take thought before it goes too far.

     If only we could say, "Baptism into the New Church is the gate and we can have no intimate dealings whatever with any others," our problem would be much simplified; but, to begin with, we ourselves, have just come to the Church and have its distinguishing qualities only as a matter of ideals-as a hope for the future. Few indeed can yet claim to be "born within the Church and from infancy imbued with the principles of the truth of the Church," as it is written in A. C. 8998, quoted above.

     Furthermore, the teaching is plain, that, while the old church, as a whole, has reached its consummation and decision, yet there are many there who, like ourselves, can be brought to see this, and who are still to be gathered out of that church either in this world or in the next. We are warned, also, in the Writings against withdrawing from the world and its uses.


We are to meet all men on the plane of their uses and to cultivate friendliness with them accordingly. It is only on the plane of our religious ideas and for the necessity of preserving these, that we are forced to make distinctions and to adopt the protective policy which alone can insure the perpetuation of the Church. The fact is that we are all children of this same materialistic age. The first effect of the self-examination and repentance which the Heavenly Doctrines enjoin, is to show us the wholly infernal character of our proprium. At first, before our eyes are fully opened to this, we may easily fall into the fantasy that this law against mixed marriages is because wet having now enlisted on the side of the New Church, are so much finer and better than our late fellows. But the man whose eyes are open ever so little to the true condition of his own heart or his own proprium, will, at once, shrink from any such idea. The Jews fell easily into this appearance of the Letter simply because the Lord, in His mercy, had blinded their eyes to their own condition, "Lest seeing they should see, and have the greater damnation." The spirit of New Church exclusiveness must be quite the reverse of this, for a New Church person is bound to acknowledge that it is no personal worth of his own that is here involved, but the Divine Word itself, giving a command whereby His purposes may be wrought in the world through us, however unworthy.

     A man must either be very conceited or Very humble to be willing to obey such a law. Many of us may pass through both stages in our relation to it, even as Ishmael had to precede Isaac. Still there is to be a difference, not only of faith, but also of life, and one that will, in time, become more marked, and make the gulf between the lives and qualities of oldchurchmen and of Newchurchmen quite unbridgeable, as it is now between their theories. As it is written in A. C. no. 3898: "The interior contents of the WORD are now opened because the Church at this day is vastated to such a degree that it is so void of faith and love, that, although men know and understand, still they do not acknowledge, and still less believe, except the few who are in the life of good and are called the elect, who may now be instructed, and among whom a New Church is about to be established.


But where these are, the Lord alone knows; there will be few within the Church; the Churches established in former times have been established among the Gentiles." This is, indeed, strong teaching, and to most of us, a "hard saying," for it involves a duty of separating ourselves from our companions, and even in some cases, from blood relations. It is like a call to arms in a civil war, the most dreadful of all wars.

     At first sight this teaching seems to consign us all to hell, except those who come into the New Church. As one lady said, after hearing the Academy views on this subject for the first time: "Unless you were born in the Church, married in the Church, and have plenty of children in the Church, you are hopelessly lost." But it is really not quite so bad, for while the Lord has indeed made His Second Coming because the age has come to its end, and the first Christian Church is consummated and dead, still there are many who are to be saved out of the wreckage,-all those, in fact, who lead a life of good according to their best light, and this even if their "best light" be spurious. Even some in downright falsity of religion may be saved in spite of it, if only they have some charity from a principle of duty to their God.

     As it is written in A. C. no. 1032: "The mercy of the Lord is Infinite, and does not suffer itself to be limited to those few who are in the Church, but extends itself to all in the whole world. Their being born out of the Church and being thus in Ignorance of the faith, is not their fault. . . . Who that thinks aright will ever say that the greatest part of the human race must perish in eternal death because they were not born in Europe, where there are comparatively few?" Yet the fact remains that those in this condition are weak and much exposed to the infestation of the evil, and are easily misled by specious appearances of good. It is only by truth and by rational light that power comes and protection from the hells. Moreover it is truth and a conscience formed from and by genuine truth that can stand the long strains, and renew its standards from time to time. A sense of duty that looks to nothing higher than self-interest cannot save any one.


In the long run, those who think thus without any "Sanction" of religion, will fail in the performance of the sterner duties, such as child-bearing, and fighting,-duties which require great and prolonged sacrifices for the sake of human kind.

     How clear is the truth of the principle involved, and how definite and unequivocal the three passages setting it forth! It is the application of the law to one s own case that is often beset with such serious difficulties, and so we are bound in all cases to refrain from judging any other person's course of action except in the most guarded and general way. The duty of the priesthood in this matter is concerned chiefly with the diligent and unequivocal teaching of the doctrine from the Lord's own mouth: that marriage between those of different religion, or of one who has religion with one who has none, is heinous in the sight of the angels. The ministers should also lead by this truth, as we endeavor to do in the Academy, by promoting distinctive social life.

     Parents, especially, have their duties of teaching, leading, and protecting, until adult age is reached. Then the final application must be left entirely with the individuals, themselves, under Providence. The maiden is especially enjoined to seek counsel before yielding to the urgency of a suitor, and this, if followed, will bring each match under the scrutiny of those who are able to judge of suitability. Perhaps, in the future this will he more of a protection against mismating than it is now.

     If the principles have become clear, and the conscience is well buttressed by surrounding spheres of affection for this truth, and for its goal which is Love Truly Conjugial, then the liability to error is greatly lessened. But, after the choice has been made and they marry, only one duty remains to the Church, and that is to help them both even as we wish to be helped, to mold their lives together into a true and abiding love.

     "This cold is not dissipated except through the reception of a religion agreeing with that of the other, if the latter is a true one." Nevertheless, to bring the great law of heredity to bear upon the upbuilding of the New Church, should ever be our ideal; to scrutinize the faith, and the religious quality of life of one who is being sought in marriage or is seeking marriage, before adding the consent of the mind to the yearning of the heart.


     In C. L. 525, is this teaching:-"Every one derives from his parents his natural disposition, which is his inclination." And in No. 202 is given this promise, which is, in every truth, the hope of the future for the New Church: "The offspring bent of two who are in love truly conjugial, derive from their parents, the conjugial principle of good and truth; whence they have the inclination and faculty, of a son, for perceiving the things which belong to wisdom, and, if a daughter, for loving the things which wisdom teaches."

     Progress cannot be built upon progress, except by means of marriages in the Church. It takes the two parents in cooperation to change, fundamentally, the inherited tendencies or proclivities. Environment is powerful and may, with the Lord's blessing and the help of the Church and school, do much. But in this case it is, at best, a sort of beginning over again with each generation. It is like a man only reformed and not regenerated I like the seed given by Joseph during the famine, that cost so much and yet availed for nothing more than to prolong life until the next year. Yet we are, and should be, most grateful for even this much; for this seems to be about what our freedom and our present state require.

     Still it is among only those families which center their whole life in the Church, where continuous or consistent progress can be made.

     A minister in Convention once told me, that he would prefer to go ahead with a dozen really active families, than with several hundred members lacking the ideal of Distinctiveness to whom the personality and natural ability of the minister is about the only bond holding them in the Church. He added, also, "The difference is mainly a matter of where the young folks seek their real life, for this determines, in the long run, where they will marry."

     The reaction, in the Church, against the old "Hellist" doctrine seems to be due to two elements:

     1. That this doctrine assumed that the salvable good in the World outside of the present external church was so little as to be practically negligible.


     2. That it drifted into the appearance of assuming, jocularly, at first, that all within the pale were saints, who are meant by the "elect."

     Well disposed young people, as their experience in the world widens, soon discover the need of discrimination as to both of these phases of the Academy Doctrine of the need of Distinctiveness in the New Church.

     In concluding this study we can do no better, therefore, than to go back to the WORDS FOR THE NEW CHURCH and recall that there is nothing personal, nothing hostile to the world about us in this insistence upon the truth now revealed, but only good will and the desire to help all to realize their spiritual need, and to come to meet the Lord in His Second Coming. As it is written in A. C. 10648: "There are falsities with good of life within them which, before the angels, do not appear as false, but as quasi truths.... From this it is that everyone can be saved, from every religion whatever, and even the Gentiles who have no truths from the Word, provided they have regarded as their end the good of life." (Cf. A. C. 2589, 2604.)

     A certain kind of "Narrowness" is essential to protection on all planes. A girl must be "narrow" and discriminating in her social relations, or she is lost. A man must be "narrow" in his business relations in the sense of being strict and discriminating as to credits, etc., or he is lost. The State must be "narrow and discriminating" in the allegiance which it requires, or it will fall in the hour of trial. And so it is in the Church. It is not that anyone wants to be "narrow" or to refuse to give his love and service to anyone, that asks, but the surrounding conditions impose upon us various adaptations of this fundamental law of heavenly charity. This is not really narrow at all, for the spirit is quite the reverse. It is simply prudence and common sense, safe-guarding what is vital to the salvation of the whole race, and without which we cannot do our duty in the service of the Lord at His Second Coming, nor even perpetuate our ideals among our posterity. The effort to maintain the Distinctiveness of the New Church in matters of worship, instruction, and also such social intercourse as is necessary to keep alive the charity and faith of this Church, and to provide for the development of the ideals and sphere of Love Truly Conjugial, is not necessarily a sign of bigotry and un-Christian selfishness.


It is simply and solely an effort to obey the Divine commands in utmost humility and obedience, knowing that only thus can He work out His beneficent purposes toward the children of men, whom He loves. And this whether we be otherwise worthy or unworthy. Whatever delight or satisfaction we may glean from such an effort, is itself a gift of His giving. May He bless our work and crown it to His own glory, and the everlasting salvation of our fallen race.




     "And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee. I will not drive them out from before thee ht one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beasts of the field multiply against thee. By little and little it will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased and inherit the land." (Exodus XXIII:28:30.)

     Whosoever follows attentively the history of the subjugation of Canaan by the Israelites will be convinced that the prophecy concerning its slow conquest, given in the text, was fulfilled to the letter. It is true that at Joshua's death the nations of the land were prostrate. Israel was everywhere triumphant. But in the succeeding age of the Judges, a complete reversal was in evidence. Israel was on the defensive. Apparently the more powerful native tribes had to a great degree recovered their strength and independence after the first victorious invasion had subsided. At times it looked as if Israel would be entirely driven from the land of their conquest. Gradually they lost all power of united action. Each district defended itself as best it could. Not only did the Israelites suffer from continual conflict with the nations whom they failed to dispossess, but also from plundering invasions of the trans-Jordanic groups-the Ammonites, the Moabites, and the Midianites. By these their crops were destroyed, their flocks and herds driven off as spoils of war, and they themselves were at times forced to flee to the caves and rocks of the mountains for safety. However, they held out with varying fortunes, but characteristic tenacity until the days of Samuel, when a widespread movement was set on foot looking to renewed union and mutual cooperation. This movement formulated itself by the demand for a King to lead the forces of Israel in battle. This need was the obvious outward origin of the monarchy in Israel. Spiritually the movement represented a betrayal of the theocracy, a lack of trust in Jehovah as the King of Israel.


The natural need prevailed against the original spiritual ideal. Henceforth, under Saul and David, Israel waged an aggressive war on its enemies, both within and without the land with signal success. Between Joshua and David there was an interval of four hundred years, all of which time must be regarded as comprised in the period of the conquest. As the forty years in the wilderness prepared Israel for war, so the four hundred years of combat in the land prepared that nation for final conquest and dominion. These facts, in their spiritual significance, represent preparation for combat against evil and the endurance of temptations, which in turn prepares for the exercise of spiritual dominion. The four hundred and eighty years intervening between the departure out of Egypt and the building of the temple under Solomon, is representative of the whole course of regeneration. This number is historically exact. It is not a result of uncertain calculations, but is given in I. Kings vi, "It came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord." Upon this one number all Biblical calculation is now based and it is interesting to observe that it is in a high degree significative; being twelve forties, it is the multiple of the two fundamental sacred numbers; twelve signifying what is complete, and forty the duration of the state of temptation, the complete duration of the state of temptation, after which follows regeneration. It was therefore fitting that four hundred and eighty years should intervene between the exodus and the building of the temple, the exodus representing the opening of temptations, and the erection of the temple their final close. This long period quite fulfilled the prophecy "Little by little I will drive them out from before thee."

     As Israel, with a view to its own well being, could not be given immediate and permanent dominion over the land, so the regenerating man cannot advance at once to the fullness of spiritual life, that is, he cannot sustain the sudden removal of his evils. Spiritual life, like every worthy thing, comes by an imperceptible growth.


This growth is according to the law of displacement and impletion, that is, goods find place only in the degree that evils are removed, and conversely, evils are removed only in the degree that goods are prepared to fill their place. If this order be not observed a disastrous confusion results. "I will not drive them out from before you in one year lest the land become desolate, and the beasts of the field multiply against thee." If evils be removed before goods are prepared to take their place, the man will be desolated. Of such a one it is said that the beasts of the field multiply against him; that is, under such a condition a still worse evil befalls. An idea of this may be gained if we suppose a man whose evils are temporarily suppressed or by a miracle removed. The force of the miracle will gradually be spent. Its hold upon the mind will slowly be relaxed and a reaction will come; the result is that the man will be introduced into a worse order of evils than he had before known. A danger such as this always accompanies the performance of miracles, therefore they are not allowed of Providence, save with those who are so external that they cannot in any case be injured.

     Could we presume a case in which the fires of self-love were put out before spiritual love was ingenerated, man would perish. The source of every one's life is either in self-love or in celestial love, and until man is prepared for the one he must be maintained in the other. The meaning of this is clear. Man is born an animal, with the love of self as the vital affection of his life. He is to become spiritual, with the love of the Lord and the neighbor as his ruling affection. Between these two states of life there is a fundamental difference; and the passing over from one to the other can be accomplished only by degrees and an orderly progress. A sudden advance not adequately prepared for can not be maintained, and is followed by a dangerous reaction. It is in this as in all human affairs. A great change can be safely accomplished only by slow modifications and gradual adaptations. Apparent sudden advances are a feature of progressive developments. But behind every such advance there is a long series of unseen preparations, without which the "spurt," as it is called, would have been impossible. "By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased and inherit the land."


     Had the Israelites found Canaan an uninhabited land there would have been no question of their supremacy. The lack of all extraneous opposition would have left the field open for internal dissensions, which would have divided them into so many warring factions as there were tribes. This is clear from the testimony of history. Of all the ancient peoples, they were most prone to internal turbulence. At every stage of their national development the cessation of outside pressure was a signal for internal conflicts. It was only by a long series of wars that they were welded into anything like national unity. Wherefore it was of Providence that they should sustain combats with the nations within and without the land to prevent internal dissensions breaking representative Israel. These are meant by the "beasts of the field" multiplying against them. It is manifest that a nation so numerous and hardy would have nothing to fear from an actual increase of wild beasts in the land. So with the expression which occurs in the first of our text: "I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite before thee." The hornets quite clearly mean the fear of them which went before them, or as it is said in the Writings, the dread of them should go before them. That this was the fact is shown from the words of Rahab to the spies: "Your terror is fallen upon us and all the inhabitants of the land faint because of you. For we have heard how the Lord dried up the waters of the Red Sea for you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Ammonites that were on the other side of Jordan. . . . And as soon as we heard these things our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man because of you." The dread of them going before them is therefore the hornets, which the Lord sent to aid them in their conquest. And now it is provided that they should drive the nations out little by little, lest the wild beasts of the field multiply against them, that is, their conquest of the land was to be gradual, lest by premature victories they be given over to internal dissensions which are more disastrous to a nation's welfare than foreign wars.


     In all these respects Israel is typical of the Church, which is a spiritual nation, and also of each man of the Church; according to the law that the least is like the greatest, the individual an epitome of the whole. With this in mind we may understand the whole story of Israel's conquest in terms of man's regeneration. As that people was able to drive out the nations only little by little; so is it ordained that man should become spiritual by an orderly process of gradual approach.

     The testimony of the Writings on this subject is unvarying. Observe the following: "Man is not hastily regenerated, but slowly . . . because all things which he had thought, intended, and done from infancy, have added themselves to his life and made it, and also all these things have formed such a connection between each other, that one cannot be moved unless all are moved together with it; and evils and falses with an evil man have also such a connection amongst each other as that which exists amongst infernal societies (in hell), of which the (evil) man is a part; and (in like manner) goods and truths with a good man, have such a connection with each other as that which exists between the societies of heaven, of which he also is a part (by virtue of his being, as to his soul, joined to some one of those societies). Hence it is evident that the connection between evils and falses with an evil man is such that they cannot be removed suddenly, but only in so far as goods and truths are implanted interiorly and in their order." Such an interior implanting of goods and truths in the order and form of heaven is what is meant by goods prepared and ready to take the place of evils when removed.

     This interior implanting of good before corresponding evil is displaced may be brought to our comprehension in this way. Let us suppose that by some means an evil is removed from a man, he neither wishing nor determining its removal. In such a case, the Writings assert, some other evil of a worse nature would take its place. On the other hand suppose a man who is in the desire and the endeavor to remove an evil with which he is afflicted. Within this desire a good is interiorly implanted, which is the opposite of the evil to be removed. This good inflowing from heaven into the interiors of the mind of the man has created both the desire and endeavor to remove the evil.


Good cannot abide in the same mind with evil; it therefore presses for the expulsion of the evil. As the desire increases in intensity, and as the endeavor puts forth more power, the good within enlarges, until at length the evil can no longer maintain its place; then the good descends from the interiors from the plane of will, and takes its place as an actual formulated good in the natural mind It fills the place formerly occupied by the evil. It is by repeated expulsion of evils and the descent of goods to fill their places in the natural man that the man becomes spiritual. This is a life-long undertaking effected little by little.

     To say that good must be interiorly implanted in the mind before evil is removed, is the same as saying that man must first desire and then endeavor to remove the evil. Israel must enter into Canaan before the nations can be expelled.

     The expounding of the text leads directly against the idea of salvation by immediate mercy. Salvation is indeed of mercy, but of mercy operating through the will and endeavor of man, not otherwise. That is, salvation is a free gift, but it can be given only to those who have prepared themselves by a life-long-combat, even as Canaan was a gift from Jehovah to the seed of Abraham; yet it was necessary for Israel to prepare for the reception and holding of this gift by four long centuries of warfare. During all this period there was doubt as to Israel's ability to hold the sacred possession. The ark of the covenant could find no permanent abiding place. It was shifted from place to place according to the exigencies of war. Not until the days of David was it brought with fear and trembling to Jerusalem, the place where the Lord had put his name; even there it abode in a tent until the fourth year of Solomon's reign, when it was housed in the temple. This event was the climax of the first period of Israel's life as a nation. That which followed afterwards, i. e., the dividing of the kingdom into Judah and Israel, represented a new series in the spiritual development of the race.

     It may seem strange that events in the remote history of an ancient people should have any deep significance with reference to the lives of men, today. But Israel was a peculiar people, a chosen nation.


Its history, in the all-wise council of God, was taken to clothe the Divine Word, which was provided for the use of all peoples as a means of salvation. That history in itself was no more Divine than another. But as enacted by Divine command and as written by inspired prophets, it was filled by the Spirit of God. This plenary inspiration made the representative church, constitutes the written Word of God, and makes of it a medium of salvation. Because of this its words and its lessons, when interpreted according to the spirit, apply with saving power to the lives of the men of all ages. This is why we draw from this history not only civil and moral truths, but also Divine precepts.

     We can scarcely imagine a greater apparent difference than that which exists between the life of the modern man, and that of the ancient Israelite; outward conditions have so changed. And yet human life is much the same as to leading characteristics. Therefore the Divine Spirit addressed to one people can readily be adapted to another, if superficial forms be not regarded, but the spirit itself be sought for. Because of this the Word of God as revealed to the Jews has become the inheritance of all peoples. Israel was Divinely chosen and wrought upon for this purpose. Therefore every experience of that nation recorded in the Word is given for the spiritual edification of men, the instruction of the angels, and the salvation of all souls.

     The lesson of our text is that we can become regenerate only by spiritual warfare and by slow degrees; a realization of this will prepare us for a life-long undertaking. It is well known that all progress since the fall is the result of strife, of contention, of temptation and endurance. He who ceases to contend ceases to grow. This is true of natural development, and it is equally true of spiritual regeneration. Contention with evil is the price paid for every spiritual good acquired. We must not imagine that by some obscure or secret process, requiring little effort, we shall derive those goods which make for our salvation. Such is not the case. There is no easy road to heaven; the way is straight and narrow, beset by a thousand temptations, each temptation a conflict between good and evil. Amen.






     In the autumn of 1871, Mr. Pitcairn, surrounded with the excitement and opportunities of the great "oil boom," began to invest his savings in oil property and at the same time became interested in the transportation of oil by the new method of pipe lines. At Oil City he organized the Imperial Refinery Company, and the Improved Refining Company. He became associated with the firm of H. L. Taylor & Company, then the largest producers of oil in America. He also became a member of the firm of Vandergrift, Forman & Company, which, later, changed its name to Vandergrift, Pitcairn & Company. Mr. Pitcairn was thus engaged in the three branches of oil producing, oil refining and pipe line transportation of oil. Together with Mr. Vandergrift and Mr. Forman, Mr. Pitcairn also organized the United Pipe Line Company, and the first pipe line for the conveying of natural gas for manufacturing purposes. This new line was built at the lower end of Butler county, and carried gas to Pittsburgh, supplying the steel firms of Spang, Chalfant & Company, and Graff, Bennett & Company, both of which firms had an interest with Mr. Pitcairn and his partner in this pipe line. The Natural Gas Company, Limited, was controlled by Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Vandergrift.

     These brief paragraphs describe ill a summary, and without Pretense to chronological order, Mr. Pitcairn's sudden rise to influence and wealth. His personal diaries throw but little light on these rapid developments, and it is beyond the power of the Present writer to dive into ancient ledgers and account books, in order to trace, step by step, the story of Mr. Pitcairn's many and successful business investments. Speaking philosophically, we may say that there were present the three elements of end cause, and effect, which made possible the success.


The end was the Divine Providence of the Lord, having in view great uses for His New Church; the instrumental cause was a man endowed with business ability amounting to actual genius; and on the plane of effects there were the opportunities of time and space, which again were of the Divine Providence. Certain it is that Mr. Pitcairn himself ascribed the whole of his success to Divine Providence alone.

     In view of the eventual results, it may be of interest here to review, as briefly as possible, the early developments of the petroleum industry. The following account is based on a few statements in Mr. Pitcairn's diaries and the local newspapers of the period, taken in connection with Miss Ida Tarbell's HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY.

     No spot in America was more bounteously endowed by Nature than the corner of northwestern Pennsylvania, known to the world as the "Oil Regions." Rugged and austere in outer aspect, this country, with its vast wealth, slumbered for many years, practically unknown to all save a few farmers that turned its surface soil for a scant livelihood. But as in the old legends, the gruesome giant guarded a vast treasure in his mountain hold.

     People had, indeed, observed the oily substance that floated on the surfaces of the creeks. The Indians found it good to mix with their war-paint and believed that, burned for a sacrifice, it was acceptable to their spirit gods. Early settlers skimmed it off the rivers or soaked it up in blankekts. "Seneca oil," as it was called, was obtained from the salt-wells of Kentucky, where Mr. Samuel Kier discovered that it could be put up in bottles and profitably sold as a medicine. Three teaspoonfuls of "Kier's rock oil," three times a day, was the prescription for bronchitis and other complaints, and its popularity was great. In time it was discovered that petroleum could be used for illuminating purposes also, and that it was obtainable in large quantities in Pennsylvania. The first man to drill a well for the express purpose of obtaining oil was E. L. Drake. He had made several unsuccessful attempts, near Titusville, until, one day (Aug. 28, 1859), after drilling 69 feet, his tools suddenly dropped into a crevice and,-he "struck oil," twenty-five barrels a day being the reward.


The great discovery had been made, and the whole neighborhood was aroused. There was a rush to obtain leases, bore wells, and produce oil. Fortunes were made in a day; poor farmers refused a million dollars for their little plots of land; streams of oil gushed forth from the earth in response to man's slightest urgency.

     Great, unheard-of problems presented themselves. This vast quantity of raw material must be transported and refined. At first it was run into barrels and transported by wagon over the rough roads to Oil Creek, and floated down the river on rafts. Collisions were frequent, but even losses comparatively immense were to be accounted as nothing in relation to the enormous profits obtained.

     Among the first to solve the problem of transportation of oil was J. J. Vandergrift, an Ohio river captain, who plied the Allegheny from Pittsburgh to the Oil Regions with a large fleet, clearing as much as $70,000 on a single voyage.

     The railroads competed with the river as a means of reaching the markets, and soon there were three lines connecting with the Oil Region, namely, the Philadelphia and Erie, the Buffalo and Erie, and the Atlantic and Great Western, besides the Oil Creek Road and the Allegheny River Road, an important connecting line, of which Mr. Pitcairn became the General Manager. Thus communication was established with Pittsburgh in the South, and with Lake Erie ports in the North, while New York and Philadelphia in the East afforded an outlet to the Atlantic seaboard.

     Pipes afterward took the place of barrels and teams in the transportation of the oil to shipping points; later, pumps were introduced and gradually a very successful system was developed, with Mr. Vandergrift still in the lead.

     By 1865, numerous refineries, often on an elaborate and expensive scale, had been established in the Oil Regions, at Titusville, Corry, and Plumer, and in such outside centers as Cleveland, Philadelphia, and New York, where petroleum was converted into paraffin, lubricating oils, and other products. Their markets extended to almost every quarter of the globe, even to China, Africa, and South America.


     By 1872 experience had taught men valuable lessons about the drilling of wells, which now were cut to such depths as 1,600 feet. "Wild-cat" wells those were called which were experimentally drilled in new and unexploited regions. Some relied on the "witch-hazel" twig, or on spiritualistic mediums to indicate profitable fields; speculation was indulged in to excess. In a single town, Pithole, no less than fifty hotels sprang up within a year. "Six months after the first well, the post office of Pithole was receiving upwards of 10,000 letters per day and was counted third in size in the State-Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Pithole being in order of rank"-says Miss Tarbell.

     From the start, the greatest inconvenience the Oil Regions had to deal with was the fluctuation in the price of oil. In 1859 a barrel of crude oil was sold for $20.00; two years later a producer was glad to sell it for 52 cents! This was largely due to the uncertain supply. Perhaps there was a steady supply and a moderate price, and then some "wild-cat" well would come in and "knock the bottom out of the market." Speculators bought up large quantities of oil and held it away from the market to send the prices up, until foreign or domestic wars sent it down again.

     Another evil in the new business, according to Miss Tarbell, was the unholy system of freight discrimination which the railroads were practicing. All three of the competing trunk line roads used secret rebates on the published freight rates in oil as a means of securing traffic. This practice had gone on until, in 1871, any big producer, refiner, or buyer could bully a freight agent into a special rate. Those "on the inside," those who had "pulls," also secured special rates. The result was that the open rate was enforced only on the innocent and the weak. (HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY, p. 34)

     In spite of these obstacles, however, "life ran swift and ruddy and joyous in the Oil Regions. The men engaged in the new enterprise were still young, most of them under forty and looked forward with all the eagerness of the young who have just learned their powers to years of struggle and development. They would solve all these perplexing problems of over-production, of railroad discrimination, of speculation. They would meet their own needs.


They would bring the oil refining to the region where it belonged. They would make their towns the most beautiful in the world. There was nothing too good for them, nothing they did not hope and dare. But suddenly, at the very heyday of this confidence, a big hand reached out from nobody knew where to steal their conquest and throttle their future. The suddenness and the blackness of the assault on their business stirred to the bottom their manhood and their sense of fair play, and the whole region arose in a revolt which is scarcely paralleled in the commercial history of the United States." (Ibid, p. 37.)

     John D. Rockefeller, of Cleveland, in connection with Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews, and others, was part owner of various refineries in that city, which, in 1870, he combined and incorporated as the "Standard Oil Company." Mr. Rockefeller used his powerful combination to force the railroads to carry his oil at lower rates than those imposed upon his competitors, and by means of this unlawful arrangement his firm received a large rebate on every barrel of freight.

     At this time so many had gone into the refining business that there was an overwhelmingly greater capacity of refining than was compatible with the producing interests and the markets, and consequently the prices of refined products were greatly depressed. Another contributing factor was the tax imposed in foreign countries upon American refined oil.

     Rockefeller and his monopoly first absorbed all the refining interests in Cleveland, and then turned their attention to the Oil Regions, where refining was being done on an equally large scale. His ambition was to form a combination strong enough to crush all opposition, and then to regulate the prices to suit himself. He decided on a secret organization.

     Miss Tarbell describes their method of procedure as follows:

     "The first thing was to get a charter-quietly. At a meeting held in Philadelphia late in the fall of 1871, a friend of one of the gentlemen interested mentioned to him that a certain estate then in liquidation had a charter for sale, which gave its owners the right to carry on any kind of business in any country and in any way; that it could be bought for what it would cost to get a charter under the general laws of the State, and that it would be a favor to the heirs to buy it.


The opportunity was promptly taken. The name of the charter bought was the 'Southern Improvement Company.'"

     The scheme succeeded, and by the beginning of the year 1872 they had obtained the signatures of Thomas A. Scott, William H. Vanderbilt, Jay Could, and other railroad magnates, to a contract allowing the Southern Improvement Company an enormous rebate on its shipments from the producing districts to their refineries. For instance, the open rate on crude oil to New York was fixed at $2.56, on which the Southern Improvement Company was allowed a rebate of $1.06. The railroads, on their side, had the advantage of a regular, guaranteed amount of freight.

     On the 20th of February, 1872, Mr. Pitcairn, returning to Oil City from a visit to Pittsburgh (according to an entry in his diary), found the town "in great excitement in reference to the South Improvement Company." By an accident the people had heard of the trap that was being set for them, the combination whose purpose it was to manipulate oil prices and freights by raising the rates on all roads except for a few select shippers who were receiving special rebates. "The South Improvement Company was the all-absorbing topic," says the OIL CITY DERRICK (February 20, 1872) "It was outlined as a pool of outside refiners driven to the wall in the effort to compete with more favorably located refineries, and endeavoring to overcome the disadvantage by putting up freight while the combination received a drawback; there were hints of mob force against the company.

     In the HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY, p. 71, we read that "Twenty-four hours after the announcement of the increase in freight rates, a mass-meeting of 3,000 excited, gesticulating oil men were gathered in the opera house at Titusville. Producers, brokers, refiners, drillers, pumpers were in the crowd. Their temper was shown by the mottoes on the banners which they carried: 'Down with the conspirators,' 'No compromise, 'Don't give up the ship,' etc."

     The OIL CITY DERRICK of February 21, commenting on this meeting, declared:


     "It is said the new combination is to be called the 'South Improvement Company.' The men who go into it will need 'improvement' and their safest place will be 'south'-a good ways south of the Oil Regions.

     "McCreary, of the Valley Road, pronounces any such attempt 'an outrage and a robbery that ought never to be allowed.' Wonder if Col. Lawrence will say so? What will Mr. Pitcairn say about it? And Gen. McClellan, of the Atlantic road? Moreover, what will they do about it?"

     The newspapers likened the Combination to the mammoth wooden horse which the Greeks built and placed before the walls of old Troy, and gave it such flattering names as the "Forty Thieves" and the "Anaconda." The real instigators were as yet unknown.

     Mr. Pitcairn's position was very soon defined. A few days later, on February 26, he made this entry in his diary: "Vandergrift and I were met by Charles Lockhart, who wished us to take oath that he would not communicate any information that he might communicate in relation to the S. I. C. We refused and told him we meant to fight them." It was one of the principles of the organization always to extract a pledge of secrecy of the men approached with offers of joining the company. Relating this incident later, Mr. Pitcairn remarked, "Had we consolidated with them, I would have gotten millions."

     On February 27 there was a meeting at Titusville to consider the advisability of building a producer's railroad to Erie, as an outlet for oil. The idea was to boycott the offending railroads, and to build lines which the men of the Oil Regions would own and control themselves. Evidently this was discussed at great length, for two days later there was another meeting to consider the same thing, in which Mr. Pitcairn figured prominently, and gave evidence of his ability to think quickly and assume great responsibility on an emergency. The annotation in his diary is very simple:

     "On March 1st there was an immense Mass Meeting at Oil City to devise means of defeating the South Improvement Combination. I stated the position of the Oil Creek Road and took the responsibility of offering the producers the Oil Creek and Allegheny R. R. for less than it would cost them to build an independent road for themselves.


I afterwards telegraphed Mr. Gay [the President of the Railroad] what I had done and received a reply approving my action."

     The next day the newspapers gave a long description of this incident. It shows that Mr. Pitcairn was beset on all sides with the hostile voices of those that were suspicious of his disinterestedness. But "he said that [neither] he nor the road had any connection with or knowledge of the South Improvement Company. He denounced it roundly and said all his interests were against that ring and endangered by it. He read a telegram from President W. F. Gay asserting that the road had no connection with the monopoly." Mr. Pitcairn then offered the Oil Creek road "cheaper than they could build a competing line," which caused great excitement and occasioned a heated discussion and cross-examination of Mr. Pitcairn. The following account is taken from a report in the DAILY DERRICK of March 2:

     "Mr. Pitcairn, after being sufficiently badgered, resumed by saying that all his individual interests were in this region and connected with the oil business; that the refinery (Silverleyville) with which he was connected was eagerly desired to join the South Improvement Company, but he refused and told them he should fight them. A voice:-'Who made the proposition?' Mr. P.-'Mr. Lockhart.'

     "At the mention of Lockhart's name a perfect storm of furious hisses and groans burst from the house lasting some minutes. Mr. Gay and other gentlemen who had been cross-questioning Mr. Pitcairn, unmercifully, demanded to know if any of the hisses were intended for Mr. Pitcairn. Cries of 'No, no; Lockhart.'

     "The severe treatment Mr. Pitcairn had received, coupled with his quiet manner and prompt, square replies to the close questions, seems to have created a re-action. He said, in conclusion, that he believed the construction of their refinery, by alarming outside refiners, had been a chief cause of the South Improvement Company; that if we were united we could bring new prosperity to the Region by doing all oil business here and thus the present danger would prove a blessing in disguise."


     Under the heading, "Echoes from the Big Meetings," occur the following cornrnents on Mr. Pitcairn's speech:

     "-Pitcairn came off with flying colors.

     "-Mr. Pitcairn says that Charles Lockhart is the 'party' who wanted him to join the combination. D-n Charles Lockhart."

     The Petroleum Producers' Union, which was then organized, pledged themselves to reduce the production by starting no new wells for sixty days, to shut down on Sundays and to sell no Oil to any person known to be connected with the South Improvement Company. A committee was appointed to go to Harrisburg and demand that the Legislature repeal the charter of the Company, and another committee was sent to Congress to demand an investigation of the whole business, on the ground that it was an interference with trade.

     On March 5 there was another Mass Meeting, which Mr. Pitcairn describes as inspired with great enthusiasm. "The meeting in session from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m. [I] addressed the meeting, stating our position, and suggested plan of action." This plan was for a uniform rate of freight to be established by a combination of railroads. Mr. Pitcairn said:

     "Railways always deal with shippers. This company [The South Improvement Company] went to the railways as shippers-they went with a lip in their mouths. What we want here is a mileage rate-and that we must have. He thought if the oil men would, demand this they would get it. This combination was a power made up of resolute men, with millions of dollars at their backs. We must meet them with equal power. . . . Mr. P. said it would be far better to have a uniform rate of freight. He thought it would be better if the railroads combine and establish a uniform rate of freight."

     Again the papers praised Mr. Pitcairn for his honest and valiant stand. The DAILY COURIER quotes Mr. Reynolds as stating that Mr. Pitcairn reminded him of Major Anderson at Fort Sumter. "Few men would have the courage to take the Stand he has taken in the face of his employers. Hi, course is to be recommended We should honor such men. He urged the oil men not to get cold."

     Evidently the Rockefeller combination still hoped to win Mr. Pitcairn over to their side, for on Wednesday, March 13, he wrote: "Arrived at Shady Side at 8:30 a. m.


Went into town on 10 a. m.; found G. V. Forman waiting to see me, he having been teleg'd to by Col. Lawrence to come down at request of Southern Improvement people. On consultation decided not to see them, but left word that they could see us if they desired it at our office at Oil City."

     On March 17 and 18, a committee of twelve men from the Producers' and Refiners' Association went to Pittsburgh to consult with Col. Thos. A. Scott, Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and signer of the secret agreement between that road and the South Improvement Company, to demand that he revoke the contract. The TITUSVILLE DAILY COURIER states that John Pitcairn, Jr., did not belong to the committee, but was invited to join by a special request of the others. After this interview, on the following day, the deputation waited on the directors of the Erie Railroad, while the Board was in session, for the purpose of procuring an equitable adjustment of the freight rates on that line. Concerning this conference, Mr. Pitcairn writes in his diary under date of Monday, March 25:

     "Committee meeting this morning. Went to Erie R. R. office at noon agreeably to appointment to meet Trunk line officials. They kept us waiting one hour. Discussed freights, etc., for 3 hours. Endeavored to have differences between crude and ref[ined] oil 10c. without success. Difference fixed at 15c. Contract of R. R.s with S. I. Co. to remain inoperative, but not canceled. Rates to remain as at present. No drawbacks to be given and go days' notice of any change."

     Miss Ida Tarbell describes an incident in this important conference in her HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY (pp. 92-93), as follows:

     "The meeting had not been long in session before Mr. Watson, president of the South Improvement Company, and John D. Rockefeller presented themselves for admission. Up to this time Mr. Rockefeller had kept well out of sight in the affair. . . . With Mr. Watson he knocked for admission to the council going on in the Erie offices. The oil men flatly refused to let him in. . . .


A TIMES reporter, who witnessed the little scene between the two supporters of the tottering company after its president was turned out of the meeting, remarked sympathetically that Mr. Rockefeller soon went away, 'looking pretty blue.'"

     When the conference was over, Mr. Pitcairn telegraphed to the OIL CITY DERRICK: "The South Improvement contract remains inoperative, but it is not canceled, and Dr. Shamburg's message warns us against selling to the agents of the ring. Both of these gentlemen recognize the fact, that care must he taken in our course towards these roads. They were and are still component parts of the great enemy and we must be on our guard.''

     On May 16 Mr. Pitcairn presented his Plan of Proposed Organization to the meeting of the Refiners' Convention, and a note in his diary, made the same day, indicates that Rockefeller still pleaded with him to join the opposition. "Had a long talk with Rockefeller and Flagler, of Cleveland, this evening. They desired us to consolidate with them."

     Toward the close of the month an agreement was arrived at between the railroads and the Producers' and Refiners' committee, securing the same rates of transportation for them as had been given the South Improvement Company. A Congressional committee investigating the acts, franchises, etc., of the South Improvement Company resulted in a bill passing both Houses of Congress, which revealed the Company's charter.

     Rockefeller and his associates had indeed cause to feel blue, for thanks to the energetic efforts of the oil men the Legislature had canceled their charter, the railroads had canceled their contracts, the oil regions had cut off their supply. And on Tuesday, April 9, an immense mass meeting at Oil City declared the blockade lifted, and agreed to open the market again and let the oil flow freely. After forty days of intense excitement, the "Oil War" was over!

     (To be continued.)


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     We regret to have to announce that the editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE has been ordered by his physician to temporarily stop all work and to seek a change of climate. Mr. Odhner was at once released from his duties in the schools of the Academy of the New Church, and also from his work as editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE. On February 12 he and Mrs. Odhner left for Florida, where, it is hoped, that a stay of two months will sufficiently recuperate his health to enable him to resume work again. Meanwhile the LIFE will be conducted under the supervision of the Bishop of the General Church, and his Consistory. At the request of the Bishop, the Rev. Alfred Acton will be in charge as acting editor.

     From Copenhagen we have received a copy of the new edition of the Danish New Church Hymn Book, entitled SALMER OG AANDELIGE SANGE, just published by the Rev. S. C. Bronniche. A large number of the hymns are original productions by New Church poets, such as Ernst von der Recke, W. Winslow, A. T. Boyesen, and Fru Marie Brynjulfson.

     Mr. Gerrit Barger's industry in the translation of the Writings into the Dutch language has borne new fruit in the recent publication of two paper covered tracts, published in the name of the Academy of the New Church, at the Hague, Holland. These are OVER HET WITTE PAARD EN OVER HET WOORD, (Concerning the White Horse, and concerning the Word), and OVER HET LAATSTE OORDEEL EN OVER DE GEESTELIJKG WERELD, (Concerning the Last Judgment and the Spiritual World).

     "If one had the nerve, I have no doubt that much could be done in the way of street lectures, (writes the Rev. J. B. Spiers, in an account of his recent pastoral and missionary visit to circles of the New Church in the Southern States), but personally I should need the support of such pioneers in this line as Messrs. Pitcairn and Alden, an account of whose remarkable street missionary work through Pennsylvania and New York appears in the current issue of the NEW CHURCH LIFE.


They not only preached to crowds on the streets, but sold a large number of New Church works. People will stop and listen on the streets who would not go into a hall or church. It remains to be seen, however, whether such methods will prove effective. I still feel that the most effective work may be done in a section where there are New Church people by their personal touch and individual distribution of literature. Every member could keep a select lending library and always have a supply of tracts on hand."

     We might add that, as shown in our January issue, Messrs. Pitcairn and Alden, during the latter part of their tour, gave their whole attention to that part of the missionary field which is commended by Mr. Spiers. We refer to the work in Allentown, Pa., where there is a small circle of members of the General Church ministered to once a month by the Rev. E. S. Price, and on other Sundays during the missionary tour by either Mr. Pitcairn or Mr. Alden.

     The street talks given in Allentown have not thus far resulted in any increase in the membership of the Church, but there can be no doubt that some minds have been aroused; and the large sale of books gives good promise that the truths of the New Church are occupying the attention of some who have hitherto been ignorant even of its existence. What the final fruits will be, none can say. It is sufficient that the new Revelation has been proclaimed.

     The suggestion by Mr. Spiers that the most effective missionary work will be done by the personal activity of New Church men in their contact with friends and acquaintances, though not new, is worthy of emphasis. Statistics, gathered some years ago by Mr. C. W. Baron, have but confirmed the impression, formed in many minds from experience, that the most potent external agency in the spread of the New Church has been "conversation with a friend."


The zeal which leads to such conversations is usually most marked with newcomers, who, filled with joy at the treasures they themselves have found, are seized with enthusiasm to impart these treasures to others also. Disappointment over results tends in time to dampen their enthusiasm, until frequently the erstwhile zealous missionary becomes all but silent as to his religious convictions.

     Yet, for the growth of the Church, missionary zeal for the spread of the Gospel of the Lord in His Second Coming must be preserved.

     On the nineteenth day of June, 1770, the Lord sent forth his twelve apostles into the Spiritual World to preach the new gospel; and this work these zealous twelve "are prosecuting with all zeal and diligence." (T. C. R. 108.) In the Writings of the New Church, the Lord gives to men on earth a like mission; for He extends to all men "an invitation to the New Church, that men should go to meet the Lord." (INVITATION, ix). The proclamation of this invitation is the work in greater or less degree of every member of the Church. Few may have the gift or the opportunity of doing this work by public lectures, but there is hardly a limit to the proclamation of the New Gospel by "conversation with a friend." This is a work that is open to all, and each one may profitably ask himself whether or not he is doing his part in the work.

     The NORDISK NYKIRKELIGT TIDSKRIFT for July-August, 1916, has just been received from Copenhagen. This belated issue contains a letter to Pastor Eronniche from Mr. Oswald E. Prince, of London, dated October 27, 1916, in which the writer, as Secretary of the Foreign and Colonial Missions of the General Conference, states the reasons for his objections to the account of the use of the New Church among the Basutos, which was published in NEW CHURCH LIFE for December, 1915. For the sake of the historical record we here present a translation of this letter from the Danish version:


     My chief objection to the article (writes Mr. Prince) is that it gives the impression that the whole movement originated with the Durban Society and, through it, with the 'General Church' in America, (the Academy), and the attempt is made to prove this by a reference to a letter from Rev. D. W. Mooki, dated Feb. 22, 1915, which was addressed to the Secretary of the Durban Society. This, however, is quite contrary to the actual facts of the case.

     The truth of the matter is as follows: On Sept. 21, 1911, Mr. Mooki addressed a letter to the Rev. L. A. Slight, who then was the Secretary of the Foreign and Colonial Missions; and in order to obtain further information Mr. Slight, on Dec. 14, 1911, wrote to Mr. Melville Ridgway, of Durban, and also to Mr. E. R. Ford, of Capetown, to ascertain if they could give him any assistance. The reply from Mr. Ridgway-which is dated Feb. 3, 1912, and which is in my possession-shows that he did not, at that time, know anything whatever concerning the movement beyond that which Mr. Slight had told him. You can therefore see that the Conference had taken up the matter almost two years before the earliest date mentioned in NEW CHURCH LIFE. I possess, moreover, a letter from Rev. S. M. Mofokeng, dated about a year before the letter which is spoken of in NEW CHURCH LIFE as "the first news from Basutoland."

     Those of your readers who may be interested in the real status of the case will find it stated in the Reports of the Foreign and Colonial Missions, as published in the MINUTES OF THE CONFERENCE for 1913, pp. 87-88, and for 1914, pp. 82-84. They will also find that Mr. Mofokeng, in NEW CHURCH LIFE, p. 755, refers to his correspondence with Mr. C. R. Ford. This proves clearly the connection which the Conference had with the movement anteceding the activity of the Durban Society, for Mr. Ford was one of the African correspondents of the Missions' Committee and remained as such until his death, which occurred recently; his place has been taken by his son, Mr. H. J. Ford.

     My committee has had in hand the question of a mission to South Africa since 1911, and this in connection with Mr. Mooki and Mr. Mofokeng, and during the present year, [1916], it gave the Rev. J. F. Buss the commission to visit the native ministers in Africa; he has recently returned from this journey.

     Since the time that Mr. Mooki wrote his first letter to my committee, the Durban Society has chosen a minister who is a member of "the General Church" in America. If this had not been the case, the movement would never have become known to members of that body [the General Church], except from the Conference as the source. The article in NEW CHURCH LIFE is apt to give the impression that the movement originated with the Durban Society in 1913 and through it with "the General Church." I hope that I have made it clear that my committee has had to do with the matter two years earlier, and that the so-called beginning is, in reality, only a continuation of the work that had already been done by us here in England.


     Mr. Prince's letter "gives the impression" that be, believes the NEW CHURCH LIFE deliberately suppressed facts known to it, but the truth is that we knew nothing about the earlier correspondence to which he refers. Mr. Prince furthermore seems to regret the assistance given to the Basutos by "'the General Church' in America, (the Academy)." From his own statements, however, it is quite evident that though the English Conference had, for several years, known of the interest taken by certain native Africans in the doctrines of the New Church, yet it took no active steps towards the establishment of the Church there until a considerable time after the commencement of the work in Basutoland by Mr. Gyllenhaal.

     If, instead of displaying a somewhat petulant resentment at the activities of the General Church, the secretary of the FOREIGN AND COLONIAL MISSIONS, had realized the conclusion clearly deducible from his recital of facts,-namely, that it is these very activities that have at last moved his committee to action,-the tone of his letter might have been more gracious and-appropriate.


     THE NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY for December last, in the course of a highly commendatory, but, at the same time, sharply critical review of Bishop W. F. Pendleton's work on THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION, quotes the following passage from p. 429 of the book:

     The third proposition is concerning the proclamation of the genuine truths [italics ours, throughout] of the literal sense of the Word in the work of general evangelization. This is indeed primarily a function of the priesthood; but, as the chief work of a regularly ordained minister is the building up of societies by instruction in the spiritual truths of the Word, there seems to be no reason why some of the work of external evangelization may not be done by authorized evangelists, or lecturers, who are not ordained, and thus not authorized to administer the sacraments of the Church, but who are thoroughly instructed in the genuine truths of the literal sense of the Word, and who are provided with other gifts necessary for such work.

     Upon this statement the editor of the QUARTERLY makes the following observations:


     When we remember that this is contained in a work emanating from "the Academy," and written by the Bishop of "the General Church"-which, doctrinally speaking, amounts to the same thing-and also that the teaching of the Writings is:

     Good may be insinuated into another by anyone in a country, but not TRUTH except by those who are teaching ministers if others insinuate truth, heresies arise, and the Church is disturbed and rent asunder (A. C. 6822);-when we remember all this, we realize how far the "General Church" of today has drifted from the old Academy moorings. The Academy used to stand before the rest of the Church as the one body which, in all its ecclesiastical arrangements, went by the Writings and the Writings only; whereas "the General Church" goes in the very teeth of a teaching of the Writings the purport of which there is no disputing, and calmly says that "there seems to be no reason why" it should not! It is not our business, of course; but we cannot help wondering what it-and a great deal else more or less like it-all means, and what fresh developments are yet to be looked for in that quarter

     In this comment there is an appearance of zeal to depict the Academy as "the one body which, in all its ecclesiastical arrangements, went by the Writings, and the Writings only;" and of anxiety that the General Church shall be equally strong, and that here, at least, if in no other body of the New Church, laymen shall in no way engage in the public teaching of the doctrines. But while zeal and anxiety for the upholding of an institution usually take the form of enquiry, discussion and counsel, Mr. Buss' zeal has led him to the bold assumption, taken from a single passage in Bishop Pendleton's work on Exposition, that one of the earliest members of the Academy, and one of the staunchest upholders of its doctrines, has, without a word of warning or explanation, completely reversed himself and deliberately gone "in the very teeth of a teaching of the Writings."

     We can fully appreciate and sympathize with Mr. Buss' implied fear lest lay preaching should find entrance into the General Church, as it has already found entrance and firm lodgment in every other body of the New Church, but we cannot share his further and even more clearly implied opinion, that the leaders of the General Church are any less anxious than himself, to remain faithful to the guidance of the Writings.


     It would seem to be this distrust, applied to one who for so many years has upheld the Divine authority of the Writings against opposition from every side, that has led Mr. Buss to overlook two very important points in the statement which he quotes from Bishop Pendleton's book: First, the tentative nature of the statement, and, second, the limitation of the work suggested for certain authorized laymen, to the field of external evangelization. The chief work of the ordained minister, says Bishop Pendleton, "is the building up of societies by instruction in the spiritual truths of the Word," but "there seems to be no reason why some of the work of external evangelization may not be done by authorized lecturers who are not ordained, and thus not authorized to administer the sacraments of the Church."

     It is quite apparent, however, that Mr. Buss has more in mind than the single quotation from the SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION; the real object of his criticism would seem to be the fact that during the past few years the General Church has authorized certain laymen to give lectures on the general doctrines of the New Church to audiences of non-receivers. And inasmuch as this policy may possibly seem, even to some of our own members, to be somewhat of a departure from the past, we propose to address ourselves to this subject.

     The teaching quoted by Mr. Buss from ARCANA COELESTIA, n. 6822, has evidently in view the preaching and unfolding of the Word to members of the Church, a work which involves the drawing forth, and teaching: of doctrine in the light of which the Word, and the Writings also, may be read. This work is clearly the work of ordained ministers who have been prepared for this use and inaugurated into it. It is the unfolding of doctrine,-the preaching of the internal sense of the Word, and the drawing forth of doctrine by which the revelation to the New Church itself shall be more clearly seen,-it is these that are especially in view in the teaching referred to. If this unfolding of the Word, this exposition of the revelation to the New Church be in hands other than those of the ordained priesthood, and of a priesthood living in order and subordination "heresies may arise, and the Church be disturbed and rent asunder."


     Moreover, it is clear, that the passage has in mind the public and official work of teaching the Church. For surely it cannot justly be interpreted to mean that none but ordained priests shall study and discuss the doctrines of the Church, whether in speech or in print. The essential nature of the teaching is that the purity of the doctrine of the Church shall be under the charge and care of the ordained priesthood.

     This doctrine has distinguished the General Church from its beginning, as it has also distinguished the Academy. And the complete and practical recognition of the doctrine has been exemplified in the past by the fact that in the General Church there has been an entire absence of that lay preaching which,-even to established societies of the New Church,-has been so conspicuous in the English, Conference. Indeed, more than once, special emphasis has been, laid on this kind of lay administration, where a layman acts practically as the minister of a society, and an expounder of the Word and of the Writings.

     But three years ago application was made to the Bishop of the General Church by a layman who was well acquainted with the general evangelistic doctrines of the New Church, and who was inspired to present those doctrines to audiences of non-receivers,-application was made for authorization to give missionary lectures. It was not his desire to take charge of any society, or to administer any of the rites of the Church; nor was it his desire to expound the Word, or to develop the doctrine of the New Church. He wished merely to proclaim to his neighbors and others, those general doctrines which receive universal recognition from the members of the Church,-what are usually called evangelistic doctrines; and he wished to do this, not as a life's work, but only as opportunity and occasion offered. With the view of acting in and according to the order of the Church, he wished to enter upon this work under the authorization and direction of the priesthood.

     This application brought before the Bishop and his Consistory a new situation essentially different from any situation presented to the Academy or the General Church in the past. The situation in the past was that in the church at large there was little real recognition of the priesthood as the some directors and rulers of the Church in all ecclesiastical and doctrinal matters; laymen were authorized then, as now, to act practically as pastors of New Church Societies, and even to administer some of the sacraments of the Church; and they were authorized, not by the priesthood, nor under the sole direction of the priesthood, but by a mixed body of laymen and ministers.


There was no practical recognition of the priesthood as the rulers over the ecclesiastical matters of the Church (N. J. H. D. 314). And it was in the effort to establish this recognition in the New Church that the Academy engaged in some of its most serious work, and was visited with the most malign attacks.

     But in the present case the situation was altogether different. As a result of the struggles of the past, the doctrine of the priesthood was fully established by the Academy; and the acknowledgment of this doctrine is one of the corner-stones of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. The point to be noted is that it was the acknowledgment of this doctrine, and the desire to act according to it, that was the active cause which led to the application to the Bishop for authorization to deliver evangelistic lectures. What Bishop Benade would have done under the circumstances, can perhaps not be safely conjectured. It is a simple fact that the circumstances of the case were essentially different from anything that came before him for his decision.

     After careful consideration of the matter, it was concluded by the Bishop and his Consistory that, as regards the case before them, to quote from Bishop Pendleton's book "there seemed to be no reason why some of the work of external evangelization may not be done by authorized evangelists or lecturers, who are not ordained ministers and thus not authorized to administer the sacraments of the Church."

     The authorization asked for was therefore granted. And since that time two or three similar authorizations have been given,-the present practice being to limit the authorization to a term of one year, after which application must be again made and again decided on by the priesthood, as by those in charge of the ecclesiastical affairs of the Church. We may add that in each of the cases that have been acted on in the past the application has been the spontaneous result of a zealous desire to proclaim to the world the general doctrines of the Church.


No provision has been made for the formal institution of a class of lay evangelists by any initiation of the Church.

     The proclamation of the general doctrines of the New Church has frequently been done by laymen, both by speech and by the printed word, but in the General Church alone, have such laymen sought to act under the guidance and direction of the priesthood. Indeed there seems to be no clear-cut line of demarcation between the layman explaining the general doctrines of the New Church to a few friends, and the same layman giving the same explanations to a larger audience. The fact that, in the latter case, members of the General Church have put themselves under the guidance and direction of the priesthood is but an open evidence of the acknowledgment of that doctrine of the priesthood, for the establishment of which the Academy has so long labored.

     "There seems to be no reason" is a phrase that aptly expresses the position assumed by Bishop W. F. Pendleton, and also by his successor. Certainly there has been no reason to refuse authorization in the cases that have thus far come up for consideration. The men in point were well fitted for the work; they had no idea or intention of entering upon that work as a life work; but they did wish,-and we would again emphasize the point,-they did wish to act according to the order of the priesthood for which the Academy has so long stood.

     It is simply stating a fact to say that there "seemed to be no reason" why their wish should not be granted,-unless we agree with Mr. Buss who, apparently, would consider as a sufficient reason for refusal, a merely technical and literal adherence to the words of a teaching without consideration of its real meaning, purpose and intent. The priesthood of the General Church do not take this view of the matter, especially in view of the fact that there is no desire or intention to transgress the spirit of the teaching, nor any prospect of this being done.

     What the developments of the future may be in this connection, we cannot tell.


But whatever they may be, Mr. Buss, and those who sympathize with him, may rest assured that the General Church stands as firmly as did ever the Academy of old upon the doctrine of the Priesthood as laid down in the Writings; and that actions of that Church in the future will be inspired, as have those in the past, by the firmest adherence to this doctrine.


Title Unspecified 1917

Title Unspecified       ENOCH S. PRICE       1917

     Editor NEW CHURCH LIFE:
     A new thought,-perhaps not new, but new to me,-concerning the Authority of the Writings, came into my mind while considering the canonical or authoritative books which constitute the Word in its letter.

     There are those in the New Church who say that the theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg are not of Divine authority,-are not the Word of God. Now there are in the Bible sixty-six books, thirty-four of which all Newchurchmen accept as the Word of God, and thirty-two of which all those same Newchurchmen know are not canonical,-not the Word of God. Query: How did those Newchurchmen find out the distinction between the canonical and non-canonical books of the Bible? How do they know which books are of Divine authority, and the Word of God, and which are not? Upon what authority do they make this distinction, if not upon the authority of the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg? Is it possible for anyone but the Divine Himself to determine which of the sixty-six books of the Bible are Divine? If the last question be answered in the negative the inference is plain. ENOCH S. PRICE.



     The annals of the Church would be incomplete without some account of the life of Doctor William Arthur Hanlin, who passed into the spiritual world June 5th, 1916.

     He was the son of Alan and Phoebe Hanlin and was born at Middleport, Ohio, October 10, 1849. His parents were devoted New Church people, his mother being a Hobart, sister to Mrs. Esther Grant and Mrs. M. H. Sherman. He was married October 28, 1871, to Jane Elizabeth Bradbury, daughter of Samuel and Clara Bradbury, also New Church people.


     He studied medicine in Cincinnati and Chicago and was graduated from Hahnemann College, Chicago, in 1880. He began practicing at Middleport the same year and continued until his death. His devotion to his use and to the principles of Homoeopathy impressed all who knew him. But we are most concerned with his loyalty to the Heavenly Doctrine and to the Academy. He welcomed with heart and soul the first proclamation of the Divine Authority of the Writings, and all the principles of the Academy based on that foundation stone, and never wavered in his allegiance to either. His faith in the Heavenly Doctrine was as implicit as a child's. Show him that the Writings said so and he raised no objection or cavil, but accepted the teaching at once with all its consequences. He spread no roseate hue from his own desires over the facts of life, but looked them squarely and nakedly in the face and then met them as a strong man should.

     It was due to him more than to any other one person that the principles of the Academy gained favor in the Middleport Society and finally prevailed there. Temporizing and half-hearted measures found little favor with him. Compromise he despised, and therefore he rejoiced in the strength and vigor of the early proclamation of the Academy principles and was inclined to deprecate the softening of the NEW CHURCH LIFE in later years. In a word, he was a typical Academician, typical, that is, of that first generation of sturdy men who loyally followed the virile leadership of Bishop Benade.

     We can never be too grateful for the single-hearted zeal of these men. May we of the succeeding generations approach them in our enthusiastic devotion to all that concerns the welfare of the Church. WILLIS L. GLADISH.

SWAIN NELSON       W. B. CALDWELL       1917

     Swain Nelson, of Glenview, Illinois, who departed this life on January 18th, 1917, was born in the province of Shane, Sweden, on January 30th, 1828.


As there was no public school in the vicinity of his home, an arrangement was made by his father to unite with several neighbors in securing the services of Mr. P. N. Hoppmann to give instruction in the rudimentary branches. After receiving a limited schooling in this manner, he obtained his training in gardening on a nobleman's estate, and became so much interested that he planned to pursue his studies further in Germany. But the emigration stampede to America reached his parish, and he could not resist the call to the new world. With twenty of his neighbors, in the summer of 1852, he crossed the ocean in a sailing vessel, a voyage of seven weeks' duration. The journey was continued by rail to Toledo, Ohio, and thence by packet boat on the canal to Defiance, Ohio.

     After enduring many hardships, made more severe by his ignorance of the English language and the lack of friends, he decided to try his fortune in Chicago, arriving there in 1855 Here he established himself in the practice of his profession of landscape gardening, in which he continued actively until he retired at about the age of seventy, leaving in the hands of his two sons the business he had founded in the year 1856. Many beautiful estates in and about Chicago bear testimony to, his taste and skill, and he received a prize from the City of Chicago for his plan of Lincoln Park, which was adopted.

     Mr. Nelson received the Doctrines of the New Church before he emigrated from Sweden. They were first brought to his attention by Mr. Hoppmann, who had received them from Dr. Kahl, Professor of the University of Lund, one of the early receivers in Sweden. The new teachings were fully accepted by him in his youth, and were his comfort and guide to the end. Shortly after his arrival in Chicago he was able to send for the daughter of his early schoolmaster, Sophie Hoppmann, who had promised to become his wife, and they were married on July 17th, 1857, by the Rev. J. R. Hibbard, then pastor of the Chicago Society of the New Jerusalem, becoming members of that body the following pear.

     For many years Mr. Nelson was a faithful attendant and supporter of the Chicago Society. After the great fire of 1871, and the destruction of the beautiful House of Worship, it became necessary to divide the society into three parishes, each of which was provided with a small church building.


Mr. Nelson then became identified with the Union Park or West Side Parish, and was a member of the Executive Committee, together with Orlando Blackman and Carl F. W. Junge. Mr. Hibbard had continued as pastor of the Chicago Society until the summer of 1877, when he resigned to become General Missionary in the General Convention. He then suggested to the Executive Committee the names of two ministers in the Convention as a choice for his successor, and also mentioned the name of a young minister in Philadelphia who might be secured immediately. This was the Rev. W. F. Pendleton, who accepted a call to come for three months to preach for the West Side congregation.

     It was during this pastorate that the Academy movement began, into which Mr. and Mrs. Nelson earnestly and heartily entered, being among those of the Chicago Society who, in the year 1886, were received into the General Church of Pennsylvania, and the newly organized Immanuel Church Society. And when, a few years later, the community at Glenview was established, they were among the first "settlers."

     The pastors of this Church will testify to his staunch loyalty and encouragement, to his keen and affirmative interest in all things of spiritual instruction. He loved to follow up the doctrines presented at meetings of the Church by private reading of the Writings and of sermons, and he often spoke of having done this with the greatest delight.

     That Mr. Nelson lived to see the fruit of his hopes realized in the beautiful Park, which he had designed and planted, and in the Temple and School now erected there, was to him a great gratification. Mrs. Nelson preceded him to the spiritual world in the year 1898, and during the intervening years he never ceased to look forward with fond anticipation to their re-union in the world to come. W. B. CALDWELL.




     THE SECOND VISIT, 1916.

     Bogate, P. O. Maseru, Basutoland, S. A.,

     Thursday, May 11th, 1916.

     I am sitting at a rickety table, native made, in the house of the Rev. D. R. Khaile, the native pastor of the New Church in Bogate. The house is made of earth, has an iron roof covered with sod to keep out the cold, and a floor of hardened earth smeared with cows' dung. There are two rooms in this house-most of the native houses have only one room-one of which I use as a bedroom, sleeping on an iron bed; the other is my dining and reception room, and is used also for evening prayers. The size of the latter room is about fifteen feet square; it has two doors and two small windows; the doors are about five feet high and two and a half feet wide, and the windows are only a foot wide and a foot and a half high, without glass, but having board shutters. The house is clean, but cold, and rather dark.

     I arrived at Maseru from Bloemfontein at half-past ten o'clock on Tuesday night, and put up for the night at Lacey's Private Hotel. On Wednesday morning I called on Mr. Barry May, Assistant Resident Commissioner at Maseru. After introducing myself, I asked him if he knew a native preacher, named Samuel M. Mofokeng. He recollected the name, and stated he had helped Mofokeng once or twice with a little business. He referred to the granting to Mofokeng of a permit to obtain wine for the Holy Supper, and to the writing of a letter to the Manager of the South African Railway obtaining a Minister's concession for Mofokeng. He knew nothing about the New Church; in fact, had not heard about it.


He did not think it worth while for another Church to commence work among the Basutos, as there were established already Missions of the Church of England, the Roman Catholic Church, the French Protestant Church, the Seventh-day adventists, and some others. I told him how the New Church had commenced in Basutoland, and asked him if he did not consider it right to help the natives, since they had asked help in the way of teaching and direction; to which he assented.

     After my interview with Mr. May, I returned to Lacey's. Soon Mr. Mofokeng arrived, and after arranging to start from Maseru for Bogate, at two o'clock that afternoon, he departed to fetch the necessary horses. We got off promptly at two, Mofokeng and I on horseback, my luggage packed on a spare horse led by Lipale, (pronounced Di-pi'-le) one of the New Church natives. Mofokeng and I arrived here at four o'clock, Lipale at five o'clock.

     At six o'clock about fifty natives-men, women, and children-assembled in my dining room for evening prayer service. The natives-according to Mofokeng's report-are regular in the observance of morning and evening prayer service. Mofokeng and Khaile conducted the service, which consisted principally of prayers and singing, and at Mofokeng's request I gave them a short address, taking as my text the words, "O sing unto the Lord a new song; for He hath done marvelous things," (Psalm 98:1). They had just sung this Psalm in Sesuto; therefore, also because they are so passionately fond of singing, I selected the above words as a text. In my sermon, among other things, I stated that one of the marvelous things the Lord has done is the establishing of the New Church in Basutoland. After the service, the chairman sang some songs they had learned as a greeting to the "White Minister," among them one or two in English. Later they sang and danced for me outside.

     After supper I had a two hour class with Mofokeng, Khaile and Shadrakai Molise. I asked Khaile and Mofokeng to tell me what they had said in their last sermons. Khaile had taken the Parable of the Ten Virgins (Matt. 25:1-13) as his text, and Mofokeng, Ezekiel 36:26 as his. Each in turn preached to me practically the whole of his sermon. What they said was very elementary, but for the most part, correct.


Then I instructed them how to prepare their sermons, and gave them several examples. Further, I told them a sermon should always be about the Lord, about heaven, and the life after death, and about the preparation in this world for life after death. Also, I cautioned them not to let their imagination carry them away and thus lead them to put into their sermons what is not in the Lord's Word; laying stress on the fact that their responsibility as Ministers of the New Church is great, particularly inasmuch as their people cannot read the Word for themselves. I enlarged on this subject. Then Mofokeng and Khaile asked questions. Mofokeng: What is meant by the Most Ancient Church, and by the spiritual world; Khaile: What is meant by the Flood, and by Noah's ark. My answers were as simple as possible for me to make, but I fear they understood little of what I said. Finally, the faces of the three native ministers commenced to broaden into smiles, and I could see understanding was dawning on them. Then I explained what is meant by the New Church, and, in answer to Mofokeng's question, what is meant by the internal and external man. Light was shining into their minds apparently, as they commenced talking excitedly to each other in Sesuta. It is difficult to believe how simple and ignorant they are. It will take a long time to teach them.

     I promised Mofokeng and Khaile that I would ask you to send them the Teachers' Bibles, like the one I have. The ones you sent them have no reference, concordance, or dictionary. Mine is, "Holy Bible. Dictionary Concordance. Self-pronouncing. S. S. Teacher's Edition. Nelson." I would recommend that at least four such Bibles-large print, because they work by candle light,-and with maps also, be sent to them,-to Mofogeng, Khaile, Nyaredi, and Serutla; also that a fair sized English Dictionary be sent to each of them. There are innumerable words they do not know the meaning of, and they have no English Dictionaries. If possible, Bibles and Dictionaries should be sent also for Matoka, Matesia, Mossuang, the elder and the younger, (father and son, both acting as New Church ministers), Mphatse and Monyeke.

     The night was very cold and we sat talking around a fire of cow's dung burning in an old petrol tin.


The room was entirely shut up, and the smoke from the fire filled the room until cubes of it might have been cut up and thrown outside. This is one of several unpleasant things I have had to endure, and it is due to the natives' sensitiveness to cold. At ten o'clock I retired and slept soundly until seven in the morning.

     This morning, Thursday, May 11th, at eleven o'clock sharp, we had a regular, full service. The services were held out of doors. A small church building is being erected in Bogate, but it will not be finished until the rainy season comes round again, as the ground must be wet when the mud sods are to be cut out of it. Khaile had planned having the chancel in the west, but said he would change it after I told him it would be more according to order for the Word of the Lord to; be in the east-that is, the people looking toward the east. The reason he had for building the chancel in the west was because he wanted no opening from that point of the compass, owing to the frequency and severity of the westerly winds. Khaile is doing most of the work on the church building, although a few others help him from time to time. But to return to the service.

     Mofokeng conducted the service. Khaile read the lessons, and I baptized one man, and blessed three men and two women,-and preached on the text: "Verily, verily, I say unto thee. Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God," (John 3:5). After the sermon I explained the reasons for celebrating the Nineteenth of June. The attendance was not as large as last year, perhaps owing to the fact that last year many came from Qhuqhu, which village I am to visit this year. About eighty were present, mostly women and children.

     In the evening, at seven o'clock, we had another service at which I preached on the text: "And I, John, saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband," (Rev. 21:2). My aim was to enlighten the natives on the meaning of the New Church, that is, to tell them what the New Church is, but without telling them about the consummation of the former Christian Churches.


I have found it futile to explain, even to native ministers, that the former Christian Church is now consummated, for they answer: "If the other Churches are not also the Lord's, why are they not destroyed?" This service was well attended, the little room being literally packed with men, women and children, probably about sixty altogether. After the service there was more singing, both in Sesuto and English, principally by the girls, the women assisting, and the men making an accompaniment with their deep basses. At my request, several of the little girls sang by themselves,-they were six or seven years of age and have the sweetest voices. Then a group of older girls sang unaccompanied; and finally two of the young men. The little boys do not sing, perhaps because they are away most of the day looking after the horses, cattle, and sheep. After the singing all went outside and danced. At half-past eight, however, I asked for quiet so that I might have my class with Mofokeng, Khaile, and Molise. I explained to them the First and the Second Coming of the Lord, also the nature of the Word as a whole and as to each of its three Testaments.

     Friday morning the horses came to carry me to Qopo, at which village Nyaredi is pastor. We left Bogate at 11:15 a. m. and rode first to Berea, the village of the Chief of the District to which Qopo belongs. We arrived at Berea at 1:30 p. m. The District Chief's name is Leshoboro Majara; Moshoeshoe. He is a grandson of the great Moshesh. Chief Leshoboro was waiting for me, as word had been sent him of my arrival in Basutoland. I forgot to mention that it is a custom for every visitor to a District in Basutoland to call on the Chief of the District as soon as possible. This is done at the first visit only, and is not necessary again. Last year Chief Leshoboro had heard of my presence in Basutoland and had sent me an invitation to visit his District. I was unable to accept his invitation, but wrote to him that I would surely visit him, should I again visit Basutoland. Now I fulfilled my promise.

     Chief Leshoboro is a large, quiet, dignified man. Be is a big Chief, that is, one of the three or four most important Chiefs of Basutoland. He speaks English a little, understands it fairly well, but according to custom, employs an interpreter. I remained with him for two and a half hours, during which time he served me with tea and bread.


He has twenty wives, one of whom was introduced to me. He questioned me minutely about the New Church and its Doctrines, but did not argue any point, as the Paramount Chief did last year. He seemed favorably disposed toward the New Church, and has given a site for the Church at Qopo, where a stone church building and a stone parsonage are already in the course of construction. However, both are very simple buildings to be thatched with grass.

     Chief Leshoboro asked particularly about the attitude of the New Church toward a plurality of wives, and toward the custom of marrying by cattle. To the first question, I answered that the Doctrines of the New Church taught plainly that a man should have one wife only at a time; when a man's wife dies, he may marry again, if he wishes to do so, but he must not have two or more living wives. But because I knew from former experience that the question included the further question, What will be the attitude of the New Church towards those Chiefs and men who at the present time have more than one wife?-I added, that I did not think the New Church would refuse to receive natives who had several wives at the time of their desiring to enter the New Church; but that it would teach and would require those not married to marry one wife only at a time, and those already married not to take another woman, or other women as wives. I was careful to state that the above was my own opinion,-that the Bishop would have to decide the matter. I knew an answer was expected, because, before I commenced my answer, Chief Leshoboro had stated that the other Missions in Basutoland-Roman, French Protestant, Church of England, all-refuse to receive any man or Chief until he has put away all his wives but one. In one case, a Paramount Chief, endeavoring to comply with this condition made by the Roman Catholic Mission, put away all his wives and took a young girl as his new, Christian wife! I firmly believe this is a custom-a permission of Divine Providence-that the New Church must abolish only by instruction, consequently only gradually. Further, I believe it is one of the hindrances placed by the Lord to prevent the Missions of the former Christian Church from taking firm root in the hearts of the natives of Basutoland.


     To the second question, namely, "What is the attitude of the New Church toward the custom of marrying by cattle?" I answered that I thought the New Church would not interfere with any native customs which were not evil and against the Doctrines of the New Church. Marrying by cattle is simply this: A man has a marriageable daughter, and he refuses to allow her to marry any one of her choice unless the man or his father pays so many head of cattle for the girl. In one sense, the daughters are sold; but in another sense they are not, that is, in the sense that the daughter has some choice of a husband. Occasionally native lovers elope, because the man cannot pay the required number of cattle; but elopement is rare, probably because the penalty is heavy, a large fine of cattle, perhaps even imprisonment, and the loss of the girl. I think it will be wise to permit this custom until education of the natives leads them voluntarily to give it up. There are many natives who desire what they call "Christian marriage" in addition to their native marriage, and I would like to know if you see any reason or reasons why I should not officiate at such weddings when asked to officiate, even in cases where the bridegroom and bride have been living together for a time after native marriage. Mofokeng says there are about twenty couples who want Christian marriage as well as native marriage, and who want me to officiate. I shall not taker any action along this line until I hear from you.

     In the general conversation which followed these two questions and their answers, one of the Chief's councillors referred to the custom of the Israelites and Jews marrying several wives, as related in the Old Testament. I replied that God had permitted the Israelites and Jews to have several wives, but had not willed it, and explained at length the difference between God's willing a thing and permitting it. I explained also that the Old Testament was written in a way accommodated to the character of the people at that time; that the same was true of the New Testament, and of the Third Testament or Writings to the New Church; that the Jews had refused to accept the Lord in His first coming, and thus His New Testament; that if the Basutos accepted the three Testaments they would have to live according to the commandments and doctrine of all three Testaments, etc.


     The same Councillor then asked, "What is the attitude of the New Church towards a man marrying his brother's widow!" and he explained that, according to their custom, if a man dies and leaves a wife or wives, one of his brothers, or, if he has no brothers, his nearest of kin, must take the deceased man's wife or wives to himself: for they are regarded as property inherited by the next of kin. I replied that the Doctrines of the New Church do not permit a man to have more than one wife at a time, therefore neither do they permit a married man to take as wives his deceased brother's women: but that I could not say what attitude would be taken by the Church as to the case of an unmarried man marrying his deceased brother's widow. However, I stated that a woman who had truly loved her husband, would probably not desire to marry again. The Councillor seemed unable to comprehend why a man should have only one wife, also why there should be a conjunction of minds between a man and a woman, living together as husband and wife.

     Chief Leshoboro asked me, in a most earnest manner, to entreat you to send as soon as possible a "White Minister" to Basutoland, to live here and be your "eye." He urged the necessity and importance of teaching his people, who are like children; and considers this can be done best under the direction of a "White Minister." He was seconded warmly by two of his Councillors, also by Nyaredi and Mofokeng. I might add here that Chief Leshoboro has seen a little of the outside world, having been to England with three or four other Chiefs of Basutoland, all guests of the Imperial Government In England they were presented to the late King Edward.

     After further conversation about the war, and about America, Australia, and India, Chief Leshoboro dismissed us, for, according to native custom, no one can leave the Chief's presence without dismissal; and we rode to Qopo, a pretty little village nestling on the side of a large kopje and facing an extensive, fertile valley fringed with kopjes and mountains. Qopo is the station of the Rev. Epainetus Nyaredi, who is a fairly able native minister, most earnest and self-sacrificing in his work for the New Church. He was sent here by the New Church Conference of Basutoland, (which has no affiliation whatsoever with the English New Church Conference), when there was not one native of the village interested in the New Church.


I do not know why Qopo was selected as a station. He has been here about three years and has now twenty members His work has been difficult, particularly because the people here contended that the New Church was only Mofokeng's and Nyaredi's Church, and did not exist with white people. The natives, were unconvinced of the actual existence of the New Church with white people, even after hearing reports of my visit to Basutoland last year. But Nyaredi worked ahead Persistently and obtained from Chief Leshoboro a site for the New Church in Qopo. The extent of this site has not yet been determined satisfactorily, but the sub-chief of Qopo has assured me that he will confer with Chief Leshoboro on the matter and effect a settlement as soon as possible. It may here be noted that all the land of Basutoland belongs to the Chiefs who give sites for churches, schools, trading-stations, and houses, also land to plow, with the right of temporary tenure only; that is, the Chiefs still holding title to the land. In return from the natives, the Chiefs command the services of their people to plow, and sow, and harvest the lands retained for their own particular use. The only other tax the natives must pay is a poll tax of one pound a year to the Resident Commissioner. Let me also note here that Nyaredi went alone to Qopo, his wife and family following six months later; and he told me the people were more willing to believe him after his wife had come among them. No doubt she worked among the women.

     Nyaredi has a large family, nine children living and one dead. He is very poor, but brave in his poverty; his wife appears to be a brave woman, and his children apparently are happy and religiously inclined. Nyaredi is fifty-one years of age. Let me note here that, according to native report, last summer was very hard on horses, cattle, and sheep in Basutoland. All our New Church natives suffered. Mofokeng lost his two horses and twenty-three sheep. Moshe Monyeke lost ten horses and, cattle. Khaile lost thirty-eight cattle out of forty-four. I do not remember the particulars of the losses of others. They also informed me that money is very hard to get, the traders refusing to pay for the products of their farms in money, giving clothing and food in exchange.


This scarcity of money is owing to the war, no doubt.

     Last night, Friday, May 12th, I had a class with Mofokeng, Nyaredi, and Matoka. Matoka is a bright young man, twenty-eight years of age, who is under Nyaredi, and preaches in a village, about two and a half hours walking distance from here. He lives there. He is married and has two children. He is most humble, earnest, and alert; always doing something. He understands English fairly well, and speaks it sufficiently to get along in a conversation. I rather like him. He fetched me from Bogate, and has been my valet, cook and waiter here.

     To return to the class. I asked various questions, especially, "What is meant by the Second Coming of the Lord'" "What is the New Church?" "What is meant by the Word of the Lord?" The answers were not satisfactory and so I explained at length.

     On Saturday morning, at nine o'clock, Nyaredi held morning prayers, and asked me to preach a sermon. I did so, taking as my text, Matthew 3:2. Only about fifteen were present, mostly women, but keep in mind that there are only twenty New Church people here.

     Let me state here that all my sermons and talks in Basutoland are necessarily extempore, although thought out before, and, of course, are of the most general nature. It is a great disadvantage having to preach through an interpreter and I wonder sometimes if Mofokeng understands well just what I am saying; but it is the only thing to do, as I do not know Sesuto, and the natives do trot understand English. Mofokeng always tells me, after the service, that the people like what I say and understand well, but I have no way of telling just how much they understand. It is even more difficult than speaking to children who understand English.

     On Saturday night, May 13th, I was bombarded with questions by Nyaredi and Matoka. Immediately after the class I wrote down the questions, yet I could not recollect all of them. I answered them the best I could, but the task was a hard one, because they speak and understand English poorly, and Mofokeng, who usually acts as interpreter, was "very slumbery," and had gone to bed.


     But before Mofokeng retired and the questions were asked, Nyaredi enquired how many Academies there are in America (meaning, of course, New Church schools), which Academy is the principal one, how much it costs to send a boy to school in Bryn Athyn, how much it costs to go to America, and other like questions. After I had replied to these questions, Nyaredi, supported by Mofokeng, said that "the Bishop of the General Church must send us teachers for our children, to teach them well, for it costs too much to send our children to America." I replied that they would have to wait, that the General Church was not wealthy, that the General Church did not have enough men as teachers, and that the Lord will provide for the natives in Basutoland in good time. I said, further, that the New Church in Basutoland is still a little baby and must grow slowly like all babies. To which, quick as a flash, Nyaredi (who, remember, is very poor, and is the father of ten children), replied, "But when the baby is hungry for food it cries; we are crying for food." I answered, "You are being given a little food now. More will be given. But you must be patient and persevere in your work. You ministers must study hard and teach the people and the children. The food for you is in the Word of the Lord. You have the Lord's Word and you must study it. And you must not try to hurry the Lord who will surely provide for you."

     Mofokeng stated that he had established the Church in Basutoland and now must rest. I replied, "You must work on; you must persevere in your work; there must be no rest from your work in this world." They were both very urgent that something be done for them, and that it be done at once; they were very insistent about this. Also, they stated that they are now full members of the General Church, that the Bishop of the General Church is their Bishop, and that he must look after them govern them, and send a Bishop to Basutoland to teach them and ordain them. I told them all this would be done as soon as possible, but they must be patient, and continue their work. I wish that I had known shorthand so that I might have taken down the whole conversation verbatim. They are terribly in earnest about everything; and work hard.


     I forgot to mention that on Saturday, at noon, I had a class with Mofokeng and Matoka and explained that everywhere in the Word by David is meant the Lord, also the general meaning of Isaiah 9, Psalm 22, and Psalm 2. Nyaredi was unable to be present.

     (To be continued.)


     On February 9, the Bryn Athyn Society united in celebration of General Church Day,-the anniversary of the organization of the General Church, which took place on February 6, 1897.

     The Rev. E. E. Iungerich was toastmaster, and introduced into his program some novelties of matter and manner. Formal toasts were omitted, with the exception of a toast to The Church at the conclusion of the speeches. The opening remarks of the toastmaster, wherein he apologized for his existence, and gave a humorous account of the evolution of a toastmaster, were well calculated to Produce an affirmative attitude toward succeeding speakers. He was followed by Mr. Donald F. Rose, who presented a typical after-dinner speech on the subject of Humour, considered even in its relation to religious appreciation and development. Mr. Marshall Fuller spoke on The Spirit of Give and Take, and broke all records for brevity in a Bryn Athyn speaker. Mr. William Whitehead gave a stirring address in consideration of The Other Fellows Point of View, touching in telling fashion on the world-wide spirit of intolerance and mutual hatred represented in the Great War, and closing with a quotation from Abraham Lincoln, of peculiar aptness and timeliness. The Rev. George De Charms spoke on Council and Assembly,-the Principles of the organization of the General Church, and urged the necessity for the younger generation of the Church to enter into the labours as well as the fruits of the early days Bishop W. F. Pendleton concluded the program with an address on the future of the Church, in which he reviewed what had been done and might be done through the training of children for the Church, and added many things relating to the early days of the organization

     After a toast to the Church, and the singing of hymns 25 and 26, there followed that which constituted a fitting center to the whole evening.


This was the presentation to Bishop William F. Pendleton, on behalf of the whole General Church, of a token of love and appreciation, and recognition of the great work he had done during his twenty years of government of the General Church. This took the form of a golden chain of twenty-four links, engraved with the names of the societies of the Church, and set with precious stones of correspondential colors. (By permission of Bishop W. F. Pendleton, the BULLETIN in its current issue prints a photographic reproduction of this chain.) The presentation was made through Dr. F. A. Boericke, who addressed the Bishop as follows:

     On this twentieth anniversary of its organization the General Church wishes to present to you this chain, as a token of its love and esteem for you. By this token you may, as long as you live, be assured that the members of this General Church have ever regarded you with the very greatest affection, and that they recognize in you a most wise and considerate leader; one who has regarded the absolute freedom and welfare of the individual, as well as of the body of the Church, as a whole, both in its organization and at all times since.

     The Church has in use the Liturgy, which has been your work, and which has been of inestimable value to it in its worship. Moreover, the Church will always acknowledge that the advancement in the Ritual of Worship has been promoted and furthered largely by your effort and learning.

     Mr. Alden, in his invitation to the Church, states that he appeals to the 1,200 members, and about 800 children. It will please you to learn that though the time has been very short still it is evident that the response is practically unanimous.

     We sincerely hope that you may be with us yet for many years, and that your health may be such that you will feel able to preach sermons to us as in the past, which have awakened in us a profound realization of our responsibilities, and our duty to our God and to our neighbor.

     In response, the Bishop said:

     Members of the General Church:

     I feel very grateful. You cannot expect me to say very much in answer to Dr. Boericke's words, but let me say, I 'am very grateful.

     Let me say that I am now realizing the dream of my ministerial life, namely, to have only one thing to do. You realize how much our ministers have to do. For the forty-five years of my ministry I have longed for this time.


Now it has been given to me in the Lord's Providence. I speak of this partly in answer to the kind expression of this presentation through Dr. Boericke, because there is in it such an expression of good will that T find it difficult to respond to it, except to say what I am saying,-that I have now reached that point in the work of the Church that I have wished for ever since the beginning of my ministry.

     As you are aware, I have reserved one thing; to go on with the subject of Exposition in the Theological School, and I am devoting myself wholly to that, and finding great delight in it. This, it seems to me, is almost a foretaste of what is to come to everyone in the other world;-not to be confused and troubled about so many things: I remember a definition in the ARCANA of what it is "to think nothing." The ARCANA defines it as thinking about many things at the same time, and not distinctly about any one. Ministerial brethren, as well as brethren of the laity, will realize the truth of that proposition, of that teaching. There are times of confusion in their work when they actually confess that they think nothing. This is also the experience of every mother with her children. I do not think that there is any exception to it, but it is a state of confusion from which we should all pray to the Lord to be delivered.

     I do not mean to give the impression that I have not enjoyed my ministerial work in the past. I have enjoyed it very much indeed; Before T began ministerial work. I went from one thing to another very quickly for several years after the Civil War. But it became clear to me, the way opened, and I went into the work of the ministry, and I found that it was to me a source of delight and happiness. As I have said, there was one thing lacking in it all along, which is to me now a blessing,-to have one thing to do. One thing to think about,-one thing to care for.

     There comes with this beautiful gift your good wishes for my welfare, and in return I wish to say that they are realized in this,-the delight I take in doing one thing. I thank you, and all the members of the General Church with all my heart.

     The time is not very long when all of us will be where those thirty-six first members of the General Church are now, except two or three. We are gradually stepping across the line. It is a joyful step to take. One of the greatest delights of my life in coming to the New Church,-I knew nothing about it till I was twenty-three years of age,-was that it stripped death of its horror, a horror that was with me all through the terrible war. During all that time I never got rid of it. Then all at once this doctrine of heaven was given to me, and lifted that terrible cloud. We have indeed much to be thankful for in the New Church.

     The Lord's blessing be with you all.


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. The meetings of the Consistory and the Council of the Clergy were held during the early part of February, and occasioned much-appreciated visits from the Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, F. E. Waelchli, and H. L. Odhner. The society enjoyed hearing a sermon from the Rev. F. E. Waelchli on February 11 on the text, "Speak unto the children of Israel, and let them go forward." This was a lucid and practical exposition that appealed strongly to the young people of the society.

     The Rev. George De Charms has now removed to Bryn Athyn, but has been delayed in taking up the work of the assistant pastorship by sudden illness, which caused much anxiety to his friends, but which fortunately seems to have passed. At an early date Mr. De Charms proposes to open a doctrinal class for the young men or the society, to meet every Sunday evening. The Friday evening doctrinal classes, under his direction, are taking up the study of the Externals and Internals of Ritual.

     There has already been started, under the leadership of Bishop N. D. Pendleton. a class for the study of Bishop Benade's CONVERSATIONS ON EDUCATION, to which are invited the young mothers of the community, and all other ladies who find themselves interested in the care and training of young children. The ladies affirm that the class is extremely useful and interesting. Some suggestion has been made that the young fathers in the society might also profit by attendance at such a class.

     The society has recently celebrated two dates vital to the work of the community. First of these was the Founders' Day of the academy, celebrated on January 12. This took the form of a banquet, under the toast mastership of Mr. W. Whitehead; the program included toasts to the early days of the Academy, to the problems of today, and to the responsibilities of the future. One speaker discussed those earlier Newchurchmen, whose labors eventually bore fruit in the "Academy idea;" others spoke in appreciation of the actual Founders, who first ultimated this idea in the formation of the institution; while the address of Bishop W. F. Pendleton in closing dwelt on the thought that the Lord alone is the true Founder of the Academy.

     On February 9 was celebrated General Church day, an account of which is given elsewhere in this issue. It was noted that there were present in Bryn Athyn, at this time, all those six ministers, who were present at the first organization of the General Church on February 6, 1897. D. F. R.

     CHICAGO, ILL. The services, Sunday School, and mid-week classes have been kept up uninterruptedly in Englewood, Chicago, since the work began there over three years ago. On special occasions social gatherings have also been held, and the members, young and old, have done what they could to make it pleasant for one another. The work in Lake View, Chicago, has likewise been kept up, but owing to removals the meetings were held in homes of members for a long time. At the invitation of friends living in Irving Park, Chicago, a hall was rented, and the Rev. Headsten began a Sunday School, and an adult class for the study of the WORD and the Writings. This work was begun last October, and has now quite a hopeful aspect.


During Mr. Headsten's absence from the city, the meetings were conducted by the Rev. W. L. Gladish.

     During the hot summer months the Society suspends its meetings, and the pastor goes out on missionary tour, visiting New Church people, and friends of the Church in different places. Last summer he visited Minneapolis, Minn.; Mason and Arpin, Wis.; Kibbie, Mich., and Rockford and Belvidere, Ill. He preached fifteen times to congregations numbering from 14 to so, and also held a number of classes, administered the Holy Supper three times, and baptized five newcomers into the Church. This work will be repeated next summer, if the necessary means are forthcoming. H.


     Owing to various circumstances, the activities of the Carmel Church have not been quite so regular as usual this winter Twice the building has had to be closed on account of furnace trouble. The growing duties of citizenship in these momentous times have deflected part of our energy into directions hitherto little considered, and has somewhat decreased the attendance at suppers and classes. The O. H. Day family has removed to Detroit, and the business interests of Messrs. Alf. Steen and Archie Scott have called them to Elmira and Toronto, respectively. Miss Lucille Hollman is now also in Toronto, where her wedding with Mr. Scott is soon to be celebrated. Mr. Benjamin Warren (a former member of our congregation) has enlisted in Toronto, where he is now stationed. He was recently married to Miss Levina Schweitzer, who, for the present. is also in Toronto. Mrs. Victor Waelchli (nee Boggess) returned to the United States in January, the Battallion of which her husband is a member, having now reached England.

     The Christmas time brought its usual sphere of peace despite the all-pervading thoughts of war. As a part of the Children's Festival six beautiful tableaux were presented in the chapel.

     New Year's Day and the following Tuesday were devoted to a local assembly. It opened with a banquet, where Bishop N. D. Pendleton, in response to the toast to the Church Militant, made inspiring references to the work of Evangelization as an essential part of the Church's office, a means of her nourishment, and the duty of all her members. The Bishop held an informal meeting with the ladies, where various topics of interest were discussed. The final Assembly session was devoted to the reading and discussion of a paper by the Bishop on the "Ark of Noah." Later, Mr. Theo. Pitcairn gave an account of his last summer's vicissitudes in the highways and byways of the missionary field.

     The Society's commemoration of the Seer's birth occurred on the, 26th, when Mr. Odhner spoke of Swedenborg's unique place among his contemporaries and of his relation to all historic times, and Mr. Jacob Stroh illustrated some aspects of the revelator's personality with interesting anecdotes.

     LONDON, ENGLAND. The London society, though now entirely denuded of its young men, is keeping well together, and progressing quietly in a sphere of charity.

     On July 24 a memorial service was held in commemoration of Mr. John Pitcairn. Our pastor instructed us as to the continuance of use after death, and showed that our friend would now continue on a wider and more interior plane the service to the Church that he had loved so deeply on earth. In speeches that followed several spoke of the great use that Mr. Pitcairn had been led by the Lord to perform in establishing the New Jerusalem in every part of the world.


     On August 22 another memorial service was held to the honor of our young friend, Leon Rose, suddenly called home while on active service for the honor of his country. At the wish of the parents personal references to our young brother were confined to the brief introduction to the sermon by our pastor. But the hearts of all were open, and the sphere of heaven seemed very near while we listened to the healing words of the address.

     On December 15 the Children's School Social was held, and all the scholars took part in a pretty little Cantata,-"The Fairy Wreath." This was the fruit of the work of the teacher of the school and Mrs. A. Stebbing, and gave great pleasure by the innocent zest of the children in the work, though at times a little sadness was felt that the fathers, away on war-work, could not see their children's performance. H. H.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA. This has been month of real winter weather and work. The suppers and doctrinal class have been continued, as usual, and Mr. Karl R. Alden, our new minister, has chosen for this class the study of the "Early History of the New Church," beginning with the study of the life of Swedenborg.

     A banquet was held on January 28 to bid adieu to our former pastor and his wife, who have moved to Bryn Athyn to take up the pastoral work there. The Advent Society presented Mr. De Charms with a small gift in expression of their love for him and their appreciation of his work. A number of speakers recalled the wonderful progress we have made in three years under his leadership. Later in the evening a toast to Emanuel Swedenborg, whose birthday anniversary was on the following day, was very affectionately responded to by Mr. Eric Neilson.
     A. E. S.

     TORONTO, ONT., CANADA. Life in our society was busy, but rather uneventful until Christmas and the New Year.

     At Christmas the children's entertainment was very interesting. White Mr. Cronlund told the children the story of the coming of the Lord, it was illustrated by two tableaux, one representing the Angel Gabriel, announcing the coming of our Lord to Mary; and the other, the three wise men worshiping at the manger where the Infant lay.

     The chief event of the year was our Bishop's visit. Mr. Pendleton arrived in Toronto on December 29, and that evening we had a banquet at the church. While at the festive board, our pastor announced that the subject for discussion during the evening would be "The Church, Our Stronghold." Bishop Pendleton spoke briefly, and then asked Mr. Theodore Pitcairn to tell something of his missionary efforts during the past summer. Mr. Pitcairn gave us an enthusiastic account of his tour and we certainly feel much sympathy in the movement which these young men have inaugurated.

     Other speakers spoke on the subjects: "Strength in the Acknowledgment of the Lord in His Second Coming;" "Strength in the New Church Marriage;" "Strength in the Spirit of Self-Sacrifice;" "The New Church in the other World a Source of Strength."

     A men's meeting was held at Mr. Caldwell's house next evening when "The External Growth of the Church" was discussed.

     In the afternoon a ladies meeting was held at the home of Mrs. Ernest Bellinger when the Bishop very informally discussed educational and school matters.

     On Sunday morning Bishop Pendleton preached and in the evening read a paper on "Accommodation." This wonderful paper showed clearly that all New Church education should lead the individual to see the Lord." An interesting discussion followed, after which New Year's Greetings brought the Bishop's much appreciated visit to a close.


     Swedenborg's birthday was celebrated by both the adults and the children of the society by meeting for supper at the church. Mr. Cronlund had borrowed from the Academy, magic-lantern slides of Swedenborg and contemporaries, the founders of the Academy, and others connected with the history of the New Church.

     On Wednesday evening, February 7, the twentieth anniversary of the birth of the General Church was celebrated by the members of the Olivet Church. An historical address, dealing with the ecclesiastical side of the Academy movement, was given by the pastor, and very interesting and instructive speeches were made by several of the members. Every one spoke most appreciatively of the work done by Bishop W. F. Pendleton, as Presiding Bishop of the General Church. At the close of the meeting it was voted with enthusiasm that this society convey to Bishop Pendleton its affectionate goodwill, and warm appreciation of the great uses so well performed by him for the Church.     B. S.
Philadelphia Local Assembly 1917

Philadelphia Local Assembly              1917



     The Philadelphia Local Assembly will be held at the Advent Church, Wyalusing avenue, below 55th street, on April 14-15, 1917. All persons desiring to attend are cordially invited to send their names to Mr. Harvey Lechner, 1701 N. Redfield street, Philadelphia, as promptly as possible, so that provision may be made for the entertainment of those coming from a distance.




VOL. XXXVII APRIL, 1917          No. 4
     When the Lord was present in the world, clothed in the human of man, and when He gathered around Him His twelve disciples to instruct them, and to inspire them with the heavenly delight of love toward Him and toward one another, it was a representation of His Divine spiritual presence in the Church of all times and all ages;-His presence with the regenerating men who constitute the Church, His presence in the delights of the goods and truths of the spiritual life, which are only from Him, given as a measure of heavenly joy to regenerating men upon earth.

     But ever and anon the Lord appears absent from the man of the Church, which occurs when the delights of self and the world,-natural delights,-prevail with him, when evil spirits excite his evil loves, afflict his conscience, and thus induce a state of anxiety at the loss of spiritual delight, at the apparent absence of the Lord,-a state of temptation-conflict attended with internal grief and despair. His joy is turned into sorrow. The truth is, however, that the Lord is still most present with this man, sustaining him in his resistance to the evils of the natural, and giving him victory if he endure unto the end, and with the victory its reward-a deliverance from evil, and a new manifestation of the Divine presence, and from this an internal peace of life, with renewed joy and gladness in the good and truth of the spiritual life, together with tranquillity and content in the natural life.

     Such a change of state with the man of the Church is represented in the Gospel by the sorrow of the disciples when the Lord was about to undergo the Passion of the Cross, which sorrow was to be turned into joy when He again appeared to them after His resurrection.


"Ye shall weep and lament," He said to them, "and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy." (JOHN xvi, 20.)

     The disciples, being very simple men, scarcely realized that the Divine was present with them in Him Who appeared to them like another man. To prepare them for His departure out of the world, to prepare them to acknowledge Him afterwards when He would appear in Divine glory, the Lord comforted them, and explained fully how the case would be. "A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again, a little while, and ye shall see me; because I go to the Father." And because they were troubled with misgivings, and doubted in their hearts, not comprehending that His "going to the Father" meant His union with the Divine, and His spiritual appearing and presence in the Divine Human, He also said, "If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto my Father; for my Father is greater than I." But though He had thus reassured them, though they had been told that He would be taken, put to death, buried, and rise again the third day, their faith was weak. It is even said of Peter and John, that only when they came to the sepulchre, and saw that He had risen, did they believe, "for as yet they knew not the Scripture, that He must rise again from the dead." (JOHN xx, 9.) Their faith in the Lord was as yet an external faith, requiring evidence of the senses, and depending upon His continued presence with them in the flesh. They little perceived the presence of the Divine in Him. "Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Phillip? He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." (JOHN xiv, 9.)

     As the disciples had so Little perception of the Lord's Divinity, so little spiritual faith, so little confidence that He would rise from death and manifest Himself to them, it is plain that their grief at His leaving them was largely a natural grief, a natural sorrow that could only be turned into joy when He should appear to them in the glory of His Divine Human, and when they would be brought to a new and higher acknowledgment of Him as Divine, as their God.


It was similar with the grief of Mary Magdalene, when she wept, and said, "They have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid Him." And when Jesus appeared to her, and she would have touched Him, He said, 'Touch me not; for I have not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God." (JOHN xx, 17.) She was no longer to think of Him merely as He had appeared in the world, as a mere man, but as Divine Man, her God and Father. And in this way her natural faith was to become spiritual, her natural sorrow to be turned into spiritual joy. Likewise also the disciples were to acknowledge Him in His Divine Human after the trial of early separation from Him, after the world had thought and rejoiced to destroy Him, when He appeared to them in His glory. For He had said to them, "Ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice; and ye now therefore have sorrow; but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you." (JOHN xvi, 20, 22.)

     The "little while" that the Lord was to be separated from His disciples represented, as we have said, a change of state with the man of the church, brought about by temptations; by the apparent absence of the Lord during man's states of spiritual trial; when the forces of evil are striving for mastery over him, striving to destroy his spiritual life; these states of sorrow being turned into joy by victory, by the new manifestation of the Lord then given, with its attendant blessings. This change of state involves also a transition from a natural idea of the Lord to a spiritual one, a transition from thought of Him as a man to thought of Him as God, from a finite conception of His Human to a spiritual understanding of His Divine Essence, to a perception and acknowledgment of His Divine Human. And this transition in the thought of the man of the Church can hardly take place without sorrow in giving up pre-conceived, limited, personal ideas of the Lord, though this is turned into joy when he has come fully into the light of perception and its spiritual faith, the light of a new appearing of the Lord as He has now revealed Himself at His Second Advent.


     But this "little while" of the Lord's absence from His disciples, representing a change of state with man, also involved an important period in the Lord's life upon earth, in the process of His glorification. He was about to undergo the last temptation in Gethsemane, and at the cross; to be taken of men, put to death, buried, and to rise again. He was to suffer the extreme humiliation of the human, even to its complete putting off. His soul was to be "sorrowful unto death," and upon the cross He was to appear forsaken of the Father. But with Him also this sorrow was to be turned into joy,-a Divine joy in His union with the Father and the accomplishment of the ends of redemption. In states of humiliation, when the infirm human was afflicted, the Lord appeared absent from His Divine: in states of glorification, when by victory in temptation the Human was united to the Divine. He had inmost joy from this union, and from conjunction with the human race. For He imparted this joy to His disciples. "These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full." (JOHN xv, 11.) And again, when He prayed to the Father, and spake of His union with the Divine, "And now I come to Thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they might have my joy fulfilled in themselves." (JOHN xvii, 13.)

     The "little while" of the Lord's absence from the disciples, therefore, was the period or state of His last humiliation, and of His final and complete union with the Father,-the last affliction and sorrow of the infirm human, but the final joy of union with the Divine,-a joy that He imparted to His disciples when He appeared to them after He had risen, and when His first salutation of "Peace be unto you" imparted to them the fruit of His victory,-a spiritual peace of conjunction with Him, and the joy of it. "And then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord."

     Not only to the disciples, but to the whole human race, did the Lord then give that peace, and its heavenly joy,-to all who could receive it. For it was the peace of His union with the Divine, the uniting of the Human and the Divine in Him, and the joy of His Divine Love in the redemption of the human race, and its new conjunction with Him in the glorified Human.


It was the peace of His victory over the hells, now reduced to order, and thus to a truce of peace under His Divine power. It was the peace of a new order in heaven, and with this new order a new delight and blessedness of life, a new joy with the angels of heaven and the men of the church; with the regenerate, the delight of spiritual peace when the sorrow of temptation is past, a peace that is only from the Lord, which the world cannot give. Hence our Lord further said to the disciples, "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you; not as the world giveth, give I unto you." (JOHN xiv, 27.)

     Now this peace was the essence of the heavenly joy imparted to the Lord's disciples, when He appeared to them after His resurrection. For we are taught in the Heavenly Doctrines that peace is the inmost delight of heaven, and the origin of heavenly joy, "that in the Lord there is a Divine peace, existing from the union of His Divine and the Divine Human in Him; that the Divine of peace in heaven is from the Lord, existing from His conjunction with the angels of heaven, and in particular from the conjunction of good and truth with every angel; that these are the supreme origins of peace. From which it is also evident that peace in the heavens is the Divine inmostly affecting all good there with blessedness, and thus that from peace is all the joy of heaven; that in its essence it is the Divine joy of the Lord's Divine Love from His conjunction with heaven, and with each angel there; that this joy, perceived by the Lord in the angels, and by the angels from the Lord, is peace. Thence also the angels derive all blessedness, delight, and happiness, or what is called heavenly joy." (H. 286.)

     Observe that this state of heaven,-the supreme of human bliss,-is from the presence of the Lord in His Divine Human, and His conjunction with the angels,-from union and conjunction. There is no peace, no joy, where there is division, separation, but only where there is conjunction, union; thus where the Lord is, for He is the only One, in whom and by whom all in heaven are united. "In His presence there is fulness of joy." And wheresoever in the world He is present, wheresoever He is spiritually acknowledged and loved, where "two or three are gathered together in His name, and He is in the midst of them," there will be found internal peace and joy of life from conjunction with Him.


     It is this Divine peace and joy that inflows from heaven with all who conquer in temptations. It comes to them as the first comfort after victory over that which caused the Lord's apparent absence, the "joy that is with the angels over one sinner that repenteth." The Lord cannot be present with men in the merely natural delights of the world and of self love, and where He is not spiritually present there can be no internal peace and joy of life, no contentment of heart and soul's satisfaction, whatsoever may be the peace and enjoyment of the natural life. This natural peace must suffer; the natural must undergo limitation, suppression, affliction, humiliation, even to grief and pain at the loss of its delights. It must suffer death in spiritual temptation before there can be spiritual elevation of state, before the Lord can again manifest His Divine presence, and grant the gift of heavenly joy and peace.

     This is the eternal lesson to men in the contemplation of the Lord's laying down of His life, that He might take it again,-that there is no spiritual gain for man without some natural loss, no genuine spiritual delight that is not born of sacrifice and the travail of the soul, no lasting joy that comes not of sorrow. "He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal." (JOHN xii, 25.)


     "And Jehovah said to Moses, Why criest thou to Me; speak to the Sons of Israel, and let them go forward." (Exodus xiv:15.)

     These words are taken from the chapter which tells, in its natural sense, of the first trial which the Sons of Israel endured on their journey from Egypt to the Land of Canaan, and, in its spiritual sense, of the first temptation of those who are of the Spiritual Church.


     By the Sons of Israel are represented those who are of the spiritual church; and their history is the history of the states through which those of the spiritual church must pass during their reformation and regeneration. The states through which they must pass during reformation are described by the life in Egypt, and those through which they must pass during regeneration by the journey through the wilderness.

     The life of the Sons of Israel in Egypt and in the wilderness was one of hardship and suffering. In Egypt they were oppressed and abused by Pharaoh and his people, especially during the time that their deliverance was being effected; and in the wilderness they passed through trials even more severe than those endured in Egypt. So, too, it is with the man of the spiritual church; during his reformation he is oppressed by; the Egyptians, or infested by falsities, and during his regeneration he suffers the hardships of the journey through the wilderness, which are temptations.

     Since such things are involved in the history of the Sons of Israel, therefore that history is a prophecy. The man of the spiritual church, who reads and studies it in the light of the internal sense, will there find the events of his life foretold, not only in general, but also in particular. The future will be unfolded Before his eyes, so that he can know it,-not indeed the future as regards his merely worldly life, that is, as regards his success or failure in attaining unto wealth, honor, or worldly pleasures; but the future as regards his spiritual life, which is the real life, the life for which man should be most concerned. From this prophecy he will learn what are the trials through which he must successively pass, and how he must meet them in order that he may pass through them safely. The Lord reveals these things of the future to us in order that we may prepare ourselves for them, and, when they come, act in accordance with His will. Is it not, therefore, most important, that everyone seek to know these things, and to this end apply himself earnestly to the Lord's revelation of them?

     We say that the history of the Sons of Israel is a prophecy, an unfolding of the future; yet let it be borne in mind that it is such only for the man of the spiritual church,-only for the man whose end of life is the attainment of the home in the Land of Canaan, and who steadfastly keeps that end in view.


     In the beginning of spiritual life the man of the church is in Egypt; that is, he is in the state in which he seeks to attain knowledges of the truth for the sake of life: such knowledges are signified by Egypt. In the acquiring of these knowledges he will meet with his first trials, and the reason why he will meet them is because he is unregenerate and evil, and evil does not love the knowledges of truth, but seeks to destroy them. The evil loves which are in the man of the church will draw to themselves false knowledges, or falsified truths, in order that by them evil may he excused and justified, and the truth be destroyed. These false knowledges are the Egyptians who oppress the Sons of Israel, and the man of the spiritual church feels their oppression as a grievous and heavy yoke. The reason why he so feels this oppression is because in his internal man there is an ardent desire to know the truth in its purity, for the sake of life, and yet these false knowledges, by which the external man seeks to excuse and confirm what is evil, becloud his understanding, so that he scarcely knows what is true or what is false. Nevertheless, because at heart he longs to adhere to the truth, and because he endeavors to live according to it, the obscurity induced by falsities in time vanishes, little by little these falsities are seen in their true light, the nature of their cunning reasonings is laid bare, and they are rejected; then they can oppress no longer. The false knowledge, having endured the punishments which are signified by the plagues sent upon the Egyptians, permit the man of the spiritual church to leave the land.

     It is while these things take place that the reformation of man is effected; for during it all, there is operative the desire of the internal man to live according to the truth, and the man does so live in so far as he is able to see the truth. This he does, not because he loves to so live, but because he realizes that he must do it if he would be saved. He does good not from love, but from obedience. It is his persistence in this life which causes the power of the false knowledges to be broken and enables him to see clearly what is the life which he must lead.


     Oppression by false knowledges is called infestation. The Lord permits that infestations come to every man of the church, for by means of them he is made firm in his adherence to the truth, and is liberated from the power of falsity. And let it be noted that the false knowledges are for the most part not such as appear openly false. They come under the appearance of truths, pretending to be truths. In general, they all refer themselves to the falsity that it is sufficient if man acknowledge religion and lead a life that appears good, and that it is unnecessary that he be internally purified by a life of faithful and implicit obedience to the truth; in fact, that such a life is for the most part not possible with him under the circumstances and conditions in which he lives.

     When the period of reformation is completed, man enters into a new state which is called regeneration, in which he no longer acts from mere obedience, but from the love of good. Infestations then cease and temptations begin. Infestations are one thing and temptations another. Infestations, as we have seen, are injections of falsity whereby man is brought into states of distress because he cannot see the truth 1 but temptations are states in which the good, which man interiorly loves, is threatened with destruction, and therefore states in which he sees damnation threatening, and consequently endures inmost anguish and grief.

     It must not, however, he supposed that man in his progression in spiritual life reaches a point where reformation abruptly ceases, and regeneration suddenly begins. For just as reformation and regeneration are each gradual processes, so also is the transition from the one to the other gradual. The transition is like that from young manhood to adult age, in which that pertains to the state of adult age gradually appears and grows, while that which pertains to young manhood fades away.

     This period of transition is the subject treated of In the internal sense of the chapter from which our text is taken. The man of the spiritual church meets his first temptation, but he meets it while still in the land of Egypt, and it is dread and terror of the Egyptians who are pursuing him which cause the temptation.


This temptation is a fear and dread on the part of the man of the church that he cannot remain steadfast in that love of good which has begun to dawn in him. He remembers how he was infested by falsities, and he believes that these will come upon him and destroy his love; they as it were pursue him, and he can see no other fate than that he be driven to his destruction in the Sea Suph which lies before him;-that is, that he will suffer damnation.

     Then come the words of our text: "And Jehovah said to Moses, Why criest thou to me; speak to the Sons of Israel; and let them go forward." Those of the Spiritual Church are told that instead of giving way to dread and despair, and instead of spending their time in prayer for help, they shall go forward;-go forward and courageously meet that very hell they dread, go forward directly upon the Sea Suph. In what follows in the chapter we learn that they did this, and that they passed safely through the sea, while the Egyptians who pursued them were destroyed therein.

     The nature of man's first temptation can be better understood, if, instead of thinking of his progress in reformation and regeneration in general, we think of it as to some particular. A man during the period of reformation sees a certain truth and determines to live according to it; but scarcely has he begun to carry it out, than false knowledges are injected by evil spirits, to the end that the truth may be destroyed. All manner of false reasonings come into his mind; all manner of excuses rise up for his not carrying out the truth; and his mind becomes so obscured that he scarcely knows whether the truth be really true, whether it has an application or not, or whether the truth is meant for all persons, himself included, or only for some. And yet all the while the genuine truth lies concealed within, and as he succeeds in holding to it, as it were with a blind faith, and living according to it, the obscurity vanishes, and the truth becomes fully established with him. There is then no longer any doubt whatever as to what is the truth. He sees it clearly. And he also sees the utter shallowness of the falsities which have obscured it. His path of life, his duty, lies clearly before him; and there is now also the dawning of the state in which he has a love for the good which that truth teaches, so that he begins to do good from love, and not merely from obedience.


     At the same time he knows that his love for this good is but weak compared with his lope for the evil which is opposed to it; and he trembles at the thought of the consequences of this weakness; he sees that temptations are before him, and he feels that he will not be able to live through them, but will fall, and so suffer damnation. He remembers the infestations which he suffered and how weak he often was in them; how often he gave way, how often he listened to the insinuations of the evil spirits when they told him that it was not necessary that he should live according to this truth,-that it was not to be expected of him that he should, for the sake of living according to it, give up the things dear to his heart, such as the selfish pursuit of wealth, honors, and worldly pleasures. These infestations and his weakness in them he remembers, and the thought of them fills him with fear. He feels that should they at any time again attack him, he would not be able to withstand them, and that if he should now, in the time of temptation, fall before them, his lot would be far more grievous than it would have been had he fallen in the time of infestation. He sees Pharaoh and the Egyptians pursuing after him. The old falsities flood in upon him, and he believes that they will destroy his spiritual life. He wishes that he had never entered upon this life, but had given way in the time of infestation; he wishes that he had never come to see the truth in its clearness and the true character of the opposing falsities, and so had not come to know what is his duty and what must be his course of life; for then it would not have been necessary that Ire should meet death in the wilderness, as he feels he must, and so suffer damnation. This is man's first temptation, and is described in our chapter by the words: "And Pharaoh approached; and the Sons of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold the Egyptians journeying after them, and they feared exceedingly, and the Sons of Israel cried to Jehovah. And they said to Moses, Were there not sepulchers in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness? What is this thou hast done to us, to bring us forth out of Egypt? Is this not the word which we spake to thee in Egypt, saying, Cease from us, and let us serve the Egyptians, because it is better for us to serve the Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness?"


     That a temptation such as this should cause most intense suffering, compared with which that caused by merely worldly trials is but light, is something which the merely worldly-minded man cannot comprehend; he cannot understand how the fear of loss of salvation can be the source of any anxiety. But they who have experienced such temptations well know what are the states of dread and despair which accompany them; and they also who have not experienced them, and yet are not merely worldly-minded but have entered into something of spiritual life, can know how severe such temptations must be; they can know it from the doctrine of the Church, and knowing it, they call prepare themselves to meet these trials when they come.

     Great as is the despair of the man of the church in this his first temptation, and hopeless as he feels in regard to the possibility of salvation, yet the Lord is with him, and by His Word, which is Moses, encourages him not to despair, but to have faith in salvation from Him; assuring him that the false knowledges which so threaten his destruction will he removed by Divine Power, and thereafter will never trouble him again. This is what is signified by the words: "And Moses said to the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the safety of Jehovah, which He will do for you today; because the Egyptians, whom ye see today, ye shall not see any more forever. Jehovah will fight fro you, and ye shall be silent."

     Yet this work of salvation, though purely a Divine work, cannot be effected without man's co-operation. There is something which man must do in order that the Lord map save him, and what this is, our text tells us: "And Jehovah said to Moses, why criest thou to Me; speak to the Sons of Israel, and let them go forward." Man, when in the midst of temptation, must not imagine that the Lord can help him so long as he himself does nothing more than pray for relief there is more than this for him to do I he must go forward; he must summon courage to face his temptations, and to fight against evil, believing that relief will come when the time for it is at hand.


     Much of the grievousness of temptation is due to the lack of courage on the part of the man of the church. He fears to meet and fight against evil, believing he has not sufficient strength; he feels that damnation awaits him; he bewails his lot, and prays for relief; instead of going forward, he stands still, hesitating and uncertain. So long as he continues to do this, there call he no relief for him. He must heed the Lord's words, "Speak to the Sons of Israel and let them go forward." Let him go on directly into the face of the hell he fears, and the Lord will protect him; the Lord will part the waters of the Sea, and he will pass over on dry ground, and thereafter travel through the wilderness and endure further temptations, until finally he is prepared to enter the promised land.

     It has been pointed out that the first temptation of man is brought about by the remembrance of his weakness in times of infestation. This is really the world of evil spirits, who read his memory and draw forth thence the things which have been evilly done and evilly thought, and thereby fix blame upon and condemn him, and cause anxiety. The evil spirits who do this are from a hell which is represented by the Sea Suph. It is because of their operation that man feels himself so weak and helpless. It is they who cause him to lose all courage and to believe that because he often did not do what he should have done in the past, he will not have strength to do it in the future. But let the man of the church not permit himself to be misled by these spirits. Let him close the book which contains the record of his past weaknesses and turn away from it, and determine that, with the Lord's help, the errors of the past shall not be repeated. Let him not worry and trouble about what he has done; let him think of what is before him to do; let him go forward. "Speak to the Sons of Israel and let them go forward." The Sea which he dreads, the hell which blames and accuses him will be parted before him, and he will pass through on dry ground.

     Why is it necessary that the man of the church should pass through temptations after he has come out of infestations? Why is he not led directly from Egypt to Canaan? It is because he is not prepared for the heavenly life. That preparation can take place only by means of temptations.


He needs to see his evils and fight against them, so that the Lord may remove them; he needs to fight for the preservation of the good which he loves, in order that he may prize and value it, and in order that it may become firmly established in him; he needs to pass through hell and reject it, to the end that he may in freedom and from affection receive the things of heaven.

     We have today considered the words of our text as to their application to the subject treated of in the chapter in which they occur, which is the first temptation of the man of the Church. There is, however, a wider application of these words, so wide, in fact, that it can be made to every man of the church, whatever may be the state to which he has attained in reformation or in regeneration. Every man of the church who desires to attain unto heavenly life needs, in all Ms trials, both of reformation and of regeneration, to heed the admonition. "Speak to the Sons of Israel and let them go forward." Let him not stand still, doubting, hesitating, and dreading what may be before him. Let him not fear that he will not have strength to do what is right in the future, even though he has failed to do so in the past. Let him trust in the Lord and go forward, determined to walk in the path which the Lord points out to him. If he will do this, all will in the end be well with him.

     Let us all ever bear in mind why it is that we have been placed here on earth. It is not in order that we may attain unto wealth or honor, or that we may enjoy worldly pleasures, but it is in order that we may be prepared for heaven. This preparation cannot take place unless we make the journey from Egypt to Canaan. What this journey is, and what are the experiences which we shall meet upon the way, we can know, if we will, for this is unfolded to us in the doctrines of the church. If we will enter upon this journey, heavenly life, which is true life, will be ours. May we, therefore, open ourselves to receive from the Lord that courage which will enable us to "go forward," with full confidence that He will guard and protect us, and lead us into the peace of the eternal Canaan. Amen.



"IF THIS LITTLE WORK BE NOT ADDED."              1917

     Our caption constitutes the opening words of a remarkable passage in the INVITATION TO THE NEW CHURCH, which has given rise to editorial discussion in several of our New Church contemporaries,-and with varying conclusions. The passage in full reads as follows:

     "If this little work be not added to the former, the church cannot be healed. There would be only a palliative cure, as it were. The wound wherein is the poison, remains and corrodes the neighboring parts. Orthodoxy is that poison, and the doctrine of the New Church indeed affords a remedy, but only extrinsically." (n. 25.)

     So far as we have observed, the discussion of this passage has taken little note of the bibliographical details necessary to determining both the place of the INVITATION in Swedenborg's Writings, and the specific question as to what is meant by the phrase "this little work." Bibliographical details are not apt to be interesting to the general reader, and in the case before us, it must be admitted they are somewhat complex. Yet we shall essay the task of setting them forth, in the hope that thus some light may be thrown on what, to the New Church theologian, has always been a perplexing problem. For one would certainly think that the doctrine of the New Church" affords more than a palliative cure to the poison of orthodoxy, even if we bear in mind that, as will be shown later, by "the doctrine of the New Church" is here meant the doctrine as set forth in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. Yet the statement is, that without the addition of "this little work" the cure is only a palliative.

     According to the plan of its author, the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION was not an entirely complete work. It was to be followed by an "Appendix," which is referred to several times in the work itself. These references, seven in number, indicate with clearness what was to be the leading theme of this APPENDIX. It was

     To show that from a Trinity of Gods; the state of the church of today is such, that theology is divided, and also the human mind; with the result that there is nought but "perplexity: and non-coherence in matters of the Church." (T. C. R. 15.)


     To examine the various doctrines of the Church, and to show that they "spring from a trinity of Gods as from their fountain" and that this trinity is "actually within them." (ib. 177)

     To adduce, examine and weigh "what the Church itself saps about in faith." (ib. 343)

     To show that this faith "has extinguished the light in the Word, and removed the Lord from the Church, and thus hastened her morning into night." (ib. 177.)

     To exhibit the "heresies, paradoxes, and contradictions" emanating from this faith. (ib. 485)

     To show that this faith "is not Christian, because it departs from the Word," and that the imputation thereof is vain. (ib. 627.)

     To show that there is now such "an abomination of desolation in the Christian Church" that "not a single genuine truth is left;" and that unless a New Church be raised up "no flesh can be saved." (ib. 759)

     All these points are dealt with in greater or less detail in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION itself; and yet something more was to be added,-something vitally necessary for the opening of the eyes to the basic, intrinsic falsities of the former church; without which opening there could be no real reception of the truths of the New Church (BR. EXPOS. 96). This is indeed specifically stated by Swedenborg, who says in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, "Since an examination (of the doctrines of the Christian Church) cannot be made here, and yet the making of such an examination is of the highest importance (pretium operaea, literally, the "worth while of our labor") for the opening of eyes, therefore an Appendix shall be adjoined to the present work." (T. C. R. 177.)

     It is clear, then, from the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION itself, that the APPENDIX was to treat in detail of the falsities of the Christian Church, and to show that, owing to these falsities, that church has come to an end, and that the only hope of the world lies in the establishment of a New Church.

     There is also other evidence to the same effect, contained in the BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH. This latter work was published in the spring of 1769 as a preliminary sketch, communicated to the reader in order to impart a general knowledge of what was to be fully demonstrated in "the work itself,"-that is, in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.


In no. 16 of the BRIEF EXPOSITION, under the heading, "Sketch of the Doctrinals of the New Church," is given a detailed plan of the proposed magnum opus. The work was to be distributed into three Parts. These we present below in abbreviated form, together with the references to the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, which show that the plan was carried out with some exactness.

     PART I.
1. The Lord and the Divine Trinity. (T. C. R., Chaps, I-III; nos. 1-188.)
2. The Word. (ii). Ch. IV: nos. 189-282.)
3. Love to God and the neighbor. (VII; 394-462.)
4. Faith. (VI; 336-393.)
5. The Decalogue. (V; 283-335.)
6. Reformation and Regeneration. (IX and X; 519-625.)
7. Free Will. (VIII; 463-509,)
8. Baptism. (XII; 667-697.)
9. The Holy Supper. (XIII; 698-752.)
10. Heaven and Hell.
11. The State of men after death. (792 ad fin.)
12. Eternal Life.

     PART II.
1. The Consummation of the Age, (XIV; 753-763.)
2. The Advent of the Lord. (764-780.)
3. The Last Judgment. (772.)
4. The New Church. (781-791.)

     PART III.

     This part "will demonstrate the discordance between the dogmas of the modern church, and those of the New Church."

     We would note in regard to this sketch: First, that every chapter listed under Parts I and II of the Sketch is actually included in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, as published, excepting Chapters 10 and 12 of Part I, which, however, may be considered as included in nos. 792 seq. of the published work; Second, that the only chapter in the published work which is not contained in the Sketch is Chapter XI, on Imputation. We shall refer to this circumstance later.


     We turn now from this examination of the proposed contents of Part III or the APPENDIX, to an enquiry into how far and in what manner the plan was actually carried out.

     The TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION was published in Amsterdam in the latter part of June, 1771. In the following August, Swedenborg was in London, where he died eight months later. During these eight months he was engaged in writing and preparing for the press the promised Appendix to his last published work. The manuscript of this, the author's last writing, consisted of "72 large pages" (NEW DOCUMENTS, p. 13). Concerning this manuscript, Mr. Hindmarsh states, "The author had nearly, if not quite, finished it, when he was seized with his last illness, during which Dr. Messiter (his Swedish friend and physician), finding him without hopes of recovery, took the manuscripts from the author's apartments. The author, however, soon after, recovering himself a little, inquired for; his manuscripts. But, as the Doctor had takes them away, E. Swedenborg died without seeing them. Dr. Messiter being thus in possession of the manuscripts and not taking sufficient care of them many of the leaves were lost." (Hyde's BIBLIOG., p. 589.) As to the number of pages lost we have the testimony of the editors of the NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE for 1799 (p. 224), who learned from Dr. Messiter himself that "nearly one-half of the pages had been mislaid and finally lost."

     In 1780, eight years later, the manuscript, thus made incomplete, was published, at the expense of Augustus Nordenskjold, in London, under the title, CORONIS OR APPENDIX TO TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. Whether the word "Coronis" was in the original manuscript is not quite certain I for in a copy of this edition now in the possession of the London Swedenborg Society there is written on the title page, and in the handwriting of Dr. Spence, "I pray you, call the Theology of the New Church, of which this work is the Appendix, by no other name than the True Christian Religion. So wrote E. Swedenborg in the manuscript of this work now in my charge." (Hyde, p. 589.) The date of another note by Dr. Spence in the same book is 1786, indicating; that in 1786, six years after its printing, the incomplete manuscript was in Dr. Spence's possession. Since that time all trace of it has been lost.


     It is undoubted then that the CORONIS is that veritable Appendix to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION which was planned by Swedenborg and which is so often referred to in the work itself.

     This work* consists of 60 numbered, paragraphs, the style and order of which indicate without doubt that the work was in finished form, ready for the printer. In the following brief summary of its contents, we dwell more at length on the first or introductory paragraph, because of its importance to the question under discussion:
     * The Latin text of this work is printed in OPERA MINORA, pp. 13-77; and the translation, in I POSTHUMOUS THEOLOGICAL WORKS, pp. 19-97.

     No. 1. Introduction. "On these three subjects, namely, the Consummation of the Age, the Advent of the Lord, and the New Church, we have already treated in the last chapter of the work called TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION [Ch. xiv; nos. 753-791] The reason why there now follows a continuation on these subjects is because no one has hitherto known what the Consummation of the Age is, why the Second Advent of the Lord takes place, and that a New Church is about to come; and yet these three things are treated of in the Word. . . . They are like keys which open the door and admit; And when this is done with the Word then come to sight the treasures which have hitherto lain therein as in the depth of the sea. . . . In this Appendix or continuation I will progress, just as in the work itself, by premising summaries, which shall then be confirmed from Scripture, and illustrated from reason."

     Nos. 2-22. On the four Churches, the Adamic, Noachic, Israelitish and Christian, in general.

     23-38. On the Adamic or Most Ancient Church, and its four states ending in the judgment and the formation of a new heaven and a new hell.

     39-45. On the Noachic or Ancient Church and its four states.

     46-60. On the Israelitish or Jewish Church and its four states.

     Here the work abruptly ends. But indications are given in the work itself as to its continuation.

     The last chapter, that on the Jewish Church, was to be dealt with in seven propositions; of which, however, only five are taken up in the work as now preserved. Nos. 61 seq. were therefore to deal with the last two propositions, namely, the judgment on the Jewish Church "made in the Spiritual world," and "something-on the heaven and hell from that race." (n. 46)


     Then was to follow a chapter on the modern Christian Church, wherein it was to be shown that, at its end, as at the end of the Jewish Church, "the Lord derives and produces a New Church on earth through the new heaven by means of a revelation of truths from His mouth, or from His Word, and by inspiration." (n. 20.)

     The last "lemma" of the work-probably, the last section of a chapter on the New Church-was to treat of the "mystery of Redemption, the treatment to be distributed under eleven heads" which are enumerated. (n. 22.)

     This, then, is the "Appendix" to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION as we now have it. It was to treat of the four former churches and finally of the New Church. In the work as preserved only three of the churches are treated of; and the fact that "nearly one-half" of the original manuscript was lost by Dr. Messiter makes it reasonably certain that these lost pages constitute the completion of the work.

     We have already indicated from the work itself something of the nature of the lost portion, but besides the work itself, there are other indications to the like effect.

     Before writing up a work for publication, Swedenborg frequently prepared a first sketch or draft; and in the work itself he is guided by this sketch, though modifying it more or less. Thus in the manuscript known as Codex 48 we have a first sketch which was manifestly used in the writing of BRIEF EXPOSITION, published in 1769. The CANONS OF THE NEW CHURCH is an outline of the first three chapters of TRUE; CHRISTIAN RELIGION,-where, indeed, the sketch is followed with some exactness. So, in like manner, a first sketch, indeed more than one, was made of the "Appendix" to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

     From Codex 48 (referred to above), which contains the first outline of BRIEF EXPOSITION, five leaves have been torn out; but it is satisfactorily proved by Hyde (BIBLIOG., p. 504-5) that these pages were copied by Augustus Nordenskjold, and that his copy is now preserved in the library of the London Swedenborg Society. Before adverting to the contents of these pages we would note: First, that, as will be shown later, BRIEF EXPOSITION was published as a forerunner of the appendix to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION; Second that Codex 48, written in 1768 or 1769, contains nothing else than material for the BRIEF EXPOSITION, some out of which was used in the published work; Third, that therefore the torn out pages also concern the subjects to be taken up in the "Appendix."


     The contents of these pages show that as a matter of fact they constitute the first draft of that Appendix of which BRIEF EXPOSITION was the forerunner. These contents consists of fifty-five short numbered paragraphs, headed "A Summary;" and of five additional paragraphs headed, "lastly about Miracles." Briefly summarized the contents of these paragraphs are as follows:

     1-3. On the four churches, and their successive states. (These paragraphs are word for word the same as the headings of the first six subsections of the CORONIS.)

     4-7. Where, in the Word, these four churches are treated of.

     8. That a church "truly Christian" is now to arise.

     9-17. On the consummation of the present Christian Church.

     18-22. On the Advent of the Lord.

     29-30. On redemption. (These six paragraphs agree with numbers 3-6 of the eleven Propositions on Redemption, which, as stated in the CORONIS, were to be the subject of the "last lemma" of that work.)

     31-39. Why the New Heaven and New Church could not be formed until after the consummation of the Christian Church; and why, at the beginning of that church, they were announced in prophecy.

     40-49. The falsities which have destroyed the Christian Church.

     50-51. Why the New Church is established, not by miracles, but by the opening of the Word, and of the spiritual world.

     52-54. The states of the New Church, and that it will endure to eternity.

     55. "An invitation to the whole Christian world to enter this church."

     1-6. On Miracles. (These paragraphs are an amplification of nos. 50-51 above.)

     Here we have a complete summary of the Appendix to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION,-a summary which was evidently Swedenborg's guide in writing the CORONIS; the latter, however, as now preserved, covers only the first six paragraphs of the Summary, though there is little doubt but that it originally covered all the points outlined in the Summary.


     The incomplete CORONIS and the SUMMARY just described are the only ones of Swedenborg's writings which indicate in any entirety the contents of the Appendix so often referred to, namely, that it was to consist of six chapters, as follows:

     1. Generally on the four churches and their successive states. (COR. 7-22.)

     2. On the Most Ancient Church. (ib. 23-38)

     3. On the Ancient Church. (ib. 39-35)

     4. On the Israelitish Church. (ib. 46-?.)

     5. On the Christian Church. (SUMMARY; 4-7.)

     6. On the Consummation of the Age, the Advent of the Lord, and the New Church. (See T. C. R.757)

     1. That a Church truly Christian would be established. (SUMMARY; 8.)

     2. The consummation of the Church of today. (ib. 9-17.)

     3. The Second Coming. (ib. 18-22.)

     4. Redemption. (ib. 23-30, COR. 21.)

     5. Why the New Church could not be established before the consummation of the old. (SUMMARY; 31-39.)

     6. An enumeration of the falsities that have destroyed the Old Church. (ib. 40-49)

     7. That the New Church is established not by external, but by internal miracles. (ib. 50-51, and ON MIRACLES, 1-6.)

     8. That it will endure to eternity. (ib. 52-51)

     9. An invitation to that Church. (ib. 55.)

     As we have already stated, the APPENDIX was probably completed by Swedenborg; but owing to Dr. Messiter's carelessness, it has reached us only in incomplete form. That the lost part of the manuscript will be discovered in time is, with, the devout Newchurchman, a conviction grounded in trust in the Divine Providence which would not seem to allow any part of the revelation to the New Church to be absolutely lost. Nevertheless the fact remains, that, for us now, the work in its fulness is quite lost.

     Of the contents of the fifth chapter we have no further evidence than that already adduced but of the contents of the following or sixth chapter, evidence exists in three manuscripts which we have not hitherto noticed.

     The first of these manuscripts is a single sheet found in the Royal Library in Stockholm.


There is no evidence to show its date, further than that it must have been written between the years 1769 and 1771. The manuscript is apparently a sketch of the last chapter of the APPENDIX or CORONIS.*: It consists of six paragraphs, entitled "The Consummation of the Age, the Second Advent of the Lord, and the New Church." Each of the first three chapters is followed by the words "to be treated of in chapters," i. e., in subsections. Briefly summarized these six paragraphs are:
     *The translation of this MS. may be seen in 3 Doc. CONC. SWEDENBORG, 773, and I Post. THEOLOG. WORKS, 107.

     1. The Consummation of the Age. [= T. C. R. 753-763, paragraphs i-iii.]

     2. The Second Advent. [= T. C. R. 764-784 paragraphs iv-viii.]

     3. The New Church. [==T. C. R. 781-791, paragraphs ix-x and last.]

     4. An invitation to the New Church.

     5. A "memorable statement" that the truths of the New Church appear in light to one in illustration, but when submitted to modern orthodoxy, the light of truth becomes darkness.

     6. The doctrines of the New Church and those of the "old orthodoxy" are to be explained in their order.

     At first sight it might appear that the first three of these paragraphs are simply an outline of Chapter XIV. of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. But this conclusion is improbable in view of the following paragraphs which manifestly belong to the "Appendix;" and the improbability is rendered a certainty when we consider the opening words of the CORONIS,-which is professedly the "Appendix" itself,-to the effect that though "the Consummation of the Age, the Advent of the Lord, and the New Church have been treated of in the last chapter of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION) yet the subject must be continued. (COR. 1.) The present manuscript is therefore an outline of chapter 6 of the "Appendix."

     Another and much longer outline of part of this Chapter is found in a manuscript in the handwriting of Augustus Nordenskjold, and now in the possession of the London Swedenborg Society. The copyist states that it is a transcript of Codex 50,-a codex which was borrowed by Nordenskjold, but never returned. All trace of it is now lost.


It was written after the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, for it refers to that work as "my last work." (INVITATION; 43.) Its date is therefore probably in the autumn of 1771 just before the preparation of CORONIS for the press.* The work opens with a list of thirty-one paragraphs, entitled "The Abomination of Desolation, the Consummation of the Age, and the Fulness of Time." Briefly summarized, these paragraphs are:
     * The text of this manuscript is printed in 4 SPIR. DIR., pp. 137-160, and an English translation in I POST. THEOL. WORKS. pp. 108-143.

     1-27.That there is no knowledge of God, of the Lord, of the Holy Spirit, etc., etc.,-the subjects of which there is "no knowledge," being enumerated in the order in which they are treated of in TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION; "hence not any religion, church, worship, ministry;" and thus "not a single grain of truth" is left in the Church.

     28-31. Falses must be eradicated before truths are implanted and these are to be implanted not by miracles, but by the Word.

     Then, follow three other lists of the same character, but with some changes in arrangement.

     After these lists come thirteen unnumbered paragraphs headed "Invitation to the New Church," and showing that "the doctrinals contained in TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION agree with those of the Roman Catholic Church and of the Protestants "who acknowledge the personal union in Christ, and approach Christ, and take the two elements in the Eucharist:" that "the New Church is not established before the consummation of the former church;" and that it is established "not by miracles, but by the revelation of the spiritual sense, and by the introduction of my Spirit, and at the same time, of my body, into the spiritual world, that I might there know what heaven and hell are, and might draw the truths of faith in light immediately from the Lord;" and, finally, that an invitation to the New Church is now given.

     Then follow fifty-nine numbered paragraphs without any heading, but which are now known as the "invitation to the New Church." That title is wholly unwarranted; it is given by Swedenborg only to the thirteen paragraphs which we have just noticed, and which may justly be regarded as an outline of a section of the "Appendix" to be entitled "An Invitation."


But no such thing can be said concerning the fifty-nine numbered paragraphs, The fact that, in Nordenskjold's copy, they follow the paragraphs entitled "An Invitation" with only a larger space, and perhaps a line, between the two, is no warrant whatever for supposing that they were in this sequence in the lost original manuscript. There, they may have been on different pages separated by many blank pages. Indeed, to us, this seems the greater probability; and Nordenskjold's carelessness, to which we owe the loss of this and other autographs, by no means lessens this probability. The subject matter of the paragraphs sufficiently and most clearly indicates that they were by no means intended as an outline of an "Invitation to the New Church," but were miscellaneous notes of points to be included in the Appendix to TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

     It is difficult to summarize these paragraphs, since they treat of a variety of subjects and do not seem to be arranged in any definite order. They are, in truth, miscellaneous notes, all, however, on the main theme of the consummation of the Old Church and the rise of the New. Same general summary of them may be presented as follows:

     1-9. That regeneration is possible only by the Lord's advent; miracles; faith; repentance.

     10-19. The desolation of the Church; ignorance concerning the soul; the mind and the body; that "false orthodoxy with preachers is in the internal man, and the preaching in the external."

     20. The influx of heaven.

     21-24. On modern theology, that "not one truth remains in the church, because they have not approached the Lord."

     25. "If this little work be not added to the former the Church cannot be healed," etc.

     26-27. Origin of errors in the Church.

     28. The Church is the body of Christ.

     29-32. The Second Advent. "The things mentioned concerning myself are not miracles, but are testimonies that I have been introduced by the Lord into the spiritual world."

     33. "Title. CONCERNING THE CONSUMMATION OF THE AGE, AND THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION THEN. Adduce what the Lord says" of the abomination, the affliction, the darkening of the sun, etc.; explain what He says about the coming of the Son of Man, that this is accomplished; and about His sending forth His angels, that this also is accomplished, "see TRUE CH. RELIGION, n. 791" [on sending forth of the disciples on June 19, 1770].


(This paragraph is evidently a general outline for the sixth chapter of the "Appendix.")

     34. The Lord's Advent.

     35-42. On the falses of the Old Church, and that the true Christian religion call be revealed only "by one being introduced into the Spiritual World and drawing genuine truths from the Word from the Lord's mouth."

     43-59. On Christ the Lord. On miracles and that "the manifestation of the Lord in person, and introduction into the spiritual world, excels all miracles;" "since creation this has never been granted to any one, as it has been granted to me." The Lord has prepared me "from first youth for the perception of the Word; He has introduced me into the spiritual world: and has more nearly enlightened me with the light of His Word."

     A third manuscript containing materials for the "Appendix" is found in Codex 47, whose sole contents are, An Index to the FORMULA CONCORDIA, and A Sketch of a "New Ecclesiastical History." The Index was prepared with a view to instituting the comparison between "the dogmas of the Old Church and those of the New," which was to be a part of the "Appendix." Its probable date is 1769. But the Sketch, which occurs at the end of the codex, was written in the latter part of 1770, and thus after the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION was written but before it was printed. This date is fixed by a reference to the trial of Beyer, at Gothenburg, which continued until the middle of 1770, when Swedenborg left Stockholm for the purpose of printing the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. The Sketch would therefore seem to be a part of the proposed "Appendix;" and the nature of the sketch itself, to which we will refer later, greatly favors this probability.

     We now have a complete recital of all the known material written by Swedenborg as contributions to his promised "Appendix;" and from this material we may gather, in some detail, just what that Appendix was to contain. This we present as follows:


     Introduction. (Con. I.)

     I. On the four churches and their four states in general. (ib. 3-22; SUMMARY, 1-3.)


     II. On the Most Ancient Church and its states. (ib. 23-38.)

     III. On the Ancient Church. (ib. 39-45.)

     IV. On the Jewish Church. (ib 46-60.)

     (Thus far we have the finished work as prepared for the press by the author; but Chapter iv is not quite complete; what follows is a reconstruction of the remaining portion of the work as indicated by the material adduced above.)

          5. (Of Chapter IV.) The judgment on the Jewish Church. (COR. 46.)

          6. The Heaven and Hell from that Race. (ib.)

     V. On the Christian Church and its successive states; shown from the Word, (COR. 20; SUMMARY, 4-7.)

     VI. On the Consummation of the Age, the Second Coming of the Lord, and the New Church. (INVIT. 33.)

          1. That a Church truly Christian is now to be established. (SUM. 8; CONSUM. OF AGE. Title.)

          2. The consummation of the present Christian Church. (ib. 9-17; INVIT. 33.)

          3. The Second Coming of the Lord. (1:b. 18-22.) The sending forth of the Apostles into the whole spiritual world. (INVIT. 33.)

          4. Redemption. (This was to be treated of in eleven propositions, which are outlined in SUM. 23-30, and given in full in COR. 21)

          5. Why the New Church could not be established before the Consummation of the Old. (SUM. 31-39; INVITATION III.)

          6. An enumeration and examination of the falsities that have destroyed the Old Church (ib. 40-49; T. C. R. 177), showing the resultant heresies and paradoxes. (T. C. R. 485.)

     The discordance between these doctrines and those of the New Church. (B. E. 16; CONSUM. OF AGE, 6.)

          7. The Abomination of Desolation. There is now no knowledge of God, of the Lord, of the Divine Trinity, etc.; not one grain of truth is left remaining; hence there is no religion, church, worship or ministry. (ABOMINATION, The four lists; T. C. R. 758.)

          8. The New Church. This Church is to be established not by miracles, but by the manifestation of the Lord in person, by the opening of the Word and of the Spiritual world "that I might there derive truth in light, immediately from the Lord." (INVIT. VII; SUMMARY, 50-51.) This has never been granted to anyone else since creation. (INVIT. 43, 44, 46.) The falsities of the Old Church must be eradicated before the truths of the New can be implanted. (ABOMIN. First list, 28-31.) Concerning miracles and their effects. (CONSUM., On miracles; INVIT. v. and 43.)


          9. On the states of the New Church, and that it is the Crown of the Churches, and win endure to eternity. (SUMMARY, 52-54.)

          10. An Invitation to the whole Christian world to enter this Church, and to worthily receive the Lord who foretold that He would come into the world for the sake of this Church and to it. (SUM. 55.) The truths of the New Church appear in light to one in illustration, but when submitted to modern orthodoxy, the light of truth becomes darkness. (CONSUM. 5.) The doctrines of the New Church agree with those of the Roman Catholic Church and of the Protestants who acknowledge the personal union in Christ, and who approach Christ, and take the two elements in the Eucharist. The Divine Providence; and the reason why the Roman Catholic Church was established, and why the Greek and afterwards the Reformed Church separated from it. (INVIT. II, IV.) Henceforth men are not to be called Evangelical, Reformed, etc., but simply Christians. (INVIT. X.)

          11. A new Ecclesiastical History, showing the change in the Christian Church after the Council of Nice, and enumerating "the books written from the beginning to the present day, by the Lord through me." On the reception of these Writings in the natural and in the spiritual world. (3 Doc. 756-7.)

     After this long, but necessary digression, let us now return to the consideration of the particular passage from which we have taken the title of this article. "If this little work he not added to the former, the Church cannot be healed . . .the doctrine of the New Church indeed affords a remedy, but only extrinsically." (INVIT. 25.)

     We have already shown that the title "Invitation to the New Church," which has been given to the notes in which this passage occurs, is entirely unwarranted, the notes themselves being nothing more than miscellaneous memoranda, entered with a view to the writing of the Appendix. It follows, then, that by "this little work" is not meant any specific "Invitation," but the whole of the "Appendix" whereof "nearly one-half" of the completed or nearly completed: manuscript is now lost. We may also note that by "the doctrine of the New Church" is, in all probability, meant the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION and not all the preceding theological works. In Swedenborg's first announcement of this book, printed in CONJUGIAL LOVE in 1768, he calls it "the Doctrine of the New Church in its fulness." This, however, by the way.


     Granting the point that "this little work" refers to the Appendix,-and to the Appendix as completed according to the author's plans,-it remains to enquire what peculiar virtue resides in that work to render it absolutely essential to the healing of the wounds of the Church. But let us here note a point that may suggest itself to the reader,-the point, namely, that since "this little work" was not "added to the former" by Swedenborg, at any rate in completed form, there would seem to be some obscurity in the statement that without it the Church cannot be healed. We would answer that, in all probability, the manuscript taken by Dr. Messiter was the completed or almost completed "little work" referred to,-i. e., the Appendix; that this work, as we firmly believe, will in time be restored to the Church; and that, in any case, the various drafts of the work that have been preserved to us give, in clear detail, the principles, the truths, the doctrines, which it was the purpose of the author to deliver to the world in the form of an "Appendix." For, surely, it is a self-evident fact that by the 'little work" Swedenborg meant, not the mere book, but the truths contained in the book. It is these truths and the reception and acknowledgment of them, that are to give the essential cure for the poison of orthodoxy and, we repeat, these truths have been written down, and have been preserved, even though the final form in which they were to have been published by Swedenborg is now, in part, lost.

     What then are these truths, so essential to the healing of the Church? A survey of the "Appendix," as reconstructed from the various drafts, gives the answer to the question. The fundamental position of the Appendix may be stated as follows:

     There have been four churches, each of which has passed through its morning, noon, evening and night.

     After the night of each church the Lord appeared, gave a new revelation of His Word, and established a New Church.

     At this day, the Christian Church has come to its night. In that Church is utter desolation and abomination. It has no knowledge of God, of the Lord, of the Holy Spirit, or of any of those doctrines which are set forth in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.


In it, not a grain of truth is left remaining. Consequently, in the Christian Church there is now no religion, no church, no worship and no ministry.

     In this night of desolation the Lord has made His Second Coming by the greatest of all miracles, namely, by the manifestation of Himself in Person, and by the introduction of Swedenborg into the spiritual world, and the Revelation, through him, of truth in light, immediately from the Lord. This revelation is now given to the New Church in the books written by the Lord through Emanuel Swedenborg, which books are the advent of the Lord.

     There can be no entrance into this church unless the eyes be opened to see the utter consummation and abomination of desolation in the former Church, and unless there be utter rejection of the falses of that Church, and an approach to the Lord in His Second Coming.

     This church, unlike all former churches, will endure to eternity. In this church is a new religion, a new worship, a new ministry; and the whole Christian world is invited to enter into this church, and is exhorted to worthily receive the Lord who foretold that He would come into the world for the sake of this church and to it.

     These then are the essential truths, without an acknowledgment whereof the doctrine of the New Church as given in TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION affords only a palliative remedy to the poison of orthodoxy,-essential truths, reception of which may be summed up as, the acknowledgment that the Lord has made His Second Coming by the revelation of Himself in the Writings of the New Church written by the Lord through Swedenborg, and which Writings are in sooth the Advent of the Lord and the accompanying acknowledgment that the Christian Church is to be wholly rejected as to religion, as to worship and as to ministry, because in it not one grain of truth is left remaining.

     Reflection, we think, will show, and the history of the New Church will confirm the showing, that without these two principles the New Church cannot be established. Even though-if that he possible-men accept the doctrine of the New Church,-yet if they fail to acknowledge these two principles, the New Church will lack a foundation, will lack barriers against the falses of the old, will lack arms against the foe, and a remedy against the poison of the enemy. For the New Church enters into its strength only when it is founded on the full acknowledgment of the Lord in His Second Coming.


     It may be suggested that these essential truths are also given in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. We answer that they map indeed be drawn from that work, especially from the chapters on Imputation, and on the Consummation of the Age, but they are not there given with the fulness, the force, the concentration, and especially the direct application, with which they are presented in the Appendix. It may indeed be said of any of the Writings that it contains the whole of the Divine Truth revealed to the New Church,-in fact, this may be said even of the letter of the Word. But what is essential to; the healing of the wounds of modern orthodoxy, is that these two great truths shall be presented in their full force and application. If Swedenborg had not written an Appendix, it may be that men would have arisen who would have seen and drawn forth these essential truths from the Writings. But the fact remains that in the Divine Providence they have been given in writing so clear as to be unmistakable. And in any case, it is these truths alone that furnish the essential, the internal cure for the poison of a false religion.

     There is also another point to be noted. We have said that two chapters of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION afford special opportunity for drawing forth the two great principles of which we speak. Of one of these chapters, that on the Consummation of the Age, Swedenborg himself declares in the introduction to the Appendix, that the subject must be continued "because hitherto no one has known what the Consummation of the Age is, why the Second Coming of the Lord takes place, and that a New Church is about to come;" and he adds "that these three knowledges are the only key for the opening of the Word." (COR. I.) Thus he emphasizes that the subject must be continued because it is the essential of the New Church.

     As regards the other chapter, that on Imputation, it will be recalled, that this chapter was not contemplated in the original draft of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, as given in BRIEF EXPOSITION, n. 16. This chapter is notable in two respects. First, that it enters so fully into an examination of the falses of the Old Church, concluding with the striking teaching that "the Faith and Imputation of the New Church can never be together with the Faith and Imputation of the former Church" (T. C. R. 647); yet these subjects were to be specially dealt with in the Appendix.


On this point we may note, that at the very commencement of this chapter Swedenborg says, "It has been shown, and in the Appendix it will be shown, that the modern faith is not Christian." (n. 627.) That is to say, the subjects to be dealt with in this chapter required a further development in the Appendix.

     The second respect in which the chapter on Imputation is notable, lies in the fact that here the subject dealt with, and the manner of treatment, closely resemble the subject and manner of BRIEF EXPOSITION, indeed the chapter contains a number of direct and indirect quotations from the latter work. Here, perhaps, we can see the reason why this chapter was not included in the original plan of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, and why it was added later. The BRIEF EXPOSITION was professedly written as an outline of the Appendix. In no. 16 of that work the author gives a plan or prospectus of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION divided into chapters grouped under three Parts; but no mention is made of a chapter on Imputation. Of these Parts, the first two were actually written out and they constitute the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, as published except that the published work includes also a chapter on Imputation. Part three was to constitute the Appendix, which was not included in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION as published. Of this Appendix we read:

     Part III will demonstrate the discordances between the dogmas of the modern church and the New Church. But in respect to these we shall here delay for a short time, and this because it is believed by the clergy and the laity that the modern church is in the very light of the Gospel, and in its truths, which cannot be weakened, overturned or attacked, not even by an angel, should one descend from heaven. The church of today sees nothing else, because it has withdrawn the understanding from faith, and yet has confirmed the dogmas by a sight beneath the understanding; and there, falsities can be confirmed until they appear like truths; and falsities there confirmed gather a fallacious light, before which the light of truths appears like thick darkness. For this reason we shall here delay for a short while, by adducing the discordances, and by illustrating them, in order that they may be seen, before the understanding not shut up by blind faith, as in the light of dawn, and afterwards of early morn, and, finally, in the WORK ITSELF in the day." (B. E. 16.)


     Here then we have the reason why the original plan of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION did not contemplate a chapter on Imputation, namely, because the subjects actually taken up in that chapter were for the most part reserved for the Appendix. It is not improbable that when the first draft of TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION was finished on June 19, 1770, it contained no chapter on Imputation and that when the second draft was being prepared for the Press, Swedenborg, seeing that the Appendix could not then be included in the published work, added the chapter on Imputation, in order to present some foretaste or forerunner of what was to be in the Appendix.

     The conclusion of our examination is, that the Appendix presents in full those essential truths without which there can be no internal cure for the wounds of the poison of orthodoxy; but that these truths are involved in the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION itself, where they are set forth in brief in the Chapters on Imputation and the Consummation of the Age; and that they are presented in fuller outline in the BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH.

     The realization of the importance of "this little work" or Appendix as shown by Swedenborg himself; and of the fact that the BRIEF EXPOSITION is this Appendix in introductory form, this realization gives us an all-sufficient reason for some remarkable statements made by Swedenborg with regard to the BRIEF EXPOSITION, and especially for the marvelous events which followed its completion.

     Writing to Dr. Beyer on Nov. 23, 1768, Swedenborg says: "Here in Amsterdam they frequently enquire of me respecting the New Church, when it will come. To which I answer, By degrees, in proportion as the doctrine of justification and imputation is extirpated, which perhaps will be brought about by this work (the BRIEF EXPOSITION). What is written in this work is sufficient to convince anyone that the above mentioned doctrine is the cause of our having, at the present day, no theology in Christendom." (2 Doc. 273-4.)


     And in another letter written on April 23, 1769, after the publication of the work, he says: "I send you only one copy, which you will please keep for yourself, and not communicate to anyone else; for it will cause a change in the whole of that theology which has prevailed in Christendom up to now; and it partly sets forth that theology which will be for the New Church." (ib. 275-6.)

     In the SKETCH OF AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY,-and the same statement occurs in a, letter to von Hijpken, dated Nov. 17, 1769-Swedenborg writes: "When the BRIEF EXPOSITION was published the angelic heaven from East to West and from South to North, appeared of a deep scarlet color, with most beautiful flowers. . . . At another time (probably when the work was finished in manuscript, 2 DOC. 280-1) it appeared flamy, most beautiful,"-so that, as told in the letter to von Hopken, "all who were present with me in the world of spirits were astonished. This was a sign of the assent and joy of the new Heaven." (ibid.)

     Finally, in the ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, he says of this some work-the forerunner of the Appendix, without which there can be no real healing,-"In the spiritual world there was inscribed on all these books ADVENTUS DOMINI. The same I also wrote, by command, on two copies in Holland."

     One of these copies has now been found, and the inscription is, THIS BOOK IS THE ADVENT OF THE LORD, WRITTEN BY COMMAND.






     Even in the midst of all this external excitement, with his fortune growing by leaps and bounds from the "nine cents" in 1855, the spiritual interests of John Pitcairn, the Newchurchman, suffered no interruptions. His diary of 1872 opens with the entry: "Jan. 2. New York. Attended New Church services in Brooklyn in the morning, Rev. J. C. Ager officiating. Attended New Church in New York this evening, Mr. Giles officiating." "Feb. 11. Phila. Took Judge Brown and Mr. Hicks to Church this evening, Broad and Brandywine. Lecture by Mr. Keyes on 'The New Jerusalem.' Very interesting." "April 21. Washington, D. C. New Church services. Rev. Jabez Fox. Met Dr. Prescott, Prof. Spencer, etc." "April 26. Pittsburgh. Dined with Mr. Childs and Mr. Ballou." And thus the diary runs on. Whenever he went on his perpetual peregrinations, he always and everywhere attended the services of the New Church.

     While attending the General Convention held in Boston, June 7-14, 1872, he roomed with his bosom friend, Mr. Childs, "Messrs. Benade, Stuart, Dr. Burnham and Mr. [Peleg W.] Chandler called at our room and took lunch with us."

     After the meeting of the Convention Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Benade spent a few weeks at Newport, R. I. From his diary we learn that on June 15th the Newport hotels "were full in consequence of the yearly meeting of the Quakers. Attended Quaker meetings this and the next day." On their way home, July a, while nearing Oil City "we discovered the Refinery to be on fire, caused by spark from passing locomotive while oil was being unloaded. Pumps worked splendidly and the immense volume of water thrown saved the works."

     On August 26, 1872, after a visit to Pittsburgh, he writes: "On the train, after passing Foxbury, I found Walter C. Childs in the front car, on his way to Oil City, to spend a couple of weeks with me."


On Sept. 1st the two adventurous friends undertook a journey to Brocton, N. Y., near Salem-on-Erie, to investigate the "celestial" (would-be New Church, but in reality spiritistic, communistic and free-love) colony, which Thomas Lake Harris had established there. Mr. Pitcairn writes: "Mr. Harris was in a trance and could not see us. Called on Mr. Gallagher and had a long talk in regard to their peculiar ideas." Not long afterwards Mr. Pitcairn repeated the visit, this time in company of Mr. Benade, and obtained an interview with the famous "seer," whom he describes as a tall, spare, handsome man.

     Among the numerous infestations of Spiritism from which the New Church has suffered, none wrought greater havoc than that of Thomas Lake Harris. Commencing his meteoric career as a Universalist preacher in New Orleans, he afterwards became known as a medium of extraordinary powers, but in 1850 claimed to have been converted to Swedenborgianism. Brilliant, eloquent, and possessing a wonderful power of persuasion, he now started out on a lecture tour and created a great sensation, especially in New York City, where he announced himself as a successor of Swedenborg, but of a more advanced type, having come to reveal the "celestial sense" of the Word and to open a celestial state in the New Church, with a restoration of "internal respiration," and communication with the angels of the celestial heaven, etc. The prospect proved alluring to such Swedenborgians as did not look upon the Writings of the New Church as constituting the Second and final Coming of the Lord.

     A great excitement began to spread throughout the New Church, groups of Harrisites forming in many of the societies. A publishing society was organized in New York, from which the writings of Harris issued in a veritable flood,-a stream of inane and insane ideas clothed in poetic and flowery language. In 1859 Harris went over to England, where he lectured to enormous audiences. Men of learning, wealth and influence attached themselves to his triumphant chariot, among them prominent members of the" New Church, such as the Wilkinson brothers and William White.


In 1861, the Harrisites almost captured the Swedenborg Society, which was saved only by a law-suit, which created great scandal. The Harrisites hired a mob of pugilists and thugs who took forcible possession of the Book Room, in Bloomsbury street, re-instating Mr. White as the agent of the Swedenborg Society. Infamous circulars were issued and presented to the judges, but the latter nevertheless decided in favor of the conservative New Church members who were ably led by the Rev. Samuel M. Warren and Dr. Jonathan Bayley.

     Returning to America in company with a number of his most deluded followers; Harris now founded the communistic colony near Salem-on-Erie, which was visited by Mr. Pitcairn in 1872. Here all had to give up their private fortunes to Harris, who ruled alone, in the style of Joseph Smith, the Mormon. Men and women of refinement and wealth, such as the English authors, Lady Oliphant and her son, Lawrence Oliphant, had to perform most menial tasks. The Oliphants alone contributed $125,000 to Harris, of which-after the inevitable explosion,-they recovered $90,000, after threats of exposure. cairn said that the members were given high-sounding theophantic titles in exchange for their money. The women seemed to be more intelligent than the men. They had hired a Japanese adventurer who professed the ability to teach them "internal respiration," which they practiced by holding their breath until their blood vessels threatened to burst. The natural marriage union was declared annulled, and "celestial" marriages were in some cases appointed by Harris, who himself set the example.


     The free-love disorders finally resulted in external and internal disrupture. A remnant of the colony fled with Harris to Santa Rosa, California, where they formed another community. Here they continued until (about) 1890, when the community was dissolved owing; to a sensational exposure in the SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE. Harris fled to Europe under an assumed name and was heard of no more.



     John Pitcairn was now, after seventeen years of railroad service, able to take a long vacation,-in fact, several long vacations,-in order to devote some time to the two favorite occupations of study and traveling. On September 5, 1872, he resigned from his position as Superintendent of the Oil Creek and Allegheny River Railroad, and spent the next four weeks with his parents on a visit to their relatives in Canada. On October 8th, we find him at New Brighton, on Staten Island, where he called on Dr. Leonhardt Tafel to make arrangements for a course of study in the Hebrew language,-surely a most unusual thing for a successful young American business man to undertake. But Mr. Pitcairn's mentors, and his own study of the Heavenly Doctrines, had awakened with him an ardent longing to be able to go to the WORD in its original tongues, and to enter into the joys and glories of that language which of all earthly tongues is nearest to the speech of Heaven, And for teacher he chose one who was not only an eminent New Church scholar, but, at the same time, perhaps, the most learned orientalist then in this country.

     The name Tafel has been well known to the New Church throughout the world for some fifty years, owing, first, to the gigantic labors of Professor Immanuel Tafel, (1796-1863), the learned Librarian of the University of Tubingen, who was the actual founder of the New Church in the German-speaking world. His younger brother, Leonhardt Tafel, (1800-1880), was a distinguished Hebrew and Arabic scholar who came to America in the year 1853 together with his large and promising young family. On their arrival in Philadelphia they were all baptized into the New Church by the Rev. W. H. Benade, and soon afterwards removed to Urbana, where Dr. Tafel taught for a few years. In 1857 he returned to Philadelphia, where he accepted a position in Mr. Benade's New Church school in Cherry street. Having been called to minister to the newly formed German New Church society in New York, he was ordained in 1871 and resided in Staten Island, where Mr. Pitcairn, in company with Dr. N. C. Burnham and Mr. Walter C. Childs, now took up a course of studies under him.


Dr. Tafel was a philologist of the first water, the master of no less than twenty-four languages, author of the well known INTERLINEAR TRANSLATIONS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES and many other learned works, besides being the translator of the entire WORD into German in the first and thus far only New Church version ever published. In all these tasks he was assisted by his two learned sons, Rudolph and Louis. During his last years he was the first occupant of the chair of Sacred and Oriental Languages in the Theological School of the Academy of the New Church. Personally he was a genial soul of the old-fashioned Swabian type, ("nicht schan, aber angenehm," he used to say), fond of his family, his stein and his pipe. He died on April 1, 1880.

     With him Mr. Pitcairn (and part of this time Dr. Burnham and Mr. Childs) now spent two months of solid study, making rapid advance in the Hebrew language, interrupted only by a flying visit to Pittsburgh on November 26, to see Mr. Benade, who lay dangerously ill in a hospital, stricken with typhoid fever; he was sick for four weeks, during which time Dr. Burnham officiated for him; and on his recovery Mr. Pitcairn took his beloved: pastor on a journey of recuperation in the South. It was at Mr. Benade's sickbed, while reading the WORD to him as he lay half-conscious, that Miss Maria Hogan first became personally acquainted with Mr. Pitcairn.

     While at New Brighten Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Childs had a somewhat exciting adventure, which Mr. Pitcairn relates as follows:

     "Mr. Childs and I were living in a large three-story boardinghouse on the principal street, together with to or 30 other boarders. We had been invited to dine one evening at the house of Mr. Adolph Tafel, and were dressing. Our student lamp ran low and we sent the maid to fill it. Everyone remembers the student lamp-an inside cylinder reversed within a receptacle. The girl, having taken the lamp down to the first floor, proceeded to fill it, while still lighted, by pouring the oil into the reservoir instead of into the cylinder. The lamp blazed up, the girl dropped it and ran.


Fortunately, we smelt the smoke and I succeeded in putting out the fire with a rug, and with blackened hands returned to continue my interrupted toilet. "Presently we smelt smoke indeed the house seemed full of it. Following it up, we traced it to the cellar, whence it was pouring out in volumes through an open door. I closed the door, sent Walter for a bucket of water, put out the fire in the pile of rubbish that had caught, evidently by Spontaneous combustion, and once more we continued dressing for dinner.

     "In a short while we heard cries of "Fire, fire!" from the window, and a great crowd had gathered and were looking up at our house. This time I was exasperated. The furniture was being hauled out, and the people were clamoring to come into our room.

     I'm going to finish dressing, I cried, 'we'll attend to this room'. Walter took out our trunks and put them in a near-by drug store. We were three-quarters of an hour late to our engagement, but the delay had been unavoidable. After supper we went back to the drug store for our trunks-the boarding house was burnt to the ground."

     During the sessions with Dr. Tafel in 1872, and in subsequent years, Mr. Pitcairn acquired a grasp of the Hebrew language worthy of any clergyman, and so retentive was his memory that to the end of his days-more than forty years afterwards-he could repeat by heart chapter after chapter from the WORD, putting many of his ministerial friends to the blush.

     (To be continued.)


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     The Bishop desires us to announce that, with the unanimous consent of the Consistory, he has appointed the Rev. William B. Caldwell a member of that body.

     Our readers will be glad to learn that Mr. Odhner is fast regaining health, and strength, in the sunny climate of Florida. He and his wife are at Gulfport, where they frequently meet Dr. Olds, formerly of Philadelphia, who will be remembered by many of our readers. Mr. Odhner has found some outlet for his mental activity, by giving several more or less informal missionary talks to the hotel guests and others. Some interest appears to have been aroused.

     The following paragraphs, for which we are indebted to our contemporary, the NEW CHURCH MESSENGER, are the more remarkable in that they are excerpts from the WALL STREET' JOURNAL,-a paper which, in the popular imagination, has no thought above stocks, bonds and values. The writer of the excerpt voices a universal truth, and one that has been proclaimed through all ages and in all civilizations; the truth, namely, that a civilization, howsoever cultured, and a morality, howsoever fair speaking, that is not held together by the bonds of religion, cannot endure.

     The question of practical, immediate and tremendous importance to Wall street, quite as much as to any other part of the world, is, Has there been a decline in the faith of a future life; and if so, to what extent is this responsible for the special phenomenon of our time-the eager pursuit of sudden wealth, the shameless luxury, the gross and corrupting extravagance, the misuse of swollen fortunes, the indifference to law, the growth of graft, the abuse of great corporate power, the social unrest, the spread of demagogy, the appeals to hitter and class hatred. . .


     The supreme need of the hour is not elastic currency or sounder banking, or better protection against panics, or bigger navies; or more equitable tariffs, but a revival of faith a return to a morality which recognizes a basis in religion and the establishment of a workable and working theory of life, that views man as something more than a mere lump of matter.

     The news of the revolution in Russia has fairly startled the whole world. As we go to press the rule of constitutional law seems to be well assured of permanent establishment in a country which but yesterday was one of the strongholds of autocracy. The reproach, uttered even by many Englishmen, that the Western democracies were allied with a despotic tyranny, has been removed; and also the fear felt by many sincere minds, that such an alliance could not be fruitful of good. The issue is now clearly joined as being a conflict between governments which derive their powers from laws enacted by the people. and governments whose recognition of this principle is more or less obscured by the doctrine of Divine Right.

     We can hardly suppose otherwise than that to the members of the New Church the momentous changes in Russia will bring the spontaneous thought, that by these changes preparation is being made in the Divine Providence for the spread of the New Church. The position of the English in the spiritual world is because "they have interior intellectual light" and this they derive "from their freedom of thinking and thence of speaking and writing" (C. J. 40), in respect to "both political and ecclesiastical matters." (S. D. 5629.) To this political and religious freedom must be ascribed the fact that the New Church has its greatest hold in countries where the English language prevails.

     It is not that such countries are superior in the matter of the life of religion. Far from this being the case, they are equally a part of the devastated Christian world, as are other countries; equally in them, as in others, is that "abomination of desolation" that has destroyed Christianity. But where there is freedom of thought and speech, and where also the law rules, there can the truth be freely proclaimed, and there alone is there full opportunity for it to be received by those who are simple in heart.


     The Russians, we read, "are not so wicked as the rest in Christendom." (S. D. 5963.) In the light of other statements, describing the evils of the Russians (S. D. 5043, 5452 seq.) we interpret this statement to mean, that while the common people are in great evils still they are not interiorly confirmed against spiritual truth. To this nation the provisional government, supported by the great middle class, including the soldiers, has now guaranteed "liberty of speech and of the press" and the "abolition of all social, religious and national restrictions." If such guarantees are fulfilled, then will that condition obtain in which alone the New Church can grow and prosper.

     From time to time the New Church papers, especially in England, print news of the exchange of pulpits between ministers of the Old Church and those of the New; and the announcement is invariably followed by the note that the New Church congregation were delighted with the sermon of the Old Church minister. Quite recently, a New Church minister, writing in the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, records as "a gratifying sign" that he has been invited to preach "in the large Baptist church" and afterwards "in a more leading church still, the Congregational." He continues: "We have got a long way when two popular and leading Free Churches extend such a warm welcome for a New Church minister to occupy the pulpit." It is not difficult to see that in cases such as this the New Church has "got a long way,"-but in what direction to the New Church, or to the Old?

     We are aware of the arguments advanced by those who favor this sort of "getting along," that thereby a larger audience is secured for the presentation of the doctrine of the New Church. But under the circumstances a minister would hardly feel encouraged to announce that, because of the utter desolation of the Old Church, the Lord has made His Second Coming for the establishment of a New Church; and that He invites all men to this church. Yet, without the acceptance of this fact and truth, there is not even the beginning of a New Church.


And if something of the truths of the New Church should be preached and acknowledged without this essential, then arises the danger foreseen in the Writings where they teach that "The Faith of the New Church can never be together with the Faith of the former Church, and if they are together, such a conflict and collision results as to destroy everything of the Church with the man." (B. E. 102, T. C. R. 647)

     "When the disciples were sent into the world they were to preach the gospel to every creature. They were not to preach a modified paganism, but to stand for the gospel against all the world; they were to be distinctive. Neither Paganism nor Judaism could save the world only the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul had the courage of his convictions, and was in fear of neither principalities, nor powers. This attitude has been necessary at all great epochs in the world's history. Now the New Church is associated with one of the greatest world-ordering periods in human history-the Lord's Second Advent and the consequent change in thought and life resulting therefrom. . . . This Church-a voice crying in the wilderness-has a work to do which no other people or Church either can do or is willing to do. And it has been doing this spiritual pioneer work for more than a century. It can make no compromise, it is bound to be, and must be, distinctive in its aims. Distinctive without bigotry; but distinctive. . . .

     "It is then the business of the New Church to proclaim the gospel of the New Dispensation clearly, boldly and with perfect faith in the issue. If this Dispensation is what we claim it to be, then, however fallible and imperfect the instruments, we are sure that the work we have to do is the Lord's work."

     We reprint the above paragraph from a leading editorial in the NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, now in the charge of the Rev. Isaiah Tansley. The note here sounded is one of essential importance to the genuine growth of the New Church. As we have indicated in a preceding paragraph we hear, not infrequently, of the mingling of the Old Church with the New. And it would seem that, under such conditions no greater message could be given to the church than the need of distinctiveness. The Church must be distinctive, "distinctive without bigotry,-but distinctive."

     Bigotry is, essentially, the standing up for one's own, faith or opinion,-whether it be true or false,-merely because it is one's own.


And such bigotry, inspired by the love of self and not by the love of the truth, is always accompanied by intolerance of the views of others, and frequently by the open ascription of evil motives to those who oppose, and even by persecution of them. It is not bigotry, to stand firmly for the truth because it is revealed from the Lord's mouth; or to defend and uphold it when attacked. One sign that this defense is entered into from the love of truth and not from the love of self, is that the defender is satisfied to present the truth, and to meet the attacks of falsity, with what force and reasoning and zeal may be at his command, and is willing, as he is obliged, to leave the decision to the individual.

     The truth of the New Church is the Lord's truth, and the power to convince belongs to Him alone. But the truth must be proclaimed by men; and it must he proclaimed as distinctively of the New Church because now revealed from the Lord out of heaven. This clearly involves the open proclaiming of the New Church as established because the Former Church is dead, not only as to spiritual truth, but also as to all spiritual good; for if truth alone were lost, the church could be saved.

     We would have wished that this, the meaning of the distinctive proclaiming of the New Church, had been brought forward more clearly by our English contemporary. It is inevitably involved in the editorial from which me have quoted. But how many will see it there?

     Apropos of the above, we quote from a letter by the Rev. H. C. Small, the new pastor of the Toronto Society, printed in the NEW CHURCH MESSENGER. Mr. Small is opposing the assertion of another correspondent that "no intelligent Newchurchman now believes that our small body is in any way identical with the New Christianity," and his answer breathes of the spirit of just zeal for the preservation of the distinctive New Church:

     "Is this the estimate (writes Mr. Small) we are to put upon that body of people who have been emancipated from the old falsehoods and evils which destroyed the Apostolic Church, and who walk now in the life and light of the New Jerusalem?


I may not be an intelligent Newchurchman, but I reject this appraisement of the Church in total as fatal to its whole teaching and spirit. The tabernacle of God is now with men. Who are those men with whom these sacred things repose?-some potential, would-be Newchurchmen, scattered amid the ranks of groping old churchmen, Trinitarians, Unitarians, Christian Scientists, New Thoughtists, Theosophists, Spiritists; the hidden remnant awaiting deliverance? Let us be glad that there are eventual recruits for the New Heaven and the New Church in the midst of all these, but their relation to the Church in their present state must be obscure and their function external. The real Church never has and never can rest its life upon potential believers, but upon open, clear, active discipleship. . . . What Jesus said of His little group of followers can with equal force and reason be said of the New Church-'Ye are the light of the world.' 'Ye are the salt of the earth.' They formed the vital earthly basis and support for the new light and power which was to save the world.

     "Yet the writer would have the Church believe that instead of being the very vitals of the New Christianity, it is merely 'a society for the promotion of the New Christianity.' The New Church in this view is not a church, it stands in no real sense as 'The bride, the Lamb's wife.' . . . It is only a book concern, a vender of doctrines, an advance courier of something of which it constitutes no essential or vital part. God help us when this notion of the function of our Church body becomes general!

     "Is it true, too, as he says, that 'in the deeper things, in love, in devotion. in self sacrifice, we are no better than our fellows (Old Thought, New Thought, Christian Science, Spiritism) if we are as good?' Why then are we in the New Church? Why is the writer in the New Church? Why should we wish to get any one else into the New Church? Why should any one wish to come into the New Church, if that Church has done nothing for us? And the writer may be assured that if he succeeds in impressing that view upon outsiders and upon the young people of our congregations no one will come into the New Church, and they would only be showing good common sense in staying out: of that which can not yield more of the deeper things of love, devotion, and self-sacrifice than they already possess.


And as these deeper things are just the things which every true man is seeking, why should not we go back to the land of our bondage?

     "If ever there were death in any pot, there is death in this. Without pride or pretense we can openly declare that the spiritual state of the New Church is vastly superior to anything which is possible outside of it. The Lord came into the world to save the world, and these truths of the New Church are his revelation of Himself, His Divine tabernacle in the hearts and lives of men who receive them. In them and by them is true love, true devotion, true self-abnegation, Without them consciously received and appropriated no genuine spiritual things can exist, though all manner of semblances, graven images, likenesses of things in heaven may exist; but we are forbidden to worship at these man-made shrines. The falsities and ignorance in the religions outside the New Church, even with the simple good, and the well disposed truth seeker, prevent the cultivation of genuine love and self-sacrifice, for good without genuine truth is natural and not spiritual."

SOCIAL SONG BOOK              1917

     A SONG BOOK FOR SOCIAL GATHERINGS IN THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. Bryn Athyn, Pa. Academy Book Room. 1916. pp. 130. Price, $1.00.

     The Academy Book Room has just published a SOCIAL SONG BOOK: an attractive volume of 130 pp., bound in green cloth. It is intended for use at Social gatherings in the General Church. The book was edited by Rev. William B. Caldwell; Bishop N. D. Pendleton has also assisted in determining what verses were appropriate, and Mrs. Royden H. Smith has supervised the musical arrangement.

     The book contains over one hundred songs, with music. Nearly a quarter of these are by Mr. Walter C. Childs, songwriter-in-chief to the General Church and Academy, whose contributions touch on every phase of New Church life.


An equal number is the work of sons and daughters of the Academy. In about a score of cases the music is the work of Newchurchmen.

     The book contains songs of the Church, and of the Academy; many school songs, and a few selections from the great number of class and fraternity songs that have been written; birthday, memorial, and festival songs of all kinds; and also a number of the best patriotic, national and home songs.

     The immediate use of the book is, of course, to supply appropriate music for social occasions, and to spread throughout the societies of the Church the knowledge of the best of its songs. There is to be added the use involved in preserving many good and stirring seas that might otherwise be forgotten, when those who sing them shall pass on. If this volume should add to these services that of stimulating the poets and musicians throughout the Church to produce some new songs,-even though this compel a new edition within a few years,-its contribution to the life of the Church will be a contribution, not only of present value, but also of future promise.

JOHN PITCAIRN              1917


     At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, held at Bryn Athyn, February 10, 1917, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

     WHEREAS: On Saturday, July 22, 1916, our brother, Mr. John Pitcairn, for many years the President of the General Church of the New Jerusalem and Chairman of its Executive Committee, was, by the merciful Providence of the Lord, called to the spiritual world; therefore be it

     RESOLVED: That this Executive Committee and the entire General Church of the New Jerusalem have, in the death of Mr. John Pitcairn, sustained a well nigh irreparable loss.

     RESOLVED: That by his departure this Executive Committee is bereft of one who, for sixteen years, has been its honored and trusted Chairman and its wisest counselor.


     RESOLVED: That, individually, we deeply feel the loss of a friend whose spiritual qualities of mind and heart, sincerity, justice, executive ability and unvarying and refined courtesy as a gentleman were such as to win our enduring admiration and deep affection.

     RESOLVED: That our General Church has cause to mourn for one who, despite the pressure of unusually extensive worldly responsibilities, was conspicuous for faithful, prompt and willing attendance at the various meetings of the Church, whether of devotional, doctrinal, business or social character; whose presence was ever felt as a strength, and who gave himself to the Church as willingly even as he gave material support.

     RESOLVED: That the Executive Committee and the entire General Church have reason to be profoundly grateful to the Lord that our departed brother, the generous benefactor of our Church, was so long spared to us, to guide by his counsel and to inspire by his example.

     RESOLVED: That also we are deeply grateful for the consolation brought by those Divine Revelations, the study and application of which so characterized the earthly life of our departed brother, feeling assured that he is now supremely happy in continuing the work that was his life's love, and which we may confidently believe will, in ways hereafter to be known to us, benefit the Church even more than his bodily presence could accomplish.

     RESOLVED: That our most heartfelt sympathy is extended to Mr. Pitcairn's family, to whom our Secretary is hereby requested to transmit an engrossed copy of these resolutions.




     In your June issue there appeared a communication from Mr. Arthur B. Wells asserting that "it would seem that Swedenborg was permitted to come to an erroneous conclusion in regard to the instantaneous creation of animals from effluvia and to incorporate it in his Writings." Such a statement, unchallenged, would discredit the truth of Divine Revelation and I would ask your permission to examine the ground upon which it is based.

     There are statements in the Writings to the effect that, given suitable disorderly conditions, there is an influx from hell which produces certain forms of life by, what may be termed, spontaneous generation.

     This is Divine Revelation, and being Divine Revelation it is in accordance with facts. Maggots do appear in, peas and other podded plants under conditions which render external transmission impossible. Flies do appear without the existence of adequate prior forms and lice and other parasites abound what connection with pre-existing ancestry is impossible. The difficulty is not in linking the facts with Divine Revelation, but in endeavoring to subordinate the latter to the theories of modern science. The latter ignores the existence of the spiritual world and would place the origin of life in a fortuitous combination of responsive atoms, although they are careful to distinguish between this primeval spontaneous generation and any possible subsequent exercise of the same power.

     They assume that this power once exercised, is exhausted, and that all subsequent creation must be by derivation from this undated beginning. They confirm this theory by various experiments, all of which involve the use of sterilized liquids or chemically clean surfaces exposed under artificial conditions, and then-having destroyed all possible ultimates for influx from the spiritual world-they triumphantly declare that there is no such thing as influx.


Yet the facts do not support their theory.

     In the DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM certain forms of life are given as originating directly by influx from hell, and, if we examine those instances we shall find that modern science in endeavoring to prove their continuity with preceding forms is faced with gaps it is unable to bridge. In general, its theory is that there are four stages of insect life:

     1. Egg.
     2. Grut, caterpillar or similar form.
     3. Larva.
     4. Image or perfect insect.

     And of these four stages it is only in no. 2 that growth takes place. If now we apply this analysis to the maggots in peas, we can only trace the existence of the second form, but of the third and fourth form which should precede the egg there is no evidence. What knowledge have we of the image or perfect insect of which the maggot is a subsequent stage? It must be contemporaneous with the flower or with the pod, for if the egg, the intermediate form, was deposited the previous year, it would infect the whole plant and not some arbitrarily chosen pea in a particular pod.

     With flies a similar difficulty is encountered. We know of stages 4-1 and 2 which are consecutive in that order, but of the third stage there is no evidence. The fly, the perfect insect, does not grow, and therefore for every swarm of flies there must he, according to modern science, at least an equivalent bulk of larvae,-but is there!

     So with lice and other parasites. We know of them in one form and under limited conditions, but there is no evidence of continuity of generations. Why then should we accept the unproved assertions of materialistic sciences which fail to account for the facts, when we have in Divine Revelation a full and sufficient reason for them?

     I would also like to point out to Mr. Wells how unfortunate he has been in his ultimation concerning "ivory from the camel." His argument runs: because an error-a self-evident slip of the pen-in the unpublished manuscript of Swedenborg (the A. E.) is corrected in the published work (the A. R.), thereupon the latter is to be viewed with suspicion.


I think, however, this must be a slip on the part of Mr. Wells, for he has not hitherto shown himself one of the votaries of that interior (!) thought which delights in detaching fragments from the unfinished, unpublished manuscripts and using them as levers to destroy our confidence in the truths of that Divine Revelation which is the Second Advent of the Lord. F. HODSON ROSE.




     Sunday, May 14th, was a very busy day-four services: morning prayers at eight o'clock, a full service at eleven, a shorter service at half-past two, and a lecture or talk at a quarter to seven.

     I gave no sermon or address at morning prayers, but took part in the service by offering up the prayers. About twenty were present.

     At the eleven o'clock service twelve were blessed. Nyaredi conducted the service, Mofokeng assisted and acted as interpreter, and Matoka read the lessons. The lessons were from Isaiah 9 and Matthew 13:1-23. The sermon was on the Parable of the Sower. After the sermon I explained the reasons for celebrating the Nineteenth day of June, The attendance was about 150.

     Mofokeng, Nyaredi, and Matoka also assisted me in the afternoon service. The sermon was on the New Church, the text, Rev. 21:1, 2. The attendance at this service was carefully counted, at my request, and was 180 women and children, 40 men, total 220. Both services were held out of doors.

     The large attendance at these two services was probably due principally to the command of Chief Leshoboro that all the people of Qopo and the neighboring villages should attend. Some people came from afar-taking two hours and a half to walk here, a few, I believe, from a walking distance four hours away.


Chief Leshoboro's son, who lives here, together with his wife, the sub-chief, one of Leshoboro's councillors, and a Dutchman (probably part native), were present at both services. I had two conversations with Chief Leshoboro's son, (I have neglected to get his name), who seems a sensible man of twenty-two, and who professes interest in the New Church. Following a native custom, I suppose, he remained seated throughout the whole of both services, with perhaps one or two exceptions.

     In the evening, the talk was given in my one-room house. The house is about 20x15 feet, and has only one door and no windows. My bed is a most uncomfortable mattress on the floor. The house was packed with natives sitting on the floor, the overflow sitting about the door outside. Mofokeng claims one hundred were present, but Matoka contends there were only sixty. I counted forty in the house, but could not see all, as the only light was from a candle beside me. At any rate, the house was so crowded that the air soon became almost unbearable.

     First there was singing. Then I talked on four subjects:

     1. Why people were created.

     2. That all who die in infancy and childhood become angels; also about their life after death.

     3. Why different races were created, and their condition in heaven.

     4. What is meant by loving the Lord and the neighbor.

     Nyaredi and Mofokeng also spoke; Nyaredi, calling the people to repentance, and Mofokeng, emphasizing certain things I had said. Then followed more singing, a prayer; the' Benediction, and finally, most fervent singing; after which the people slowly dispersed. I got outside as soon as possible, and while standing there told a few natives that people lived also on the moon, and on the other earths, several of which I pointed out, that the stars were suns and have earths moving about them, and that all the people on the earths worship the same God we do, and, if they live well, go to heaven when they die. Of course, they were astonished.

     Later, Mphatse arrived from Baroana with the horses which are to carry me there tomorrow morning.


He saluted me, but soon asked permission to retire to a fire, as he was very cold. I readily granted them all permission to go, and have since brought this letter up to date.

          Baroana, P. O. Thaba Bosiu, May 16th.
     Yesterday, Monday morning we had prayers at Qopo, as usual, and after a hearty breakfast of boiled chicken, beans, rice, potatoes, bread, milk, and tea, set out at ten o'clock for Baroana.

     I should like to say here that Matoka, who was cook as well as valet at Qopo, looked after me very well and worked very hard. Yesterday morning he arose at three o'clock in order to prepare breakfast, as he had to make the bread, kill, draw, and cook the chicken, and do various other things. However, he was prompt in attendance at morning prayers, as he was at all other services and classes. Another thing I wish to tell is that apparently the Basutos do not weary of services, prayers, etc. must, every meal, make two prayers-one before eating, another after eating. At their regular services they have long prayers, among them prayers for Peace, the King, the Royal Family, the Bishop and Ministers of the Church, the People. Of course, I cannot understand a word of their prayers, and it is rather uncomfortable to be kneeling long on a hard floor, or else on the ground, shifting from one sharp stone to another, even though kneeling on a pillow at times.

     The trail from Qope to Baroana was very rough and long. The few roads in Basutoland are used chiefly by ox wagons or by carts, but seldom by the horsemen. If one wants to go anywhere he goes by the most direct course he knows, and no fences stop him, because, as far as I know, there are no fences in Basutoland. At one place we had to dismount and lead our horses down a long, precipitous, extremely rocky trail, man and horse sometimes jumping down a step of two feet or more on to a narrow and uncertain mass of loose stones. However, we reached the bottom safely. Then we must have crossed a dozen ravines and gorges, forded, a shallow river, and, after ascending (mounted) a precipitous kopje, covered with loose round and sharp stones, crossing a long plateau and two shallow ravines, we finally rode into Baroana at 2:15 a. m.


     Chief William Mohalanyane Moshoeshoe received me cordially and gave me one of his houses to sleep in; in fact, the same one that I had last year. At 8:30 a, m. we had prayers, and I preached a short sermon on the text: "He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me: and he that loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, and I will love him, and will manifest Myself to him," John 14:21. About thirty were present, Mofokeng, Mphatse, the Chief, and three other men being the only men present. No children were present, except a few infants carried on the backs of their mothers.

     At 11:30 a. m. we had a regular service. There were present 120 women and children, and 39 men, total 159. The service was held out of doors and the sun was very hot. The service lasted an hour and three-quarters. At this service I baptized two persons and blessed six. Mphatse conducted the service and read the lessons; Mofokeng acted as my interpreter and also addressed the people about the recognition of the New Church natives in Basutoland by the Bishop of the General Church, and about the work at Baroana.

     This afternoon I talked to the Chief and others about various topics, but none of them connected with the New Church. The Chief informed me yesterday he wanted to have a long talk with me about the New Church, but since then he has kept putting off the talk with one excuse and another. I fear he will not make time for it. Mofokeng is eager that we should have the talk, as he and the New Church natives here want a site for the Church, which might be given more readily and generously after he understands more about the New Church.

          Durban, May 26th, 1916.
     Well, Chief Mohalanyane spoke about the site for the New Church at Baroana, at breakfast on Wednesday, May 17th. He made a long speech about how much he liked the New Church, and stated that he desired to give it a site, and to build a small church on it. Further, he said that, when it was ready, he wanted to invite the Paramount Chief and all the big Chiefs of Basutoland, and me, to be present at the presentation. I thanked him, and said I was glad to hear of his love for the New Church.


Also that those who believed in the doctrines of the New Church must do all in their power to further the establishment of the New Church in Basutoland. What further talk we had I have forgotten, but it was not of any importance or interest.

     At ten minutes to nine, Wednesday morning, May 17th, we left Baroana for Qhuqhu and arrived there at a quarter to twelve the same morning. On the way to Qhuqhu we stopped a few minutes at Thaba Klupa and met some of the New Church natives living there.

     At Qhuqhu I stayed in Mphara's house. Azael Mphara Sefoli is headman of the village and one of Mofokeng's earliest and staunchest supporters. He and his wife were the first New Church couple that I met in Basutoland.

     Wednesday afternoon I went over the site given to the New Church by the former Paramount Chief, Letsie. Mphara has commenced building on the site a house, exactly after the pattern of the native houses, which is to be kept always ready for the exclusive use of the white New Church Minister. He had hoped to have it ready for me on this visit, but the ground was too dry for building operations. He expects to have it complete in July and the New Church Conference in Basutoland will furnish it with a bed, table, chairs, etc.

     Wednesday evening, at prayers, I preached on the text: "He giveth His beloved in sleep," Psalm 127:2, dwelling particularly on the point that prayers before sleep are of value because they prepare a man to receive fully in sleep what the Lord then gives. About twenty were present. The service was held in the little church, the first building in Basutoland erected for New Church worship.

     At prayers on Thursday morning I preached on Matthew 13:31, 32 the Parable of the Mustard Seed, and among other things said they must not be discouraged if the New Church is with them a very small thing, that it is so chiefly because the Word of the Lord is as yet a very small thing with them; but that the Word will become in them like a mighty tree and the New Church also will spread throughout their land, if they keep the commandments and diligently study the Word. About fifteen were present.


     At 11 o'clock on Thursday morning we had a full service, held on the site given to the New Church. The service lasted an hour and three-quarters. Seventy-six men, women, and children were present. I baptized four adults and five children, and blessed two adults. The lessons were Psalm 45 and Revelation 21; and the text of the sermon was Revelation 21:1, 2, the subject, "The New Church." Mofokeng conducted the service and interpreted, as usual, but I cannot think of the name of the man who read the lessons,-I neglected to write it down at the time. He conducts the prayers there-at Qhuqhu-for there is no minister stationed there. It was an extremely hot day, and as there was no shade of any kind, and I had no hat or umbrella, I was almost overcome by the heat.

     At evening prayers I preached on Matthew 3:2. There were only about twenty present.

     I held no classes at Qhuqhu, as Mofokeng was very busy looking after the cooking and other things. As there was no man or woman there who knew how to cook for a white man, Mofokeng had to do the work. I might remark that my bed there was a mattress on the floor, and my covers Basuto blankets loaned by the sub-chief of the district. I met the sub-chief several times, but could not discover whether he had any interest in the New Church, though he professed to have. He is an old man, chiefly interested, it seems to me, in smoking.

     As yet the New Church is few in numbers, and lacking in proper instruction and leadership in Qhuqhu, but it probably will grow rapidly there, and in the many surrounding villages, when an active, intelligent worker is placed there. I suppose Mofokeng has not placed any one there, as he frequently goes there; but I did not ask him about this.

     We left Qhuqhu for Liphiring at 7:50 a. m. Friday, May 19th, and arrived at Liphiring at 1 p. m. the same day. I rode a stallion the whole way, a beast with a mouth of iron, and apparently untiring for he was as restive and fresh after five hours' hard riding as he had been when we started, although I was quite exhausted.

     Liphiring is the village where Mofokeng is pastor, and he certainly has done splendid work there.


He is a born organizer, and at Liphiring at least is loyally, and in one sense generously, supported by the people. He had arranged many things before he left Liphiring to meet me, and what he had planned was fully carried out. All the school children met me at the foot of the hill on which Liphiring stands, and sang the British National Anthem first in Sesuto, then in English, and also a Hymn specially composed and written to New Church ministers. In reply I made a short speech, then proceeded to the village. On top of the hill about twenty of the adults were assembled, and they also sang the above named songs. After the singing I made another speech, then dismounted and shook hands all around. Then I was led to a newly built house, oblong and fairly large, which was given over to my use. It belongs to a New Church couple and is about fifty feet from the Church building. In the house was a double iron bedstead with a fairly comfortable mattress, and here for the first time in Basutoland I slept between sheets. The blankets and shawls were loaned by the different members. A large table stood at one end of the room. This house had two windows, and like the others was built of mud, and thatched with grass.

     We arrived at Liphiring just before a storm broke the only storm I have seen in Basutoland. A strong wind had come up while we were riding, and about half an hour after we arrived the whole sky was overcast with black clouds, the wind had greatly increased in velocity, and the weather had turned very cold. I thought the roof would be blown from my house, but only one window blew in, and the whole place was covered with dust.

     Last year there were about thirty members of the New Church in Liphiring, now there are one hundred and two. They have doubled the size of the Church building, and intend to make it larger still in July.

     About sixty were present at evening prayers. I preached on the text: "This is my commandment, That ye love one another as I have loved you. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you." (John 15:12, 13, 14.) Mofokeng conducted the service. The responses and singing were very good.


Mofokeng uses the order of service of the General Church Liturgy. Last year I gave him my copy of the Liturgy.

     The Rev. Bethuel Isibele Serutla, Mosuang the elder and Mosuang the younger (father and son, both acting as ministers of the New Church), Lipale, Monyake, (note the difference in spelling between Molyake and Monyeke), a Roman Catholic native priest who has become interested in the New Church and who walked for twelve hours to be present in Liphiring while I was there, and several others, were guests at my table and assisted in one way or another at the services. It was no light task serving with food all these natives, and, they all had splendid appetites.

     On Saturday afternoon all the children assembled outside the little church building and sang for me. There were more than fifty and about the same number of adults. The children sang very well and showed the training they have received. After the singing I made a speech in which I took the opportunity to commend Mofokeng's good work, and to congratulate the Liphiring Church on having so earnest and energetic a pastor. Monyake interpreted for me on this occasion. Mofokeng also made a speech.

     Saturday evening I preached on the text: "Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God." (John 3:3.) It was bitterly cold, so the attendance was small, probably about fifty. After the service all the natives went to their own firesides and I kept busy trying to remain warm. I was offered a fire, but declined it, as I do not like all the smoke that goes with it.

     The weather continued very cold on Sunday morning, yet we had morning prayers, at which I preached on the Second Commandment. I chose this text because most of the native men use the Lord's name lightly, and I felt sure they did not know what they mere doing. There were about sixty present.

     On account of the cold and the wind, it was necessary to put off the regular service until 11:45, in order to give the sun a chance to come out and warm the ground, for the service was to be held out-of-doors.


About nine o'clock natives began arriving from other villages, but owing to the cold and wind not as many came as were expected. In fact, I learned afterwards from the Seventh-day Adventists' minister, Mr. E. C. Silsbee, that he and his wife had fully expected to come to hear me preach, but the unseasonably cold weather prevented them from doing so. However, 365 were present, which was not a bad congregation. The service lasted two hours. The lessons were Isaiah 9, Matt. 13:1-23, and the sermon, at Mofokeng's request, The Parable of the Sower. Mofokeng conducted the service and interpreted for me; Monyake read the first lesson, Serutla the second lesson, and Mosuang the elder conducted the singing. These four wore their surplices. At this service I baptized two persons, blessed sixteen.

     I wish that I had the pen to describe all the details of the conduct and dress of the members of the congregation during this service. Not that there was any irreverence, on the contrary, they behaved most reverently; but there were scores of little things most unusual to our congregations. Also, almost every contingency had been provided for r there were two young men who seated the congregation, counted them, and kept them in order; there were men who gave pennies and threepences to women and children of the congregation who had no offering; there were the singers grouped for more effective singing; and so on. But I must tell about the offering, and this applies to all the services at which I was present. Remember the natives had undertaken to pay my expenses, the money for Which was to be collected at the services by voluntary offerings. Well, after the hymn which follows the sermon, Mofokeng would say a few words and then start up a hymn with, apparently, an endless number of verses. Then he and the other ministers would pull out their pocketbooks and each taking thence a coin would place it in the saucer which was on the altar. All the people would be singing most fervently and one by one would come forward to give his offering. I do not mean that one would follow another regularly, but that one at a time would come. After half a dozen had come forward there usually would be an interval of a few minutes, filled only by singing. Then others would come. Frequently Mofokeng would have to make change for them.


After a while of this, Mofokeng would count the money and would then announce how much the offering was short of the amount required at that service. Again singing, and short of the amount required at that service. Again singing, and the coming forward of a few with their offering; and so on until the required amount was obtained. The service ended at 1:45 p. m.

     Sunday afternoon, at 3:30, I administered the Sacrament of the Holy Supper in the church building to forty-six communicants, Mofokeng alone assisted me, reading the lessons, Psalm 23 and John 6:47-65, and interpreting for me. The General Church Liturgy was followed throughout this service.

     In the evening I preached in the church building to about one hundred on the subject of the New Church.

     After the Communion Service the children again sang for me, about two hundred and fifty natives gathering outside the door of my house. Of course, there were more speeches.

     Well, as you may imagine, I was very tired that night, and so dismissed all the natives early, especially because I was to start for Qhuqhu at eight o'clock the next morning.

     Mofokeng and I got started about nine in the morning, after much speech making and shaking of hands. We had intended to stop at Qhuqhu for the night, but arriving there at 2 p. m. I decided to press on to Maseru. Mofokeng did not like this, but I insisted, as I was eager to get back to Durban, and there was no business to keep me at Qhuqhu. Mphara was persuaded to accompany us, and after a quick lunch we set out again. We rode hard and reached Maseru at 6 p. m. I was completely tired out, but glad to get back to civilization again. The next morning I took the 7 o'clock train for Durban where I arrived safely on Wednesday night.
     Very sincerely yours,


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR. On January 14 I conducted services at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Bellinger, at WINDSOR, Ont. Ten persons were present. On the following evening a doctrinal class was held at the same place.               

     January 17 was spent in DETROIT, where, at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Cook, instruction was given during the afternoon to the children of two families. In the evening a doctrinal class was held, at which eight persons were present. This class was regarded by those present as the institution of General Church work in Detroit.

     The next point visited was CINCINNATI. Doctrinal classes were held in the evenings of January 19 and to; a children's service in the afternoon of January 20, and services, at which ten persons were present, on Sunday morning. There were several new attendants at our gatherings, who will probably be with us regularly.

     At ERIE, Pa., there was a young people's class on February 16. In the afternoon of the next day a children's service was held at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Edro Cranch. Several children of the neighborhood were invited, so that there was an attendance of ten. On Sunday, February 18, services were conducted in the morning and a devotional class in the evening. Dr. A. Girard Cranch and family are about to take up their residence in Erie again, after an absence of several years.

     During the second week of March I visited PENETANG and RANDOLPH, Ontario, two places five miles apart, up on Georgian Bay, where live the Evens families. Friday, March gl was spent with Mr. and Mrs. William Evens in Penetang. Mr. Evens is an authorized lecturer of the General Church. Of late, illness has interfered with his activities, except in the hospital at Buffalo, where he spent several weeks and presented the doctrines to some of his fellow-patients. He looks forward to renewing his work, especially as colporteur, during the coming summer. Saturday was spent with the two sons of Mr. and Mrs. Evens, John and Archibald, and their families, who live on farms at Randolph. In the evening we had doctrinal class, at which the two men and their wives were present. On Sunday morning the two families and I. a total of ten persons, traveled in the big farm-sleigh to Penetang. The snows still lay deep in that north country. In the afternoon services were held, at which fourteen persons, children included, were present; of these, six partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening, after the families from Randolph had left. I conducted class, at which seven persons were present, of whom four were strangers. The earnest love of the heavenly doctrines in this Circle always makes a visit to it a delightful occasion. F. E. WAELCHLI.

     BRYN ATHYN, PA. Children's Services have now been resumed, and are held every Sunday afternoon. The Rev. George De Charms has conducted the services, and is unfolding to the children in a series of simple talks the story of the Apocalypse. The attendance numbers about seventy children, and there are also many adults who enjoy the sphere of the children's worship, and find profit in the instruction they receive.


     The Sunday evening class for the young men of the Society is now meeting regularly at those homes that can accommodate so large a meeting, and the assistant pastor is taking up with this class the subject of the Letter of the Word and its relation to the internal sense. So far these meetings have been devoted to the consideration of the history of the Word as it exists at this day. Mr. De Charms conducts the class according to what might be called a Socratic method, and the numerous questions asked and answered stimulate the interest of all, and make possible the constant introduction and consideration of matters of practical application to the duties and experiences of daily life.

     The Friday supper has been the subject of discussion at the Ladies' Meeting and the difficulties connected with it have caused some suggestions to be made that it be made into a bi-weekly or monthly, instead of weekly gathering. Doctrinal class and congregational singing classes follow the suppers, the latter under the direction of Miss Creda Glenn, who is now in charge of the work of the choir. Recently the choir received a visit from Mr. H. Green, of New York and Philadelphia, who gave some instruction in choir work, and complimented the members of the choir on the ability of their leader and on their own personal intelligence.

     The work on the new church building is progressing, though the real "spring drive" will be reserved until the weather is better. In the meantime considerable study is being devoted to the tower, which is being modeled and remodeled, and is causing some anxiety to those responsible for its good looks. Reproductions of the proposed furniture are now standing in the chancel, which is partially emptied of scaffolding and these are under consideration, particularly in regard to their situation in the chancel, and their proportion to the structure of the building.

     DENVER, COL. Three events have, given our society much pleasure and enjoyment since our last news note;-the supper in celebration of Swedenborg's birthday, the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. George W. Trier, and the children's Washington Birthday party, at Mrs. Howland's. The supper honoring Swedenborg's birthday was held at the chapel on Sunday evening, January 28. Twenty persons sat at the large table, and ten children at the new table recently made for them. Mr. Lindrooth was toastmaster. Response to the toast to "Emanuel Swedenborg" was made by Rev. J. S: David, who made special reference to the timeliness of the Revelation given through him. Mr. Elis Bergstrom spoke to "The Church as Doctrine" emphasizing the wonderful amount of work done by Swedenborg. Mr. O. A. Bergstrom spoke to "The Church as Life," bringing out especially the Rules of Life. Mr. G. W. Taylor spoke to "The Church as Use," and brought out some interesting points regarding the evidences of Swedenborg's regeneration. In responding to "The Church in Us," the pastor called: attention to the parallelism between Moses and Swedenborg. They were both Instruments of the Lord's Divine Revelation. One was Lawgiver for the external Church, the other Lawgiver for the internal Church; both entered into their work with understanding. Referring to the battle with the Amalekites, a parallellism was shown in the work of Father Benade and John Pitcairn one a priest and one a secular in establishing the Church on the only secure foundation of the Writings, upholding the hands of Swedenborg, like Aaron and Hur, when the Church was attacked. The necessity of constant co-operation of priesthood and laity in this same work was emphasized.


     A gathering of members and a few other friends at the 'home of Mr. and Mrs. Tyler on the occasion of their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary, February 14, was very much enjoyed. Conversation interspersed with music filled the early evening. Then the guests were seated about a very attractive supper table. Appropriate toasts were announced by Mr. Lindrooth and felicitously responded to by the several gentlemen called upon to speak. As a token of the regard in which the honored pair are held they were presented by the society with a silver bread tray.

     The children had a very happy time in celebrating Washington's birthday. Most of them had something suitable to recite. They sang from the Hymnal, they listened to songs and the Story of Red Riding Hood on the phonograph, and they played games. The supper was, perhaps, the great climax, so beautifully appropriate were its patriotic setting and garnishing. But another delightful treat was in store, and when Mr. Howland showed the pictures of Mt. Vernon and Washington city, which he and Mrs. Howland gathered when they visited those places a few years ago every one felt that this was indeed a memorable commemoration of the birthday of the Father of our Country. L. M. T. D.


     The death of Mr. E. Burgess Warren, last January, removes from the General Convention one of its most active and capable lay workers.

     The Philadelphia Society has also lost another of its active workers in Mrs. McGeorge, who passed away on January 19th.

     Mrs. W. F. Tuerk passed into the spiritual world on January 30th, at Kitchener, Ont., aged nearly 83 years. Mrs. Tuerk was the wife of one of the active ministerial workers in the "Academy movement" some thirty years ago. To his labors is largely due the existence of the New Church in Berlin (Kitchener), where he entered upon his first New Church charge in 1858.

     Colonel Rudolph Williams died in Chicago on February 27th, aged 72 years. Colonel Williams, although one of the oldest members of the Chicago Society, had "of late years ceased to co-operate with the organized Church because not in harmony with its policy in certain particulars." He is known to readers of the LIFE mainly because of his opposition to the "Academy doctrines."

     The death of the Rev. W C. Winslow, at the age of 89 years, occurred at Santa Cruz, Cal., last January. A cultured university man, Mr. Winslow first became interested in the Church in 1867, when, during a visit to America, he came across the work on HEAVEN AND HELL. Soon afterwards) he joined the Chicago Society, then under Dr. Hibbard. In 1878 he returned to his native Denmark, where he acted as "leader" of the New Church congregation in Copenhagen. Five years later he was ordained into the ministry by a lay committee of his society. This irregular action, especially in view of the dependance of his society on the English Conference, excited considerable comment, and Mr. Winslow felt called upon to issue a pamphlet in defense of his ordination. About this time also his "liberal" views brought him into conflict with Mr. Manor, of Stockholm. Offing to infirmities Mr. Winslow in 1897 resigned in favor of the Rev. S. K. Bronniche, the present pastor of the Copenhagen Society, who had been his assistant since 1903. Mr. Winslow is the Danish translator of several of the Writings. Many New Church periodicals were started by him, but he was never able to long continue them.


     UNITED STATES. The NEW YORK Society has, on a number of occasions, been addressed by the poet, Edwin Markham, who is a professed Newchurchman. In January, Mr. Markham addressed the congregation at the close of the services. After a sketch of his own life, and his study of the Bible; Mr. Markham then told how he had been led to see "that a revelation of truth had been made through "Swedenborg," whom he characterized as "the eye of the eighteenth century," and whose writings he has been studying for forty years. Mr. Markham also addressed members of the Church in BOSTON, Brookline and Cambridge, Mass. He has an original and forceful style. We quote the following brief passage from his Boston address, as reported in the MESSENGER:

     "I saw that Swedenborg would have been accepted except for one expression in the Book of Revelation, misunderstood, concerning adding to or taking away from that book. If this is applied to the Bible in such a way that there will nevermore be given new light on the path of life, it would be an entire negation of all the spirit of the Bible. So I was ready for new light. I saw it was not right to reject Swedenborg without a hearing. Every man has a right to be heard. How is a man to determine the truth or falsity of anything? Is it not by looking into it and tasting it! How can one tell when one finds it except as we test bread by nibbling and tasting it? If it is sweet, eat it; if sour, reject it. If it appeals to the highest plane of our nature it testifies to its truth. No other test satisfies the hopes, the dreams, and the aspirations of the heart. There are two natures within us, a lower and a higher, if it satisfies the higher we may know that it is from above."

     At the close of his address the poet is invariably asked to read some of his poems, especially "The Man with the Hoe." To the Boston New Church Club he told the story of how the latter poem was written. "The first stanza was written, then was laid aside for fifteen years, then on successive mornings, as by inspiration, the stanzas, one at a time came to him."

     On Sunday, February 25th, Mr. Markham gave, in WASHINGTON, D. C., the opening address of a series of six Sunday evening lectures of a missionary character. These lectures are given under the auspices of the New Church Lecture Bureau. The Bureau has secured the Masonic Temple, a beautiful and commodious hall with a seating capacity of over a thousand, and situated in the center of the city. At the opening lecture Mr. Markham spoke for over an hour to an audience of about one thousand, and the time after the lecture was so taken up with the answering of questions, that it finally became necessary to close the meeting in order to allow for the next engagement of the auditorium. Subsequent lectures at the same place will be given by prominent New Church ministers.

     The Rev. F. Sidney Mayer has become the pastor of the Calvert Street (BALTIMORE) Society. His former society in FALL RIVER, Mass., will be served by visiting ministers and students.

     The Society in CLEVELAND, O. (the Church of the Holy City), chose Swedenborg's Birthday as the date on which they joined a general movement; active in the city, to hold a "Fathers' and Sons'" banquet There were five speakers including the toastmaster, and Pastor Lathbury. "The addresses were selected to convey to strangers who might be present an idea of the studies and contributions of Swedenborg to the realm of Mechanics. Philosophy and the Science of Medicine." The meeting was so successful that it was voted to hold such gatherings every three months.

     The Annual Address of the President of the CHICAGO Society presents a gloomy picture of the state of the society, which, however, as Dr. Cobb points out, must be faced if there is to be improvement.


After noting the reasons that led to the subdivision of the Society into parishes, and the marked growth in membership and activity that was the immediate consequence, the Doctor points out that not only has this first growth not been maintained, but that "the membership of each Parish, except Humboldt Park, has decreased in the fast decade" and "there has been no very hopeful sign of any active renewal of interest."

     The URBANA University Schools find some difficulty in securing "suitable candidates within the New Church for the teaching positions that fall vacant from time to time." As a consequence Urbana has frequently found it necessary to employ teachers from the Old Church. To avoid this necessity in the future, the University asks that all who are interested in the growth of the Church, and, having the necessary qualifications, desire to become teachers in Urbana, communicate with the headmaster.

     The Rev. Russel Eaten has left Urbana for Brockton, Mass., where he will make his home.

     Swedenborg's Birthday was celebrated by the Church of the Divine Humanity (ST. LOUIS) "by a league banquet at the Y. W. C. A. building with fifty in attendance. The program was largely impromptu, and the talks were of exceptional interest. Biographical and historical features were generally ignored this year, by way of variation, and emphasis laid upon doctrine applied to life."

     After describing a "regular Minnesota blizzard" that visited Minneapolis on Sunday, January 21st, and which was so severe as to completely tie up the city on the following day, the pastor of the Society there, writes, "Many of our people live at a distance of many miles from our church, and some of them are young no more. No wonder if we expected to find the church almost empty, when at last we reached it after having waded several blocks through the snow, I carrying my little Pearl on my back until I fell in a huge snowdrift. And yet not one of our regular church-goers was missing. Not even child was absent from our Sunday School. The church choir was there in full, not one lacking. The youngest in the audience was six years old, the oldest 75. One old man who had to walk six blocks to reach the car and who comes every Sunday with his bouquet of flowers as an offering to the Lord, said, 'If I can go to my office in such weather as this, why should I not come to my church?' Another man had walked nine blocks to his nearest car. One family who came in their automobile had brought shovel with them to remove possible obstacles in the way."

     Mr. Wm. R. Reece, who is in ministerial charge of the work in PORTLAND, Ore., has been giving a series of talks on subjects based on DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. The talks were given at the Public Library, and the attendance was so unexpectedly large,-being over 100, mostly strangers,-that Mr. Reece was obliged to use a larger hall in the Library. Mr. Reece's advent seems to have brought new life to this society. On February 9th a "fellowship feast" was held by the members at the Y. M. C. A., where a special dining room had been secured More than the entire membership was present, and the keynote of the affair was "Fellowship," or the "feast of charity" spoken of in T. C. R. 227, and A. C. 7996 Mr. Reece was toastmaster," and responses were made by a large proportion of the members. "The general sentiment of the 'supper of charity' seemed to be that the Portland Society had begun a new lease of life.... Members, non-members and strangers who were present have not ceased to express pleasure over the event." These feasts are to be held monthly.

     Dr. French was elected pastor of the O'Farrel Street (SAN FRANCISCO) Society, last January, and now by, a change in the by-laws, he is chairman ex-officio of the Church Committee.


     ENGLAND. The BIRMINGHAM, Society of which the Rev. E. J. Shreck is the pastor, made a very special effort to have an appropriate celebration of "New Church day." This information is contained in the annual report of the Society, where we are further informed that the celebration extended over two days, Sunday and Monday, June 18-19. "A special feature of this celebration was the fact that the 19th of June coincided with the date on which in the year 1791, the first Church in the world was opened for the worship of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the One God of Heaven and earth-in Newhall Street, Birmingham." Invitations were sent out to 253 families of the Birmingham Society, of which 130 were accepted, invitations were also sent to neighboring societies, and to individual receivers, and other interested persons. On the Sunday the celebration consisted of special services, which were well attended. On the following Monday, when there were 225 present, Mr. Schreck gave a lecture on the history of the Church from its commencement; the lecture was illustrated by lantern slides. "A large number of objects relating to the early history of the Church, including baptismal fonts, books and documents, were exhibited and added further interest to the proceedings."

     The annual meeting of the Society, at which the above report was read, was attended by 17 persons,-a surprising representation from a Society of 253 families

     INDIA. The NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, of February 10, gives an interesting account of the work of the Rev. S. J. Goldsack in BOMBAY during October and November. Mr. Goldsack, who has been sent to India for one year, under the auspices of the English Conference, arrived in Bombay on October 11. On the 14th a public meeting to welcome him was held in the Prarthana Samaj Hall. (The issue of NEW CHURCH WEEKLY, containing an account of this meeting has not been received in Bryn Athyn, and appears to have been lost in transit.) A series of meetings was then given in the same Hall. The first, on November 4th, presided over by Sir G. V. Chandavarker, a retired judge, was attended by about 130 men. According to custom, there were no women present, and there were no questions or discussion. The following lectures, on November 8th and 11th were attended by only 50, and 44 the decreased attendance being ascribed to insufficient advertising.

     At this time also was issued a Gujerati translation of the NEW JERUSALEM and its HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, by Professor Bhatt, in an edition of 1,000 copies.

     Another event of importance was the arrival at Bombay of the Rev. Natha Singh, who is to be Mr. Goldsack's assistant, and who, it is hoped, will take full charge after Mr. Goldsack's departure. Mr. Singh is a well educated native Indian of high reputation and of "a good, old Sirdar family." He was, until recently, an Old Church missionary, brit is now "definitely connected with the New Church." When he first left his native faith he suffered considerable persecution, losing all his property and even being kidnaped by his relatives in the hope of reclaiming him. "He is a fluent speaker, accustomed to making his way with young men, and has good experience of human nature-especially Indian."

     From November 23d to December 14th, a series of four lectures was planned to be delivered in by M. C. A. Hall. At the first three, which were on Death, Heaven and Hell, and the Origin of Evil, the attendance was 25, 60,and 35. Mr. Singh had been very active in distributing handbills amongst the colleges, etc., and to his sickness just before the last lecture, is ascribed the decreased attendance.


The fourth lecture was to have been on "The Lord Jesus Christ our Divine Savior," but it had to be canceled because forbidden by the chairman of the Y. M, C. A. This action was taken, presumably, on religious grounds, for the Y. M. C. A. has more than once opposed the New Church because it rejects the doctrine of faith alone.

     The Swedenborg Society of India, under whose charge all the work is being carried on, has secured new premises in "a shop rented in the Sandhurst Road, a good road in the native quarter." The book room and Depot there established, was formally opened on December 2d, When Mr. Singh was officially welcomed as Secretary and agent of the Society. In this depot New Church books will be sold and loaned, and the current English and other New Church periodicals will be kept on hand.

NOTICE              1917


     For Sale.-Bryn Athyn residence; commodious, electric lighting, and all modern conveniences; acre of land beautifully planted. Low figure. Address, C. K. Hicks, 164 Montague St., Brooklyn, N. Y.




VOL. XXXVII MAY, 1917 No. 5
     In view of the fact that the General Church has, since its inception, taken long strides in the direction of ritualistic development, it may be of interest at this time to review some of the doctrinal aspects of; the subject. It is not unusual to associate elaborate forms of worship with the idolatry and dead formalism which characterize a vastate church. Over-anxiety about rituals, and the tendency to attach extreme importance to the literal observance of external worship, have even been considered the inevitable sign of spiritual decadence. It has indeed been characteristic Of certain ecclesiastical bodies which have lost all knowledge of spiritual things, substituting the worship of forms for the adoration of the living God. It has, especially in the Catholic branch of the First Christian Church, descended to depths of idolatry not far removed from the fetichism and superstition of the degenerate descendants of the Ancient Church among pagan nations. But if for this reason we should fall into the error of some Protestants, stripping our worship of all external beauty and grandeur, in the vain belief that the formal things of religion are but superfluous adjuncts to a spiritual faith, then do we run counter to the universal teaching of the Writings.

     In A. C. 1083 we have the statement that "where there is a church, there must needs be what is internal and what is external; far man, who is the church, is internal and external." And again, "A church in order to exist must be internal and external, for there are those who are in the internal of the Church, and those who are in its external. The former are few, but the latter are very numerous." (A. C. 6587.)


And in the same number the external of the Church is said to "consist in the devout performance of rituals, and in doing works of charity, according to the precepts of the Church." It is evident from these, and from many other passages in the Heavenly Doctrine, that there is a great use and value in the true development of the external forms of worship. To determine in some measure how eminent this use is, we need only turn to the Doctrine of Influx, by which a flood of light is shed upon the exact function in the process of individual regeneration, which is performed by the ritual of a true and spiritual religion.

     By Influx we mean the operation of the spiritual world upon the natural world, or of spirits and angels upon men still living on the earth. It is well known in the Church, that all the affections or loves of men, with all the thoughts to which these give rise, are inspired from the other world. They are derived from our association with spirits and angels. The way in which this inspiration, this association takes place, is revealed in the Doctrine of Influx. This Influx, which is wholly unconscious to us, and which is entirely under the control and direction of the Lord alone, (those in the other world having no more knowledge of it than we do ourselves, except from reason and revelation), is nevertheless constantly taking place, and without it we could enjoy no thoughts or affections whatever. And it is qualified and determined in a two-fold manner,-from without, and from within.

     That which qualifies and determines it from without, is the world of nature, as it is impressed with its myriad forms upon the senses of the human body and brain. Angels and spirits are in the perception of what is spiritual, celestial and Divine. They perceive and enjoy the things that pertain to heaven, and especially to the presence of the Lord in Heaven. They are altogether removed from the things of time and space, having no ideas of external or material objects. Their loves are spiritual and celestial. Their thoughts thence derived are entirely spiritual and celestial. And hence they cannot even conceive of those material objects which are the things on which men on earth daily and hourly center their attention.


Thus we are told that when the idea of a mountain is presented, they do not perceive a mountain, but some celestial love. When the idea of a city is presented, they do not think of a city, but of some doctrine of the Church. Nevertheless, although this is the case, yet because these external objects correspond to such spiritual and celestial objects as appear in their world, therefore, these objects themselves form, as it were, the ground and basis of all their thought. When they perceive some celestial love, that love is represented outside of them in the form of a mountain. When they meditate upon some doctrine of the Church, a city appears before them, which, as to all its details, represents and pictures forth the doctrine that is the object of their thought. Thus, whenever angels and spirits form any idea of spiritual and celestial things, these things are pictured before them in the external forms of material objects. This is the reason why all the forms of the natural world, together with many composite forms that do not appear on earth, are seen and sensed in heaven,-not that the angels care for these forms themselves, but because, by means; of them, they are able to see and sense the truths and goods in which is their life and their delight. This is also the reason why the natural world is called in the Writings, "a theater representative of the Kingdom of Heaven." Now, because the angels and spirits cannot form any idea of what is spiritual and celestial, without that idea being pictured in: some ultimate form such as appears on the earth, therefore, we are taught in S. D. 3610, that "the ideas of spirits are terminated in material things, the ultimates of order." And again in no. 4211 that "they have their ideas founded on material and corporeal things, and whatever ideas are not material, (in the outset), they still make so by terminating them in material things, and taking thence the vehicles of their thought."

     That this is the case, we can confirm from an analysis of our own thoughts. Every conception that we can form of what is spiritual celestial, for Divine, must be embodied in some natural form in order to become tangible. We can have no true or rational idea of the Infinite God, except as we base our conception of Him on the thought of the Lord Jesus Christ as a Divine Man. So it is with all the abstract terms of our language.


All the terms that we use to express the things of the spiritual world, were originally derived from roots denoting same concrete action or thing, and carry with them the connotation of that primal idea. Our word spirit, for instance, by which we mean the soul of man that lives after death, is derived from a root meaning to breathe, or to blow. The word courage comes from a root that means heart. The word idea, which is used to mean a picture formed in the mind by a process of thought or reasoning, has descended from a Greek word signifying to see. And so it is with all our abstract words. That our conception of spiritual or abstract things is very closely associated with external and material objects, is well illustrated by the imagery of poetic language, by the great power of the parables of the Word, and by the myths and fables of the ancients.

     It is, as we conceive it, in a similar manner that the ideas of spirits and angels rest upon material objects. And this is the reason why it is by means of these material objects received through the senses of living men, that there can be established an influx into human minds from the other world. When men sense the forms of nature, impressing the image of those forms upon the delicate substances of the brain, they elevate them, as it were, into the spiritual world, or rather to the borderland of that world. And when they have been so elevated, angels and spirits can be affected by them. They can be excited to the activity of their life, to the perception of the spiritual and celestial things to which the outward forms correspond. And when so excited, when roused to the activity of their love, then the external forms impressed on the brain become, as it were, a body in which that love can live as a seal, impelling man with its desire, inspiring him with an impulse which he senses as a love or affection. Thus do the spirits and angels become unconsciously present with man, to influence his life, to impart to him a conatus and endeavor toward the perception of those things that belong to the life of the spirit. It is this presence, and this inspiration, brought about by means of material objects received through the senses and elevated to the brain, that is called influx. Every love, every desire, every impulse we feel, from the first moment of birth, must come to us in this way from the other world. Love is life.


It does not belong to this world, but to the world of living things, and must come to us out of that world through the ministrations of angels and spirits, with whom we are associated by means of the objects impressed upon our senses from the world of nature. Thus is it literally true, according to the Lord's words in John that "A man can receive nothing except it be given him from heaven." (John 3:27.)

     Influx, then, depends in the last analysis upon material forms which have been impressed upon the memory, and it is continually qualified and determined by our surroundings and environments. All the objects of the universe, in fact, are created to no other end than that they may perform this office of conjoining, in the human mind, the two worlds,-that by means of them there may be influx from heaven, whereby men may be inspired with heavenly loves and affections. In order that this influx may be the more complete, in order that its power might be multiplied seven-fold, a literal Word has been given. The literal sense of the Word is made up of ideas drawn from the sensual experiences of men. All the material objects familiar to men, historic places, times and persons, together with the customs and habits, that go to make up the universals of human life on earth are there portrayed. And in this way the outer world of nature, and the world of human experience, with all the ultimate forms associated with them, are gathered together in the literal Scriptures. Here, in the books of Revelation, they have been arranged and organized under the directing hand of the Lord, until in their sequence they portray the very order of heaven itself. Because of this arrangement, there is an internal sense throughout, that is perceptible to the inhabitants of the other world,-an internal sense which, as seen by the angels, treats solely of the Lord and of His Heavenly Kingdom. For those in Heaven, by the external forms of the Word, which serve as the foundation on which their ideas are terminated, the Lord and the whole of heaven is described and portrayed. And because these things are portrayed therein, when the forms of the Word are received into the minds of men, the angels of Heaven and the Divine of the Lord can inflow through them, becoming present to inspire in men heavenly affections and thoughts. This is the reason why the Word in its letter is called in the Writings the "sole medium of consociation with the angels, and of conjunction with the Lord;" and it is also the reason why the Word in the Letter has been so marvelously preserved through all the ages of human darkness and depravity.


And again it is the reason why it is said in the Heavenly Doctrine that "without a Church on earth the human race would perish," for a Church is described as being "Where the Word is, and where by it the Lord is known."

     It is this quality of the literal forms of the Word, whereby they are able to bring about most powerfully the presence and influx of the Lord and of Heaven, that gives to the rituals of the Church their value and use. For the rites and forms of worship with us are entirely drawn from the Word. They are wholly correspondential and representative of spiritual and celestial things. They are none other than the forms of the Word presented objectively before the senses. The building in which the service is held, with all its architectural adornments, the furnishings of the Chancel, the garments of the priests, and the forms and ceremonies of the service itself,-everything, to be truly ritualistic, must be correspondential and representative; that is, must contain within it that which will bring the presence and influx of good spirits and angels. Everything should thus contain within it a living soul of heavenly love and affection, by which the Lord and the angels can inflow to inspire the worshiper with heavenly delights, to rouse in him the desire for the attainment of spiritual and celestial blessings, and thus to strengthen him and give him power to pursue the way of regeneration.

     That to surround the natural body in this way with the correspondential forms of the Word; to withdraw from the senses all that is of purely secular and worldly interest, and to pour into them from every quarter forms representative of the spiritual and celestial things of Heaven and the Church, is a powerful means of deriving from the other world the influx and inspiration necessary to regeneration, is evident from the plain teaching of the Writings. For we are there told that in this way the vessels of the mind are disposed into a certain order conducive to influx from heaven. We quote from S. D. 3635: "It was given me to perceive that the objects of sight, and also of hearing, produce no other effect than variously to dispose the interior vessels which are of the lower thought; as according to the quality of these vessels such is the reception of the ideas of spirits which flow in, for the vessels receive influx according to their forms, and therefore, according as they are disposed by objects, even when it so happens that the ideas are turned into what is contrary."


If, then, influx is according to the duality of the vessels of the lower thought; if that quality depends upon the manner in which those vessels are disposed by objects perceived by the senses; then it follows that where the objects so perceived are representative of heavenly and angelic things, the vessels of the lower thought will be disposed into such an order that angels can inflow, to become present with man. These vessels will then become the "material things, the ultimates of order," in which the ideas of good spirits and angels are terminated. Heaven, with all its love and all its wisdom, will, as it were, rest upon them, and will descend into them, that the angels by means of them may influence and inspire men to see and perceive spiritual truth,-to love and desire the deeds of spiritual charity. It is only when, by suitable rituals of worship, the vessels of the lower thought are thus disposed into the order of heaven, that the Lord can most powerfully descend, to reveal to man's understanding and comprehension His Divine attributes, and the Laws of His Order, that man may abide therein, and so receive from Him the blessing of spiritual food and drink, and come into conjunction with Him, and into consociation with the angels of heaven.

     The use and necessity of thus gathering together for the purpose of worshiping the Lord by external forms and rituals is further emphasized by the teaching given in A. C. 1085, as follows:-"Man for the most part is such that he does not know what the internal man is, and what belongs to the internal man; and, therefore, unless there were external worship, he would know nothing whatever of what is holy." To be aware of what is holy is to perceive influx from the Lord out of heaven, to feel the sphere of heaven; to feel the sphere of the Lord's presence, as that sphere is felt at the time of worship.


It is the presence of representative forms, the presence of orderly rituals, that causes this influx to be so perceived. And when we consider that the sense of what is holy, with the humility and fear of the Lord that accompany it, is the very gateway to a spiritual faith, the one means by which the heart can be opened to perceive and sense the Divine Love,-the one means by which the mind can be illustrated by the light of heaven,-then are we impressed with the exalted use and function of truly representative forms in worship. Then do we see, that by introducing the worshipper into the presence of the Lord, and by associating him with the inhabitants of his Heavenly Kingdom, a well developed ritual can perform an office of surpassing excellence, and that these things are an essential part of a truly living religion.

     This influx from the other world, however, made possible by the proper use of rituals, cannot become effective except as it is received and appropriated to life by the individual member of the Church. Important and necessary as they are, external forms of worship are but the ground out of which a living religion may grow. They are only the atmosphere in which spiritual loves and thoughts may live and breathe. In themselves they are not religion, nor are they efficacious for salvation. The function is subordinate and secondary to the worship of the Lord in spiritual love and faith. For let it be carefully noted at this point, that inspiration and illustration in spiritual things cannot arise from ritualistic forms alone. The representative forms used in our worship are after all but material objects, "of the earth earthy," and in themselves devoid of life. Considered apart from love and faith, there is nothing holy about them. That which makes them holy, is the reception of the Lord through, and by means of them. Even when received by the senses, and elevated to the brain, and thus to the borderland of the spiritual world, they do not constitute heaven with man, but only the foundation upon which a temple of internal worship may be erected. They are only the ground in which the truths and goods of heaven may be implanted, and by which a spiritual love and faith may be nourished and fed. In themselves they are not worthy of veneration. In fact, in the degree in which the forms themselves are venerated, the mind is closed to the reception of heaven, and genuine influx is made impossible.


Their function is very clearly defined in the Writings in the words already quoted: "The objects of sight, and also of hearing, produce no other effect than variously to dispose the vessels which are of the lower thought." This disposition opens the way for influx. It makes influx possible. It does not make it inevitable. It may take place when the mind is so disposed, and it may not. By its means a cup is formed in the mind capable of holding the wine of spiritual truth, and a plate capable of holding the bread of heavenly love. Whether these elements of spiritual food and drink are actually received into the vessels so prepared; whether we drink the wine, and eat the bread of heavenly life thus offered us, depends on how far that mind is not only disposed from without, but also and at the same time from within.

     As regards the necessity of genuine faith and love in order that the external things of worship may become effective we need only quote from no. 621 of the T. C. R., where the subject is plainly stated in reference to the Holy Supper: "After this, the assembly of the English, inflamed with a desire to be wise, said to the angels, 'They say so many different things about the Holy Supper, tell us what the truth is about it.' The angels replied, 'the truth is that the man who looks to the Lord and repents, is by that holy ordinance conjoined with the Lord and introduced into Heaven.' Those of the assembly said, 'That is a mystery.' The angels replied, 'It is a mystery, and yet such as may be understood. The bread and wine do not effect this; from these there is nothing holy; but material bread, and spiritual bread and also material wine and spiritual wine correspond to each other mutually, spiritual bread being the holy of love, and spiritual wine the holy of faith, both from the Lord, and both being the Lord. From this comes the conjunction of the Lord with man, not with the bread and wine, but with the love and faith of the man who has repented; and conjunction with the Lord is also introduction into heaven.'"

     Because, as is frequently said in the Writings, the Holy Supper involves all things of worship, this which is said of the Sacrament, applies with equal force to all the forms and rituals of the Church. Applying it to the subject before us, we see that "the man who looks to the Lord and repents," is, by the exercise of rituals, conjoined with the Lord and introduced into heaven.


And this, not because there is anything holy about the external forms themselves, but because they correspond to what is spiritual and celestial, thus to what is from, the Lord, and to what is in heaven with the angels there. It is as man enters through the gateway of ritual observance into the things of Heaven, into the love and faith of heaven, that as to his spirit he is actually introduced into heaven, and brought into consociation with the angels. Angels cannot be with man in what is purely natural, since these things do not form part of their life. And if man is to be with them, then must he enter into their life, and allow their life to enter into his own mind and heart. Rituals are merely the gateway through which this entrance can be made.

     Note especially the words, "with the love and faith of the man who has repented." Repentance involves that a man is in the inmost endeavor and end to live a good life, and is thus in the effort to shun evils as sins, which is the same as saying that his ruling love is heavenly. It is this ruling love that primarily orders and disposes the mind from within. Ritualistic forms received from without through the senses, can indeed bring the mind as it were into the shape of heaven, but it is only so far as there is also present a ruling love of what is good that it can at the same time be brought into the form of heaven. Only thus can the lay and texture of its fibers from the very inmosts be disposed into a heavenly order. Thus it is only when the worshiper is in good, when he is in the sincere desire to keep the commandments of the Word; and to live the life of religion, that he can be interiorly prepared to receive influx from the Lord out of heaven. It is evident, therefore, that external ritualistic forms can never be the cause of a spiritual faith, but only a means of promoting such faith. For if there is not also present a ruling affection of what is good, disposing the mind from within, heaven can indeed be present with the things, or the forms themselves, because they are correspondential and representative, but this presence cannot move or influence the person, and no true influx can take place.


     Where, then, true ritualistic forms, impressed upon the senses from without, are conjoined with a genuine love of good that disposes the mind from within, there heaven can inflow, and can become present with man, so that through the forms of worship, he can be inspired with heavenly loves, with spiritual affections, with the desires and ambitions that lead to a life of genuine charity. But even this is not sufficient to bring about a full and perfect influx. It can bring the presence of heaven, but for the actual consociation with the angels, which alone call lead to true wisdom, still another factor is necessary, namely, a knowledge and understanding of spiritual things received by study and instruction. It is a universal law, that angels cannot impart to man by influx any new truth. They cannot impart to him any new thought or perception. They can do no more than move or affect him with the loves or affections which are of their life. These loves man can receive only according to the ideas which he has already learned by instruction- and experience. The truth of the Church cannot be received from the other world by influx, but must be derived by means of instruction, study, and reflection, especially on the things of the Word, or of Divine Revelation. Angels, although they themselves are in the knowledge and understanding of the wonderful things involved in the correspondences and representatives of the worshiper, cannot impart this knowledge and understanding to him directly. They can merely inflow into the ideas he already possesses, bending these ideas, and molding them into more perfect accord with the truth. They cannot insinuate anything contrary. However sincere, therefore, a worshiper may be in the desire to learn the truth, he cannot actually come into it, except as he receives through study and instruction, thoughts and ideas which may be bent towards the truth by the angels who are present with him. In confirmation of this teaching, we turn again to the Heavenly Doctrine, where we read in no. 1616 of the Arcana Coelestia: "In no way can one as a man, be conjoined with Jehovah or the Lord, except by means of knowledge, for by means of knowledges a man becomes a man." And again in no. 3419: "The Ancients had representatives and significatives of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's Kingdom, thus of the Lord Himself; and they who understood such representatives were called the wise; and they were wise, for thereby they were able to speak with the angels and spirits."


And finally in no. 4464: "It is necessary to state here why man ought to be in internal things. Every one who reflects is able to know that it is by means of internal things that man has communion with heaven, for the whole heaven is in internal things, and unless man is in heaven in respect to his thoughts and affections, that is, in respect to the things of his understanding and his will, he cannot go to heaven after death, because he has no communication with it. This communication is acquired by man during his bodily life, by means of truths that belong to his understanding, and goods that belong to his will, and unless he acquires it then, he cannot do so afterwards, because after death his mind cannot be opened towards interior things unless it has been opened during the life of the body."

     From the foregoing analysis of the Divine Revelation as it bears upon the subject of ritual, it becomes evident whit is the true place, function, and use of the formalities of worship in a spiritual religion. They are important and necessary to the life of the Church. Without them the organized body of the Church cannot be maintained in existence. But in order that they may be effective, three universal principles must be observed in their use: 1. All forms of ritual must be drawn from the Word, and thus must be representative and correspondential of spiritual and heavenly things. 2. They must be observed in a state of spiritual repentance, or from a genuine love of good, by which the mind may be disposed from within into the order of heaven. 3. We must enter into the knowledge and understanding of the spiritual and celestial things to which they correspond, by study and instruction in the Heavenly Doctrine. When these three elements are combined, and in the degree in which they are combined, will our New Church worship effect a genuine conjunction with the Lord, and consociation with the angels. Given these three essentials, we cannot give too much attention to our ritual; we cannot develop it too highly; we cannot enter into it with too great enthusiasm. For there will then be no danger of falling into dead formalism. Every form will be of living service to us, in bringing us into the sphere of Heaven, in elevating our minds to the contemplation of spiritual and celestial things, in rousing our love and affection for the treasures of eternal life.


And the more we enter into the love of heavenly things, the more we acquire a knowledge of the correspondences and representatives of the Word, the more will we desire to express our affections and thoughts in appropriate forms of worship; the more will a beautiful, harmonious, representative ritual delight us, and the greater will be its power to upbuild the New Jerusalem among us.

SERVICE       R. B. CALDWELL       1917

     Willingness to be of service is probably the greatest virtue to which one can attain. He who has reached that point, in the way of regeneration, where he finds himself somewhat actuated by a sincere desire to be useful to his neighbor, from a spirit of love to the neighbor, may well regard himself as happy. For in no state can one be so confidently assured of happiness, as in that state where he finds himself willing to serve others from good will to others.

     In the ordinary ways of this world, we have abundant apparent good will service-service actuated by the hope of reward, springing from the love of gain; but this, we all know, does not contain within itself the elements of happiness. It is similar in appearance, and is carried out like genuine good will. It puts on the appearance of loving good will, but is hatred cloaked, for when the reward is delayed, it shows itself in irritation, and when reward may no longer be hoped for, it shows itself in open hatred. This form of good will is likely to deceive: we should beware of it, and pray to be delivered from it. We may think we possess the genuine article when we are actually in the state of cloaked hatred. The Newchurchman should not be deceived. His doctrine is clear, and doctrine should be his guide.

     The Doctrines teach that those who do good merely from the end of reward, cannot possibly know that in doing good without reward, the happiness is so great that it is heavenly happiness (A. C. 6391).


     The Doctrines also teach that heavenly delight is not a delight in worldly greatness and pre-eminence, but a delight from humiliation and the affection of serving. "Whosoever is least among you all, he shall be great." And in the other life this comes true. He that is least, becomes great; for if he is governed by the affection of being serviceable to others, with no end of reward, his power is such that myriads of infernal spirits can be held in check, or driven away, by a mere look (A. C. 3417).

     Heaven consists in serving others for the sake of their happiness. (H. H. 408.) We all appear to desire to reach heaven at some time, but when heaven is placed before us in this plain way, and we learn the truth that it consists in serving others for the sake of their happiness, are we, in all sincerity and perfect candor, so very fond of heaven? Heavenly happiness consists of loving service to others for the sake of their happiness, and we well might ask ourselves if our love-for heaven is of this practical character! Are we actuated in our lives by a love of serving others for the sake of their happiness, or are we disappointed when others do not serve us?

     Swedenborg placed after his name, upon the title page of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION; the words: "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ." In one of the Memorable Relations we are told that the prince of a heavenly Society said of himself, "I am the servant of my Society, because I am of service to it by doing uses." (C. L. 266.)

     In the world, and by common usage, the word "servant" has come to convey an idea of menial servitude, but from the use made of the word by Swedenborg, and by the prince of a heavenly Society, we can see that the ward does not necessarily mean servitude. The prince was a servant of his society because he was in the affection of giving it faithful and loving service, with no end of reward: and this is the reason why he was in heaven, the prince of a society there, for "Heaven consists in serving others for the sake of their happiness." (H. H. 408.)

     Let us then draw this lesson from our contemplation of the subject of Service.


Whatever our lot may be, or whatever duty may have fallen to us, let us bear in mind that whether it be to cook a meal, to scrub a floor, to attend to the wants and necessities incident to the comfort and happiness of those dependent upon us, or whether it be to clerk in an office, to build a house, to drive a grocer's wagon, or by pen and ink to place on paper the most excellent revelation ever given to the world,-whatever it be, let us learn this lesson,-that the Kingdom of Heaven is a Kingdom of Uses, and that in this vast system of universal and perpetual uses there is no such thing as menial work.


     Viewed in the light of the Heavenly Doctrines, this is indeed a sublime subject for contemplation, and wonderful are the things revealed to us concerning it.

     Our thought on the subject is at once directed to the teaching in the Writings, concerning the New Christian Heaven. This Heaven was formed and ordinated by the Lord, after the Last Judgment had been executed in the world of spirits, in the year 1757. Thereby the hells which occupied the world of spirits for many ages, were subjugated and cast down. This made it possible for the New Angelic Heaven to be founded by the Lord. Into this Heaven were gathered all of those who, during the ages of the First Christian Church, could be led into the acknowledgment of the Lord Jesus Christ as the one and only God. And the formation of the New Angelic Heaven was necessary in order that the New Church, signified by the New Jerusalem, might be instituted on the earth. Thus was effected the fulfillment of the prophecy: "Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth." (Isa. 65:17.)

     The New Angelic Heaven of Christians is, specifically, the Church in the spiritual world, with which the New Church on the earth is consociated and conjoined. And the New Church on the earth, the New Jerusalem, as to the least things of it, comes down from the Lord through this Heaven.


The apostle truly says: "Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights." (Jas. 1:17.)

     The New Church is still small and weak as to numbers, and in externals appears insignificant. But the Church in the spiritual world, the New angelic Heaven,-from which the Church on earth is derived, and from which are its internals, is so immense as to numbers as to be inconceivable to the mind of man or angel. To think only of the fact that, as we are told, all the infants and children of Christians, who have passed into the other life since the formation of the New Heaven, are members of societies in that Heaven, and this irrespective of whether the parents were really or only nominally Christians.

     We are taught that as the New Heaven increases, the New Church will be more largely established in this world. And according to the Doctrines, we can have faith to believe that the Church of the New Jerusalem will be permanently built up, even in the midst of the world, which is so completely vastated as to be Christian in name only. For as there will gradually be an increase in numbers of those who will come under the benign influence of the New Heaven,-of those who will look to the Lord, the only Divine, the Omnipotent, as the only source of all strength, in the heavens and on the earth,-it must surely come to pass, that the Lord's New Church, the Crown of all Churches, will henceforth continue to grow stronger, and will become an ever greater means for the advancement of the genuine principles of the Christian Religion in the world. The only thing needful to this end is that the men of the Church in every age be faithful to the Lord, our Father in heaven.

     The Lord is the Supreme Ruler of the nations of the earth. The Divine Providence of the Lord is universal because it is in the very least of all things. The New Church is a power for good in the world, even at this day, when falsities of religion and evils of life generally prevail, so far-reaching that we can scarcely form the least conception of it. The New Church is built upon the strong foundation of the Divine Truths of the Word. And all strength is in the Divine truth from the Divine good.


     It is our privilege to live at the time in the history of the New Church, when the apocalyptic prophecy, "Behold, I make all things new," is being both spiritually and literally fulfilled. It is one hundred and forty-seven years since the New Church began, and marvelous are the changes that have been effected in our world since then, even in the course of an ordinary lifetime. But these changes have been very largely in external conditions, in preparation for the still greater changes which are needed in order that this world may become a more agreeable and more comfortable place for spiritually minded people to dwell in during their life of probation. It seems evident that the changes in externals, in the kind providence of the Lord, come to pass so as to make things more favorable for the reception of the internal doctrines and principles of the Church, and for their application to the uses of life. The externals, however, are derived from and are formed by the internals of the New Heaven and the New Church, as effects from their causes.

     Our heavenly Father, who is infinitely merciful and just, desires to provide civil liberty and spiritual freedom to the largest possible number of His children, among all nations of the world, at the earliest period of time in which it can possibly be done, in accordance with the laws of the Divine Order. And that this may be accomplished, as it surely will be in the course of the ages,-there are at this day operating, from the Lord through the New Angelic Heaven into human minds in the world, mighty forces under which old systems and methods, old dogmas and religiosities, will gradually pass away, and all things will, be made new.




     CHAPTER VI. (Continued.)

     On January 18, 1873, Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Benade set out on their journey, traveling first to Chicago, where they called on the Rev. J. R. Hibbard and visited the district of the city laid waste by the recent Great Fire. Dr. Hibbard then, and for many years before, was the pastor of the Chicago Society and was a pronounced "Authority" man, the intimate friend of Mr. Benade and Mr. Stuart and a solid member of the "Pre-established Harmony,"-a group of New Church ministers who, year after year, and decade after decade, had found themselves in unexpected doctrinal harmony on all the mooted issues discussed in the periodicals of the Church and on the floor of the General Convention. Dr. Hibbard had recently returned from a long journey in Europe undertaken to restore his shattered health; while abroad he married Miss Sarah DeCharms, the daughter of the Rev. Richard DeCharms, a woman of remarkable intellect, culture and spirituality.

     On January 25 the two travelers left Chicago for St. Louis, where, on February 1, they took the river boat, "Belle Lee," steaming down the Mississippi and stopping at all the landings taking on cotton, the negro crew continually singing "Roll on de cotton, roll on, roll on de cotton," Mr. Pitcairn himself "spent the day studying Hebrew and reading the T. C. R." On February 11 they arrived in New Orleans and the next day they called at the place of worship of the New Church society, where the Rev. Willard H. Hinkley was conducting a meeting.

     The New Church in New Orleans dates from the year 1839, when a small circle of receivers, all of them from the North, began to hold meetings there and conduct a Sunday School. The data concerning the New Church in New Orleans are scattered, and it is difficult to gather them into a connected story. In 1853 a Society was organized under the auspices of Thomas Lake Harris, and in 1854 their leader, Mr. L. E. Reynolds, was "ordained" by Harris.


The whole movement was diseased with Spiritism, and we do not know what finally became of it. Gradually the sounder elements gathered into a new society, and a small German society also grew up under the leadership of J. M. Hofer, who was ordained by Dr. Hibbard during a visit to the South, in November, 1859. A new society was organized in the same year, with Glendy Burke, Esq., as leader, and united with the General Convention. During the Civil War nothing was heard from the Church in New Orleans, but in 1866 the society again began to report to the General Convention. In 1869 and 1870 the Rev. Arthur O. Brickman spent five months there, lecturing both in German and in English with such success that he baptized 72 persons and added 53 members to the society, which now purchased a church building and apparently was in a most flourishing condition. But here, as elsewhere, the great interest kindled by Mr. Brickman's remarkable enthusiasm and eloquence did not last long. Many pf the converts soon fell off, and while in 1872 the society counted 102 members, in 1873 they had been reduced to 78. They still felt strong enough to call the Rev. Willard H. Hinkley as their first (and last) resident minister.

     Mr. Benade and Mr. Pitcairn found in Glendy Burke a strong Newchurchman of the "Academy" type, of whom they often spoke with fond recollection. In his diary Mr. Pitcairn notes: "Feb. 19. Evening at Church. Question for consideration: 'There is a natural body and there is a spiritual body.' Mr. Burke asked Mr. Hinkley to define his position in regard to the eternity of the hells, and the Authority of the Doctrines." The answers, however, were evasive, and it seemed that Mr. Hinkley feared to offend the great heresiarch, Dr. William H. Holcombe, who was present at the meeting.

     On February 14th Mr. Pitcairn "visited, what the people here term 'the Bayonet Legislature.' The majority of the members of both Houses are black. Speaker of the Senate a pure negro." This was the era of "Carpet-baggers" and "Reconstruction" in the South. The diary continues: "Feb. 22. Spent evening with Dr. Holcombe. Met Mr. and Mrs. Hinkley. Found Dr. Holcombe unsound on doctrine, not believing in the authority of the Writings; tinctured with spiritism."


     Dr. Holcombe was a distinguished Homoeopathic physician, long resident in New Orleans, and known far and wide in the New Church through his many and brilliant works. Many of these are of undoubted evangelistic value, setting forth the general principles of the New Church in a clear and convincing style; but none of them can be used with safety, for Dr. Holcombe, from the outset of his literary career, was affected by the spiritism and pseudo-celestialism of Harris and other disorderly spirits. The self-conscious opening of the "celestial" degree of the mind was perhaps his cardinal principle, and with it followed the whole host of connected disorders and falsities: communion with pretended angels, revelations "superior" to the Writings, etc. The doctor himself did not claim the gift of intercourse with spirits: he was but the mouthpiece of the great medium, Col. George W. Christy, of New Orleans, who claimed to have been called to the office of "redeeming the hells." This was effected by permitting devils in hell to take possession of Christy's natural mind thus again living for some hours in the natural world, and while were they would utilize the opportunity to repent and thereby be delivered from hell. The Colonel had by this means transplanted whole colonies of reformed devils into heaven.

     This work was often attended with inconvenient consequences to the self-sacrificing Colonel. Some drunken spirit, for instance, would suddenly take possession of his mind and body, and the medium would suddenly become roaring drunk, without having touched a drop of any inebriating liquid. Or he would suddenly break out into most profane language,-some profane spirit having entered into him. But he would then preach to the infernal spirits who forthwith repented, in and through him, whereupon they would immediately be furnished with a pair of white wings!

     Another entertaining heresy of the "celestial" gentlemen was the idea of the "Unitization of the Sexes," which is the leading principle of Dr. Holcombe's famous book on THE SEXES HERE AND HEREAFTER. The notion is the same as the one in Balzac's novel, SERAPHITA, that the angelic husband and wife actually become merged into one individual soul and body, (an idea which destroys conjugial love-the mutual and eternal love of two individuals,-and results in nothing but the love of self; but this did not worry the celestialists).


Mr. Pitcairn often gleefully told how Col. Christy felt so "unitized" with the celestial wife within him, that often, on stepping over a gutter, he would pick up his trousers as a lady picks up her skirts!

     All this may seem amusing to the present generation, but in the seventies and eighties of the last century Dr. Holcombe and his ceaseless stream of articles and books did a vast amount of mischief in the New Church.. Mr. Barrett in his NEW CHRISTIANITY, worked hand in glove with Dr. Holcombe in the NEW CHURCH INDEPENDENT. The "Academy" was the pet aversion of both. Ministers and prominent laymen in many parts of the Church, both in America and England, were carried away by Dr. Holcombe's glowing eloquence, and about the year 1885 it seemed as if the new "celestial" developments were about to capture the majority of the members of the General Convention. Mr. E. P. Anshutz and Mr. Charles P. Stuart, in the early volumes of NEW CHURCH LIFE, fought valiantly against the rising tide of destructive spiritism, but it remained for Dr. Hibbard, in 1886, to deal the death-blow to the whole movement by his paper on "Pseudo-celestialism" in the last issue of WORDS FOR THE NEW CHURCH. Since then no "celestialist" has raised his voice unto this day.

     In New Orleans Dr. Holcombe's influence finally completely broke up the promising New Church society which flourished there in 1873. Not a single report from the society is to be found in the Convention Journals since that year. Mr. Glendy Burke died in 1874, and that is the last news heard from New Orleans. Dr. Holcombe himself died November 28, 1893.

     But to return to the memoirs of Mr. Pitcairn. Mr. Benade and he were joined at New Orleans by a party of New Church friends from Pittsburgh,-Mr. and Mrs. David McCandless and Mr. and Mrs. Frank Ballou,-and on February 26 the party took steamer for Havana, all becoming sea-sick on the rough voyage. In Cuba Mr. Pitcairn made several trips into the interior of the island, witnessing three hundred negro slaves working in a sugar mill, the overseers armed with dirks, revolvers and whips, while chained bloodhounds were stationed around them.


He also made a visit to the tobacco-growing district of Vuelta-Abajo, whence come the finest cigars of the smoking world. Mr. Pitcairn himself, about this time, became "addicted to the weed" and developed into a connoisseur of the finest tobacco.

     On March 13 the party left Havana for Jacksonville, Florida, where Mr. Pitcairn's mother and Mr. Andrew Carnegie joined them. Thence they made a visit to St. Augustine, viewed the old Spanish Fort, etc., made a trip up the Matanzas river amid its swarms of alligators, turtles and pelicans; continued the journey to Savannah, Charleston, and Richmond, where they "visited Oakland cemetery, where 16,000 rebels are buried," and arrived in Philadelphia, March 31, 1873.

     In this city they remained to attend the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Association, on April 5, when Mr. Benade was elected President of the Association, with the recommendation to the Convention that he be consecrated into the office of an "ordaining minister." Then the party separated, Mr. Pitcairn returning to Oil City, and the rest to Pittsburgh. On April 22 Mr. Pitcairn was again in Philadelphia. "Put up at the Continental Hotel. Found Robert at the hotel and roomed with him. Had a full talk upon religious matters. Called on Col. Potts, to discuss pipe line interests. Robert and I went to French opera. Had a chill tonight." The next day he was again at New Brighten, Staten Island. "Commenced Greek lessons with Dr. Tafel this afternoon,"-and stayed at it for a whole month, working with the electric energy of a "live wire," hungering for the educational opportunities denied to his youth.

     On June 5-11, 1873, Mr. Pitcairn attended the General Convention in Cincinnati, in company with his sister, Margaret, and Walter Childs. At this Convention, Mr. Benade was consecrated an ordaining minister and read his memorable address on "The Standard of Authority in the New Church," which was printed in the Journal of the American Conference of New Church Ministers for 1873, and reprinted in NEW CHURCH LIFE for April, 1902. In this address Mr. Benade clearly and unequivocally proclaimed the doctrine that the Writings of the New Church are the Word of the Lord in His Second Advent, and thus indeed raised the only true and consistent "Standard of Authority" in the New Church; but, strange to say, this sign upon the Standard did not seem to have been noticed at that time by some who afterwards claimed that it formed no part of the principles of the "old" Academy.


     During the summer of 1873 Mr. Pitcairn spent a few weeks on a fishing trip in Canada. On his way home, on July 20, he stopped at Albany, N. Y., and "visited the Shakers this morning, about 8 miles from Albany. Witnessed their services and heard an address, and had some conversation in regard to their organization." It may not be generally known that the Shakers "hold Swedenborg to be the angel of spiritualism mentioned in Revelation XVIII," but it is so claimed in McClintock and Strong's THEOLOGICAL 'CYCLOPAEDIA, Vol. IX, p. 610.

     On October 19 Mr. Pitcairn was in Pittsburgh attending the "Dedication of our new chapel. Sermon by the Rev. J. R. Hibbard. Samuel H. Hicks baptized. After services Messrs. Benade, Stuart, Matthias, Childs, Ballou and Hicks dined and spent the afternoon with me at the Union Depot Hotel. Very pleasant time. Sermon by the Rev. J. P. Stuart in the evening. Stuart, Childs and Hicks remained with me at Hotel tonight. Rained all day." On December ai5th he was in Salem, Ohio, where almost the whole of his immediate family was gathered around the sick-bed of his beloved sister, Mrs. Helen Rush, who had long been ill and who was now thought to be at the point of death. Mr. Benade administered the Sacrament, but Mrs. Rush lived two months longer. "Presbyterian minister came in the morning while I was reading a chapter from the Word. He offered prayer, after which I stated as well as I could, the New Church doctrine respecting prayer."




     Almost the first entry that meets our eyes on opening Mr. Pitcairn's recently discovered diary for the year 1874 is the following: "Monday, Jan, 12. Mr. Benade, Frank Ballou, Walter C. Childs and myself lunched together today. Organized New Church Club by electing Mr. Benade President, W. C. Childs Secretary, and Frank Ballou Treasurer."

     This entry places beyond doubt the actual date of the founding of the Academy of the New Church. While it was well known that the formal organization of the Academy took place on June 19th, 1876, the date of the inception of the body, two years previously, had slipped from the memory of the four founders. Mr. Childs, in overhauling the Archives, in 1891, found an old check for $500.00,-Mr. Pitcairn's first contribution to the Academy, dated January 14th, 1874. This agreed with the first entry in the Academy's first cash-book, and January 14th, 1874, was, therefore, accepted by all as establishing the date of the first founding of the Academy, and was henceforth, up to 1916, celebrated as "Founders' Day."

     The prenatal history of the Academy movement has been described at length in our biographies of the Rev. Richard De Charms and the Rev. William H. Benade (see NEW CHURCH LIFE, 1902-1903; 1905-1906), and we-need not, therefore, dwell further upon it in the present work, except to note the curious coincidence that the "Atlantic Garden" restaurant, where the four friends met, was torn down on the very day when John Pitcairn departed from his mortal existence.

     In the afternoon after the now historic luncheon, Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Childs left Pittsburgh for Salem, O., in order to pay a visit to Mrs. Helen Rush. Having found the invalid "about the same," the two friends in the evening of the same day attended a lecture by a Mrs. Ada Bellew, a spiritualistic, socialistic and feministic propagandist. Mr. Childs, in a recent letter to us, notes down an amusing reminiscence of the interview with this highly "advanced" lady.


     "We also had a private talk with her; and upon learning that we were Swedenborgians, she was pleased, and spoke very freely,-which was the result we expected. 'Swedenborg,' she said, 'was one of the greatest of mediums,' etc., etc.

     "In the course of conversation, we asked whether she believed that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin. We, of course, supposed that she would answer in the negative, and that she would probably speak of Him, also, as being a 'powerful medium.' Great was our surprise, therefore, when she answered, 'Yes, I think it may be true,' and when we inquired how she explained it, she calmly added, 'I can see no reason why a woman should not, of herself, be able to produce a child, provided she put her mind to it sufficiently!'

     "Father Benade always held that with the so-called, 'advanced' women, the last thing they really believed in was equality with men; and that talking with them would make evident the fact that they invariably considered themselves men's superiors. When we reported to him Mrs. Bellew's explanation, he laughed heartily, and remarked that she indeed had manifested her belief in male inferiority,-and to a degree unprecedented. Far, heretofore, it had been the accepted theory that such women, when the question was put to them, would be forced to admit that there was at least one thing which: a woman could not effect."

     Returning to Pittsburgh on Jan. 14th, Mr. Pitcairn in the evening wrote the famous check for $500.00,-his first contribution to the "Academy," (as yet in embryo), and we may truly say, that "the Lord alone knows" how much John gave to the same cause after that day.

     The diary of 1874 continues: "Friday, Jan. 16. In company with Walter Childs I attended Presbyterian church this evening. My brother Robert spoke on the question, 'Are you a Christian?' after which they had prayer and singing. After the meeting the Rev. Beatty, Major Negley, Robert and I adjourned to Mr. Childs' house, [the 'Oak Nest,' of long-beloved memory], where we discussed Doctrine until after midnight,-apparently without results.)


     The next few weeks were occupied with important business transactions, after which Mr. Pitcairn again repaired to New Brighten, to take a course in German with Dr. Tafel. The studies were interrupted for a few days by a visit to Salem, O., to attend the funeral of his sister, Mrs. Rush, who had died on March 1st. A week later he writes in his diary: "April 6. Frank Ballou and myself interviewed Dr. H. Sladee, clairvoyant, this morning, at 413 Fourth Ave." [New York.] While Mr. Pitcairn was altogether opposed to all spiritistic practices, he nevertheless believed in the Possibility of open intercourse with spirits, and often spoke of his curious experience at Dr. Slade's. The famous medium, who had never before met or heard of his two visitors, enclosed a bit of slate-pencil between two tablets, which he sealed. On opening them, a while later, Mr. Pitcairn found this sentence written: "I am with you, Helen Rush." It was undoubtedly a remarkable feat of memory-reading

     We come now to a memorable event in Mr. Pitcairn's personal history,-his first foreign journey to which he had long looked forward. On May 15th, in company with Walter C. Childs, he left New York on the French steamer Periere. "Over a hundred Catholic pilgrims on board. Great crowd to see them off. Bishop Joseph Dwenger and Father J. Benoit, of Ft. Wayne, seated opposite us at take."*
     *Mr. Walter C. Childs has kindly furnished a series of interesting personal recollections, which will be introduced as notes to the present chapter. [C. TH. O.] When we bearded the French Liner "Periere" and found there over one hundred R. C. pilgrims, we at first wished we had selected another boat. However, it all turtled out for the best. The pilgrims were headed by Bishop Dwenger, of Ft. Wayne, Indiana, and were bound for the shrine of the Virgin at Lourdes and afterwards for Rome. When the head steward designated our seats in the dining cabin, we discovered, much to our surprise, that we had been placed at the Bishop's table, and directly opposite to his seat and that of his chief assistant, Father Benoit. Very few others were assigned places at this table and none of them near us, so that the Bishop, Father Benoit and ourselves made, practically, a party of four. At the first dinner we managed to open up pleasant social relations with our neighbors, and we were soon upon excellent terms with them. Nearly every day we had talks about religion, but we made no mention of our religion, nor in any way attacked the Catholic Church, but merely asked questions,-sometimes taking a hit at the Protestants.


The Bishop, who probably hoped for two converts, became very friendly. He invited us to go to Pome with them and promised that we should be presented to the Pope. Of course, our favor with the Bishop was noticed by the other pilgrims, who were very cordial.
     We had decided not to leave the party without first defining our position. A quite natural opportunity to do this occurred two days before our arrival at Brest, when we were drawn into a very lively discussion with some of the pilgrims. They were well equipped, as intelligent Catholics generally are, to meet Protestants in argument. On this occasion Papal infallibility was the subject, and they accused us of believing in doctrines formulated by merely individual and varying interpretations of the Bible without any guiding authority. They were indeed amazed when we proclaimed that we did have an authority, a Divinely infallible one, in the inspired Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, which constituted the promised Second Coming of the Lord. Following this announcement, the battle was about being renewed, when the bell rang for services in the Cabin.
     The services lasted considerably longer than usual, and we were sure that the Bishop must have given orders that all discussion with us should cease, for when, at the conclusion of the services, we started to renew the discussion, our opponents, who had been so eager and so voluble, remained absolutely silent, nor did they afterwards make any reference to the matter.
     Preceding the above discussion, there had been a sad occurrence that day, owing to our change of attitude. It happened at dinner,-and the Bishop was fond of his dinner! He had responded to some of our questions regarding the Trinity, and made it clear that he believed that the Holy Spirit was a separate person distinct from the Father and the Son. Then he was asked, "If the Holy Spirit is a separate person, is it not plain, from the statement of Scripture, that Christ was the Son of the Holy Spirit, and not the Son of the Father?" At that point the Bishop arose and said solemnly, "Gentlemen, this is too weighty a matter to be discussed at dinner."
     We had, unintentionally, and to our regret, spoiled the Bishop's dinner!
     On the preceding Friday, however, the Bishop and the pilgrims had fared better. During the dinner, a middle aged woman, one of the pilgrims, came to the Bishop's table and humbly asked permission to speak to him. This granted, she begged pardon, but said that she had been ill and was feeling quite weak from lack of food. Though it was Friday, she would like permission to eat a little meat, as fish did not agree with her.
     When she began speaking, the Bishop had been occupied with a young duck, and his mouth was full. He was now in speaking condition, but instead of addressing the suppliant direct, he stood up and tapped his wine glass, producing instant silence. Whereupon he said: "The pilgrims are hereby advised that today, and to the end of the voyage there will be plenary indulgence as to all matters of the table."
     Following this inspiring announcement, the Bishop immediately resumed his seat and his attention to the duckling. [W. C. C.]


     Landing at Brest the great French naval station, on May 26th, the two friends travelled at their leisure along the western coast of France, visiting Nantes, La Rochelle, Cognac, Bordeaux, and the famous wine districts, everywhere looking up places and things of historic interest. We are sorely tempted to quote the whole of the diaries which Mr. Pitcairn kept on this trip and on the many subsequent journeys, but to do so; would prolong the present biography into several volumes. Turning north our friends visited Angouleme, Tours and Orleans, and on June 13th arrived in Paris. Here they put up in the "Quartier Latin," where they engaged a competent teacher and commenced a very thorough study of the French language. Mr. Pitcairn, indeed, became thoroughly proficient in this tongue, and to the end of his days loved to converse in it at every opportunity.

     Immediately upon their arrival in Paris Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Childs called on Mrs. Mary Bliss, the mother-in-law of their mutual friend, Mr. John Gillespy, who was one of the earliest members of the Academy. Mrs. Bliss also, after returning to America, became a member of the Academy. On July 26th the two friends "tried to find the New Church, without success." This refers to the little French circle under the leadership of M. Harle, of which more, later.

     Being a reader of Swedenborg's Writings, Mr. Pitcairn was, of course, interested in Anatomy and Physiology, and we need not be surprised, therefore, that on July 29th he visited the "Anatomical Museum and the place where manikins are sold." Of these he promptly ordered one at the price of a thousand francs. This is the same paper mache manikin which was afterward placed in the Academy schools and which for nearly forty years has been taken apart and investigated by an unbroken succession of students. One night in 1891, when the schools were located at 1821 Wallace St., a burglar broke into the building and collected quite a loot.


Coming into the, Anatomy room, he suddenly beheld the manikin and was so frightened at its dreadful appearance that he dropped his bundle and quickly made his way over the roofs of the adjoining buildings.

     On August 10th, 1874, we find the two travelers in London, attending the 67th session of the General Conference of the New Church, which on Aug. 17th, ended with a special meeting, concerning which Mr. Pitcairn writes: "The leading members of the Conference today considered the Address of the President of the Conference, Rev. John Hyde. A part of this address was criticized by Dr. R. L. Tafel, who objected to the address going out to the world with the endorsement of the Conference. There was an animated and interesting discussion, showing the positions of the leading members of the Conference in regard, to the Divine Authority of the Writings and the infallibility of the Doctrine." (Diary for 1874.)

     We may add that this ancient subject of controversy had been introduced anew in Great Britain by Dr. Rudolph Tafel who now was the pastor of the Camden Road, (formerly Cross Street), Society, London. Doctor Tafel had now for two years made a thorough and systematic campaign for the recognition of the Divine Authority of the Writings, with the result that the lines were being drawn between the two contending parties. But the conflicts were as yet but skirmishes compared with the great battles of the coming years.

     On Tuesday, Aug. 18th, the two Academicians, accompanied by Dr. Tafel and wife, left for a journey to Switzerland and Germany. They traveled via Dover, Calais, Brussels and Cologne, (where they viewed the bones of St. Ursula and her "eleven thousand martyred virgins"). At Cologne they took boat for up the Rhine arriving at Rheinfelden, Switzerland, on August 23d. Here they put up at the house of Herr Struve, which was the center of a New Church circle, and here they met Herr Theodore Mullensiefen, a prominent member of the Church, the brother-in-law of Dr. Tafel.

     Now began strenuous lessons in German, varied by the usual tourists' excursions.


On Aug. 30th they were joined by Mr. J. G. Mittnacht, who, some years after the death of Prof. Immanuel Tafel in 1863, had assumed charge of the disorganized New Church movement in Germany and Switzerland. Mr. Mittnacht had made his fortune as a manufacturer in Philadelphia, where he became associated with Dr. F. A, Boericke and Dr. Rudolph Tafel, and also connected himself with Mr. Benade's society in Cherry St. He was a most devoted and self-sacrificing Newchurchman, but had developed notions of his own respecting the order in the priesthood, which later on led to disorder and trouble.

     On September 1st the American travelers left for Berne and Interlaken, whence they made excursions to Lauderbrunnen, Grindelwald, Brienz, and other places of interest in that magnificent mountain country; they arrived in Lucerne Sept. 5th, ascended the Rigi the next day, passed on the Fluelen and Altdorf, the ancient scenes of the story of Wilhelm Tell, visited the Furka pass and the Rhone glacier, and then crossed over the St. Gotthard into Italy, Sept. 9th. After a few days by the shores of Lake Come and Lake Maggiore, they made a tear to Milan, then turning north, visited Turin, Geneva, and Lausanne, arriving in Zurich on Sept. 18th.

     "Saturday, Sept. 19. Called on Herr Sterling Steiger, (who sells New Church books), this morning; he is married to a Catholic 'Xantippa;' we were to have meeting this evening at his house, but on account of his wife we concluded to meet in parlor of hotel. Fifteen New Church friends met this evening; sermon in German, after which Dr. Tafel explained the doctrines and use of Baptism and the Holy Supper. Eleven were then baptized, and all partook of the Sacrament."

     "Sunday, Sept. 20. Left this morning for St. Gallen, arriving at noon. Rudolph and wife put up at Madame Specker's,-an authoress, semi-New Church, governess of princess Frederick of Wurtemberg. New Church services this afternoon;-between 60 and 70 persons present; after service 54 partook of communion. We were introduced to the assembly by Dr. Tafel. Met Fraulein von Struve, an ardent New Church woman."


     The next week was spent in Stuttgart, where Mr. Miftnacht had established a New Church publishing house, and where he issued the WOCHENSCHRIFT DER NEUEN KIRCHE, (N. C. Weekly), which was edited with great ability by Dr. Tafel, in London. Here they met also Fraulein Julie von Conring, a highly cultured New Church lady from Denmark, who assisted Mr. Mittnacht in his labors. The prospects seemed very promising at that time for the New Church in Germany. On Sunday, Sept. 27th, Mr. Pitcairn writes: "About one hundred persons from Stuttgart and vicinity attended New Church services this morning in a hall obtained for the purpose. Dr. Tafel preached, and afterwards baptized Louise Hoffacker, the first child publicly baptized in Germany; administered the Lord's Supper to about sixty persons."

     On October 1st Dr. Tafel and wife returned to London, while Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Childs continued their journey to Heidelberg, Manheim, Mayence and Worms, making an interesting study of the famous Rhenish wine-districts,* then turned to Frankford-on-the-Main, Nuremburg, (visiting the torture chambers of the Inquisition, of which he gives a detailed and gruesome account). October 8-9 were spent in Munich, Oct. 10th in Salzburg, and on Sunday, Oct. 11th, the travelers arrived in Vienna. Here they at once looked up the obscure quarters where the little Austrian New Church society held their services. "Here we were warmly received by the minister, the Rev. Theodore Peisker and the principal members, who insisted upon our leaving our 'valuable' autographs." As we shall have occasion to speak of the New Church in Vienna in connection with Mr. Benade's and Mr. Pitcairn's visit in 1878, we will not now dwell on the subject, but will follow our friends on their visit to Italy.
     * The drive along the Rhine in the autumn of 1874 was indeed an interesting and enjoyable experience. The thirsty traveler, desiring refreshment, had simply to call at the office of any of the large vineyards, or wineries, and send in his card. He would be courteously received by the proprietor, or his agent, conducted through the premises, and invariably invited to partake of a sample from their cellars. It was right here that john had things down to a fine point. When he tasted a wine and said, "Thank you, a pleasant wine," or some similarly non-committal expression, it nearly always resulted in a much finer wine being produced, such as was served for notables and connoisseurs, and now the commendation would be deserved, prompt, and hearty, to the gratification of all concerned. [W. C. C.]


     Leaving Vienna on Oct. 16th, they spent a day at Trieste, visiting Castle Miramer, etc., and arrived in Venice on Oct. 18th. Here they tarried four days, sightseeing and dreaming in the gondolas, palaces and churches. Just to give a sample of Mr. Pitcairn's style in his unpretentious diary, we may be pardoned for quoting here the following entry under October 20th: "Beautiful moonlight night. Gondola to Ponte di Rialto. Upon returning, met serenading party of twenty in gondola lighted by Chinese lanterns and occasional chemical lights; followed them to Ponte di Rialto where they serenaded under the bridge. Music very fine, especially the Echo Song: Canal crowded with gondolas. Procession returned by short canal leading between Doge's palace and the prison and passing under the Bridge of Sighs. The shadows and the chemical lights, which were burned during every song, produced striking effects on the surrounding palaces and on the faces of the serenaders. Landed at Piazetta in front of the two grand columns; returned to hotel, seeing St. Mark's Square by moonlight."

     Arriving in Florence, Oct. 22d, the two travelers called on the Rev. Alfred E. Ford, an American New Church minister, who, for many years, had been domiciled in the ancient capital of Tuscany. Mr. Ford had been a minister of the Episcopal Church, but came over to the New Church in 1846, and was ordained by the Rev. B. F. Barrett in 1847, without the sanction of the General Convention and without passing through the gate of New Church Baptism. His was, in fact, the first of that kind of ordination. Mr. Ford was a man of great culture and independent means, and was a decided "permeationist." After some conversation with the two Academicians on the "State of the Christian world," he pronounced them "kidney spirits." On Sunday, Oct. 25th, they nevertheless attended services at the house of Mr. Ford. "Sermon on the 'unforgiving servant,' in which the evils resulting from truth without charity were vividly portrayed.


I think the sermon was the result of our conversation with Mr. Ford on Friday evening regarding Re-baptism as a requisite to entering the New Church ministry.*
     * At Florence we called upon the Rev. and Mrs. A. E. Ford. They were very pleasant people, but decidedly "unsound," from an Academy point of view. However, all was comparatively tranquil until New Church baptism and also the state of the Christian world came under discussion. The conversation was decidedly amusing in certain ways, especially when Mrs. Ford joined in. While entirely Opposed to our position on these subjects, she, nevertheless, seemed to be quite as much interested as she was shocked. At one time, when John was working some particularly heavy doctrinal artillery, regarding the Old Church, Mr. Ford endeavored to break in, but his wife implored him to desist, saying: "Now, Mr. Ford, did you hear that? Will you please let him finish. Mr. Pitcairn, do you really believe what you have said? Kindly repeat it." The repetition was willingly given fully justifying Mrs. Lord's original understanding of the statement. The argument lasted until late, and Mr. Ford was evidently much stirred up. The following Sunday he preached a sermon upon "The Unforgiving Servant," wherein he paid special attention to "kidney spirits," who were devoid of charity and who delighted in discovering the falsities and evils in others. We felt quite sure that the discourse was aimed at us. However, we thanked Mr. Ford for his sermon, saying truthfully that we found it "very interesting." Despite the arguments and the sermon, we received and accepted an invitation for Mr. and Mrs. Ford to see them again, and on both sides everything was friendly. [W.C.C.]

     While in Florence the two friends visited the studio of the late Hiram Powers, the celebrated American sculptor who for many years had resided at Florence, and who had been baptized into the New Church in 1850 by the Rev. Thomas Worcester. At the studio the friends met the son and daughter of Hiram Powers, but they did not meet, nor even hear of Signor Loreto Scocia, the Waldensian minister who had recently come into the New Church, and who in 1874 published at Florence his Italian version of the work on THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE.

     On Oct. 27th our travelers left Florence for Rome, whence they made excursions to Naples, Sorrento, Capri, Vesuvius, Pompeii and Herculaneum. In Rome itself they visited the Vatican and St. Peters, the Catacombs, the Scala, Sancta, and other places and things of historical and theological interest, but in the whole "eternal city" they found only one receiver of the New Jerusalem, Mr. Arthur J. Strutt, an English artist, the son of a very prominent London Newchurchman who had translated several of Swedenborg's scientific works into English.


     On Nov. 13th they returned to France by way of Pisa and Genoa, and arrived in Mentone, Nov. 17th. Here they met their friend, Mrs. Bliss, and were introduced to her friend, Miss Judson. "Evening devoted to theological talk in the room of Mrs. Bliss, where the unfortunate Miss J. received an overwhelming dose." The next day Was spent in a visit to Monaco and the gambling saloons at Monte Carlo. "We cannot speak," says Mr. Pitcairn, "in too high terms of the external' decorum which prevails in all the departments of this hell." On Nov. 24th they returned to Paris, resuming the lessons in French, and on Sunday, Nov. 29th, they, for the first time, attended the New Church services in Paris,-then held in Rue Gorande St. Augustine, under the leadership of M. Augustus Harle, the co-worker and successor of M. Le Boys des Guays.*
     * Services were held on Sundays at the apartment of Dr. Poirson, 8 Rue Gorande St. Augustin. Mons. Harle usually conducted the services, or in his absence, Dr Poirson. The attendance was Stnalli generally about eight persons, except on special occasions. Mons. Harle and Dr. Poirson did not agree upon all points, and it was not at all unusual when Mr. Harle was delivering a discourse, for, Dr. Poirson to raise a point, whereupon a short discussion would ensue there and then. This livened up matters considerably, Among those who frequently attended were two middle aged maiden ladies. They evidently were great admirers of Mons. Harle. They always brought along writing materials, and it amused us to see that they apparently took notes of every word that Mons. Harle uttered, while, on the other hand, they seemed to entirely ignore Dr. Poirson's remarks. [W.C.C.]

     Mr. Pitcairn as yet was probably not sufficiently familiar with the French tongue to enter into intimate conversation with M. Harle or the circle of 8 or 10 persons to whom he was introduced on this occasion. He says nothing about them, but mentions a "Mr. Innis, an American artist, whose special hobby is the science of numbers, which he elucidated according to correspondences, adapting it to art in measuring the human frame." The entry continues: "Spent the evening with Mr. and Mrs. Hanau and daughter, Mr. Innis present. The latter was in great terror lest the New Church should come under the Power of the priests; spoke of an occurrence between Dr. Hibbard and himself at Rome, in which he accused Mr. Hibbard of a Jesuitical style of argument.


We had a long discussion in regard to the authority of the Doctrine and order in the ministry. He started off in the wildest manner, but toward the end of the discussion he became quiet as a lamb."

     The Mr. Hanau, mentioned above, was a retired banker from New Orleans, who had received the Heavenly Doctrine through Hiram: Powers and the Rev. A. E. Ford, while living in Florence, 1859. His wife was a descendant of Mr. Myers Fisher, of Philadelphia, one of the very earliest receivers in America. The "daughter," mentioned by Mr. Pitcairn, afterwards married Mr. Lawrence Townsend, who for many years was the U. S. minister to Belgium; she was a younger sister of Mrs. Regina Iungerich, now of Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     On Dec. 1st Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Childs left Paris for London, where they spent a week with Dr, and Mrs. Tafel. Though Dr. Tafel was strong on the Authority of the Writings, it appears that he was not altogether clear in regard to the state of the Christian world. Thus, under "Sunday, Dec. 6th," we find this entry: "Church this morning. Sermon by Rudolph on 'the Simple Good in the Old Church,' caused by our conversation on Friday evening. After church, a long discussion on the subject of the sermon, upon which Walter and I took the ground that Rudolph did not preach according to Doctrine. Weakest sermon I have heard Rudolph preach."

     The reason for the journey to England was a cable message urging Mr. Pitcairn's immediate return to the United States in order to settle an important law-suit against the Standard Oil Company. On Dec. 9th the two friends parted company at Liverpool, Mr. Childs leaving for a visit to the Rev. Samuel M. Warren, at Liverpool, white Mr. Pitcairn started on his third trip across the Atlantic. After a very rough voyage he arrived in New York, Dec. 21st, took train for Pittsburgh, where he was warmly received by Mr. Benade and Mr. Ballou, and spent Christmas with them. After the holidays he left for Oil City to attend to the business for which he had been recalled to America.


We have not been able to discover the exact nature of this business, but find this entry under Jan. 12th, 1875: "Discovered mistake in the books of the Imperial Refining Co." Perhaps this discovery settled the suit with the Standard Oil Co. At any rate, the Standard Oil settled with Mr. Pitcairn to his complete satisfaction, so that, on Jan. 16th he was able to leave New York for England on the North German Lloyd steamer, the "Hohenstaufen."

     As traveling companion Mr. Pitcairn this time had Mr. William M. Carter, of Trenton, N. J., a new and very enthusiastic convert to the New Church.*
     *Mr. William M. Carter, of Trenton, N. J., who accompanied John upon his return trip to Europe, in January, 1875, was a brother-in-law of Mr. George V. Forman, a partner of John's in the oil business, and it was through him that John and Mr. Carter became acquainted. Mr. Carter's health had become somewhat impaired, and he had decided to take a rest. When he and John met, the liking was mutual. There were natural attracting qualities upon both sides, and Mr. Carter moreover desired certain things that John was very pleased to impart,-the truths of a rational faith. Their meeting took place at just the right time, when Mr. Carter had become disgusted with the falsity and hypocrisy of the Old Church, but was unwilling to give up all belief. He was therefore open to what John had to tell him, and when the latter suggested that a trip to Europe might give him the desired rest and proposed that he join him and sail in a few days, the suggestion was at once accepted.
     When they reached the Continent, I received, in Paris, a telegram from John, stating that he would be in Paris the following day, accompanied by' a good fellow named Carter. This was the first I had heard of Mr. Carter, but from John's commendation I rather expected that his companion had New Church possibilities. I was not disappointed regarding this, nor otherwise, for he was indeed a good fellow, attractive, intelligent, possessed of a very dry humor, and was, above all, a most honorable gentleman. Directly after our introduction, John told me, aside, that he had personally given Carter, during the past two weeks, a terrific dose of New Church, and he added, "I doubt if he could stand any more from me, so I shall now turn him over to your tender mercies."
     It was, indeed, pretty hard on the boy, Carter, but he bore it well. He always wanted a reason for everything, and sometimes he put up a pretty stiff fight, but as the weeks passed by he showed very encouraging progress, with no abatement of interest. The final result was most satisfactory, as, upon his return home, he began a systematic reading of the Writings. He was baptized and became a member of the Academy shortly afterwards, and was one of our most intelligent and devoted men.
     In Paris, Mr. Carter proved a decided addition to out party. At first he possessed no knowledge whatever of French, but he had a very distinguished bow and soon picked up a few polite phrases which he worked with remarkable success. As an instance of this: We were then living at the Hotel Montesquieu, in the Latin Quarter, that was conducted by a well educated and vivacious widow, Madame Gallipaux. We were upon very friendly terms with her and her young son, Felix, who afterwards became celebrated as an actor. It was an excellent place to acquire the language, as Madame was very fond of talking and spoke most refined and pleasing French. Of course, we introduced Mr. Carter and as an observer of his first tete-a-tete with her I was very much impressed. Madame was engaged in some voluble relation to which Billy was listening with rapt attention,-understanding not a word, but occasionally making such sage observations as "Oui Madame," "certainemente, Madame," and "Madame, vous avez raison." However, he scored heavily, and at the conclusion of the talk Madame Gallipaux announced, "Your friend, Monsieur Carter, is a charming conversationalist!"
     Our friend Carter received his promotion to the other world on January 14th, 1894. His death was the result of a severe cold, which he had contracted when attending John's wedding, ten years before. To the last, he kept up his courage and humor. His loss was severely felt by all who had the good fortune to know him intimately, for he was a most lovable character, and one of whom it could truly be said that to him the New Church was the "first, last and only thing." [W. C. C.]


     After a rough voyage Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Carter landed at Havre on Jan. 30th, and left immediately for Paris to join Mr. Childs. The study of French was now resumed, as also the regular attendance on Sundays at the New Church services conducted by Mr. Harle. Under Saturday, March 13th, we find this entry in the diary: "Spent evening at M. Harle, 40 Rue de Bruxelles. Met Madame Harle and several New Church folks from the Island of Mauritius, among them a Mile. de Chazal, whose father is the leader of about 120 New Church people there." Sunday, March 28: "Attended High Mass at Notre Dame. Gorand ceremony, procession, etc., by the Archbishop and his satellites, the former heaving blessings in all directions. The Duc D'Aumale, son of Louis Philippe, chief of the Orleanists, inside the railing, with his family." Monday, March 29: "Attended funeral services of the Deputy Edgaid Guinet, at Mt. Parnasse this Afternoon. Funeral orations by Victor Hugo and Gambetta."


     On April 28, Mr. Pitcairn, Mr. Childs and Mr. Carter left Paris for England. After a couple of days at Brighten they arrived in London, April 30th, and on May 4th, accompanied by Dr. And Mrs. Tafel, left for Edinburgh where they were met by the Rev. John Faulkner Potts, the pastor of the Glasgow Society, who was one of Dr. Tafel's closest friends and sympathizers. A few delightful days were spent among the Scottish lakes. On Saturday, May 8th, the party arrived at Glasgow where "half the population seemed to be in the streets, drunk. A man grabbed at Mrs. Tafel, and was knocked down by Walter." One more week was then spent in the lake-region of Scotland, after which, on May 16th, the American travelers took boat for Belfast.

     In Dublin they formed the acquaintance of a number of distinguished Irish gentlemen, from whom: they learned several social songs which later became popular among the Academy folks. And then, after flying visits to the Killarney Lakes and Blarney Castle, they caught the steamer Germanic at Queenstown, on May 21st, arriving in New York ten days later.*
     * In Dublin, John, Carter and I called upon the U. S. Consul, Mr. Wilson King. He was a native of Pittsburgh, whom I had known from boyhood. When he learned that we were to leave the following day he insisted that We take supper with him that evening and meet some of his friends, as he wished us to see a few specimens of Irish gentlemen, who work the foreigners of his choice. They were, indeed, a festive and witty circle, and the supper was a great success. Among their songs there was one, "The Song of the Glass," that particularly caught our fancy. I mentioned this to King, and when we bearded the steamer at Queenstown, a few days later, the purser had a large envelope addressed to me and bearing the Consular seal. It contained the "Song of the Glass," copied in full. As a result, this song has since been sung upon various occasions of Academic festivity.
     When we reached New York, May 31st, our friend, Carter, furnished us with some unexpected hilarity at the expense of the U. S. Custom House. At that period the bribing of Custom House baggage inspectors was very prevalent among travelers. One would often hear the matter talked about in the smoking rooms of the steamers, with incidents of successful smuggling effected by means of adequate "lubrication." John, who, of course, was adverse to this practice, always made declaration in advance of everything dutiable that he was bringing in, and paid the amount assessed, though he could have saved much money and time by doing otherwise.


He had talked over the matter with Carter, who entirely agreed with him. We did not suppose, however, that Carter was bringing in anything of value.
     Great was our surprise when, at the dock, the boy, Billy, handed in his statement to an official, who read aloud a declaration of "silk goods, statuary, and jewelry." He was evidently immensely impressed, for any man who would make such an open declaration was evidently bringing in so great a quantity of these valuable goods as would debar concealment. The official was all politeness, and immediately called for one of the inspectors,-probably a favorite with whom he had an understanding-and directed him to take care of Mr. Carter as promptly as possible. The inspector, who doubtless anticipated a heavy reward for not seeing too much, said: "Now, Mr. Carter, please show me your various pieces of baggage and I will begin the examination at once.'" "Ah! I presume these are yours," pointing to some very large trunks near by. "No," said Billy, "this is it," pointing to a small piece, "I will open it." "The jewelry, I presume," said the inspector. Imagine his amazement when Billy answered, "No, this is all I have." "But," said the inspector, "this declaration specifies not only jewelry, but also silk goods and statuary "And here they are," said Billy, as he produced a pair of oxidized sleeve buttons and two or three silk cravats. The inspector was almost collapsed, but he ejaculated, "And the statuary!" "Here it is," said Billy, extracting a marble paper weight about four inches long. All this was done with the greatest earnestness and with a very serious countenance. As he produced the paper-weight, he added, "There, Mr. Inspector, you have it all. Make out your bill and I will pay in full. I will not cheat the Government." The inspector, however, who had lost valuable time, as well as high hopes, merely swore and vanished, exclaiming, "Jewelry, silk goods and statuary!" while Billy, apparently much grieved and mystified, called after him, "Please, Mr. Inspector, let me know how much I owe the Government." It was all put through in Carter's best style and was immensely funny. [W. C. C.]

     (To be continued.)


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     While the Millennium may still be somewhat distant, the New Church observer of the stirring events of these days cannot fail to be deeply and hopefully interested in the mighty upheaval that is taking place in the Old World, and not least so in the victorious advance of the Twentieth Century Crusade in Palestine and the East. No Newchurchman, even though he may be in sympathy with the Central Empires, can look with regret upon the approaching dissolution of the dominion of the Turks which for nearly a thousand years has pressed as a curse upon the Orient world; nor can he fail to be inspired by the unexpected dawning of the natural blessings of the new age in the ancient lands of the Word.

     After ages upon ages of misrule, tyranny and prostration the devastated regions of Chaldea, Babylonia, Assyria and Mesopotamia at last stand open for political and economic redemption. The mind can hardly grasp what the fall of Bagdad means for the future of the unused but fertile lands upon the banks of the Tigris and the Euphrates where once stood the first cradle of the human race and the center of civilization, and where now again freedom, order and prosperity may be introduced and flourish. As students of the Word and of Church History we may rejoice in the prospect that there will be a great resurrection of the buried treasures of the Ancient Church in these regions, through the excavations and researches of the archeologists who in the future will be able to pursue their investigations untrammeled by the intolerable interference of Turkish officials. But we may rejoice still more in the prospect that these vast tracts will now be reclaimed for human use, preparing the way, finally, for the advent of the Lord's New Church. That some day the New Church will be established here also we know from the distinct prophecy that the Heavenly Doctrine will "proceed to some in Asia under the empire of the Turks, and also in Asia round about," (S. D. 4777) but it would be useless to hope for a fulfillment of this prophecy as long as Ottoman rule continues, far the New Church can take root and flourish only in a state of natural freedom and order.


     The Crusade proceeding in Mesopotamia will before long join forces with the crusading army now invading Palestine from the south, and it is of interest to us to know that at least two young members of our Church are among these modern crusaders. And it is interesting, historically, to note that this new crusade has begun exactly from the point where the last great crusade failed, seven hundred years ago. Having attacked Palestine in vain for more than two centuries, the Christian world of the Middle Ages finally came to recognize that the Holy Land could not be recovered as long as the Saracens retained their stronghold and base of supply in Egypt. In the year 1248, therefore, Louis IX. of France, (St. Louis), undertook a great expedition against Syria, where he captured the fortress of Damietta on the eastern mouth of the Nile. Owing to the lack of reinforcements he was himself besieged by the Saracens in Damietta, and was forced to surrender in 1250, and this marked the end of the last notable Crusade.

     And now, after all these centuries, Egypt has passed into the undisputed possession of Great Britain, and from Egypt as a base a new crusading army has successfully crossed the wilderness of Sinai. The dreams of St. Louis seem about to be fulfilled, for the whole of southern Palestine now lies open to the invaders. In the daily dispatches we have lately read of British victories at the ancient Biblical strongholds of Gaza and Hebron, and the broken Turkish armies cannot long dispute the road to Jerusalem. In a few months, without doubt, the Cross will permanently displace the Crescent on the citadel of David, which is still standing at the western gate of the Holy City.

     While we are perfectly well aware that all these events do not mean any speedy establishment of the New Jerusalem either in Palestine or anywhere else, yet it is certainly a prerequisite that these unhappy regions shall again come into the hands or reasonable human beings, and modern events, in the unceasing and irresistible current of Divine Providence, undoubtedly point to a fulfillment, even in a wide natural sense, of the prophesies of the Old Testament.


There is no doubt and no reason why these lands, under decent government, cannot be reclaimed for cultivation and civilization. The great wilderness will some day be irrigated, the fertile Valleys plowed up and sown, the ruin-strewed hills covered with vineyards and olive groves, and the whole region, where the Garden of Eden once flourished, will once more be flowing with milk and honey.

     Multitudes of pilgrims from all over the world will then in security visit the lands and the scenes of the Bible and their geography, archeology and history will be studied as never before. And thus, even in a literal sense, there will be a fulfillment of the words: "The wilderness and the solitude shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose." (Is.35:1) "In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria; . . . in that day shall Israel be a third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth. (Is. 19:23, 24.)




     Thou Shalt Not Commit Adultery.

     1. What is meant by committing adultery.
Adultery is committed when a married man acts as husband, or a married woman as wife, with any other than his or her lawful partner, thereby defiling the sacred covenant of marriage.

     He who made them in the beginning made them male and female, and He said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother and shall cleave into his wife; and they two shall be one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together let not men put asunder. (Matth. 19:4-6.)

     2. The Divine origin of marriage.

     The institution of marriage has descended from God out of heaven. The kingdom of the Lord, in heaven and on earth, is His bride and wife; and this heavenly marriage flows from the infinite union of the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom of the Lord, the God Man.


     For thy Maker is thy husband; the Lord of hosts is His name. (Is. 54:5.)

     3. Conjugial love.

     The human being was created in the image and likeness of God, but the male was formed more in the likeness of His wisdom, and the female more in the image of His love. From creation there is implanted in both a longing to become conjoined,-the masculine wisdom with its own feminine love, and the feminine love with its own masculine wisdom. The love of this union is called conjugial love.

     For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee; and as a bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall the God rejoice ever thee. (Is. 62:5.)

     4. The purity, beauty and holiness of marriage.

     The marriage of one man with one woman is the jewel of human life and the sacred shrine of the Christian Religion. From its Divine and heavenly origin conjugial love is good and true, pure and beautiful, useful and holy, above every other love among angels and men, and into it are gathered all the joys and delights of human happiness from the first to the last.

     Let as be glad and rejoice and give honor unto Him; for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready. (Rev. 19:7.)

     5. The first use of marriage.

     The first and most important use of marriage is the moral and spiritual help which husband and wife render to each other in the life of regeneration. As the interior marriage of charity and faith is thus perfected in each, the conjugial pair grows together into one mind and one soul, the completed image and likeness of God, their Creator.

     Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the Church and gave Himself for it. (Eph.5:25.)

     6. The second use of marriage.

     The second use of marriage is the orderly procreation of the human race, and the protection and education of children, in order that the earth and the heavens may be filled with useful and happy people. The love of children flows from the Lord's infinite love towards His human creatures; and as He loves so He provides for every soul that is born.

     And God blessed them and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth. (Gen. 1:28.)


     7. The third use of marriage.

     The third use of marriage is the preservation of peace, order and progress in human society. The marriage of one man with one wife is the foundation of all civilization; but where this is not kept sacred there is jealousy, disorder and strife everywhere; the honor of womanhood is not respected, and the advancement of human happiness is arrested and comes to an end.

     8. The holiness of the organs of marriage.

     Since marriage exists for these fundamental and universal uses, it is evident that the organs of the human body provided for marriage are most holy. They are guarded by angels of the inmost heaven; are created only for pure and chaste marriage; and are not to be profaned by unchaste and adulterous lusts.

     Know ye not that re are the temple of God, lad that the spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy, for the temple of God is holy. (I. Cor. 3:16, 17.) Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid! (I. Cor. 6:15.)

     9. Marriage a religious and eternal covenant.

     Marriage is essentially a union of minds and souls, and is to be entered into not only for time but for eternity. Love truly conjugial, therefore, cannot exist between two who are disunited as to religion, the most essential thing in human life. Marriage between those of different religions is in heaven regarded as hateful, and the angels cannot dwell in such a household.

     Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers. For what fellowships hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And whit communion hath light with darkness? (II. Cor. 6:14.) Thou shalt make no covenant with the nations; neither shalt thou make marriage with them; for they will turn away thy son from following Me. (Deut. 7:2-4.)

     10. The Divine promise of conjugial love.

     To those of the Lord's New Church there is given the promise that love truly conjugial, long lost on earth, will be restored, and that the Lord will provide a true and eternal partner for those who from early youth have loved, wished for, and asked of the Lord a lawful and loving companionship with one of the other sex, and who spurn and detest wandering lusts.

     And I will betroth thee unto Me forever; yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in justice and in judgment, and in loving kindness, and in mercies; and I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness; and thou shalt know the Lord. (Hos. 2:19, 20)


     11. The evil of adultery.

     The evil of adultery can be seen only by contrast with its opposite,-true marriage. As high and pure and holy as is conjugial love, so base and filthy and profane is the love of adultery, which destroys all the universal uses performed through the covenant of marriage.

     Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth. (Mal. 2:15.)

     12. Adultery is the complex of all evils.

     Adultery is the complex of all evils forbidden In the Decalogue, for an adulterer not only covets his neighbor's wife, but is at the same time a deceiver and liar, a thief, a murderer of innocence and virtue, a breaker of Divine and human law, a profaner of what is holy, and a worshipper of self.

     Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. (I. Cor. 6:10.)

     13. The love of adultery is the fundamental love of hell.
Even as conjugial love is the fundamental love of heaven, being the love of conjoining all good with all truth so the love of adultery is the fundamental love of hell, being the love of conjoining all evil with all falsity.

     Whose committeth adultery lacketh understanding; be that doeth it destroyed his own soul. (Prov. 6:32.)

     14. Adultery is the image of hell and the likeness of the devil.

     By conjugial love a human being becomes more and more an image and likeness of God. But by the love of adultery he puts on the monstrous image of hell and the likeness of the devil; for this love distorts the order and harmony of every form of heavenly beauty. In hell all are adulterers, and they rage in fury when they scent the sphere of conjugial love.

     Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant. But he knoweth not that the Dead are there, and that her guests are in the depths of hell. (Prov. 9:17, 18.)

     15. Why heaven is closed to adulterers.

     As soon as the angels scent the sphere of adultery, they turn away in horror; and for this reason heaven is closed to those who find pleasure in the thought of adultery and whoredom, and especially to those who commit these sins from the confirmed love of them.


     Her house is the way of hell, going down to the chambers of death. (Prov. 7:27.)

     16. The filthiness of adulterous love.

     There is nothing more unclean than whoredom and adultery, for by these there is a horrible commingling of human lives, and out of the foul mixture there arise many abominable pests which not only curse the sinners themselves but also impair the health and happiness of future generations.

     17. The love of adultery is hatred, not love.

     Between adulterers there is no genuine love, but a secret hatred which after a time manifests itself in contempt and aversion and finally flames forth in rejection and hatred. Hence in the love of adultery there is always a spirit of cruelty, a fact which shows the close connection between the Fifth Commandment and the Sixth.

     18. The love of adultery destroys the love of children.

     The love of adultery hates all innocence and therefore also destroys the love of children. The prevention of offspring comes from no other source than the love of adultery; but to prevent the birth of children is to commit a crime against the human race, against heaven, and against God.

     A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping for her children refused to be comforted for her children, because they were not. (Jer. 31:15.)

     19. Adultery in a wider natural sense.

     In a wider natural sense adultery includes all forms of whoredom which destroy the love of marriage. Of these evils there are many different kinds, which become worse and worse in, the degree that lust and deceit enter into them.

     20. Fornication.

     The whoredom of unmarried persons is called fornication. This is an evil which becomes more and more grievous as the heart is filled with the love of variety and aversion to the purity of marriage. By association with evil women a youth is introduced into the filthy sphere of hell, from which he must flee as from the pest of the body and the death of the soul.

     Last not after her beauty in thine heart, neither let her take thee with her eyelids. (Prov. 6:25.) Flee also youthful lusts, but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart. (II. Tim. 2:22.)


     21. The love of adultery in the widest natural sense.

     In the widest natural sense the love of adultery includes all obscene and immodest acts, lascivious conversations, and unclean imaginations and thoughts concerning the other sex.

     Unto the pure all things are pure; but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving there is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience are defiled. (Titus 1:15.)

     22. Acting obscenely.

     In the world at this day innocent persons are exposed to great moral danger by theatrical representations which by evil suggestions excite the lusts of the flesh or throw contempt and ridicule upon marriage and the relation of the sexes. Let all beware of joining with delight in such unclean things, for they belong to the love of adultery and lead to it,

     Fornication, and all uncleanness, let it not once be named among you; neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jestings which are not becoming. (Eph. 5:3. 4.)

     23. Lascivious conversations.

     Still more common is the foul talk about womanhood in lewd jests and stories and songs, which are supposed to be amusing, but which fill the mind with an infernal filth that clogs the channels of influx from heaven and opens the influx from the pools of hell.

     Out of the abundance of the heart the month speaketh. A good man out of the treasurer of his heart bringeth forth good things; and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. (Matth. 12:34, 35.)

     24. True chivalry.

     The spirit of true chivalry regards womanhood itself as a holy thing and looks with indignation and horror upon any foul talk concerning the gentle sex. A true man will defend the honor of all women as he will defend the honor of his own mother or sister or wife.

     Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. (Matth, 5:8.)

     25. The Essence of the Sixth Commandment.

     The essence of the evil forbidden in the Sixth Commandment is the lust of adultery, for this is the adultery of the heart which enters into the will and becomes determination, and deliberate intention. And this, in the sight of God, is the same as the deed intended.


     Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shall not commit adultery, but I say onto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. (Matth. 5:27, 28.)

     26. When the love of adultery is most deadly.

     The love of adultery becomes most deadly, because most difficult to remove from the heart, when it is joined with the false persuasion that whoredom and adultery are not in themselves evils and sins against God, and that there is no real difference between them and marriage.

     27. Whoredom and adultery to be shunned as sins against God.

     Even a most wicked man can shun these evils as hurtful to his own honor and safety, but only a true Christian can shun them as sins against the neighbor, and most especially against the Lord, who is purity and innocence itself, the very fountain of love truly conjugial.

     Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doing from before Mine eyes; cease to do evil; learn to do well. (Is. 1:16.17.)

     28. The Divine Truth our only help.

     The Divine Truth is the only power able to cleanse the human heart. We may shun impure company, but the selfhood still remains. We may pray to the Lord for help, but He cannot help us if we do not seek His Truth. The only real refuge is the Word of the Lord, in its letter and its Heavenly Doctrine, for this is the River of Life in which we must wash and bathe in order to become pure and strong.

     Wherewith shall a young man cleanse his way? By taking heed according to Thy Word. (Ps. 119:9.) Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity and cleanse me from my sin. For I acknowledge my transgression, and my sin is ever before me. (Ps 51:21 3.)

     29. Adultery in the spiritual sense.

     To commit adultery, in the spiritual sense, means to adulterate the good of the Word and to falsify its truth,-that is, to pervert the Word by using it to excuse and defend that which the Word itself declares to be evil and false.

     They have wrought fully in Israel, and have committed whoredom, and have spoken My Word falsely. (Jer. 29:23.)

     30. The celestial sense of the Sixth Commandment.

     In the inmost sense, the evil forbidden in the Sixth Commandment is committed by those who seduce the Church, or anyone in the Church, from the love and worship of the only Lord.


To deny the holiness of the Word and the Divinity of the Lord is to commit adultery in the inmost sense. To divide the Godhead into three persons is to make the Church a harlot having three husbands, the true wife of none.

     And upon her forehead was a name written, Mystery, Babylon the great, the mother of harlots and of the abominations of the earth. (Rev; 17:5.)



     Thou Shalt Not Steal.

     1. The natural sense of the Seventh Commandment.

     In its natural sense the Seventh Commandment forbids the evil of depriving our neighbor of anything that is his, either by secret theft, or by open violence, or by any fraudulent and deceitful pretense.

     2. Why the tendency to steal is common even among children.

     Since the fall of mankind our perverted human nature is from very birth filled with the love of self; this love first manifests itself in the desire to appropriate to itself whatever it fancies to be of profit and delight.

     3. Little thefts are no small matters.

     There is no evil that grows so quickly in a child as the love of stealing, for there is none more immediately pleasing to the love of self. Beginning with the theft of small and unimportant things, the habit in a short time grows from a dwarf to a giant, who finally takes possession of the whole mind.

     He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. (Luke 16:10.)

     4. "Once a thief, always a thief."

     It is, of course, always possible for every man to repent if he earnestly tries. But it is a fact that the more a person steals the more, he wants to steal, until at last he cannot desist. His very fingers itch with the lust, for all the fibres and nerves have set themselves as tools obedient to this love.

     If the wicked restore the pledge, give again that which he robbed, walk in the statutes of life, without iniquity, he shall surely not die. (Ezech. 33:13.)


     5. The deep-seated nature of this evil.

     The evil of stealing enters more deeply into man, as it conjoins itself with cunning and deceit. Requiring secrecy, it plans and plots in the dark, and drags down the thoughts of the understanding into the service of the infernal will.

     The thief cometh not but for to steal and to kill and to destroy; I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly. (John 10:10.)

     6. Stealing, most clearly opposite to the law of charity.

     Everyone can see that stealing is directly opposite to the golden rule of charity. It hurts any person to have his own goods stolen from him; why, then, should he hurt others by taking from them the things which they love and need?

     Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to m; for this is the law and the prophets. (Matth. 7:12.)

     7. The Seventh Commandment in its wider natural sense.

     In its wider natural sense the Seventh Commandment forbids all unjust and dishonest practices, whether in private or public affairs. It is well known that "honesty is the complex of air moral virtues;" thus also dishonesty is the complex of all the moral ills.

     Let him that stole steal no more; but rather let him labor working with his hands the thing which is good, that be may have to give to him that needeth. (Eph. 4:28.)

     8. Dishonesty, in children and the young.

     This evil manifests itself in children and young persons not only in actual stealing, snatching, and pilfering, but also in the tendency to cheat in games and sports, and to deceive parents and teachers by tricks and pretenses which do great injury to the deceiver because they destroy innocence in the mind and make it the home of spirits from the hell of thieves.

     9. Dishonesty, in servants and workmen.

     When persons employed by others do not serve for the love of use to the neighbor, which is the true reward for every work, but for selfish gain alone, they are thieves at heart, striving to cheat their employer at every opportunity, and looking to render the least possible service for the greatest possible wage.

     10. Dishonesty, in employers.

     Those who employ servants and workmen are thieves at heart when they withhold from them their just wages, or exact of them labor beyond strength and health.


Such employers take no interest in the welfare of their servants but would treat them as slaves, did the law permit.

     Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness and his chambers by wrong; that useth his neighbor's service without wages, and giveth him not for his work. (Jer. 22:13.)

     11. Dishonesty, in business men.

     In the world of business, as now existing, there flourish innumerable forms of stealing, such as cheating by false weights and measures, adulterating merchandise, misrepresenting the value of goods, conspiring to raise the cost of public necessities, defrauding creditors, falsifying accounts, practicing unlawful usury, bribing legislatures, etc. In all these aims the evil is the greater the more it does injury to a larger number of persons, and the more that deceit and cunning enter into the crimes.

     The getting of treasures by a lying tongue is a vanity torrid to and fro of them that seek death. The robbery of the wicked shall destroy them, because they refuse to do judgment. (Prov. 21:6, 7.)

     12. Dishonesty, in public servants.

     Dishonesty in public servants is a betrayal of the public trust. Whether they be thieving officers and politicians, corrupt lawyers and judges, venal magistrates and legislators, self-seeking priests, or unjust rulers, their guilt is the greater because their sins are destructive to the neighbor in the wider sense,-the community, the country, and the human race.

     Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, to turn aside the needy from the judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of My people; that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless. (Is. 10:1, 2)

     13. Dishonesty, in citizens of the country.

     Honest citizens, with a willing and cheerful heart pay lawful taxes, customs and tributes because these are for the protection and preservation of the country itself. But dishonest citizens seek every opportunity to evade the laws and to defraud their country by smuggling, lying, and deceiving, for to them their own flesh and their own household stand above the welfare of the

     Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things which are God's. (Matth. 22:21.)

     Render unto all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor. (Rom. 13:7.)

     14. Dishonesty, in members of the Church.


     To the true members of the Lord's Church there is nothing more delightful than to offer to the Lord a token of their acknowledgment that to Him, belong all the goods which He has bestowed upon them. By these offerings His Church on the earth is sustained in the work of extending to men the means of eternal salvation. Let those who love the Church consider whether continual carelessness or wilful neglect in supporting the uses of the Church is a sign of love for the highest good of mankind, or of gratitude to the Lord.

     Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in Mine house; and prove Me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open unto you the windows of heaven, and pour out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it. (Mal. 3:10.)

     15. The Seventh Commandment in its widest natural sense.

     In its widest natural sense the law against stealing includes many kindred evils, of injury to ourselves and the neighbor, such as love of idleness, of luxury, of intemperance in food and drink, the passion for gambling, the lust of gain, avarice, etc.

     16. The love of idleness.

     The love of idleness is an interior form of the love of stealing, for an indolent person continually steals from his neighbors and from God the time which should be spent in the performance of uses and the improvement of the mind. No idler is admitted into heaven, for all who are there are busy in the works of charity. Even in hell no indolence is tolerated, for there all are forced by hunger to work for their food.

     If anyone would not work, neither should he eat. (II. Thes. 3:10.)

     17. Idleness, "the devil's pillow."

     Idleness is called "the devil's pillow," because all infernal spirits find a soft abiding place in a slothful mind; it is like a sponge which draws in filthy waters of every kind, for such a mind is undetermined and therefore open to all the vain thoughts, sensual lusts and malignant purposes which flow in from the world, the flesh and the devil. The love of use alone can keep them out.

     Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise. (Prov. 6:6.)

     18. Intemperance in food and drink.

     Those who make the pleasures of the flesh the delight of their life put off what is human and put on the nature of beasts.


The abuse of food and drink is connected with the love: of stealing, for a glutton or a drunkard wastes in extravagance what might be of use to many. He steals away the happiness of his wife and family, injures his own health, and robs his mind of the rational faculty without which he is no longer a man.

     Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners shall inherit the kingdom of God. (I. Cor. 6:10.)

     19. The love of wealth.

     The love of wealth may be either a blessing or a curse. It is a blessing if it spring from the love of performing uses of charity to the neighbor. It is a curse if it spring from the love of self and the world, for then the wealth is the means of doing greater injury to the neighbor and of deeper damnation to the man himself.

     Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in robbery; if riches increase do not set your heart upon them. (Ps. 62:10.)

     21. The love of gambling.

     By this love is not meant the delight taken in various games of chance, when played simply for the sake of social intercourse and the recreation of the mind. But it means the lust of gaining money quickly, without returning any corresponding use of service. This lust finally becomes a passion for which the gambler will sacrifice everything,-his fortune, his family, his good name, nay, honor itself.

     Take heed, and beware of covetousness; for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth. (Luke 12:15.)

     22. The lust of gain for the sake of self.

     This lust is insatiable, for at the bottom there is the desire to possess the wealth of the whole world; it would plunder everyone, nay, it would kill everyone opposing it, even for a trifling gain, if the fear of the law did not restrain.

     For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and shall lose his own soul? Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? (Matth. 16:26.)

     23. The love of money for its own sake.

     The most insane and filthy form of the lust for gain is avarice, or the love of money for its own sake. This passion is the lowest of all earthly lusts, for it is the love of something which in itself is dead and of no use even to the miser.


The pleasures of avarice consist of nothing but sordid imaginations, which close the mind to everything that is human and spiritual, heavenly and

     Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then, whose shall be those things which thou has provided? So is he that layeth up treasures for himself, and is not rich toward god. (Luke 12:20, 21.)

     24. Intellectual avarice.

     There is a form, of intellectual avarice, not uncommon, the lust of storing up a boundless hoard of knowledge in the memory for the mere pleasure of knowing, without the love of imparting the knowledge to others or putting it to any practical use. After death the natural memory is closed, and then the spiritual miser wakes up to a life of ignorance and everlasting poverty.

     Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through and steal. For where your treasure is, there will be your heart also. (Matth. 6:20, 21.)

     25. The spiritual sense of the Seventh Commandment.

     To steal, in the spiritual sense, means to deprive others of the truths and goods of their faith, which is done by injecting doubts and false persuasions. And it means also to attribute to oneself anything of intelligence and wisdom, righteousness and merit, for this is to steal from God that which belongs to Him alone.

     26. The celestial sense of the Seventh Commandment.

     By thieves, in the celestial sense of the Word, are meant those who at heart deny the Divine of the Lord, and who imagine or teach that there is any way of salvation other than the acknowledgment and love of the Lord.

     He that entereth not by the Door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. I am the Door: by Me, if any man enter in, he shall be saved. (John 10:1, 9.)

     (To be continued.)




     The Seventh Annual meeting of the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY Publishing Association was held at I, Bloomsbury Street, London, on March 8th. The Rev. W. A. Presland, chairman, opened the meeting with the Lord's Prayer. The following is a summary of the Report of the Board of Management:

     Members numbered 40 and subscriptions L67.9. 2., as against 42 members and L48.4.1. in 1915.

Nos. printed each quarter      400
Average no. sold           210
Distributed                         129
On hand and for binding          61

     This showed a slightly increased circulation attributable to greater freedom in distribution exercised by the "New Church Press Ltd." during the year.

     Reference was made to the ill health of the Editor, which had compelled him to temporarily relinquish his work, and in his absence the office of Editor had been efficiently filled by Mr. G. E. Holmun. The conditions imposed by the War had unfortunately compelled the Board to limit publication during 1917 to two issues only to be published in April and October, each containing an increased number of pages. Appreciation was expressed for the great interest and support which the late Mr. John Howard Spalding had given to the QUARTERLY from its commencement. At each of the former annual meetings he had occupied the chair, a position he also filled at the meetings of the Board of Management and Advisory Board.

     The adoption of the Report and Balance Sheet was moved from the Chair, and in the course of the Rev. W. A. Presland's speech, he said that when the QUARTERLY was launched upon the sea of literature they were convinced there was ample room for such a serial; it was possible to treat of the subjects with which the QUARTERLY dealt in such a way as to secure for it a public.


     Events had fully justified the enterprise and it was gratifying to find that notwithstanding the strain and stress of the times the circulation had been better even than in normal years. They were to some extent indebted to the manager of the "New Church Press Ltd." The QUARTERLY Went far beyond the limits of Great Britain, and was highly appreciated on the other side of the Atlantic and found its way even into still more remote quarters. Wherever it went it must commend itself to earnest Newchurchmen.

     Owing to the special circumstances under which we lived the Board of Management had found it necessary to make a distinct change in the ensuing year. The Magazine would be published half yearly, but in compensation for the increased cost it was proposed to give a considerably larger issue, and he felt sure that past subscribers would continue to subscribe, and they hoped it would still be a welcome guest and a helpful friend.

     It was a matter for congratulation that the Treasurer's accounts were so satisfactory, showing as their did that at the end of the year they had been practically able to pay their way. He had much pleasure in moving the adoption.

     REV. G. C. OTTLEY, in seconding, referred to the great loss they had sustained in the removal of the bodily presence of their friend, Mr. Spalding, whom he had known for forty years. His contributions to the QUARTERLY were always stamped not only with a certain degree of scholarship, but by profound thought. They were sorry to have lost his presence bodily, but they felt sure that he was with them still in the work they wanted to do for the New Church.

     He was one of those men who took all things very quietly and in a true spirit of charity. He loved liberty as every Englishman should, especially a Newchurchman, for there is no possibility of development until the principle of liberty is acknowledged. He saw that the time had come to found a periodical of a solid character. For a number of years the Church had been going in the direction of meeting the world on a superficial plane; Mr. Spalding saw the error of all this, and he, therefore, supported the QUARTERLY With his whole heart, and the result has been immensely satisfactory.

     The QUARTERLY provided an arena for a number of writers on doctrinal subjects, who were entirely excluded from other journals of the Church in Great Britain.


This has proved a correct policy, and it would be deplorable at this stage should publication be discontinued. They knew not what the future might bring forth, but they could always have some idea of what was coming if they looked at it from interior light.

     THE CHAIRMAN here paid a high tribute to the work of Mr. Spalding, saying that those who had worked with him knew well how great was their loss so far as they could gauge temporal affairs. Mr. Spalding had been indefatigable in his service to this Association. He did not think anyone, excepting the Editor, did more for it than Mr. Spalding. He was Chairman of the Board of Management; had been Chairman of all the Annual Meetings hitherto, and it behooved the Meeting to put on record an appreciation of the high services he had rendered and to forward to his family their sympathy.

     He, therefore, moved the following Resolution:

     "The Report having mentioned the departure into the spiritual world of Mr. J. Howard Spalding who had been Chairman of the Association since its formation, and of the Board of Management, a member of the Advisory Committee, and a valued contributor:

     "Resolved, That this meeting desires to express its earnest appreciation of his many services and its sincere sympathy with Mrs. Spalding and the family in their bereavement."

     REV. J. F. Buss, in seconding, said that he had personal grounds for feeling the loss. Mr. Spalding was a man of highly exceptional character in every respect-a typical and ideal Newchurchman who exemplified a combination of intellectual grasp and comprehension of the doctrines of the Church in their interior aspect as well as in their most general application, with an extraordinary embodiment and illustration of those doctrines in his daily life. The Chairman had referred to his services to the Association in general, but owing to his Editorship of the QUARTERLY and to his pastorate of the Kensington Society he (the Speaker) had had more intimate relations with their late Chairman.

     It had always been a great advantage to have as a friend one possessed of such technical knowledge of periodical literature as Mr. Spalding possessed. It was perhaps not amiss to mention that although, publicly, Mr. Spalding had been associated with the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY in the first steps taken, the idea originated with the present Secretary of the Association; a fellow supporter was the Treasurer, and they pressed him (the speaker) for fully twelve months before the first public step was taken to realize the idea, to see if he would undertake to act as editor. After much consideration he came to the conclusion that he might perhaps allow them to go on in the expectation that it might be possible for him to take up the editorship.


This encouraged them, and Mr. Spalding was approached and asked what he thought of the idea. After some hesitation he eventually agreed with the project and imported into it much more ambitious notions than were entertained by the first promoters. An appeal made of the Church resulted in the publication of the NEW CHURCH QUARTERLY by this Association, which had gradually won favor in all kinds of quarters. Some thought at the beginning that it would be of a questionable nature-an Academy production-and partly to disarm suspicion of the idea of an Advisory Board to consist of persons unimpeachable in the eyes of Conference was suggested and carried out. Their friends, the Academy, had always realized that it was not an Academy publication, but they appreciated it as a fair organ that refused to regard Academy ministers as outside the pale of the New Church and which recognized them as fellow Newchurchmen entitled to a hearing on the same terms as every other Newchurchman. That had been the policy of the QUARTERLY from the beginning, to which Mr. Spalding gave hearty support. They had had discouragements but Mr. Spalding was not to be moved from his position of fair-mindedness and freedom for all and Mr. John Pitcairn recognizing this characteristic became a supporter and member of this Association. They also who were anti-Academy had come to realize that in the QUARTERLY was something that was serving a need in the New Church, that no other organ attempted to serve-a need which was so unmistakable in character that it was entitled to the loyal support of Newchurchmen as Newchurchmen. These things were mentioned because they were all associated with the policy of the QUARTERLY which owed much to Mr. Spalding, more than could ever be repaid.

     Rev. R. J. Tilson said that he was glad to have the opportunity of meeting some of those outside of the border of that very narrow fold to which he ministered. He spoke to the motion because of his long association with Mr. Spalding, which he thought exceeded that of anyone present. It was thirty-eight years since they first met and commenced work for the Church, and he recalled very happy memories of him when he, with Dr. Tafel, the Rev. Thos. Child and the speaker were members of the Revision Committee of the Swedenborg Society. From the first meeting to the last day that he saw Mr. Spalding in his home, he never found him guilty of any patronage of the Academy. He recognized fully that they, the Academy people, were fellow members of the Lord's New Church. He knew that their conscientiousness had never proved wanting, and though they differed intellectually they were ready to assist wherever they were asked in furthering the interests of the Lord's New Church. It had been truly said that Mr. Spalding was a great Newchurchman. To his mind he was an idea layman, for when they differed it only brought them closer together; he knew they were sincere and they knew he was sincere. As they were instructed in the Doctrines, a novitiate spirit was once asked, "What news from the earth?" When Mr. Spalding awoke into consciousness in the spiritual world he would have that question put to him and he would give a faithful answer.


In that spiritual world he would be able to help them better than he could help them here. Physical conditions militated against what men would do; their material spheres sometimes derogated from their usefulness. When they had been through the processes of vastation their love could manifest itself more forcibly and might become more powerful to help those whom they loved on earth. They would never be without Mr. Spalding so long as they lived and worked for the Lord's New Church.

     The Motion was agreed to by a rising Vote.

     The following were unanimously elected Officers of the Association:

     Editor-Rev. James F. Buss.

     Sub-Editor-Mr. G. E. Holman.

     Advisory Board-The Editor, Sub-Editor, Rev. W. A. Presland and Mr. D Wynter.

     Treasurer-Mr. C. Toby.

     Secretary-Mr. A. E. Friend.

     Auditor-Mr. G. E. Holman.

     In accepting the appointment of Editor, REV. J. F. BUSS thanked the meeting for the renewal of confidence extended to him. He esteemed the appointment as one of the most important that could be given to him. The QUARTERLY preformed a use of the utmost importance to the growth and life of the New Church, by which was meant the progress of the members of the Church into the interiors of Doctrine with a view, of course, to those interior doctrines being illustrated in their daily conduct. There could be no real growth or life for the Church in the world unless the members progressed from externals to internals, and from internals to still more internals. It was just because they felt that the other periodical literature lacked the means of leading the members of the New Church in that direction, and that the life and growth of the Church was suffering in consequence that they were inspired to engage in the enterprise. Mr. Buss proceeded then to move a vote of thanks to all those who had helped him in any capacity to carry out the QUARTERLY through another year, especially mentioning the sub-editor, Mr. Holman.

     In conclusion, the Editor intimated his intention of publishing two excellent portraits of Mr. J. Howard Spalding and Mr. John Pitcairn in the April number.

     The Editor's motion having been seconded, the vote of thanks was carried unanimously.


The Chairman then moved that the hearty thanks of the Association be accorded to the Editor for his eminent services during the past year, which was seconded by REV. G. C. OTTLEY and carried unanimously.

     A letter from Mr. James Caldwell, of New Brighton, was then read suggesting that the reviews of other periodicals should be curtailed, on which an interesting discussion ensued. Mr. C. Toby was of opinion that no alteration should be made, regarding the reviews as an essential part of the QUARTERLY. Rev. W. H. Acton, as a contributor of one of the reviews, thought this department a very useful one, and would be sorry to see it interfered with. Dr. L. E. de Beaumont thought the question should be regarded from the point of view of space, and discrimination should be exercised as between journals reviewed, all not being of equal importance. He thought that important articles reviewed should be so presented as to catch the eye of the reader.

     The Editor said that similar criticism had been expressed on former occasions, but it was not generally held. He thought the surveys a most useful feature, and he had received many expressions of opinion to that effect. It was quite a unique characteristic of the QUARTERLY, and probably a wholesome one for the other journals, an instance of which the Editor quoted.

     Rev. W. H. Acton then moved that this meeting expresses its entire satisfaction with the present existence of the "Surveys of the Quarter's Magazines," and desires that the Editor shall have full charge as hitherto.

     Rev. R. J. Tilson seconded, saying that the question was purely editorial, and Rev. G. C. Ottley supported; at the same time remarking that probably Mr. Caldwell grudged the space taken up by mere criticism, which, in his opinion, could doubtless be more usefully covered by presentation of truth. This he said from his personal knowledge of the writer of the letter whom he highly esteemed. The motion was then carried.

     Mr. Holman there thanked the meeting far the honor of appointing him Sub-Editor, and a vote of thanks having been passed to Rev. W. A. Presland for presiding, the meeting was closed with the Benediction.


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. The Easter Festival opened with a full service on Friday evening, whereat the Rev. George De Charms delivered a sermon on the text, "And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom." On Sunday the Holy Supper was administered. The Easter service for the children was beautiful and impressive; each child brought a budding flower which was placed on the chancel steps, and the little ones seemed to enter fully into the devotional sphere of the service. So many adults attended this service that the chapel was full to its capacity.

     On April 15 no fewer than 50 of our people went to Philadelphia, and enjoyed the hospitality of the Advent Society at their second local Assembly. The banquet was highly stimulating and inspiring, and the sincere and sturdy Newchurchmanship of our neighboring society makes a visit of this kind a real privilege and delight to us.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton, whose health had been so seriously threatened that he was forced to take a vacation in Florida, is now returned and feeling much better. The church, school and society uses welcome him with enthusiasm, as it is found to be no easy matter to get along without him. The Rev. C. Th. Odhner has also now returned from his trip to the South, and has resumed his editorship of NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     The war is now, of course, prominent and insistent element in our society life, as our young men are responding to the call of their country in the same spirit that has distinguished the societies of the Church throughout the world. We already have nine enrolled in the different branches of the service; a half dozen more expect to join officers' training camps this summer, and many others will join up as soon as there is definite indication as to the course the administration will pursue. The ladies of the society are turning their attention to Red Cross work, and the boys of the school are trying to obtain some sort of military training. Unexpected people are starting vegetable gardens in response to the President's appeal, and Belgian Relief Funds and other war charities are receiving our support.

     CHICAGO, ILL. Since our last letter the Sharon church members have broken the bonds of a rather hard winter, and have entered more actively into social uses, which have had as their inspiration some spiritual motive for the growth and progress of the society. Four suppers were given which were well attended by the widely scattered residents. These meetings were held at the Forrest home, and at the homes of Dr. and Mrs. Farrington, and Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Pollock.

     The celebration of Swedenborg's birthday was set with appropriate toasts and speeches. Most of the discussion, formal and informal, had to do with the conservation of our forces, and the gathering in of every available asset, spiritual and temporal, to make our membership into a compact and effective society of the General Church.

     Five of our members have moved to Glenview during the past year, and while the value of our city societies and circles as a recruiting ground for our community centers is recognized, the need for the introduction of new members is no less evident.


Special meetings and systematic advertising campaigns were discussed, and out of this one definite principle was emphasized; that we need a strong, if not large, united society, as a home to which strangers can be invited, with some assurance that they will find there a sphere of worship, unanimity and brotherly love, to bring a realization of what the New Church means to mankind.

     Without such basis any plan of advertising and "follow up" campaigns, could not bear much fruit.

     In this connection our pastor recently presented a paper, "On Going to Church," (ordered printed and circulated by the Board of Trustees), and in his annual address spoke of the importance of establishing a neighborhood and church center. The scattered membership entails much expense, loss of time and effort, and limits concerted action and general usefulness.

     For the rest, there is to be recorded: A special meeting at the studio of Mr. Charles Francis Browne, where Mr. Alvin Nelson gave an interesting account of the recent District Assembly in Pittsburgh; an Easter service where the children brought living plants for the altar and enjoyed a song service and illustrated lecture; and the annual meeting of the society when our pastor was asked, unanimously, to continue his work among us for another year. On this occasion four new members and two children were received into the society.

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. The grip of war is still upon us and greater sacrifices may yet be necessary. So far, church uses have not suffered in any serious degree, and many social events have cheered and supported us.

     A pleasant Christmas surprise was an invitation to the theater from Mrs. W. Gill. The popular play of "Grumpy" was much enjoyed, and afterwards supper was served in a cafe in the vicinity. Several whist drives have also provided pleasant occasions. On March 1 we had the pleasure of meeting Private N. Motum, on leave from France. A fortnight later at our monthly social we had a similar pleasure in meeting 2d Lieut. W. Rey Gill, on leave from France, and in excellent health. Mr. Gill entertained us by giving us some general idea of the discomforts and dangers of trench life and warfare.

     Our other members are at present located as follows: Private Alwyne Appleton and Private Alan Gill, in France; Private S. Appleton still in England; Sapper J. F. Cooper, in Egypt, and Private Philip Motum at Salonika.

     Swedenborg's Birthday celebration was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Motum. After the usual toasts, an address was given by our pastor on "Why Swedenborg, a philosopher, was chosen in preference to a Theologian." The subject of the succeeding papers was as follows: "Why the former churches failed," by Mr. Everett; "The Lord restores what man destroys," by Mr. Appleton; "The ultimate depends on conjunction with the First," by Mr. Potter; "Conjunction with the Lord is the sole end of Creation," by Mr. Cooper. The papers over, our pastor had to leave, but the prevailing sphere prompted several toasts to "The Priesthood," "Absent Friends," "Our Host and Hostess," etc., and the hearty singing of church songs in response.     F. R. C.


     UNITED STATES. Owing to the private generosity of several New Church contributors, arrangements were made for lectures to be delivered by the well known poet, Edwin Markham, at Boston, Brockton, Newtonville, Springfield and Brookline, Mass., and at Washington, Baltimore and Philadelphia.


The course has extended from April 8 to May 6.

     At Washington Mr. Markham addressed an audience of about one thousand persons, and the course was continued on March 4 by the Rev. William F. Wunsch, who spoke on "The Re-birth of Christianity." The audience numbered only 100 persons, which was considered a good attendance in view of the bad weather. On March 11 Dr. Gustafson lectured on "Immortality" to an audience of 450, and nearly an hour after the lecture was occupied by questions. On March 18 an audience of 420 attended a lecture by the Rev. G. M. L. Gould on the subject of "New Ideals of Marriage."

     The passing away of Mrs. Ruth Gledhill, at Jacksonville, Fla, on February last, in her 97th year, removed one who was probably the last link connecting the present with the very earliest days of the New Church. Mrs. Gledhill was born in Manchester in 1821 and was baptized as an infant by the Rev. Robert Hindmarsh, who was then the pastor of the New Church society in Salford, of which her parents were members. Mrs. Gledhill was for many years an appreciative reader of the NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     At the request of a Committee of the General Council of the General Convention Rev. L. G. Landenberger will spend a month during next July visiting and preaching in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and probably Alberta. He hopes to be present at the Annual Meeting of the "Northwestern Canadian New Church Conference," which will likely be held the first part of July.

     INDIA. The Rev. S. J. C. Goldsack on Jan. 10-16 made a visit to the Hutti mining camp, fifty-one miles from Raichur, which is situated in the extreme southwestern corner of Hyderabad, about 400 miles from Bombay. Addresses were given to small audiences averaging twenty persons. The "notable feature" of the visit was an address delivered by Mr. Goldsack at the Hindu temple, and was translated into Canarese, the vernacular of, the district, by one of the native officials of the mining company who had also been the prime mover in the building of the native temple. Mr. Goldsack's remarks were confined to showing that the various religions of the world were like the children of one family and all owing allegiance to one Father; that all were directed to the worship of the one and only God, and that all regarded the evils forbidden in the Decalogue as sins to be shunned. Not a word appears to have been said about the Second Coming of the Lord or about the New Church, which it may be supposed was to have been the special purpose of the mission to India.
Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association 1917

Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association       REGINALD W. BROWN       1917



The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association will be held in the Sunday School Room of the First New Jerusalem Society at 22d and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, on Wednesday, May 23d, 1917.

Afternoon Session, at 2:30 p. m.
Papers: Swedenborg's Travels, Alfred H. Stroh.
Models of Swedenborg's Finites, Prof. C. R. Pendleton.
Evening Session, at 7:30 p. m.
Annual Address: Swedenborg's Psychology. President L. F. Hite.

     Members and friends of the Association are all cordially invited to attend.




[Drawing of the New Jerusalem Church Repository, the New Jerusalem Temple at the S.E. corner of twelfth and George Streets in Philadelphia.]

VOL. XXXVII          JUNE, 1917          No. 6
     In recent issues of NEW CHURCH LIFE, (February, April, and June, 1916), we reprinted from the pages of our precursor, THE NEWCHURCHMAN, early documents tracing the history of the New Church in Philadelphia from its first beginnings in the year 1784 up to the year 1&15, when, on Dec. 25th, a group of receivers organized "The American Society for Disseminating the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church." This was a society for general missionary work and propaganda, which effected important uses by publishing editions of the Writings, sending these broadcast; over the country, entering into correspondence with the scattered circles and isolated receivers of the Church, etc.

     In the meantime the local circle in Philadelphia continued to meet for worship in the school room of Mr. Maskell M. Carll in "Norris' Alley," (near Second and Walnut Streets), where meetings for study and conversation were also held. A number of zealous neophytes were added to the Church at this time, among them a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, Mr. William Schlatter, whose zeal and generosity made possible a vastly increased activity. It was Mr. Schlatter, (pronounced "slaughter"), who at his own expense purchased a lot at the south-east corner of Twelfth and Sansom streets,-the latter then called George street,-and erected there a Temple for the use of the New Church. The corner-stone of the building was laid on the morning of Thursday, June 6th, 1816, by Mr. Carll, who was acting as lay-reader of the circle.

     Things were now moving rapidly. The first American New Church Liturgy was compiled and published by the Hon. Jonathan Condy, (the real leader of the New Church in Philadelphia); it was an adaptation of the Liturgy originally composed by Robert Hindmarsh for the New Church in Great Britain.


On Christmas day, 1816, the local circle was formally organized as "The First New Jerusalem Church in the city of Philadelphia," and on Dec. 31st Mr. Carll was ordained into the priesthood of the New Church by the Rev. John Hargrove, of Baltimore. The next day, Wednesday, Jan. 1st, 1817, the society witnessed the consecration of the new Temple, by Mr. Hargrove and Mr. Carll, the two ministers "clothed in appropriate, garments." On the same day, at a meeting of, receivers from various Parts of the country, it was decided to issue a call for a General Convention of the New Jerusalem Church in the United States; and very shortly afterwards there appeared the first number of THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY, a quarterly magazine, very ably edited by Mr. Condy.

     In the April issue of that journal, (which unfortunately was suspended in October, 1818), we find a detailed description of the exterior and interior (of the Temple it was accompanied with a fine engraving, which is reproduced in the present issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE. From this account we learn that "the building was designed and superintended in its structure by Mr. William Strickland, a young architect of most promising talents, who upon this occasion gratuitously devoted his services to the Church."

     The services in the new Temple were for a time attended by crowded congregations and many new converts were gained. The minister, however, was not a strong man, mentally or physically, and in 1820 the society began to decline partly on account of the continued ill-health of Mr. Carll, and partly on account of the financial stringencies of the times. Mr. Schlatter and other prominent members suffered severe financial losses, and at the same time the early enthusiasm and mutual confidence in the General Convention began to be disturbed through the introduction of the "conjugial heresy" from Boston. In, 1822 Mr. Carll was compelled by ill health to leave the pulpit in order to go on a long journey to England to recuperate, the services being now conducted by three young lay-readers, one of whom was Mr. Richard De Charms.


     When Mr. Carll returned from England, in 1824, he found the society in a very low state. As Mr. Schlatter still held the title to the Temple in his own name, the property was sold on the settlement of his affairs; the public services were discontinued and the society in consequence lost its charter. Most of the members now united with the "Philadelphia Second" or "Southwark" society, which had been organized in the southern part of Philadelphia by Rev. Manning B. Roche, an Episcopal clergyman who had come over to the New Church in 1822. A small group, however, continued to meet with Mr. Carll in his school-room and the services were thus kept up, in a feeble way, until 1835, when the pastor removed to the West.

     The First Philadelphia society, nevertheless, did not entirely die out, for a few of the old members who did not approve of Mr. Roche continued to meet privately, and their numbers were gradually increased by accessions from the Southwark society, until, in 1839, they felt strong enough to call the Rev. Richard De Charms to become their pastor. The latter, in January, 1840, returned to Philadelphia from Cincinnati, and the "First New Jerusalem Society of Philadelphia" was now organized on May 26th of the same year. The new society, however, did not join the General Convention, but on May 30th organized the "Central Convention."

     Commenting on the rise and fall of the first New Church society in Philadelphia, Mr. De Charms in his famous REPORT ON THE TRINE IN THE PRIESTHOOD, (p. 119), speaks as follows:

     [The society in Philadelphia] "continued to prosper until all of its leading members became prostrated in their worldly circumstances by the inscrutable dispensations of Divine Providence. Mr. Carll at length felt that he could not any longer serve the Church in the pastoral office gratuitously; for he, too, had suffered the almost total loss of his property by the reverses of the times. He was induced to withdraw from the temple and open his school room again for worship. The temple which, on the settlement of Mr. Schlatter's affairs, had been purchased, subject to a heavy ground rent, for one thousand dollars, now passed out of the hands of the New Church, and became the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences.


This it remained till the year 1841, when it was razed to the ground to make way for a private residence. The southeast comer of the wall of the temple was not removed, but remains as part of the foundation of the residence, so that the corner-stone, which was laid with religious ceremonies, in the name and to the honor of our ever-blessed and ever-adorable Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, on the 6th of June, 1816, is still there. But `the First New Jerusalem; Temple built at Philadelphia' is gone, and, the society which worshiped in it is extinct,-the remnant of it having united with a part of the Southwark Society in forming the present First Philadelphia Society, which is now, [1848], flourishing under the pastoral care of the Rev. William H. Benade."

     From this authority it is evident that the building at present standing on the south-east corner of Twelfth and Sansom streets is not, as commonly reported, the same though somewhat reconstructed building that was erected by the New Church in 1817. In his great: work On THE IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF AN EXTERNAL CHURCH, (p. 54), Mr. De Charms adds the following comments:

     "It may be truly and forcibly objected here, that the first Philadelphia Society did erect a representative temple, and institute a representative worship, with a representative priest and priestly garments; and yet it; came to nought. But we are prepared to demonstrate, from the archives of that Society now in our possession, that after the beginning of its worship in its beautiful and very appropriate temple on the south-east corner of Twelfth and George streets, there were about sixty members added to its communion in less than two years,-among whom we ourselves, with our dear mother and our whole family, were numbered, whose progeny, we humbly trust in the Lord, are destined yet to prove burning and shining Fights in His New Jerusalem on earth. Therefore, the failure of that Society must be traced to other causes than the external one above set forth. In fact, its failure must be traced rather to certain internal causes, which we intend to develop in a volume of sermons that we propose to publish consecutively with this.


There were, however, other external causes of that failure. In our opinion, the chief external cause of it, was that Society's efforts to form the shell without the kernel, or to institute an external worship without first providing a suitable priesthood for the right and efficient administration of what pertains to the Divine Law in its exercise. The Lord, in making His Second Advent for the establishment of His New Jerusalem, first provided the man, as the indispensable prerequisite means of effecting His end therein; and unless the Church follows His example in carrying on His work, by first providing the man, in a suitably educated clergy, properly consecrated, wholly set apart, and adequately supported in an exclusive devotion of all their powers to the performance of the chief and grand use of illustration and instruction in Divine truths from the Word, the angel of God can never fly through the heavens proclaiming the everlasting gospel for the salvation of mankind. Here, then, was the ground of the First Philadelphia Society's failure. It first built the house, instead of first providing the man, which is like buying a cage without having a bird to put in it. And the fate of that Society will be experienced by every other society which begins the establishment of the Church in the same way."


     In our next issue we hope to present an account of the celebration of the Centenary of the General Convention, held in Philadelphia, May 19-21. Not only on account of their own historical importance, but also because of the connection of the General Church of the New Jerusalem with the origin of the New Church, we here reprint, from the somewhat inaccessible NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY of 1817, two early documents: the Call for the First General Convention, together with the Minutes of the meeting itself.


     "At a meeting of a number of members of the New Church, from different parts of the United States, held in Philadelphia, on Wednesday, January 1st, 1817, the Reverend Mr. Hargrave in the chair, it was


     "Resolved unanimously, That a Convention of the receivers of the doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, throughout the United States, who may find it convenient to attend, be held at the New Jerusalem Temple, in the city of Philadelphia, on Ascension day ensuing, which will be on the 15th day of May, 1817, at nine o'clock, a. m., for the purpose of consulting upon the general concerns of the Church. "CONDY RAGUET, Secretary." (NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY, 1817, p. 127.)

     "EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE RECEIVERS OF THE DOCTRINES OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH, from different parts of the United States, held on Thursday, the fifteenth day of May, being Ascension Day, and continued until Saturday, the seventeenth of the same month, A. D. 1817-61.

     "In pursuance of a: resolution of a number of members of the New Jerusalem Church, from different parts of the United States, unanimously passed on the 1st day of January last, at the city of Philadelphia, of which public notice was given in the NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY, a number of members, male and female, from the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Ohio, convened at the Temple, in the said city, on Thursday, the 15th day of May, being the day of Ascension, and continued their sittings, by adjournment, until the 17th of the same period. Mr. John Sterling, of Glasgow; in Scotland, and Mr. Jacobson, from Sweden, also attended the convention. The morning service having been performed by the Rev. Mr. Carll, pastor of the church, and the sermon on the Ascension of our Lord having been delivered by the Rev. Mr. Hargrove, of Baltimore, the Resolution, upon which this convention was assembled, was read by the Secretary of the former meeting, in the words following, viz:

     "'Resolved unanimously, That a convention of the Receivers of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, throughout the United States, who may find it convenient to attend, be held at the New Jerusalem Temple, in the city of Philadelphia, on Ascension day ensuing, which will be on the 15th day of May, 1817, at 9 o'cl. a.m. for the purpose of consulting upon the general concerns of the Church, and that notice thereof be inserted in the first number of the REPOSITORY.


     "The Rev. Mr. Hargrove was then unanimously appointed President of the convention, and Condy Raguet, Secretary, and the meeting was opened with the Lord's Prayer.

     "The minutes of the general conference of the ministers and other members of the New Church, held in Fryar's street chapel, London, from Tuesday the 16th to Thursday the 18th of July, 1816-60, were then read, together with the letters and documents therewith published.

     "Whereupon, the convention expressed the approbation and satisfaction they experienced at the zealous and prosperous labors of their brethren in Great Britain, in disseminating the Doctrines of the True Christian Religion.

     "The Manchester and Hawkstone Reports, from their first publication to the year 1816-60, inclusive, and a number of letters and communications, from various parts of the United States and Europe, on the subject of the Church, were laid upon the table.

     "A letter was read, from. William Grant and others, members of the New Jerusalem Church, composing the society of Steubenville, Jefferson county, in the State of Ohio, directed to the convention, stating that they feel great confidence and interest in the labors of their well-beloved brother, David Powell, who had for some years administered the Word to them as a faithful and worthy servant in that vineyard, and expressing their desire that he may be ordained as a preacher of the New Jerusalem Church, that their society in future may be more regularly and acceptably supplied with the administration of the Word and the Holy Ordinances of our divine Savior. The convention took the same into consideration, but conceiving that the great importance of regularity in the ordination of ministers would require more ample deliberation than it would be in their power to bestow at the present meeting, and considering that the New Jerusalem churches of Baltimore and Philadelphia have hitherto with great discretion exercised the power of ordaining ministers,


     "It was ordered, That the said application be reported to the Rev. Messrs. Hargrove and Carll, with a request that they will favor it with their early attention.

     "Resolved, That a committee of clergy and laity be appointed to inquire whether it be expedient to establish any, and if any, what general regulations for the ordination of ministers in the New Church, and that, they make report at the next convention. Whereupon, the following gentlemen were appointed:

Rev. Lewis Beers and Nathaniel Holly, of New York.
Rev. Maskell M. Carll and Jonathan W. Condy, Esq., of Pennsylvania.
Rev. John Hargrove and George Smith, of Maryland.
Rev. Hugh White and Richard H. Gee, of Virginia.
Rev. Adam Hurdus and David Powell, of Ohio.

     "The subject of raising a fund, for defraying the expenses of a missionary minister, having been suggested, it was decided, as the opinion of the convention, that taking into view the general state of the New Church in the United States at present, the period for adopting such a measure had not yet arrived.

     "It was then, on motion, Resolved, That the gentlemen attending this convention be requested to furnish an account of the several societies of the New Church, which are known to them as existing in the United States, with a statement of the number of members, their mode of worship, the names of the leaders, etc., as nearly as they can be ascertained,-and any other information connected therewith.

     "Resolved, That the second annual convention of the New Church be held at the New Jerusalem Temple, in the city of Baltimore, at 10 o'clock, on the morning of Ascension Day, in the year of our Lord 1818-62, at which all the receivers of the doctrines of the New Church in the United States, who can conveniently do so, are respectfully invited to attend.

     "Resolved, That it is earnestly recommended to each of the societies and congregations of the New Church in the United States, to send to the future annual conventions at least one delegate, to represent the voice of the said society or congregation, upon matters concerning the general interests of the Church.


     "Resolved, That where societies or congregations shall omit to send delegates, they be requested to transmit to the convention, in writing, such intelligence respecting their progress, numbers, increase, etc., as they may deem useful."

     The secretary then read an article from the recent Report of the Manchester Printing Society warning against a sect which had lately sprung up in America under the name of "Halcyonites" or "Free Church," and which, while holding some tenets similar to those of the New Church, on the other hand maintained opinions contrary to them and to civil order.

     "Whereupon it was on motion Resolved, That this convention does hereby fully and explicitly declare, that none of the members here convened, nor any of the members of the New Jerusalem Church, with whom they are acquainted, have any connection or communion whatever with the people called Halcyonists or Halcyonites, and who are alluded to in the said Manchester report.

     "Resolved, That a committee be appointed to select for publication such parts of the journal of the proceedings of this convention, and to subjoin thereto such extracts from the letters and communications laid before this meeting, or which may be received or made, prior to such publication, as they may deem; useful for general information.

     "The convention then adjourned." (THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH REPOSITORY, 1817, pp. 129-133.)

     The sphere prevailing at this the earliest general meeting of the New Church in America has been described by Mr. De Charms in these truly eloquent and affecting words:

     "The first General Convention of the receivers of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem in the United States was held in May, 1817-about twenty-six years ago. That and one or two subsequent conventions were marked by the utmost good feeling and harmony. Scattered members of an infant, feeble and unformed church came together to encourage, strengthen and aid one another in living and propagating their despised and ridiculed faith.


Intelligence was communicated, acquaintances were formed, hospitalities exercised, the warm flame of social affections enkindled, and all that the coming together or conspiring of affectionate and intelligent minds could do was done to promote a common cause. In the glow of kindly and holy fellow-feeling no differences of opinion divided, and no contention for intellectual or other supremacy left rankling effects behind. All came with one accord to one place, and mingling their spheres and doing what they could together, separated again with increased intelligence of truth, with strengthened love for the brethren, with enlarged affections for all men, and with pleasing memory of these convenings to promote the universal good. The strong were not arrogant, the weak were not despised, no invidious comparisons were made between the supposed superior and inferior parts of the body, and no jars of any kind disturbed the peace of our conventions." (DE CHARMS' NEWCHURCHMAN EXTRA, No. 1, 1843, p. 20.)


     "So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom." (Ps. 90:12.)

     The Ninetieth Psalm is distinguished into four sections according to the internal sense. The first section contains the fundamental truth that man from himself is nothing, but the Lord everything. The second section presents the truth that the Church must inevitably perish unless the Lord restores it. The third section shows that the restitution of the Church must be by the coming of the Lord. And the final section declares that salvation is to be through His Human alone.

     The reason a man of the Church is called upon to number his days appears from the remainder of the quotation,-that he may apply his heart unto wisdom. What that wisdom is, is very plain from the Psalm as a whole.


It is the understanding, acceptance, and application of the doctrine which the internal sense of the Psalm contains: First, that man of himself is nothing; second, that the Church must surely perish but for the Lord's continual restitution of it; thirdly, that this can only be done by the coming again of the Lord Himself; and finally that it is the Human of the Lord from which all salvation comes. He who understands and applies this teaching is said to number his days, which is, to so order and arrange all things in his spirit that he applies his heart thereby to wisdom.

     What is the general idea involved in number and numbering!

     "To number, in the spiritual sense, . . . is to arrange into order and to dispose. . . . When it is known what is signified by numbering anew by the sons of Israel, it may be evident why it was not lawful for David to number the people.... For by the sons of Israel are meant the truths and goods of the Church, and by numbering is signified to arrange them into order and to dispose them; and since it is the Lord alone to arrange in order and to dispose the goods and truths of faith and of love with every man in the Church and heaven, when this is done by man . . . it then signifies the arranging into order and disposition of such things by man and not by the Lord which is to destroy them. By number is signified the quality and state of a thing." (A. 10217.)

     All the truths and all the goods we know must be brought to bear upon every important problem; but we must be careful that they be brought to bear, not by ourselves, according to our own judgment, but according to the order in which they come from the Lord. No situation is to be superficially considered, but must be considered in the light of the fundamental teaching outlined in this very Psalm to which we have referred,-the truths we have mentioned about the impotence of the Lord, the ineffectualness of human prudence and foresight, and the restoration of the Church through the coming of the Lord.

     Again in the Revelation we read of "the mark of the beast" and of "determining the number of his name," and it is said, "Herein is wisdom."


This means, that we must know not only the truths of the Church, but which of them have been falsified, and how they have been falsified, and how they are applied in the world outside the Church. We must know the number of the beast. The wise man must appreciate the condition and state of the church which has passed away (except in its outward shell). He must recognize those truths which have been falsified, and must understand profanation. To examine and know such things is the part of an intelligent man of the Church. "Let him count the number of the beast." In our spiritual warfare and also in our attitude toward natural warfare, or possibly our participation in it, we must take into account the falsity and the profanation of what is holy that abounds on all sides. Otherwise we shall not have spiritual intelligence and wisdom.

     Elsewhere in the Revelation we read that the wall of the New Jerusalem was "a hundred and forty and four cubits, the measure of a man and of an angel" (for a man may be an angel while he is still in the natural world). The quality of the man and of the angel is all the truths and goods of the Church put together, that is, interwoven into one complex or whole, and that whole entirely at the disposal of the Lord for enlightenment. Manhood or angelhood also involves supplication to the Lord for guidance by means of those things, asking Him to show us the true application of them to life; and this not only as members of the Church, but also as citizens of our country.

     Numbering has two distinct senses in which it is to be understood. In the one sense it is to know the state of the world we live in, in its bearing upon the true and good of the Church; and in the other sense it is to know the truths of divine doctrine from the Lord, and to seek His aid in directing us to apply it well to life. This is what is involved in numbering our days, and thereby applying our hearts unto wisdom.

     There is no wisdom in the heart of him who does not recognize that Divine Providence is in control of the minutest affairs of nations. Isaiah cries, "A tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: Jehovah of Hosts numbereth the host of war." This signifies the falsities of evil which various spiritual nations have made to cohere.


Their multitudinous noise means their threats and the eager desire of falsities to fight against truths. It is not the gathering together of nations for conflict that causes the tumultuous noise, but the prevailing falsities of evil are actually heard as a noise in the spiritual world. And every man of the New Church, no matter what his country, will admit that there are prevailing falsities of evil with every nation of the present day world. But he must also admit, if he is intelligent in spiritual things, that the Divine Providence is over all nations with a mighty hand, and over all armies, and even over all falsities themselves. "Jehovah of Hosts numbereth the host of war.''


     What the nature of those falsities is, with which the nations of our contemporary world are imbued or tinctured, is known to the Lord alone; it is given us to know only a few things of Divine Providence. We are told that there are nations in the modern world which correspond to the nations with which the Israelites were surrounded; but it is not given us to identify these modern nations with the ancient ones. We cannot know with certainty which modern nations are like the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, or the Philistines, but we may know that there are such nations. It may be that they do not confine themselves to geographical boundaries as they did of old, but we may know that the church, which is Israel, is still surrounded by those who represent those ancient nations, and that it is still under attack from them, that is, that all kinds of falsities from evil are continually being brought to judgment, and that judgment of this kind is frequently accompanied by a state of war.

     We should look upon war, then, as a state of spiritual judgment ultimating itself in the lives of nations. We may know that judgment of this kind is brought about in Divine Providence. The Lord does not prevent wars, because He loves the human race and has mercy toward it. If He prevented them, it could not be said that He had mercy upon men, for that would mean that He was willing to leave them in the evils and falsities in which they are immersed, and this He cannot do. It is a law of Providence that when evils confine themselves within certain bounds they are not checked by Providence, that is, by violent means; but when they increase beyond the bounds set by the Lord, then they break forth and by violence bring a condign punishment upon the heads of the offenders.


This is what war is in its spiritual effect.

     Just as with men, the Lord controls the influx of spirits by taking away these and allowing these others to approach the man, so it is with entire nations in His numbering of their days we may picture Him drawing away from a nation cohorts of good spirits and allowing corresponding numbers of evil ones to approach and to take the preponderating influence with a nation as a whole. We know that this may happen, for such is the power of the Lord. But we may know also that when it does happen it is of Divine Providence for the sake of salvation. It is owing to the presence of falsities with a nation in such case that evil spirits are allowed to usurp control. Divine truths would prevent it; would protect the nation from such an ill-omened change of spiritual associates. When good spirits are withdrawn, however, from a collection of men, and evil ones allowed to dominate them, it is as impossible to stern the tide of natural war as it is to beat back the ocean.

     Every nation, like every man, sets a mark or a number upon itself. It numbers itself in violation of the command of the Lord if its policies are shaped and its actions directed from ingrained falsities of evil. But it is numbered by the Lord, if they are determined according to the genuine goods and truths of the Church, or, at least, according to truths of a lower order which do not disagree with the genuine truths of the Church. A nation may number itself "six hundred and sixty-six," the number of the beast, or it may number itself "forty and four," the measure of the man and of the angel. But it is hardly to be expected that any one nation will have impressed upon itself the number of the man exclusively, and will have taken upon itself nothing of the number of the beast. It is far more likely, is it not, that every nation embroiled in war, in the present state of the world, will bear much of the number of the beast and far too little of the number of the man and angel? For it is the lust of power and the lust of gain that are the real causes of war, and what nation is free from these?


If we realize that this is true, we are only telling the number of the beast, that is, we are recognizing the general state of the Christian world. After all, to do this, is only one of the two necessary things already pointed out, by which a man may acquire a heart of wisdom: the other thing he must learn to distinguish is the measure of the New Jerusalem,-the truths and goods of Divine Revelation in the Church. He must know both these things in order to number his days unto wisdom.

     Divine Providence permits wars of great magnitude, because the Lord loves the human race and knows it is in evils and falsities. But that Providence is always on the side of that nation more powerfully, in Which the truths of the Church are dearest, and the life according to these truths the best. That nation the Lord protects more than others. Therefore our chief concern for our country should be a deep concern for its spiritual integrity, or at least for its moral integrity as a soil for its spiritual.

     This should be the all of all-patriotism.

     The spiritual man, indeed, will pray for the preservation of the Church in all countries. It is the Church first of all that matters. It is this alone that matters to the Lord Himself. Nationality is as nothing in His night when compared with the Church, as appears from the fact we may observe that entire countries and kingdoms have been shattered and broken. Who will draw the conclusion from this that the kingdom so scattered and peeled is worse spiritually than other nations? Of this we cannot tell. But we may draw the conclusion that in Providence it may be required to give up the integrity even of kingdoms and governments for the sake of the well-being of the Church, and that no one Should put confidence in kings and rulers for the welfare of his soul.

     And yet such considerations as this should not render a man less patriotic. They Should only make him the more humble in his opinions and his own judgement. They should make him realize more strongly that the permission of war, and all other evils, is of Divine Providence. For he should also know that if wars are inevitable in the present state of the world they are also governed in their course by that same providence.


We read in the Heavenly Doctrine: "The Divine Providence, which is called Fortune, is in the smallest particulars of even trivial things. . . and most certainly in the affairs of war. . . . The Fortunes of war are the Divine Providence acting especially in the plans and meditations of the general."

     If it is through generals, it is also through other national leaders. Whether these leaders are wise and good men or not, they still under the Divine Providence Therefore a man of the church, while recognizing that the whole of the Christian world is in a state of falsity from evil, may also look to the leaders of his country as being the appointed instruments in the hands of the Lord, for bringing about whatever is best for the Church in his country. And when fighting for the plans of those leaders, or in any way supporting them, he may entertain the idea, which is a spiritual one, that thus he is co-operating with the Divine Providence and with nothing less.

     A citizen may not approve of all the acts and policies of those in authority He Might in their position do differently He may even have superior spiritual light to that of his chiefs, which would come from a better grasp of the meaning of the number of the man and angel-of the interior truths of Divine Revelation. Yet he must not overlook that other part of wisdom, which is to recognize the state of the people and the country in which he is; he must also tell the number of the beast. And he should realize that while whatever is, may not be right, according to his judgment, yet it is the best the Lord can accomplish under the general circumstances. One may know that whatever is, is of Divine Providence.

     When it is seen that the largest unit of society which men can maintain is nationality and country,-and not even that without difficulty,-how much should we value it, as the best that Providence can offer without detriment to our spiritual weal!

     The spiritual state of a people is embodied in the laws, institutions, and political ideals they cherish. Therefore when these things are attacked and appear to be endangered, that than is a patriot, and lover of the Lord's kingdom, who is willing to fight against those who threaten the integrity of those things.


Whatever the Lord has provided for a man, through the organization of his country, of civil and political freedom, he must strive to maintain as he would fight for the truths of the Church themselves. Whatever one regards as in accord with the spiritual truth of the Church, he must be willing to defend from attack, and with strength in proportion to the threat. But if he applies his heart unto wisdom, he will recognize that the outcome is to be, accepted as Divine Providence; that of himself he is nothing; that it is for the restitution of the Church; that this is the means of the coming of the Lord, Who knows the states of all men and disposes them; and that it is all for the sake of salvation through the Human of the Lord, which is Divine Truth.


     There is no wisdom in the heart of a man who does not believe that Divine Providence is over all. as a soldier, if he is a spiritual man, fights for the Church, the Lord's coming; and the salvation of the race, when he is fighting for the institutions of his country; so in peace, and in business life, and in the life at home, a man is applying his heart to wisdom when he is willing to allow the Lord to arrange in order from Divine Truth all that he knows, and also to dispose him in all that he does. Here, too, one must recognize Divine Providence as an absolute power directing every single detail. The "flock," the "steps," and the "hairs of the head" are all numbered. The man of wisdom says to himself, "Lord, Thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or even Thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from eternity to eternity Thou art God." How could, it be expressed more strongly that man is nothing and the Lord everything? Providence was over you, whenever there was any spiritual generation within you. Providence was over you before the mountains were brought forth (before there was anything of heavenly love in your heart); before ever the Lord had formed 'the earth' (e'er there was anything of order in the natural mind); before there was anything of truly rational thought and rational good (which is the formation of 'the world'). Every means by which anyone has been brought to his present circumstances, have been means of Divine Providence.


And now it is for him to accept all that by which he is surrounded as of Providence, and to do with it what he can. He is to do what he can to establish the Lord's New Church in the place of the former one,-in himself, and in his own little circle.-For the Church is ever tending to decline within him, and within his circle. The Lord 'turns man to destruction, and sayest, Return.' One is in danger of being 'carried away as with a flood' (of falsity from evil). He is inclined to become 'as asleep,' and 'like grass, which, flourishing in the morning' (or in a state of increased spiritual light and love), is 'cut down and withered in the evening' (that is, when natural pleasures, doubts, and difficulties arise)."

     As described in the Psalm from which we quote, one is brought into temptations because of his "iniquities and secret sins" until it seems to him that he is "bringing his years to an end with a sigh" or "spending his days as a tale that is told." But if he is successful in his temptation, or in the putting to the test of his belief in the Lord, he then realizes the utter futility of his own will and his own prudence. Those things then appear to him "as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night." His own disposition and judgment are as "three score years and ten, or perhaps four score years," which appear as nothing when "we are cut off and fly away."

     Nothing but the spiritual world then appears to him as real and enduring. And nothing but the wisdom of Truth is desirable, and the blessedness of being disposed by the Lord. To the angels, we are told, human prudence appears as a few grains of dust in a great expanse of clear sky, when compared to the power of Providence.

     Why is it that we cannot realize this state of supreme trust in Providence, at once? And why can we not realize at once that the thing of greatest importance to us, is the spiritual world;-the truth and good of the church;-the arrangement of all our minds according to spiritual order;-and the matter of being disposed by the Lord in all that we do? It is for the same reason that wars cannot be prevented; because we are full of evils, and because our minds are influenced by common falsities and persuaded to principles that are represented by the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, the Assyrians, and the Philistines.


These nations are tumultuously assembled in us, and we do not distinguish them well enough from the tribes of Israel. The arrangement of all truths in our minds by the Lord, which is meant by numbering our days, is a thing that cannot be accomplished until we see that we are in evil and that in ourselves we are nothing. But we cannot be reduced to a state in which this can be seen except by means of misfortunes, sickness, privations, and sorrows.
     Therefore if the Lord did not permit these things He would not be a Lord of mercy. Out of such disappointments the genuine trust in Divine Providence may be born. Therefore the Psalm continues, "Make us glad according to the days wherein Thou hast afflicted us, and the years wherein we have seen evil!" It is a great thing to "see evil." It is better than peace and contentment in which our evils do not appear. Therefore the Lord permits evil; and in the end of a church when a New Church is about to appear He permits wars. But to those who acknowledge His Providence, and long for the establishment of His Church by means of His coming, as expressed in the four divisions of this Psalm, there is a way of meeting all worldly troubles so as to rob them to a large degree of their force. That way is to live and rejoice in the truths of the Word now given to the world by the Lord from His Divine Human. Therefore the plea of David is, "Oh, satisfy us in the morning with Thy loving kindness, that we may rejoice and be glad all our days."

     Two things are necessary in order to apply our hearts unto Wisdom: to see and recognize our own evils, which is to "tell the number of the beast;" and to see and recognize the truth of the Lord's Second Coming within the Doctrine of the New Church, the measure or the number of a man and of an angel, "one hundred and forty and four cubits." To number our days, or to suffer all we know to be arranged and disposed by the Lord, is to give these Divine Truths the first and highest place in our minds and hearts; for from them alone will come wisdom in all other departments of thought and life.


     If there are any who think this is an over-statement of the power of the doctrines of the New Church, let him try the experiment of reading from those doctrines often and regularly, and see how much happier he is made in meeting the conditions in which he is placed; how much more certain he becomes of the spiritual world,-the great reality; how much more easily he discovers and opposes the number of the beast in himself.

     "So teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom."


     Now that the attention of the Church is being focused on the use and importance of evangelization, a consideration of some of the problems connected with this work is in order.

     In presenting the Doctrines to the casually interested stranger there are two extremes which must be avoided. One is the effort to present the new truths without acknowledging their divine source, in the hope that their innate reasonableness will pave the way for a later acknowledgment of the spiritual nature on the revelation. The other extreme which is to be avoided is illustrated by those who dwell insistently at the very outset on the peculiar attributes of the man Swedenborg, and who try to destroy the simple faith of the interested inquirer in his old belief, before a suitable foundation has been laid for the recognition of the truths involved in the acceptance of the Lord in His Second Coming.

     Very often the question comes to us, "What do you believe?" Or, "How does the faith of the New Church differ from ours?" There are a number of replies to these questions which can give a wealth of important information, without at once arousing antagonism. It must always be remembered that no matter in how great falsity the man may be who is discussing religion with a Newchurchman, the intelligent and affectionate interest of the inquirer must be aroused before any real progress can be made towards giving him an appreciation of the sacred truths revealed to the New Church.


     The statement that we believe in one God, who is the Lord Jesus Christ, is the inevitable starting paint. If the party addressed is a Christian, such a reply will inspire him, with a confidence based on his early belief in the divinity of Christ. The acknowledgment of Christ as God, in preference to the Old Church doctrine of the Trinity, appears powerfully to human reason, because of the difficulty of conceiving of three persons, each with divine omnipotence and omnipresence.

     Another point which will immediately gain respect for the New Church doctrine from a stranger, is our belief in a rife according to the Ten Commandments as an essential to salvation. This at once attacks the Old Church doctrine of faith alone, from an affirmative standpoint and without giving offense. Acknowledgment of the binding force of the Ten Commandments can be supplemented by a general statement of our belief in the Word of God, which naturally raises the question of an internal sense. The fact of the existence of an internal sense, within the external, can be proved by the Lord's explanation to His disciples of an interior meaning to be found in many of the parables, notably the Parable of the Sower. It can be shown to be equally reasonable that there should be an internal sense within all the teachings of Scripture.

     The necessity for an internal sense can be proved by the many places where there are apparent external conflicts in the teaching of the letter of the Word, which could be cleared up by a better understanding of the interior meaning.

     The reasonableness of a Divine revelation of the internal sense of the Word can be demonstrated by the fact that the Lord has always given to the world a revelation adapted to the peculiar genius of the time, as indicated by the difference between the Old and the New Testaments.

     The need for a rational revelation, such as that given to the New Church in these modern times, can be made clear by citing the vast progress of the world in rational knowledge as shown by the scientific progress along all lines in our universities, and the fact that such knowledge has been used more for the purpose of the denial of God than to confirm the fundamental truths of His creation of the world, and the operation of His providence.


     A point which is of deep interest to the average inquirer is the state of man after death. The doctrine of an immediate resurrection, followed by an active life in a substantial body, appeals to nearly all men as good common sense, and the probable truth of this doctrine can be confirmed in their minds by citing many of the funeral addresses made by their own pastors, in which they frequently picture the departed as reunited with his loved ones who have gone before.

     This doctrine of immediate resurrection after death will, of course, have its strongest appeal to those who have lately lost a very dear friend. At such times men are naturally more open to spiritual influences, and if the New Church truths can be sympathetically offered under appropriate circumstances, they will often take root and bear fruit if not in actual adoption of the New Church faith, at least in a broader and more intelligent conception of the Lord and of his wonderful works.

     Much can be done by choosing for presentation that doctrine which most closely bears upon the immediate interests of the friend who is approached. For example, if he be a lover, the doctrine of the eternity of marriage will be seized upon by him as a great blessing from the Lord, and this gives an opportunity for fully explaining the spiritual correspondence of natural marriage, Also the truth that true marriage can progress and fully develop only so far as it is based on a truly Christian life and to the extent that Christian principles govern in the life of both of the married partners.

     If a man is deeply interested in the military life, those doctrines of the Church will especially appeal to him which show how Providence works through the councils of generals, and how the love of country is second only to love of the Church, because the good of the community is superior to the good of any one citizen in the community. Also the teaching of our doctrines that true charity means the performance by each man of his daily occupation to the best of his ability, from a love of being useful to the neighbor, and that such uses are promoted by those who protect the freedom of all in the country, such freedom being indispensable to the progress of the human race.


     A telling argument in favor of New Church doctrine is the truth regarding hell, and the reconciling of the existence of hell with the existence of a God who is Divine Mercy Itself. The reasonableness of a doctrine which teaches that hell is a condition permitted out of divine mercy, rather than out of divine wrath, is nearly always immediately recognized, particularly when followed up by the further explanation that man's character is definitely and finally fixed in this world; that his character really constitutes the man; and that to change that character forcibly, in opposition to man's free-will, would be to destroy them himself.

     It can then be shown that mutual love is an essential of heaven, and that from this love, and from love to the Lord, spring the blessings and happiness of heaven, whereas the ruling characteristics of hell are hatred, enmity, envy, malice, and many other sins, the delights of which involve the persecution of the neighbor, and from which persecution comes the tortures of hell. This teaching can be followed by an explanation of the Divine Love toward all, even the devils of hell, who have more delight in the indulgence of their evil lusts,-limited though it be by fear,-than they could have in the loving spheres of heaven which would be utterly variant from their life's love of persecuting and injuring others.

     This suggestion of a heaven and a hell, provided and permitted out of Divine mercy, to give to each man the greatest degree of delight of which he is capable, subject to the limitations of the character he himself has chosen, leads to further inquiries in regard to eternal life. And the full, intimate knowledge of this life existing in the New Church is one of the sources of much of the convincing power of our faith.

     Of course, the crowning New Church teaching is concerning the Second Coming of the Lord, and how the Writings of the New Church constitute that Second Coming. When the ground work is properly laid, there may be many, or at least some, Old Church people who will take an intelligent interest in investigating the truth of this doctrine, but we must remember that in the Lord's Providence doubts are permitted to enter the minds of men regarding the truth of any doctrine, and that it is by meeting those doubts that the man confirms himself in the truth.


Therefore, let us not be impatient in dealing with honestly interested inquirers who are slow to see New Church truths, but simply remember that this is an eternal work, and that after we do our part, we may rest in the assurance that the effort will not be entirely in vain.

     Everything should be done to inspire the inquirer with the truth that the church exists primarily to lead men to heaven and to a better life, and that the doctrines of the New Church are valuable in the degree to which they govern, the conduct of life. In this respect we must never lose sight of the fact that there are many deeply religious people in the Old Church whose natural behavior puts to shame the conduct of some who are of the external New Church.

     Real progress in evangelization will be accompanied by a full acknowledgment and appreciation of the good in others not of our Church, and this acknowledgment and appreciation will form a basis for an affectionate and mutual searching of the Scriptures to confirm those truths in the Word and the Writings which assist in the amendment of life according to Divine standards. When our friends from other churches see that such is the object of our religion, a long forward step will have been taken in sharing the privileges of the New Church with our neighbors.


Editorial Department 1917

Editorial Department       Editor       1917


     "Mr. Sunday presents nothing whatever that is uplifting. He tears down, he does not build. He has ability to bring home disease, but no ability to cure or to suggest means of improvement. He presents no ideal toward which we may strive, once we have recognized our sins. He mentions God and Jesus Christ, to be sure, but in such terms of vulgar familiarity is he might use of any fellow he might meet on the street. There is no reverence, no respect engendered. To him repentance is simply a statement, `I repent,' and, behold, the bars are let down and you enter the sheep-fold. After that you have nothing to live for." (From an editorial in THE NEW CHURCH LEAGUE JOURNAL for March, 1917.)

     "I am quite sure that Protestant prejudice has been a factor in the various disturbances which the New Church has felt over the teaching of the second part of CONJUGIAL LOVE. The Roman Catholic Church not only taught the doctrine of degrees of evil, but developed from it what amounted to the palliation of the 'venial sins.' In opposition to this, Protestant theology set up the teaching that all sin, is equal in enormity; and to this day it is extremely difficult for the Protestant mind to realize that we can say that one sin is less serious than another, without thereby excusing what is evil. Is not this one reason for the opposition which has been, felt to Swedenborg's teaching of the relative gravity of various disorderly conditions? Yet in point of fact, in making distinctions between various degrees of evil the New Church doctrine only follows the example of human common sense and of the common law; Only to the mind with a pronouncedly Protestant bias can there be any appearance of palliation in them." (The Rev. E. M. L. Gould, in THE NBW CHURCH REVIEW, for April, 1917.)



NEW CHURCH IN BIRMINGHAM              1917

     EARLY HISTORY or THE NEW CHURCH IN BIRMINGHAM. By Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. New Church Press, London. 1916. pp. 38. Price, 3/-, and on hand-made paper, bound in art linen, 6/-.

     This story of early New Church history, so well told by Mr. Schreck, is a story that the interested reader will hardly care to lay aside before he has finished it. The history in this volume centers around the building and dedication of the "First Newhall Street Temple," in Birmingham, the first building in the world to be erected for the worship of the Lord Jesus. Christ in His Second Coming. But though this is the main theme, Mr. Schreck's story embraces many interesting sidelights illustrating the earnestness and devotion of the early receivers of the doctrines, and the manifest guidance of Divine Providence.

     The "Temple" on Newhall street was not the first building to be used for New Church worship. The first church building to be so used was the Great East Cheap chapel in London, where New Church services were opened in 1787. But this was a rented building, while the Birmingham Temple was specially built for the use of the church. The designers of this Temple endeavored to plan it according to the law of correspondences. Thus the building was four square; it had twelve windows, three on each side, typical both of the completeness of the truths of the New Church and of the influx of light from: heaven; and its pews were arranged in a curve according to the description in HEAVEN AND HELL n. 223. The consecration took place on Sunday, June 19, 1791, in the presence of a crowded congregation which included the future critic of the New Church, Dr. Priestley, the founder of modern Unitarianism. It is a curious and remarkable circumstance that, as in the case of the first meeting of the Academy of the New Church, the date chosen was June 19th. This date was chosen without any idea of the significance of the day, "nor did the reflection occur to the mind of any person till, after the day of opening, it was publicly announced."

     The book is illustrated with seven plates, including a view of the Temple as now standing,-though it no longer belongs to the New Church,-and portraits of the Rev. Joseph Proud, the Rev. James Hindmarsh, and Dr. Priestley. A. A.





     The passing of the Rev. Adolph Theodor Boyesen, at Stockholm, Nov. 23'd, 1916, at the high old age of almost 93 years, has thus far remained unnoticed by the New Church press of England and America, where his name has not been familiar for a number of years. But in, the Annals of the New Church this name will be recorded as that of the first public Evangelist of the Heavenly Doctrine in the Scandinavian countries, where for forty years he labored for the New Jerusalem in the midst of stress and storm. When the undersigned as a boy of fifteen years became connected with the New Church in Stockholm, Mr. Boyesen became our first pastor, and we can testify that never in our subsequent experience have we heard the spiritual sense of the Word expounded with such glowing eloquence and such inspiring enthusiasm as that which flowed extempore from the lips of Pastor Boyesen.

     From a necrology by Mr. A. Helleman, of Copenhagen, in the March issue of Pastor Manby's journal, NYA KYRKANS TIDNING, we gather the following data of Pastor Boyesen's earlier career. Born Dec. 29th, 1823, near Christiania, Norway, he entered the army at the age of twenty, as a lieutenant of Infantry. While here his attention was called to the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg by a laudatory statement in Jung Stilling's THEORIE DER GEISTERKUNDE. These Writings now became his favorite study, and his desire to translate them into his native language grew so strong that he resigned from the army in 1856 and two years later came to America to pursue a course of study, [under the Rev. J. P. Stuart], at the Urbana University. Here he remained three years, and then spent a year traveling in England and France, returning to Norway in 1862.


     On his return home he found his private fortune dissipated through the manipulations of an unscrupulous relative, and he now for some years was engaged as a teacher of languages in Norway. In 1867 he made a second visit to the United States in order 60 enter, if possible, into the service of the New Church. For a time he labored among the Scandinavians in America. With the assistance of the General Convention and the General Conference, Pastor Boyesen in, 1871 opened a New Church mission in Copenhagen, where he remained until 1877, when he was called to the wider held in Stockholm.

     The public activity of the New Church had been impossible in Sweden, owing to the tyranny of the established Lutheran Church, until a measure of religious liberty was granted by a royal decree of October 31st, 1873. The individual receivers of the Heavenly Doctrine now began to organize; the first general meeting was held at Hotel du Nord in Stockholm, in October, 1874, when a national society was founded under the name "Nya Kyrkans Bekannare," (the Receivers of the New Church). Pastor Boyesen was present at this meeting and made so great an impression that at the next annual meeting, in 1875, he was elected president, with Mr. C. J. N. Manby as "leader" of the congregation in Stockholm, where public services were now opened. In January, 1876, Mr. Manby published the first issue of his monthly paper, then called SKANDINAVTSK NYKYRKTIDNING; the members and the; means increased rapidly, and in May, 1877, the society was able to call Mr. Boyesen to take pastoral charge of the society in Stockholm and of the national missionary work.

     For several years Pastor Boyesen now labored with great success, but in the year 1885 a split took place in the New Church in Stockholm between the followers of Mr. Manby and those who remained with Pastor Boyesen. The latter received recognition by the State under the name "The Congregation of the New Church," while Mr. Manby's organization was recognized two years later as "The Swedish Congregation of the New Church." We cannot enter now upon a recapitulation of the difficulties between them, but it is well known that Pastor Boyesen inclined towards the "Academy views," while Pastor Manby represented the principles more popular in England and America.


Gradually the aid formerly rendered by the Conference and Convention was withdrawn from Pastor Boyesen, who, on the other hand, never connected himself organically with the Academy movement. His society slowly dwindled away and some ten years ago became extinct. Pastor Boyesen, enfeebled by old age, withdrew from public activity; most of his former members united with Mr. Manby's society; others lost courage on account of the constant personal quarrels in the Church and withdrew from open connection with it; a few, however, identified themselves with the "Circle" of the General Church in Stockholm, which now is growing under the ministry of the Rev. Gustaf Baeckstrom.

     Among the services rendered to the New Church by pastor Boyesen his literary work should not he forgotten. A number of the Writings were translated by him, both into Danish and into. Swedish, notably the only current edition of the TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. He was also a poet of great ability, and wrote very many excellent hymns for the first Swedish Hymnbook of the New Church. Personally, he was a man of slender and delicate appearance, but of enduring strength and vivacity. When speaking of the truths of the New Jerusalem,-which meant nearly all the time,-his dark eyes glowed with rapture and from his whole personality there emanated a magnetism which had its fountain in no other source than a profound and sincere love of the Lord's New Church. C. TH. ODHNER.






     Thou shalt not answer against thy Neighbor the Witness of a Lie.

     1. The original text of the Eighth Commandment.

     Translated literally this Commandment reads: "Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie," but it is usually rendered: "Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." The general meaning in each version is the same, but the literal translation is in more exact correspondence with the internal sense of the text.

     2. The correspondence of the words in the text.

     The "neighbor" is everyone who is in good, and, inmostly, good itself. "To answer" against the neighbor, is to bring an accusation against good. The "witness of a lie" signifies the confirmation of falsity. To answer against the neighbor the witness of a lie means, therefore, to accuse good of being evil, which is done by the confirmation of what is false.

     3. The relation of the Eighth Commandment to the three preceding ones.

     The three Commandments which immediately precede treat of evil deeds beginning with the most gross and following with those of a more internal nature. The Eighth Commandment reaches still deeper toward the root of evil, treating of the sins committed by means of false words and springing from thoughts of falsity.

     4. The natural sense of the Eighth Commandment.

     The evil of lying is what is forbidden in the general natural sense of the Eighth Commandment,-the evil of falsifying the truth in any form or degree whatsoever, whether it be before a judge or before anyone else, or before one's own self within the thought by self-persuasion, and whether it be concerning the neighbor or concerning oneself.

     He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within My house: he that telleth lies shall not tarry in My sight. (Ps. 101:7.)


     5. Perjury.

     The most grossly criminal form of lying is called perjury, which is committed when anyone, in the name of God or of any thing that is holy, falsely and blasphemously swears or affirms before a court of the law that an innocent person is guilty, or a guilty person innocent, of any crime of which he has been accused.

     I will be swift witness against false witness, saith the Lord of hosts. (Mal. 3:5.)

     6. Youthful lying.

Human nature is such that lying comes naturally to it. Even as Adam and Eve, after the fall, Sought to cover their nakedness with fig-leaves, so any child, when detected in wrong doing, will at once begin to make excuses in order to hide the evil and avoid punishment,

     There is nothing covered that shall not be revealed; neither anything hidden that shall not be known. (Luke 12:2.)

     7. Even a small lie is fruitful of evil.

     However slight the wrong doing, and however small the corresponding lie, there is nevertheless in each such lie a conjunction of the evil with its own falsity,-an unholy marriage which is always fruitful of a brood of further and worse evils and falsities.

     8. To excuse an evil is to confirm it.

     By making excuses for an evil we defend it not only before others but also in our own mind, and thus sheltered it shoots up like a weed in our understanding and strikes deeper roots in our heart. Thus it grows strong and multiplies until the whole mind is overrun and the seeds planted by God are choked in His garden.

     9. Boasting and exaggeration.

     A common form of untruthfulness among the young is the habit of inventing lies in telling of one's own doings and belongings; and of exaggerating in the style of speech, describing anything and everything as of greater importance than is warranted by the facts. All these things tend to envelop the mind in a sphere of falsehood, and are injurious to the virtues of modesty, exactness and veracity.


     10. Habitual lying.

     It is well known that habit becomes second nature and inscribes itself upon the very body. With an habitual liar the fibers of the tongue have so set themselves in harmony with the habit of mendacity that the lies slip out as it were of themselves, and the constitution of the tongue finally refuses to serve in the telling of truth.

     Deliver my soul, O Lord, from lying lips and from a deceitful tongue! What shall be given unto thee, or what shall be done unto thee, thou false tongue? (Ps. 120:2, 3.)

     11. The growth of the habit.

     It is well known, also, that a person who often repeats a falsehood finally comes to believe that it is a truth; and that one lie leads to another lie. For falsities dispose themselves into a series, making a continuous connection, until they form the mind itself,-an understanding incurably diseased with duplicity and mendacity, which in the other life becomes a hell of falsity and insanity.

     We have made a covenant with death, and with hell we are in agreement; for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood we have bid ourselves. (Is. 28:15.)

     12. The wider natural sense of the Eighth Commandment.

     In a wider and deeper natural sense the Eighth Commandment is directed against all those more hidden forms of lying which spring from, a malicious intention to bring injury upon the neighbor by secret accusations and slanders against his character and good name.

     13. Gossiping.

     The evil of slander usually begins by indulging in the pleasures of gossip,-small talk, thoughtless and idle, about acquaintances and friends,-without any deliberate intention to harm them, but slightly derogatory to them, and pleasant to the love of self because it belittles the neighbor in comparison with oneself.


     Thou shalt not go up and down at a talebearer among My people. (Lev. 19:16.)

     A talebearer revealeth secrets; bat be that is of a faithful spirit concealeth the matter. (Prov. 11:13.)

     14. The fruits of Gossip.

     In any society where the evils of gossiping, tale-bearing and back-biting are allowed to prevail, the fruits are dark thoughts and suspicions against everyone; sincere and genuine friendships become impossible; the cement of mutual love, which holds together every community, begins to crumble, and the society divides into hostile sections which finally fall apart.

     Where no wood is, there the fire goeth out; to where there it no talebearer the strife ceaseth. (Prov. 26:20.)

     15. Slander.

     A slanderer is he who from anger and hatred wilfully contrives or helps to spread a false report concerning the neighbor, in order to damage and if possible destroy the good name of an innocent man or society of men.

     Whoso privily slandereth his neighbor him will I cut off; him that hath an high look and a proud heart 1 will not suffer. (Ps. 101:5.)

     16. The despicable nature of slander.

     To fix suspicion and calumny upon a person who is not present to defend his good name, is in essence the act of a cowardly assassin who stabs from behind with a poisoned dagger. Slander, when once started, seldom dies, but works for years in secret, surrounding the victim with hidden enemies, and impairing or destroying his standing, his usefulness, and his happiness in life.

     A good name is better than precious ointment, and rather to be chosen than great riches. (Eccl. 7:1)

     They have sharpened their tongue like a serpent; adders' poison is under their lips. (Ps. 140:3.)

     17. Listening to slander.

     It is a fundamental principle of justice that every person is to be accounted innocent until clearly proved guilty.


One who listens to slanders, without protesting against them, is therefore guilty of fundamental injustice; he becomes a partaker in the sin of the slanderer, even as one who receives stolen goods becomes a party to the theft.

     A fool is he that hideth hatred with lying lips, and he that uttereth a slander. In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin, but he that refraineth his lips is wise. (Prov. 10:18, 19.)

     18. Defending the neighbor.

     The spirit of charity demands that we, should defend the name of our neighbor, even as we expect that he will defend our name in our absence. Instead of listening to gossip and slander, and taking part in them a true man or woman takes delight in thinking of that which is noble and useful in the neighbor; or seeks to cover evident weaknesses with the mantle of charity, putting the best possible interpretation upon hid words and actions.

     And, above all things, have fervent charity among yourselves, for charity shall cover the multitude of sins. (I. Peter 4:8.)

     19. Flattery.

     Apparently opposite to the evil of slander is the habit of praising the neighbor to his face, paying direct compliments, etc. While beauty, strength, virtue and usefulness are worthy of praise, it is better to praise the neighbor to others rather than to himself, for direct praise is embarrassing to the modesty of a worthy person; it makes him conscious of himself and his merits while he is trying to ascribe all to the Lord; and if the praise is excessive it creates a suspicion as to the sincerity of the flatterer.

     A man that flattereth his neighbor spreadeth a net for his feet. (Prov. 29:5.)

     20. Insincere flattery.

     Deceivers make use of flattery as the: most potent means of gaining influence and dominion over the neighbor. By false-hearted praise of his merits and fulsome flattery of his weaknesses, they insinuate themselves like serpents into his affections, while at heart they despise him and seek to rule over him, nay, would be glad to destroy him in order to gain their own ends.


     For there is no faithfulness in their mouths, their inward put is wickedness itself; their throat is an open sepulcher; with their tongue they flatter. (Ps. 5:9.)

     21. Deceit, the essence of lying.

     Deceit is the essence of the evil forbidden in the Eighth Commandment, for deceit is the deliberate plotting of the false thought proceeding from the intention to mislead and do harm. It is the falsity of evil and thus essential falsity.

     The Lord shall eat off flattering lips and the tongue that speaketh proud things; who here said, With our tongue will we prevail; our lips are with us; who is lord over us? (Ps. 12:3, 4.)

     22. The deadliness of deceit.

     Deceit is like a subtle poison which slowly infects the interiors of the mind with spiritual death. For a deceitful person continually meditates evil and feeds his understanding with this deadly food; he thus perverts his human rationality and destroys all the remains of conscience which, in childhood and youth, the Lord had stored up therein.

     Bread of deceit is sweet to man; but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel. (Prov. 20:17.)

     23. Hypocrisy.

     Hypocrisy is deceit full grown, having finally formed the whole character of the man. A hypocrite is one who is able to speak and also to act like an angel, while within he is a devil continually cherishing nothing but the love of self and hatred of the neighbor. With such a man the essence of what is human has been destroyed, and he can no longer repent and be forgiven.

     They delight in lies: with their mouth they bless, but they curse inwardly. (Ps. 62:4.)

     24. Hypocrisy in Religion.

     A hypocrite loves above all to cloak his real self under the garb of religious virtue, piety, and holiness.


The language of the Word and the Church is upon his lips and showy benevolence in his hands. But behind the mask he laughs at these things; believes in nothing but himself, thinks only of himself, and wishes well to no one but himself. He is consumed by self, which is hell.

     Woe unto ye, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites! For ye devour widows' houses, and for pretense make long prayer; therefore, ye shall receive, the greater damnation. (Matth. 23:14.)

     25. Why evil loves falsity and hates truth.

     Truth forbids evil and condemns it, and therefore evil fears truth and rejects it. But falsity favors evil, excuses and defends it, and therefore evil eagerly seizes upon falsity, feeds upon it, and by means of it executes its designs.

     And this is the condemnation, that Light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than Light, because their deed, were evil. (John 3:19.)

     26. Falsity is the power of evil.

     Good without truth is blind and without power: good intentions cannot effect anything without knowledge. So also evil without falsity is helpless, but by means of falsity it becomes powerful, and herein lies the danger of falsity, of any and every kind.

     For everyone that doeth evil hateth the Light, neither cometh to the Light, lest his deeds should be reproved. (John 3:20.)

     27. Falsity is the light of hell.

     Every fire produces its own light. Truth is the light which shines from the fire of Divine Love, but falsity is the dusky blaze that glows from the fire of infernal love. Truth steadily leads the way to heaven; falsity is the will-o'-the-wisp that leads the wanderer to hell.

     28. Truth is the Way.

     If a person does not know the road he cannot arrive anywhere. If he follows the wrong road he will never get to the right place. No man needs to take the wrong road, for the Lord in His Word has shown the right way to everyone.


     I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life, No man cometh to the Father but by Me. (John 14:6.)

     29. Falsity is Misery.

     There is no human happiness in duplicity and deceit. A liar and deceiver thinks of all others as enemies who try to deceive and destroy him, even as he would do to them. His life, therefore, is full of worry and anxiety, and he is always in fear lest his lies be found out. There is no peace for him, day or night, in this world or in the eternal life hereafter.

     30. Truth is happiness.

     How much happier he who retains throughout life the child-like and youthful ways of simplicity and openness, frankness and sincerity,-the man who does not try to conceal anything, because he has nothing to conceal. Such a man is fearless and free, confident and cheerful, for he enjoys peace of conscience and tranquility of mind, and these are the supreme blessings of heaven.

     31. The affection of truth.

     So far as anyone loves truth, he wishes to know it, and is affected in heart when be finds it; nor does any other come into wisdom. And so far as he loves to do the truth he is sensible of the pleasantness of the light which is in the truth.

     32. Acknowledgment of the truth is the first step to forgiveness.

     If a child, instead of lying, will frankly acknowledge his fault to his parents as teachers, the way to forgiveness is opened at once. If, later in life, he has sinned, acknowledgment is again the first step to repentance,-acknowledgment before the Lord that the deed is a sin against Him. In admitting this the man has admitted the truth, and the truth will make him free.

     33. The spiritual sense of the Eighth Commandment.

     In its spiritual sense this Commandment is directed against those who, from a love of their own intelligence, pervert the spiritual truth of the Word which is the Doctrine of the Church. There is no truth that cannot be thus perverted by means of fallacious appearances, worldly sciences, or the reasonings of false philosophy.

     Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. (Matth. 7:15.)


     34. Only those who know spiritual truth are able to pervert it.

     Spiritual truth cannot be perverted by those who are ignorant of it, or who openly reject it. It can be perverted only by those who have once received and acknowledged it, but afterwards so twist it and cut it asunder as to make it appear to agree with their own notions or selfish and worldly affections and ends.

     If ye were blind ye would have no sin; but now ye say, we see; therefore, your sin remaineth. (John 9:41.)

     35. The celestial sense of the Eighth Commandment.

     To "answer against the neighbor the witness of a lie" means in the inmost sense, to speak falsely concerning the Lord, who is our supreme and nearest Neighbor. This is done by perverting the Doctrine of the Church concerning the Lord, and is accomplished most effectually by casting doubts upon the complete truthfulness, authority and Divinity of the Divine Revelation in which the Lord speaks to men. To do this is to banish Truth itself from the Church, for the Word is the Truth, and the Truth is the Lord Himself.



     Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbor's House.

     1. The common purpose of the East two Commandments.

     As the preceding Commandments teach that evils are not to be committed by the deed of the hand or the word of the tongue, so the last two Commandments teach that we are likewise to shun the lust of all evils in the thought and intention of the mind, fat thus alone can we truly obey all the other Commandments.

     2. The difference between the Ninth and the Tenth Commandment.

     In a general sense these two Commandments are one since both of them forbid the evil of covetousness, which means lustfulness, but within they treat of two distinct evils. To lust for the neighbor's "house" is to lust for his worldly possessions, and this lust is of the love of the world. But to lust for his wife, servants, etc., is to lust for dominion over his internal possessions, and this lust is of the love of self.


     3. The two universal loves of hell.

     As there are two universal loves that rule in heaven, the love of the neighbor and the love of God, so there are, opposite to these, two universal loves that rule in hell: the love of the world and the love of self. From these two evil loves all lusts spring forth perpetually like streams from their fountains.

     4. The literal sense of the Ninth Commandment.

     "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house" in the literal sense means that we are not to cherish the evil of Envy, a passion which first manifests itself in a feeling of grief that others possess things that we do not have, and in the desire to deprive them of these things if we could or dared.

     If ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. For where there is envying and strife, there confusion is, and every evil work. (James 3:14, 16.)

     5. The danger of cherishing envy.

     Envy, long cherished in the thought, is more perilous to a man than open anger, for it is a more deliberate evil, and, therefore, less easily wiped away. He who is envious is always discontent with his lot; he accuses the Lord of injustice, gives himself up to brooding and repining, and lays himself open to the influx of evil spirits who bring on dangerous diseases both of the mind and of the body.

     A sound heart is the life of the flesh; but envy is the rottenness of the bones. (Prov. 14:30.)

     6. Commandment, the opposite of envy.

     Better than all the pleasures of the flesh or the wealth of the whole world is contentment with the lot which Providence has assigned to us. In order to cultivate contentment we should consider the innumerable blessings which the Lord in His mercy has bestowed upon us, instead of lusting for those things which, for our own eternal welfare, He has withheld. A person who is content enjoys peace of the soul, cheerfulness of mind, and interior happiness in this world and hereafter.


     Godliness with contentment is great gain. For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. And having food and raiment, let as he therewith content. (I. Tim. 6:6-8.)

     7. The wider natural sense of the Ninth Commandment.

     In a wider natural sense the Ninth Commandment refers not only to the lust for the possessions of others, but to the love of the world in general and the lusts for those things which the world can provide for the gratification of our bodily senses.

     Take heed, and beware of covetousness; far a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which be possesseth. (Luke 12:15.)

     8. The relation of desires and lusts to the love of the will.

     Each general love is like a heart, surrounded by a derivative system of arteries and veins. And it is like a brain from which flows forth a system of fibres and sensory nerves. The blood vessels and nerves of a pure love are called affections and lawful desires, but those of an evil love are called concupiscences, cupidities, or lusts.

     9. The desires and lusts bring the love to view.

     No one is conscious of the nature of his internal love except as it manifests itself in its desires and lusts. In these the love of the will rises to the surface of the understanding, where it can be watched, examined and judged in the light of truth.

     I had not known what lost is except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet (Rom. 7:7.)

     10. Lusts are the wild beasts of the heart.

     Each human heart is filled with countless affections, desires and lusts, which are like animals, clean and unclean. The good affections are like beautiful, innocent and useful animals, but the lusts of self and of the world are like wild beasts, filthy, cruel and dangerous. If these are not kept chained in their dens by sound reason and self-compulsion, they gradually creep up into the inner chambers of the mind and take possession of the whole "house" of our nearest Neighbor, who is God.

     11. Lusts are the flames of the fire of hell.


     The love of evil is in itself the everlasting fire that burns in hell; and the lusts of evil love are the flames which are fanned into open blaze by the imaginations and fantasies of a perverted understanding. These flames in the life of the body give heat but also consume a man; and if not extinguished here, they return in the other life to torture him forever, because they are forever insatiable.

     12. The lust is the essence of the sin.

     The lust of evil is the essence of every sin, and the sin itself is essentially within the lust as a plant is essentially in the seed. To lust for the sin is to do it continually in the thought and intention, even though,-from fear of the consequences,-it is never committed in external act.

     13. Unless the lusts are broken, a man cannot be saved.

     It is known that a child is spoiled if it obtains whatever it desires. It is the same with an adult, for by nature every one lusts for nothing but evil. Unless, therefore, the power of the lusts is broken, a man cannot be saved; but it cannot be broken in a moment by any instantaneous conversion, for thus the whole life of the natural man would be destroyed. The lusts themselves must be eradicated, one by one, as a garden is cleared of weeds, slowly but thoroughly.

     14. The lusts of the flesh.

     Each of the bodily senses has its own delights, the enjoyment of which is orderly when governed by the love of use instead of the mere love of pleasure. If the latter rules alone, the delights of the senses are nothing but the itchings or lusts of the flesh, which man has in common with beasts. So far, therefore, as a man lives for such pleasures he becomes like a beast, nay, worse, for there is no beast so filthy, rapacious and cruel as the natural man when left to himself.

     Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust, of the desk; for the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh. (Gal. 5:16. 17.)

     15. The lusts of the sense of touch.

     The most general and external of the lusts of the flesh are seated in the voluptuous pleasures of the sense of touch.


The lusts of adulterous love arise from this most sensual source, whence they inflame the mind by filthy imaginations; but the delights of love truly conjugial flow forth from the soul and the spiritual mind.

     16. The lusts of the sense of taste.

     A man-beast revels in the indulgence of the lusts of the tongue and the palate, the luxurious eating and drinking for the sake of the taste alone and not for the sake of strength to perform uses to the neighbor. But a rational man looks upon such indulgences as swinish, and to him the thought and conversation on intellectual and spiritual things constitute the real pleasure of the table, for then he at the same time feeds his mind in company with good spirits and angels.

     17. The lusts of the nostrils.

     Among these may be considered, with women, the inordinate love of perfumery, and, with men, the immoderate love of smoking. To the young the smoking habit is physically and mentally injurious.

     18. Lusts of the ear and the eye.

     The delights of hearing and sight are the most refined and exalted of bodily pleasures because they are nearest to the rational mind. But if they are governed by the senses alone they are in themselves nothing but lusts of the flesh. But to a spiritual mind all things are spiritual.

     19. The Ninth Commandment in its widest natural sense.

     In its widest sense covetousness refers to those worldly lusts which dwell in the imagination above the senses, and which become worse and worse as they spring more immediately from the love of self. Such are the lusts of surpassing others in strength, beauty or skill; or of superiority in fashionable garments, dwellings and society; or in social position, fame, and most especially wealth. All these are of the love of the world when they look to the acknowledgment and applause of the world, without care for the approval of heaven and the Lord.

     Love not the world, neither the things which are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not within him. (I. John 2:15.)


     20. The internal sense of the Ninth Commandment.

     In its internal sense this Commandment shows the injury which the love of the world and its lusts inflict upon spiritual faith and charity with man. They drag the mind down to merely external things and bind it in the flesh and the world, until like an animal it is unable to look up to heaven. When all interest in spiritual things has perished, the man is spiritually dead.

     And the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the Word, and it becometh unfruitful. (Mark 4:19.)


     Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbor's Wife, nor his Manservant, nor his Maidservant, nor his Ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy Neighbor's.

     1. The text explained.

     The "wife" signifies the affection of spiritual good and truth; the "manservant and maidservant" signify the affections of rational good and truth, serving the spiritual; the "ox and ass," the affections of natural good and truth. All these affections are the possessions of the neighbor's internal household, which are not to be taken away from him, and to which no injury is to be done.

     2. The general sense of the Tenth Commandment.

     Coveting the neighbor's wife, servants, etc., means in the general sense lusting to pervert the affections of the mind of any one by means of false persuasions in order thereby to gain power over him for some selfish purpose. The Tenth Commandment, therefore, involves in general the live of self, and in particular the love of dominion for the sake of self.

     3. The meaning of "self."

     By "self" is meant that proprium or ownhood which each one has inherited from generations of sinful ancestors and which he has further developed by actual evil in his own life. In itself this proprium is nothing but a horrible mass of evil tendencies and lusts, hopelessly corrupt and incorrigible.


It cannot be reformed or regenerated, but must be conquered and trampled under foot, in order that man may receive a new and eternal life from the Lord.

     4. The love of self.

     The self or proprium being nothing but evil, it may be seen that the love of self is one and the same with the love of evil,-the love of all evil in general and the love of every kind of evil in particular. Hence it may be seen, also, that he who shuns the love of self strikes at the very root of all evil, and that there is no other thorough-going way of obeying all of the Ten Commandments.

     Woe unto you, scribes and pharisees, for ye clean the outside of the cup and the platter, but within ye are full of extortion and excess. Thou blind pharisee, clean first the inside of the cup and the platter that the outside may be clean also. (Math. 23:25, 26.)

     5. The love of self includes every evil forbidden in the Decalogue.

     It is evident that every form of evil arises from; no other source than the love of self. Hence flows every lust of the flesh and the world; hence every form of hypocrisy, deceit, lying and theft; every variety of sexual lust and adultery; every kind of hatred, revenge, anger and murder; every act of disobedience to law and order; all sorts of profanity and profanation; and, inmostly considered, it is the love and worship of self that destroys the love and worship of the one true God.

     For from within, out of the heart of man, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornication, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. All there evil things come from within, and defile the man. (Mark 7:22.)

     6. The love of self, the opposite of all genuine love.

     The love of self is the perversion of the whole essence of genuine love. For love is an activity in the will, in which the subject pours forth its whole life in gift to the object beloved. But when the subject of love becomes at the same time its object, it is no longer love, but turns into hatred against everyone outside of oneself.


     Love worketh no ill to the neighbor; therefore, lore is the fulfilment of the Law. (Rom. 13:8-10.)

     7. The corporeal origin of the love of self.

     Genuine love springs forth from the soul and flows thence into the mind and the body. But the love of self arises from the flesh, in the boiling up of dead and filthy particles of the blood, and thence it inflames the sensual imagination and corrupts the rational mind. In itself, therefore, it is a inmost corporeal fire,-gross, sensual and sordid above every other infernal love.

     8. The love of self is death itself.

     The Divine Love is Life itself, but its opposite, the love of self, is death itself. It breathes nothing but death and destruction against anyone opposing it; and finally it turns its fury against God Himself, who dwells inmostly in the human soul. He who hates God has separated himself from his soul: he has lost his own soul, and this is the same as death,-eternal death,

     He that loveth his life shall love it, and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it onto life eternal. (John 12:25.)

     9. The devil and his kingdom.

     It is the love of self that rules supremely with all in the kingdom of hell, and it is this love that is meant by "the devil." By the side of this ruler of hell the vain Pride of self-intelligence thrones as queen, while all about the infernal pair a host of worldly lusts and insane persuasions are swarming like flattering courtiers and fawning attendants.

     10. The rule of heaven compared with the rule of hell.

     In heaven each one regards himself as living only for the sake of all others, and in consequence all live for the sake of each, But the rule of hell is: each for himself alone against all others; and in consequence the hands of all are raised against each one. In heaven each angel is a center of outflowing love and happiness to all, and all return love and happiness to each.


But in hell each infernal spirit is a center of hatred, danger, anxiety and torment to all; and all return the same in full measure to each.

     11. The love of self takes all, but gives nothing.

     The love of self is always willing to receive every favor from others, but is never willing to give unless, it be from the expectation of return. It is like the color of dead black, which absorbs all the rays of light but reflects none. And it is like the Dead Sea, which has no outlet and which turns all the inflowing waters into deadly bitterness and filth.

     12. The self-centered mind.

     Like the spider in his web the love of self lurks in the self-centered mind. The lusts of evil are the threads radiating from it in all directions, and its cunning schemes and plots against the neighbor make the connecting woof of the web. Though its net is torn by every wind from heaven, the love of self keeps on weaving its machinations forever in hell.

     Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works; their work, are works of iniquity, and the act of violence is in their bands. (Is. 59:6.)

     13. The love of self, universal among fallen men.

     That the love of self is universal with our fallen race may be evident to anyone who is willing to examine himself. From childhood and youth each one loves to have his own way, and the tendency of every one is to remember himself in every single thing: to think of himself alone, inmostly in the mind to talk continually about himself and what belongs to him; to regard himself as the first and only one; and to live in all things for the sake of himself.

     14. The growth of the love of self.

     As the love of self develops after the years of childhood its fruits show themselves in the ever growing evils of conceit, vanity, and pride; contempt for others in comparison with oneself; criticism and ridicule of every one; enmity against all who do not favor or agree with oneself; and finally in the delight of hatred and persecution, the joy of revenge, and the voluptuous pleasure of cruelty. All these evil affections, and worse, lie hidden with every one in the love of self.


     15. The inhumanity of self-love.

     The love of self is inhuman because it destroys all affections and feelings; for other human beings, and if left unchecked by fear of others it would also destroy the entire human race. That such is the aim of unrestrained self-love may be seen from the bloody deeds of conquerors and tyrants in the history of the world. The same tendency may be seen throughout the Christian world in that modern evil which is generally known as "race-suicide."

     16. The Prevention of offspring.

     The most selfish and the most inhuman form of the love of self is the desired to prevent offspring in marriages. The most savage of beasts obey the law of nature in having offspring, and they give their life in defending their young. It has remained for the modern Christian world to invent the "Science of Birth Control,"-a science which teaches how men and women, "lay enjoy a thoroughly selfish life without the care and expense of having and raising the offspring of their own flesh and blood, which the Lord is willing to bestow upon them.

     17. The love of dominion for the sake of Self.

     As the love of self is the essence of the love of the world and of all other evil loves, so the love of dominion is the inmost soul of the love of self; for dominion over others is that for which the love of self is always striving as its secret aim. By the love of dominion is meant the love of being great and the greatest, in order to command the service of others, from the delight which is felt in the possession of power to inflict injury upon anyone who dares to oppose the will of one's self.

     Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; and whosoever will be chief among you, let big be your servant. (Matth. 20:26, 27.)

     18. The love of dominion also universal with fallen men.

     That the love of dominion for the sake of self is also universal in the perverted human race is evident from, the universal tendency with children to quarrel and fight among themselves for the slightest cause, and from their desire to rule over brothers and sisters at home, and aver comrades in play and at home.


Later in life it shows itself in the love of domineering in the house and, the family, over the wife or the husband, over relatives, friends and neighbors, and, if possible, over the fellow-citizens in the community, state and nation. Where opportunity is given this love rushes on and on, insatiably; it would rule over the whole world, if it could; and after death it strives for dominion over hell and heaven, and would thrust down God Himself from His throne.

     Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. (Matth. 23:11, 12.)

     19. The heavenly love of ruling.

     The infernal love of dominion is to be carefully distinguished from the heavenly love of ruling which springs from a powerful desire to be of service and use to many and to all. They who are in this love desire dignity and power, not for the sake of self-gratification but for the sake of their office and its use to the neighbor in the wider sense. Their command is the command of love, and then their rule is the rule of the Lord who is Love itself.

     Even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many. (Matth. 20:28.)

     20. The spiritual sense of the Tenth Commandment.

     In the spiritual sense the Tenth Commandment treats of the love of self and of dominion in application to the spiritual things of the Church. These evil loves completely destroy all love and perception of spiritual truth and good; and though the lover of self may profess faith, and even serve the Church, he does so only for selfish purposes and at heart denies and ridicules all things of religion.

     21. The celestial sense of the Tenth Commandment.

     In its celestial sense the Tenth Commandment makes one with the First; for he who loves himself alone and supremely, in reality adores himself as God, and acknowledges no other God. After death he openly claims divinity for himself, and is forever blazing with hatred against the Lord and against all who are in the love and worship of the one true God.


     For all that is in the world,-the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life,-is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof; but be that doeth the will of God abideth forever. (I. John 2:16, 17.)

     22. That the way to salvation is not difficult.

     To shun at once all the evils, internal as well as external, that are forbidden in the Decalogue, is indeed difficult, nay, it is impossible in the beginning of the regenerate life. But it is neither impossible nor difficult to make an effort to shun some one evil at a time, if only a person learns to look with horror upon the love of self and learns to look to the Lord as his only help. The Lord Himself will then resist all the evils in the man and will gradually remove them all from him.

     Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me: for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden is light. (Matth. 11:29, 30.)

     [THE END.]





     Now, we are comrades in arms against the implacable foe of liberty and freedom. It fills us with joy over here to feel that at last we are reunited as brothers defending a righteous cause against organized evil. The union which has now been formed will, we hope, never again be severed. Your President's speech has been read with rejoicing and relief, for it has been an intolerable strain to fed that the great freedom-loving republic of English-speaking men was cold to our cause. What a magnificent exposition that speech is! How it will be read over and over again, here in England, with affection and gratitude that at last the true inwardness of this diabolical combat is seen and realized by our brethren in America. It has taken a long time, but at last we are joined to free the world from the hellish tyranny enthroned in Germany. To quote one writer: "The answer to Russia has not come 'trembling;' it has come in the accents of thunder. The Russian revolution itself is hardly a greater event than that speech in Washington which has made this Easter week forever memorable. Its effect on men in this country was like the lifting of a shadow,-like the call of a trumpet; to great deeds. We can conceive what its effect was in Russia,-and in Germany if Germany was permitted to hear it. And what was the meaning of this universal response? It was not the merely selfish feeling that we had a new and mighty ally in our need. It was something deeper and better than this. It was that in that speech President Wilson spoke for the general heart of man; nailed on the mast of the world the forgotten ideals with which we began the struggle; repudiated the eternal hates and revenges that would make this world a hell for our children; pointed with the finger of embattled Freedom at the blood-stained system that has dragged Europe to ruin; pronounced the doom of the despots in every land, and gave humanity the vision of a world society based on liberty and justice and eternal right."


     We often wonder what is the significance of these tremendous events for the New Church. That they do have some relation to the establishment of that Church is not to be doubted. There is much guess-work indulged in, but it seems to me that no certainty can be arrived at. Personally, I believe that civilization in Europe will never recover from the blow, and that the Allies' victory is given purely for the sake of liberty and freedom, for in such soil only can the Doctrine obtain any foothold. By this means alone can the Lord ensure continuance of His Church, but that it will grow in the nations of Christendom, so as to become a Church triumphant, I do not believe. Were Germany to be victorious, the results of the Last Judgment would be nullified in the extinction of freedom, of thought and liberty of the person among men; hence would supervene the death of the New Church. The victory, however, of the Allies does not mean that the Church will be with them in heaven for many ages, but from them will the light extend to those heathen races in which it will develop beyond conception, while the Christian races will die out to a large extent as the result of internal evil. I think this to be the case, because I see no sign in the Old Church of any reformation, and among the people there is no recognition of spiritual or divine things,-they are neither cared for nor wanted. If the war were to end tomorrow the people of this land would rush more deeply into luxury and selfishness, paying no regard to the Word or the things of eternity. The case with Christians is hopeless when one considers their attitude to religion. All we can hope to do is to gather all those who will come into the Ark; and the results of the war will enable us more actively and powerfully to do this.

     Hail Columbia!

     London, Eng., April 9, 1917.

          ALFRED E. FRIEND.




     In the NEW CHURCH LIFE for November, 1916, on page 699, you reprint from "Pastor Bronniche's Danish paper, the NORDISK NYKIRKELIGT TIDSSKRIFT," the following letter from Mr. O. E. Prince, the Secretary of the Foreign and Colonial Missions of the General Conference:

     "I have noticed that you have reproduced from. NEW CHURCH LIFE the article concerning the work among the Basutos. As this article is not quite correct, I would be pleased if you would, in as prominent a manner as possible, in your next issue, call attention to the fact that the account is unsatisfactory, and that about a year ago, before the account in NEW CHURCH LIFE appeared, the then secretary of the Foreign and Colonial Missions, (the Rev. L. A. Slight), was in correspondence with the native ministers, and that it was not known to the Durban Society until Rev. L. A. Slight inquired from them concerning the natives who had been in correspondence with him."

     Although I did not write the article referred to by Mr. Prince, I sent to Bishop N. D. Pendleton the documents included in the article, also I wrote the letter which occupies about ten pages of the article; therefore, naturally, I am interested in learning in what respect the article is "not quite correct," and the account "unsatisfactory." If Mr. Prince's criticism is simply that credit was not given to the Rev. L. A. Slight for corresponding with the native ministers and the secretary of the Durban Society, I would reply that the omission was owing altogether to ignorance of the facts on my part; for, when my report to Bishop N. D. Pendleton was written, I knew only what was included in that report and in the documents forwarded together with it. However, since the publication of Mr. Prince's letter, Mr. R. M. Ridgway, the Secretary of the New Church Society in Durban, has found a letter, (mislaid some time ago), from the Rev. L. A. Slight. This letter reads as follows:


150 Gorange Avenue,
Werneth, Oldham,
26th February, 1912.

Dear Mr. Melville,
     Thank you very much for your letter, and for the interest you have taken in this matter on our behalf.

     Mr. J. Mooki continues to write. He sends a list of the priests in this African Catholic Church, of which he appears to be the head. So far he discloses no knowledge of the essentials of the New Church teaching. I am at a loss to know how our Church became known at Krugersdorp. There will be no harm in sending them a little New Church literature. Yours sincerely, (Signed) LEWIS SLIGHT.

     Obviously this letter is a reply to one from Mr. Ridgway about Mr. Mooki, and it seems to indicate a still earlier letter from Mr. Slight; to Mr. Ridgway on the same matter. Unfortunately, at the present time Mr. Ridgway is unable to find those letters or copies of them.

     It is true that I knew of the correspondence between Mr. Slight and the natives of South Africa prior to the discovery of the above letter, yet subsequent to the publication of the article referred to, inasmuch as the Rev. J. F. Buss, on his visit to Durban in May, 1916, showed me the whole of the correspondence to date between the Foreign and Colonial Missions of the General Conference and the natives of South Africa, and others interested in the matter. But it never occurred to me at the time to ask permission to make copies of that correspondence, or of the letters which we in Durban have mislaid or lost. Nor did it then or later occur to me to write, on the strength of my rather hasty perusal of that correspondence, to NEW CHURCH LIFE and make acknowledgment of Mr. Slight's part in the work of establishing the New Church among the natives of South Africa. Now, however, I would both ask and urge that the secretary of the Foreign and Colonial Missions of the General Conference publish the whole of that correspondence in the interest of the future complete and accurate history of the beginning and establishment of the New Church among the natives of South Africa.


     Permit me to call attention to the fact that for a knowledge of all that happened before the visit of the Rev. S. M. Mofokeng and Chief Moshe Monyeke to Durban in May, 1916, we have to
depend on, first, whatever correspondence was carried on and has been preserved; and, secondly, the memories of the natives. The latter source of information is not altogether reliable.

     I trust that this reply will satisfy Mr. Prince, also that he will see fit to publish the correspondence asked for, or at least to let me have a copy of it, or of the letters which concern the New Church Society in Durban and its secretary.
     Very truly yours,
          F. E. GYLLENHAAL.
Durban, Natal, S. A., March 1, 1917.


     Mr. F. Hodson Rose's communication in your April issue, to challenge Mr. Arthur B. Wells' dictum about an erroneous conclusion by Swedenborg in regard to science, interests me because it calls attention to three attitudes in regard to apparent discrepancies in the Revelation to the New Church. There is the "critical" position taken by Mr. Wells, which Mr. Rose challenges as "discrediting the truth of Divine Revelation." There is Mr. Rose's position which, though with no intention to discredit it by the title I assign it, I crave his indulgence for calling the "dogmatic" position. And there is, thirdly, a position which Mr. Rose, I fear, has failed to understand, but which he solemnly warns Mr. Wells against, as if it were a veritable Tartarus, a ne plus ultra in comparison, with which even Mr. Wells' position would seem, mild. Mr. Rose humorously characterizes it as a position held by "the votaries of that interior (?) thought which delights in detaching fragments from the unfinished, unpublished manuscripts and using them as levers to destroy our confidence in the truths of that Divine Revelation which is the Second Advent of the Lord."


     The "dogmatic" position simply asserts that everything said by Swedenborg in what constitutes the Revelation to the New Church is true as literally stated. I believe that this in many ways marks a vital and extremely useful attitude in our bearing towards Divine Revelation. Just as we must first acknowledge that there is a God, before the road to discern some generals in regard to His quality is open to us; it behooves us first to acknowledge that what He has said is "true anyhow" before it is possible to ascertain precisely what He means or else to relate in the proper order and subordination the various truths of His several utterance.

     My impression is that Mr. Rose holds this attitude only towards the books actually published by Swedenborg after the date, Aug. 7, 1747, and that to widen the range further would to him involve the danger of weakening the force of the Divine Truth by dint of contact with what is possibly false. Many widen the range to include all the unpublished manuscripts after that date, a few would include the ADVERSARIA and the WORSHIP AND LOVE OF GOD; and I am willing to extend the range of what is "true anyhow" as far back as 1710, though distinguishing between truth a priori and truth a posteriori.

     This "dogmatic" position becomes a weakness and not a strength, if we simply stop in the assertion of our belief without entering into further inquiries. Another weakness is that it usually presumes every statement in the Writings to be perfectly obvious and plain and that every one, be he dullard or sage, can understand precisely what each literal utterance means. It apparently disregards the fact that truths are of different orders, some genuine, some rational appearances, and some sensual appearances; and regards it incompatible with Divine Honesty to assume that some statements in the Writings were not meant to be taken in the most obviously literal, matter of fact, way of merely sensual imagery.

     The "critical" position takes it for granted that Swedenborg meant precisely what he said in the most literal construction that can be put on the statement. Those holding it feel it a matter of intellectual honesty with them to point out, regardless of any obloquy or persecution that this courageous behaviour may entail; what they consider to be untenable, in its literal declaration.


The weakness in this position is that it tends to make the individual and his limited range of knowledge a sort of arbiter; and often in matters where further experience and light may eventually show Swedenborg to be either literally accurate, or else not to have meant what he said to be taken in so crassly literal a way as the critic has assumed.

     The third, or "correlative" position, is an interior development within the "dogmatic" position. Its votaries have no intention to deny any truths of Divine Revelation, but merely to point out their adjustments to one another and their relations to truths of science. In the process of such adjustments it possibly happens that those who hold truths in an incredibly hard and limited way, (see A. C. 7298), so that they actually militate against the recognition and acceptance of equally important truths, will have to suffer some mental perturbation in which it will seem to them, as Mr. Rose expresses it, that "levers are being used to destroy their confidence in the truths of Divine Revelation." But this is quite as likely to be because of a lack in their own power of mental extension and accommodation; and may not always be the fault of those anxious to prosecute certain intellectual inquiries.

     The expression, "interior thought," used reproachfully by Mr. Rose as a sort of campaign slogan to down something he is opposed to, is too fine an expression to serve a purpose of sarcasm. For is there a Newchurchman worthy of the name who is not desirous to think more profoundly and thus more interiorly in regard to some points of doctrine? Swedenborg, in fact, chides the angels on one occasion for not looking more interiorly into his thoughts before they blamed him because of certain expressions they had put a false literal construction on, (T. C. R. 26); and he surely could not have appealed thus to them if there was anything wrong about recommending people to think more interiorly, or if this could not be done without the presumption that the exhorter is a very conceited person eager to point out other people's stupidity for the sake of showing his own superiority by contrast. As a pertinent case in point, is it or is it not Proper for one who believes the Writings to be God's Word, to feel he has an interior view of what the Writings are?


Of course, one who has not accepted this altogether may misconceive his attitude in the matter and suffer his pronouncement to be a matter of vainglory. But it is necessarily so? May it not be a simple statement of what is the truth, not coupled with any pride, and merely desirous of arousing another's attention for the sake of communicating a similar benefit to one who may be willing to listen?

     As an example of the operation of these three attitudes, let us take the following well known statement adduced by Swedenborg in support of the teaching that the soul is from the father and the body is from the mother, viz:

     "An infant is born black from a black or Moor by a white or European woman, and conversely (D. P. 2773)

     Devotees of the "dogmatic" position might feel some reluctance about insisting that this must be accepted as a purely literal fact of experience; or that otherwise confidence in Divine Revelation would be injured.

     Those imbued with the "critical" spirit could probably point out that Swedenborg in guileless simplicity actually, believed that a white man's child by a black woman would be born literally white and conversely; and that this constitutes an error.

     The votaries of the interior thought or "correlative" position would doubtless suggest that Swedenborg may not have meant this to be taken in so concrete a way. They would say that all he meant to teach was that the offspring of a black father showed indubitably in his outward appearance that he was of "black" paternal origin; whereas the one with a white father showed he was of "white" paternal origin.

     There are in the General Church votaries of each of these positions. Time will show which of them is the most beneficial to the development of the Church rationally among us. In the meanwhile it cannot fail to be profitable to have such test cases presented as that Mr. Rose has; put on the carpet, provided we can cultivate a spirit of tolerance and not put the worst interpretation on the others' viewpoint. E. E. IUNGERICH.


Church News 1917

Church News       Various       1917


     BRYN ATHYN, PA. The Spring Meeting of the Bryn Athyn society was occupied chiefly with a report from Mr. Otho Heilman as to the year's work in the Elementary School. Mr. Heilman compared the quality and quantity of the work done with that in public schools of corresponding grades, and showed that in addition to carrying from three to six more subjects than most schools, the Bryn Athyn school did a higher grade of work. In the place of the usual reports from the various teachers, the members of the society were invited to inspect the fruits of their labors in the class rooms, and it was generally felt that the work of the pupils was of unusual interest and excellence.

     The departure of five of our members, namely, Mr. Robert B. Caldwell, Mr. Edwin T. Asplundh, Mr. Gerald S. Glenn, Mr. Fred. Synnestvedt, and Mr. Madefrey Odhner, for the officers' training camp at Fort Niagara, has made a serious hole in our society, and has also occasioned some readjustments of society activities. The Finance Board has appointed Mr. Leonard Gyllenhaal to succeed Mr. Asplundh as society treasurer, and Mr. Gyllenhaal will also succeed Mr. Caldwell as president of the Civic and Social Club until the next election.

     The organization of a Red Cross unit in Bryn Athyn has lately been accomplished by the energetic efforts of some members of the Ladies' Aid. There was some difficulty in obtaining separate recognition, owing to the proximity of Bethayres and Huntingdon Valley, with whom the Red Cross Society wished us to amalgamate, but it was finally demonstrated that Bryn Athyn was able and willing to maintain its own unit. There are now over 70 members in our community, and many hours a week are being spent in carefully planned work on behalf of the soldiers. Mrs. Robert M. Glenn is the president of the local chapter.

     Social events during the month have included the presentation of a play by the Civic and Social Club, which netted about a hundred dollars towards paying off the Church debt, and an interesting lecture by Mr. Maurice Joy, of New York, on "The Irish Question." The school activities have included the Junior and Senior Dances, whose recurrence suggests that the end of the school year is at hand. A large number of our people visited Philadelphia on May 9, to take part in the celebration of the visit of the French envoys to that city, and the schools were also given a holiday in honor of the event.

     The work on the new church building has made a spurt with the coming of spring. The latest of note is the completion of the nave roof; a beautiful structure of white oak. The vaulting over the Sanctuary is also completed, and practically the whole building is now under its own permanent roof. This spring will see the beginning of the work on the tower, models of which have been engaging the attention of the architects for some time.

     The weekly suppers and classes have now been closed for the summer; the young men's class, and the ladies' class in the "CONVERSATIONS ON EDUCATION," will however, continue until the end of May. D. R.

     PHILADELPHIA, PA.-The Second Local Assembly of the Advent Church opened on Saturday evening, April 14, in the assembly room at the Church building. The meeting was opened by a lesson from the Word, prayer, and a hymn.


The Bishop then introduced the subject of the evening, "Means for Society Building." Some extracts from his address follow:

     "I want to raise a question in your minds with reference to possible modes and methods of building the Church, but more particularly with regard to your own responsibility in that connection; to the upbuilding of the Church, not only within yourselves, but outside of yourselves. There has been a remarkable internal development in the Church from the beginning. A remarkable number of New Church men and women have entered into the spirit and life of the Doctrines, and have taken a great part in the work of formulating them in their adaptation to human states.

     "The Lord cares for every soul, and leads that soul to its spiritual and natural food. Yet it is not right for us to trust in the Lord's Providence to the extent that we cease to work; that we let our hands drop and become discouraged; that we cease all effort to communicate what we have to others.

     "There are two kinds of people who may be called the remnant, that may be drawn into the New Church, and the appeal of the Church has been largely to one class, who are indeed very few; namely, those whose minds are prepared by the Lord to such a degree that when they hear the truth, it enters, and they come with great enthusiasm into the Church. There is another class which is as numerous as the numbers of children and well disposed people.

     "I could wish that every member of our Church was always ready when occasion offered to testify to his faith. Out of the fulness of the heart the mouth speaketh. If we read the Writings, and live them ourselves, so that they are actively in our hearts and minds, then the mouth will speak the things of the mind. Would to God that all Newchurchmen so had the spirit of the New Church in themselves, that each one in his own environment stood forth as a distinct and different man from all others by virtue of his religion. It is my prayer that the Church may be a living Church, filled with the apostolic spirit, the spirit that wills to give what it has to others, especially spiritual gifts."

     At the Sunday service, the Bishop officiated, assisted by our leader, Mr. Karl Alden. During the early part of the service the rite of Confession of Faith was administered to Miss Ethel Soderberg. Miss Soderberg made an oral-confession of her faith; an innovation in the ceremony which was new to the Advent Church, and the effect was very pleasing. The Bishop delivered a powerful sermon that was particularly fitting to the occasion, taking his text from Rev. 2:1, "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." He pointed out that the greatest barrier to real Church growth is self-love. This can only be overcome by temptations; therefore, we should not pray to be relieved from the suffering of the temptation, but we should pray for strength to remain faithful throughout it; pray to be victorious, for only so can we remove self-love. For it is unto the death of self-love that we must be faithful, in order to receive the crown of life.

     After the sermon, the Holy Supper was administered to fifty-five communicants.

     On Sunday evening, under the able toastmastership of Mr. Karl Alden, we enjoyed banquet, whereat was discussed the topic of "Church Building" in its special application to our own society. A large number of friends from Bryn Athyn attended, and the evening was a stirring one, or, as some expressed it, a regular old-time Academy feast of charity. From it the members and visitors departed fired by a new resolve to carry the love of the Church, and the work of the Church into their daily lives; to spread the glad news involved in the message to the New Church.-"Nunc Licet."


     PITTSBURGH, PA.-On Friday evening, May 11, instead of our regular class, we had a Flag Raising, followed by a supper to one hundred of our people. Mr. D. E. Horigan, the donor of the pole and flag, tendered his gift with some earnest words. Mr. Jacob Schoenberger, representing the Church Committee, received the gift and thanked Mr. Horigan with warm words of loyalty, and spoke of the duty of protecting this emblem of our country. The ceremony concluded with a prayer by the Pastor.

     After reassembling inside, we sang several patriotic songs, and the new "Alma Mater" song, and all sat down to a supper, which was followed by speeches. It is evident that there is here on lack of a consistent and religious sense of our duty to our country, and our President may be sure that there will be here no turning back, nor holding back. The fact that it is all so thoughtful and as yet lacks the "battle ardor" is by no means a sign of weakness. That ardor will come as it is needed, and its quality will be according to the deliberate purpose and quality of the affection and thought that enters into it in the beginning. As it is written in the DOCTRINE OF CHARITY, 166, concerning Charity in the Common Soldier: "Before the battle, he raises his mind to the Lord, and commends his life into His hands; and when he has done this, he lets his mind down from its elevation into the body, and becomes brave; the thought of the Lord, of which he is then unconscious, still remaining in his mind, above his bravery. And then, if he dies, he dies in the Lord; if he lives, he lives in the Lord."

     Those who have lived in Pittsburgh know that we have long had an ancient and hoary mortgage imbedded in our corporeal tissues, like an inveterate tumor, sucking into its parasitic structure a portion of our life blood. Last fall we determined to make a substantial reduction in its size. The Harvest Festival brought in a goodly amount, and on March 8 the Little Theater Company gave a benefit. The result was the paying off of a total of twelve hundred dollars. How it happened nobody seems to be able to tell, and we were all somewhat dazed by our success.

     While the stage was still up, the school children gave a very charming fairy play, followed by a more pretentious classic, viz., "Iphigeneia in Aulis." That children of twelve and under could handle such a serious play so convincingly is no mean tribute to Miss Vida Gyllenhaal, who trained them. That the plot of the play centers about human sacrifice seemed to disturb them as little as the story of Abraham's attempted sacrifice of Isaac, or Jephtha's vow. Here, by the way, is comfort for those who are worried about the ill effects of some of the moving picture shows. Many things do not impress children as they do adults. However, this wonderful Protection that their good angels ever give should not be imposed upon, and we need to exercise what care we can to keep children from indiscriminate attendance, and also to draw them out and discuss with them what they see, so that they may do a little sifting for themselves. Meanwhile, it must be admitted that a vast amount of useful information is being disseminated via the movie screen that would otherwise reach very few, if, indeed, it were preserved at all.

     Our Assembly was a great success, which greatly increased our regret that there were so few visitors from the other centers in this district. We hope that this will not be the case hereafter when it is realized that the date is permanently changed from October to March. At our opening session, instead of a written address, our Bishop gave us a straight talk upon one of our chief weaknesses; namely, our increasing tendency to keep our beliefs to ourselves, and not to do all in our power, as our elders did, to spread them to others.


He reviewed the history of the "Academy" movement; how, when we realized that the Old Church was not likely to come over in any great numbers to the New, we concentrated our efforts upon the work of conserving what we had, and especially our children. This, he said, has been more successful than we had any right to hope, and nothing must be omitted to do this work, and do it first. But our duty does not stop there. Any church which has not the zeal and the confidence in the importance of its Divine Truths, to do whatever cart be done in a rational and consistent way to extend them to others, will die from the very absence of this activity. This thought, and this duty became the leading theme of the whole series of meetings. At the men's luncheon on Saturday, at a downtown hotel, thirty-two gentlemen discussed very actively some propositions advanced by Mr. Alvin Nelson, of Glenview, as to feasible methods of reaching selected "prospects," by form letters and simple, concise literature, which needs to be prepared with the greatest care.

     In the evening we listened to a paper by Mr. Nelson upon New Church methods of financing Church uses, and also to a zealous appeal from Mr. Theodore Pitcairn, in favor of advancing our banners by aggressive work.

     The sermon on Sunday, by the Bishop, was a clear and interior handling of the topic of Resurrection, especially of what was involved in the Lord's Own resurrection. The Holy Supper was administered in the afternoon.

     The climax of the series of meetings was the banquet on Monday evening, which, as the Bishop was good enough to say, was one of the most satisfactory and delightful meetings that he had ever attended in Pittsburgh. Speeches were made by Mr. Blair, Mr. Herman Lechner, and the Pastor. The Rev. Wm. Stockton read a poem, and the Bishop once more voiced the aroused zeal of the whole congregation, by his final speech of encouragement. There were a number of the North Side society present, who added very much to the happy sphere prevailing. H. S.

     CHICAGO, ILL.-A meeting which was far too worthy of note to pass without general notice and record was held at the Sheridan Road Church Parish House in Chicago, on Sunday, April 22d; Certain members of the Chicago Society of the General Convention have been exerting an estimable influence of late toward the worthy object, in my opinion, of obtaining greater harmony, fraternity and co-operation between the members of the Convention and those of the General Church, especially with the thought of their doing some general kind of missionary work together. As a result of this movement the ladies of the Sheridan Road Parish issued invitations to the members of the Immanuel Church, the Sharon Church, and the Chicago Swedenborg New Church Society, as well as to the three parishes of the Convention Society in Chicago, to Supper on the date named. This was, in fact, the second meeting of its kind, the first being held at the Kenwood Church. The attendance at this second meeting was about 216, including children who also were cordially invited. There were about 67 representatives of the General Church, 16 of whom were from Glenview, the rest from the two Societies in Chicago. The capacity of the parish house was taxed, but seats were provided for all at a series of tables, and the ladies who furnished the food and service for so large a crowd certainly deserve special mention as having done wonders.


     The use of such a meeting, which some doubted, was certainly demonstrated, if in nothing else than the pleasure of meeting with so large a gathering of New Church people. It produced a sphere the value of which all present must have felt, and which made a happy atmosphere for the several speeches which followed. Mr. L. Brackett Bishop, a toastmaster already celebrated, was in the chair on this occasion. The Rev. John Saul opened the program with a speech of welcome to visitors. Dr. J. B. S. King, who made the why-we-are-here speech, eloquently enlarged upon the idea of elevation above the ephemeral and circumstantial to general and universal thought and use. His oration was followed by one from Charles Francis Browne on the subject of "the Future," to the effect that it should be made synonymous with Hope, and should be divorced from anxiety so long as there is charity and a will to do what lies immediately ahead. Mrs. Mabel Pearse read an excellent paper on the duty and possibilities of evangelizing, a paper showing conversance with the Writings and affections for them. Mr. Alvin E. Nelson spoke of the valuable work being done by both the Convention and the General Church and of the possibility of at least appreciative reciprocation between the two schools of thought and practice in the Church, making the point that it must be of Providence that our organizations are separate, and comparing the state to that of the English and French armies fighting under separate organization but united end,-and fighting better so than if they were forced into an unnatural unity of command. The formal program of speeches was closed by one from the Rev. Louis Rich, who spoke with much wit and good-nature about some of the differences between the attitude of Academy and Convention men in the past, and admitted the possibility of each group learning something from the other. There were other speakers,-Mrs. L. B. Bishop, Mr. C. C. Cobb, the Rev. Messrs. Willis L. Gladish, John Headsten and others,-but none of these exceeded the two-minute limit, or if they did, were gracefully silenced; and the whole affair was over by 9:15 p. m. The thunderous noise of children who had been romping in the room overhead had by this time subsided. But for a while they had a "rattling" good time. Enrollment books had been passed around while we were at table. And after the speeches motion was made that those persons who had signed their names in these books should thenceforth constitute an organization to be called the Chicago New Church Alliance, whose object should be co-operation in promoting general evangelical and social uses. A committee was also appointed to arrange for a future meeting of a similar character at which to report upon the outlook for such co-operation.

     There seemed to result from this meeting a general feeling of satisfaction with it and of pleasure in the friendly sphere that prevailed. GILBERT H. SMITH.

     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR.-On my spring trip, the first points visited were WINDSOR, Ont., and DETROIT, places opposite each other on the international boundary. Services were held in Windsor on Sunday morning, March 25th, there being an attendance of nine persons, of whom eight partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening of the same day services, under the auspices of the General Church, were held in Detroit, at the house of Mrs. Graham. Twenty-eight persons were present, all of whom were New Church people. After the services about an hour was spent in doctrinal questions and answers. The subject receiving principal consideration was that of New Church baptism as the door of entrance to the New Church.


On Monday evening a doctrinal class was held in Windsor at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Bellinger, and on Tuesday evening there was another class at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Cook, in Detroit.

     Five days were next spent at CINCINNATI. Two doctrinal classes were held, at the second of which there was an attendance of fourteen. At the services on Sunday, April 1st, eleven persons were present, and there were six communicants. When I began my visits to Cincinnati three years ago, the Circle consisted of two families; now there are four. This can, I am sure, be considered a very satisfactory rate of increase. An enjoyable feature of the visits to this place is the daily luncheon of the men of the circle down town. Formerly there were three of us, now there are six, the latest addition being Mr. Fred. Merrell.

     Two weeks, from April 2nd to the 16th, were given to MIDDLEPORT. As usual, the program provided something for every day of this time. There were Sunday morning services, four missionary services, doctrinal classes, ladies' meetings, men's meetings, children's services, and a social supper. The first Sunday was Easter, and the services were appropriate to the day, including the Holy Supper. On the second Sunday, after services, the members gathered at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Demain, whose infant child and also that of Mr. and Mrs. Fred. Davis were then baptized. On account of sickness in some families and also because of the prevailing had weather, the attendance at services and meetings was not so good as at former visits; still, at the services on the second Sunday there were twenty-three present; at one of the missionary services we had eleven strangers; and at the supper we numbered twenty-two.

     April 18th and 19th were spent with Mr. and Mrs. William Parker at CLEVELAND. On each evening we had a little gathering at which there was conversation on the doctrines. On the second day the Rev. Mr. Lathbury, the pastor of the Cleveland Society, and Mrs. Lathbury were at the Parker's to dinner, and we spent a most enjoyable afternoon together.

     From here I went to ERIE, Pa., for four days. The first evening, April 20th, a young people's doctrinal class was held. The next afternoon a children's service was held at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Edro Cranch. On Sunday, the 22nd, services were conducted at the same place, with an attendance of twenty-two, of whom four were strangers. There were eight communicants. In the evening there was doctrinal class. And on Monday evening there was a delightful social at the house of Dr. and Mrs. Edward Cranch, at which twenty persons were present

     The last point visited was BUFFALO, in response to an invitation from the president and the trustees of the Convention Society there, which has been without pastoral ministrations since the beginning of the year. On Thursday evening, April 26th, at a gathering at the church I gave an address, taking as my theme the teaching that the revelation given the New Church surpasses all previous revelations in excellence. It was shown wherein this surpassing excellence lies, namely, that the Lord reveals Himself, on every page of the Writings, as the Divine Man who is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and thus enables us to know Him and to approach Him with a spiritual idea of Him; and according to the idea of God is His presence and conjunction with man. After the address, a social evening was spent. Twenty-two persons were present. On Sunday, the 29th, services were conducted, at which there was an attendance of forty-seven. A young couple and their infant child were baptized and by authorization of the officers of the Society, I received the two adults into membership in the same.


After the sermon the Holy Supper was administered to twenty-five communicants. F. E. WAELCHLI.

     MR. BOWERS' MISSIONARY WORK.-My spring trip on the circuit began on March 16th, and the first place visited was Kitchener, Ont. On Sunday, March 18th, the Rev. H. L. Odhner conducted the worship and I delivered the sermon,-on Levit. 26:3, 4. It was a pleasure to have the usual visit with Pastor Waelchli and the assistant minister of Carmel Church, and also to meet several of the members at their homes.

     At Milverton, Ont., on Sunday, March 29th, we held services with sermon and the administration of the Holy Supper at the home of Mr. F. Doering and family, six miles from the town.

     In Hamilton, Ont., Mr. James Lennie, the one thoroughly interested member of the General Church, was visited on March 28th. The evening seemed very short, and we did not have near time enough to finish our talk.

     At Erie, Pa., vigorous work is being done by our visiting pastor in his quarterly services. I preached for the Erie Circle on Sunday, April 1st.

     In Youngstown, O., on Easter Sunday, April 8th, services were held at the home of Mr. Solomon Renkenberger and family. An extempore discourse was given on the Lord's Resurrection. Ten persons were at the meeting, and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered to the eight adults.

     Near Columbiana, O., on Sunday, April 15th, at the home of Mr. Jacob Renkenberger and family, eleven were present, three being children. The family here and the one now living in Youngstown, mentioned just above, are old-time friends in the Church, my first visits to them having been made in June, 1877.

     At Bellaire, O., on Sunday, April 22nd, we had services at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. W. Yost. Five ladies were present on that occasion, all of whom were communicants.

     At Givens, O., I was with Mr. S. A. Powell over Sunday, April 29th. A sermon was read to the family; and in course of the two days we had talks on various subjects, but mostly concerning the doctrines and principles of the New Church. My annual visit was made with Mr. D. H. Burger and Mr. F. P. Burger, brothers, at Gallon, O., on May 5-8. They are receivers of the Doctrines, and have a nearly complete set of the Writings; but are not members of the Church.

     Besides in the above places, members and friends of the General Church have been visited in nine other places on this trip thus far. The visits have been interesting and useful, and the work has been enjoyable. But I regret that the limitations of space forbid the mention of the names of the kind friends in these places, and of the particulars concerning the visits with them.
     JNO. E. BOWERS.

     BELGIUM.-Through Mr. G. Barger, of The Hague, we hear that all is well with the Rev. Ernst Deltenre and his family at Brussels. "His little group keeps close to him and the new friends are making good progress, and three young ladies have begun to take great interest."

     SWITZERLAND.-Sunday, April first, of the current year, will be a memorable day in the history of the mission of the General Church in French speaking Switzerland, inasmuch as, on it, we celebrated the first New Church service in the picturesque and intellectual city of Geneva, in the room of a building facing the old cathedral of Saint Pierre, built nine centuries ago, and in which, for many years, the great reformer John Calvin preached the great tenets of that branch of Protestantism which arose since he came there as a refugee from France in 1536.


     The service took place at 8:15 p. m. Mesdemoiselles Jeanmonod Gianoli had prepared a little altar covered with a white linen cloth, tastefully decorated with flowers, the Word being opened on it. An organ had been rented for the occasion, and Mrs. Fercken being with me conducted the music, in which all heartily joined.

     No notice of this service was inserted in the newspapers, but it was verbally announced by me at the end of my last lecture on the previous Tuesday, which 62 persons had attended. The reason for this was that we thought it wiser that those attending this first New Church service should be those who, for the six months past, had attended my lectures and were somewhat conversant with our fundamental doctrines. According to my expectations twenty-seven were present. Their attitude was respectful and devotional. At first I had some hesitancy in wearing my robes, but Madame Delientraz and Mademoiselle Jeanmonod suggested that I officiate as a priest of the New Church and not as a lecturer or a missionary even, and so I wore them, and I do not think that any one was offended. On the contrary, such a beautiful and impressive service, in the evening and in a well-lighted hall, impressed the audience deeply, and the religious sphere that surrounded us was inspiring.

     The text was from the eighteenth Psalm, v. 9: "He bowed the heavens and came down." It was an extempore talk, forty minutes long, that permitted me to touch several doctrinal points connected with the Incarnation, such as the Unity of God, the Trinity in one Person, the Passion of the Cross, Equilibrium, the Divine Human, etc. The sermon was followed with close attention.

     A collection was taken up at the end of the service to cover the expenses of the rent of the organ. Considering the fact that we are at present going through trying times and that such collections in Europe are not what they usually are in the United States, we were favored with half what we needed. But the pleasantest feature of it all was that four persons ordered HEAVEN AND HELL in French. At the end of the service we distributed the flowers to all the ladies present, who seemed to appreciate such thoughtfulness on our part

     This service crowned a winter term of twenty lectures on great subjects of the New Dispensation. The fact that a New Church service was inaugurated for the first time in the old city of Calvin will be to our beloved Church at home, we are most sure, a cause of much joy. We commend this work to their interest, sympathy and prayers, and to the Lord we give all the praise and attribute all the glory. G. J. FERCKEN.

     BASUTOLAND.-From the Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal we hear that the New Church is increasing not only among the natives in Basutoland, but also among those in Orange Free State, and among the Dutch. Mr. Barger, of The Hague, sent to Mofoking copies of the Writings translated into Dutche and Mofoking has circulated these among some of the Dutch people, and reports that they like the books, desire more of them, and wish Mr. Gyllenhaal to visit them.


     UNITED STATES.-The church property in Olney, Illinois, has recently been sold for $4,000 and the amount given to the Augmentation Fund. There was once an active New Church society at Olney, established by the Rev. T. F. Houts, who came into the New Church from the Methodist ministry.


     The Pittsfield, Ill., church, also located in a country district, was recently sold and the proceeds given to the Illinois Association. Both these societies have become depleted through deaths and removals, but their work has not been in vain.

     The Pennsylvania Association held its twenty-ninth annual meeting at Iris Hall, Lancaster, on Good Friday, April 6th, as the guest of the Lancaster society. A very good delegation from Philadelphia and Frankford attended. The ministers present were the Rev. Messrs. Harvey, Stockwell, Fischer, and Smith. Mr. Paul Hartli, of the Theological school at Cambridge, was also present. There is a possibility of some arrangement being made for locating Mr. Hartli at Lancaster and reviving the interest in this old society.
Program of June Meeting in Bryn Athyn 1917

Program of June Meeting in Bryn Athyn              1917



Thursday 21. Consistory, 9:00 a. m.
Thursday 21. Council of the Clergy, 10:30 a. m. and 3:00 p. m.
Friday 22. Council of the Clergy, 9:30 a. m. and 3:00 p. m.
Saturday 23. Council of the Clergy, 9:30 a. m.
Saturday 23. Executive Committee, 10:00 a. m.
Saturday 23. Joint Council, 3:00 p. m.
Saturday 23. Public Meeting, 8:00 p. m.
Monday 25. Council of the Clergy, 9:30 a. m.

CORRECTION              1917

     Mr. Schreck would be pleased if the Editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE would correct the news about Birmingham in accordance with the following. It is unnecessary to state that the correction has been sent by Mr. Schreck, whose name is still spelt by himself and his friends in the same old way, and with the same numerous initials and not as in the LIFE'S account.

     The item in the April issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE, page 261, about Birmingham, contains several inaccuracies. The annual meeting referred to was not that of the Birmingham Society of which Mr. Schreck is pastor, and which is generally attended by a hall full of people. But it was the annual meeting of the Birmingham New Church Home Missionary Society, a small organization of which he is the President, which was formed many years ago for missionary work in some of the Midland counties. This co-operated with the Birmingham Society of the New Church in the celebration of New Church Day last June sending invitation to persons in the Midlands. There are no 253 New Church families in Birmingham.




Vol. XXXVII JULY-AUGUST, 1917      No. 7-8
     "The Lord thy God will put out those nations before thee by little and little; thou mayest not consume them at once, lest the beasts of the field increase upon thee." (Deut. 7:22.)

     The land of Canaan was given as an inheritance to the sons of Israel. It was promised to their fathers and now the promise was to be fulfilled. But the nations in the land must be driven out. Israel was not to dwell together with them. No covenant was to be made with them, nor was there to be any intermarriage. But they were not to be driven out at once. Their removal must not be hasty but gradual. For the Israelites had not yet grown sufficiently in numbers to take possession of the whole land; and if the nations were to be hastily removed, much of the land would become desolate, and wild beasts would multiply. It was better that the land should be occupied by the evil nations than not to be occupied at all.

     The whole story of the Israelites from beginning to end treats in the spiritual sense of the regeneration of man, and an essential part of his regeneration is the removal of the evil spirits who are in consociation with him, dwelling in his evils. When these are removed, his evils are removed at the same time. But this removal cannot take place at once. It can be done only by degrees according to the laws of order. For if the removal of evil spirits be effected suddenly a worse class of spirits would take their place, and a man's state would be worse than the first. This is the spiritual teaching of the text. "The Lord thy God will, put out those nations before thee by little and little; thou mayest not consume them: at once, lest the beasts of the field increase upon thee."


These words give expression to all natural and all spiritual growth,-any growth that is substantial and enduring. It is gradual or takes place by successive steps, and it is not effected and completed in an hour, or a day, or a year.

     The second great error of the old theology is the instantaneous regeneration of man by faith only, without the works of the law, which means without a life according to the commandments. The first great error is in a false idea of God, and in the atonement effected by Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, in the passion of the cross, a single act of redemption; when yet redemption was a series of acts accomplished by God Incarnate from infancy to the last hour of His life in the world. As it was with redemption so it is with regeneration, man's individual redemption. It is accomplished from infancy to the last hour of his life. This gradual regeneration or individual redemption is the subject of the text. "The Lord thy God will put out those nations before thee by little and little; thou: mayest not consume them at once, lest the beasts of the field increase upon thee."

     Let us inquire into the reason why regeneration must be gradual, and cannot be effected in a moment. By the nations in the land of Canaan are meant the deep-seated evils and the falsities of evil, that cannot be removed except by a prolonged combat against them, extending perhaps through the whole period of a man's natural life.

     We are taught that the evils which a man has thought, intended, and done from childhood have added themselves to his life and are still in him,-not only the evils which he has done, but also those which he has willed and intended to do. He has thought them, has taken delight in thinking and intending them, but has not done them outwardly before the world for reasons of prudence or fear. These also have added themselves to his life, and have become a part of the interior organic structure of his mind. These evils were in their beginning hereditary and have become actual by adoption on his part, inspired by evil spirits who dwell with him in them. By every evil so thought, intended, and done in his past life, there is communication with the evil spirits, or with the infernal societies, which inspired them and called them into activity.


These evils also form such a connection with each other, like the organic parts of the human body, that one cannot be removed alone, but all of them must be removed, before the mind is free from anyone of them. This is true both of the evils in man, and of the infernal societies which have been the cause and origin of them; that is, the societies have organic connection with each other and cannot be removed until all be removed as by a final judgment. These evil societies still flow in and excite to activity the evils which have been formerly thought, intended, and done from delight. The ways to those societies are still open. It is as a man who has lived in a city, from which he has departed but to which he at times returns by a road of communication still open. Before the infernal societies can be removed there must be established a communication with the heavenly societies, which are opposite to those societies of hell. Without this communication with heavenly societies, all human effort against evil is vain, for a man then acts from himself and not from heaven and the Lord. Evil spirits laugh at all effort against evil that is made! by man from himself and not from Divine Power.

     Let us remark here that the infernal societies, and also the heavenly societies are in groups called provinces; to communicate with one of a group is to communicate with all of that group; and the societies of an infernal group or province must be removed before a man is delivered from his evils. The Lord accomplishes this and in so doing He opens communication with the group of heavenly societies opposite to the infernal group in which man has been dwelling as to his spirit. This the Lord can accomplish when a man as of himself resists the evils that he sees and acknowledges in himself to be sins against God.

     Let us note also that the group of infernal societies that are present and infest man during regeneration, are in reality societies of the imaginary heavens, upon whom the judgment has not yet been performed. The man who is endeavoring to live a life of religion is at first as to his spirit in one of the false heavens, that is, he is in a society of the other world which is a heavenly society in outward appearance and profession, but which interiorly is an infernal society. Every evil society is in the constant endeavor to rise out of hell and enter into and take possession of its opposite society of heaven.


This effort is often attended with a degree of success, to this extent that the infernal society so rising up is able to enter and take temporary possession of its opposite society of the natural heaven. This they do by clothing themselves as it were with the truths of that society. They are the wolves in sheep's clothing, of whom the Lord spake to His disciples. The truths with which they clothe themselves by professing faith in them, are however, falsified truths, but they are able to present them in so cunning a manner that they appear as truths to the angels who are in simple good in the society of the natural heaven which they are entering; and those angels believe that the said evil spirits are in the good of the truth which, they profess, not seeing at once the interior falsities of evil which reign in the evil spirits who are coming among them. They enter the society, occupy its center, and subject the simple good who are there to their dominion. But finally the judgment comes, the influx of the societies of the higher heavens becomes more powerful, exposing the interiors of the seeming angels, causing them to rush openly into the evil's of their ruling love, and they are judged and cast out.

     The society of the natural heaven of which we are speaking is thus set free, delivered from infernal domination; and the man in the world, the regenerating man, who has been dwelling as to his spirit in that heavenly society is also set free. He undergoes a great change of state, comes into a clearer light of truth than before, and has taken a decided step in the upward progress of his regenerate life. But he has been set free with difficulty. The time of his dwelling in that imaginary heaven has been prolonged. While among the spirits of that false heaven he has been in false ideas of 8 religious life, of the church, of the Word, and of God, because he has been in a sphere of falsified truths. A falsified truth is a truth which outwardly appears as true, but which has inwardly in it an evil end. The regenerating man has been in this sphere while dwelling as to his spirit in the imaginary heavens. He is in great obscurity of mind as to all things of doctrine, as to all things of the Word; and he is progressing belt little in the work of regeneration. For regeneration is according to the understanding of the Word, and hence the work of regeneration consists to a large extent in the removal of falsities,-false ideas of the life of religion, of the church, of the Word, and of God.


Hence the need of constant instruction, a constant reading of the Writings, a constant availing oneself of all the means by which the understanding of the Word is clarified, purified, and thus advanced and developed. All the organized effort of the church aims at this, the establishing with men a genuine understanding of the Word. This is all the church can do for you, namely, provide you with the means to a clear understanding of the Word, and perhaps inspire you to personal effort. It can do no more. The rest of the work belongs to you, and you will be armed for the combat, if you have been provided with a spiritual understanding, and have thereby been freed from the meshes and mazes, the snares and the dangers, the fallacies and obscurities, of an imaginary heaven and of a false church on earth.

     Now what is meant by the words, that if there be a sudden and hasty removal of the nations, the beasts of the field will multiply? By the land of Canaan is specifically meant the internal church or the internal of the church, or the internal of the regenerating man. This internal, or interior of the natural mind, will become as it were desolate, if there be a sudden and hasty removal of evil's. For the removal will be merely on the surface, on the outside, and there will be a breaking out within of deeper and more malignant evils and falsities of evils, which are meant by the beasts of the field increasing and multiplying.

     A hasty removal of evils is thus not a real removal. It is a removal in the outward appearance, which is merely a hiding from the sight of the world; but it is not a removal from within, from heaven and from the Lord. It is a reformation of the outward speech and conduct, but there is no reformation of the interior thought of the spirit. It is like a sore or wound that is healed on the surface, but still is full of corruption within. External reformation or that of the outward speech and conduct is comparatively easy. A man may undergo such a superficial change in a day, and for the rest of his life live in the outward form of piety and religion, and yet undergo no real internal change, evils continuing active in his internal will and thought, but outwardly suppressed from motives of self-interest looking wholly to gaining worldly ends.


He is still an inhabitant of the group of infernal societies in which he had been before. He is in fact in an imaginary heaven, conjoined with the evil who are ruling in the center of it. His state is worse than it was before, for he is a hypocrite and among hypocrites in the other world. He may get out of this state eventually and be saved; but this is his state now, and if he does not recover from it he is lost.

     The hasty removal of evils, or a mere external reformation, is easy; but the roots of evil are not so easily removed,-the roots that are in the mind and heart, the roots that are in the group of infernal societies in which man has been dwelling. These roots cannot be removed except by the Lord Himself, and this cannot be done even by the Lord except by means of the repentance and resistance of man; they cannot be removed by the Lord even then except after a long period of time, until the final judgment is performed upon the group of infernal societies that have occupied the lower heavens, and in which man has been dwelling as to his spirit, and from which he could not be removed except by degrees according to order. For the evil in those imaginary heavens fight hard to retain their place, and it is a long time before they can be induced to desist from their efforts at, mastery over the good in both worlds; for dominion over others is the delight of their life, and they will not yield their delight except: after a prolonged and bitter struggle, even as Pharaoh hardened his heart and would not let Israel go until compelled by grievous plagues.

     This is the state that comes into existence when the false principle of instantaneous regeneration by faith alone is applied, put into practice; and it is in fact this very false principle that is aimed at in the teaching of the internal sense of the verse before us, in the teaching concerning the awful result of the hasty removal of evils,-but which are not removed, merely covered over and hidden from view. The spiritual sense when it is known shines with power, in the very letter of the text: "The Lord thy God will put out these nations before thee by little and little; thou mayest not consume them at: once, lest the beasts Of the field increase upon thee."


     The doctrine involved here is not only the teaching that there can be no hasty removal of evils, only a gradual regeneration, but also that in regeneration the internal man is regenerated first and by it the external. It is like the wound or sore of which we have spoken. It must be healed within first, for if the outside be first healed the condition of the wound is worse than before.

     It is with the church in general as it is with the individual; for the growth and establishment of the church on earth is altogether similar to the regeneration of the individual man. In respect to the church we are taught that the new heaven which is the internal of the church, must first be formed, which cannot be done until after the last judgment, and the evils are cast out. The new heaven is then formed gradually, and as it is formed into new societies of angels the new church descends upon the earth, nor can this be done before. The formation of a church on earth before the formation of the new heaven would be a hasty formation, and it would soon become a church perverted and corrupt.

     In the individual life of the man of the church, the new heaven must first be formed before he can be a particular form of the New Church on earth, that is, communication must be opened with a group of societies of the new heaven, which must flaw in and cause an organic formation in the interiors of his natural mind, gradually removing the evils and the falsities of evil there. The Lord opens communication with these heavenly societies when the man of the church on earth begins the life of actual repentance, and then a spiritual organic formation in the interiors of the natural mind begins; and as all organic formation is slow and gradual, so it is with this spiritual organic formation in the interiors of the natural mind. It is the formation there of a new will and a new understanding; the new will being the love of the spiritual things of the Word, and the new understanding being a new or spiritual understanding, neither of which man had before. It is a new organic formation in him, and it constitutes the internal man of which it is said that it must first be formed before anyone can be regenerated. This new internal, this new will and understanding, is what is meant by a new heart and a new spirit, as in Ezekiel, "A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." (36:26.)


When there is a new heart and a new spirit, or a new will and a new understanding, the internal man is then said to be regenerated; the new heaven has descended into his internal, and has formed the new church there, which is now ready to descend and occupy the external also, subduing or expelling gradually all the evils in the externals, the evils and falsities of the former state.

     This work, as we have been endeavoring to show, this work as taught in the words of the text, cannot be done hastily, but must be done slowly and gradually; and it accounts for the fact revealed to us that regeneration is not the work of a moment but the work of many years; it accounts for that other fact, also revealed, that the growth of the new church on earth is gradual,
that it cannot take place in a year or in a century, but is effected only as the new heaven is formed, from which and from which only can a new church descend on the earth and become a permanent institution in the world. Finally, let us recall the supreme truth that the gradual regeneration of a man, as well as the gradual establishment of the church, is the work of the Lord alone; which the Lord will do and can do when a man on earth sees and acknowledges his evils as sins against God, and resists them continually in his daily life.

     The Lord when He was in the world fought and subdued the whole of hell, myriads and myriads of groups of infernal societies, thus taking unto Himself the power of reducing into order and submission the individual group of societies with which a man is connected. It is only a group of few societies with which man has to contend, and he cannot contend nor fight against and overcome even them; the Lord alone does this, He does it when a man reads the Word, the natural and the spiritual Word of God and lives according to the truths acquired by reading and instruction. The Lord alone teaches and leads us; the Lord alone fights for us; the Lord alone overcomes our individual hell and introduces us into heaven. Blessed be His glorious name forever more. Amen.




     "And this is the Judgment of the world that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. (John 3:19.)

     If we do not look at the state of the Christian world in the light of Divine revelation, but in merely natural light, it may appear in general as a fair world, a world in which it is good to live. It will appear like the fruit which Adam and Eve ate good for food and pleasant to the eyes; a world desirable to make one wise.

     In times of peace law and tranquility prevail; the civil and moral laws are generally obeyed and charity and goodness seem general and widespread. On occasions of public stress or calamity money and services are generously offered. The great mass of people seem to love their neighbors, and are willing to put themselves to a great deal of discomfort and sacrifice for the sake of their friends; especially is this evinced at Christmas time, when the whole world seems full of good will towards men.

     But a state similar to the one just described prevailed in the world of spirits at the end of all the former churches. In fact, the imaginary heavens were not unlike the present state of Christianity. The rulers there were to all appearances just and God-fearing men, looking only for the public good. The simple good spirits who were in a state of distress, did not realize the source of their misery and could in no way be convinced that the prominent and leading men in their communities were not of the highest moral integrity.

     It was this state of affairs in the world of spirits, and also in the natural world, which made necessary the great final judgments upon the former churches.

     There was only one way to overthrow the hypocritical rulers without doing harm to the simple good over whom they ruled.


If large parts of societies in the world of spirits should have been overturned and cast into hell before their interior quality was made evident to the simple good in the societies, the simple would have risen up in defense of the evil; they would have believed that an inundation from hell had come upon them instead of a judgment from heaven, and they would have fought to the last against what they would have believed to be an attack of the infernal spirits. On this account, for a long time, the good could not be separated from the evil without doing them harm; and, therefore, the simple good had to live for ages in a state of bondage, represented by the slavery of children of Israel in Egypt.

     The only means of separating the good from the evil was for a new light to come into the world. At the end of the Jewish church He came of whom it is said, "He is the true light that enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world;" and now at the end of the former Christian Church a new light has come, signified by the Lord "coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory."

     The new light could not, however, be given until two conditions were ripe: First, that the evil were in such a state of worldliness, and indifference to all that is spiritual, that there was no longer any danger of profanation of the new truth given; and secondly, that the world had come into such a condition that when the internal states of the Christian world should be revealed to the remnant that were still in good, they could readily see the true quality of the wicked.

     When these two conditions were fulfilled a new light was given, and the Judgment took place according to the words of our text: "And this is the Judgment of the world, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than the light, because their deeds were evil." "Every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved; but he that doeth truth, cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God."

     When reading the accounts of the Last Judgment it may have appeared to us strange that those who went to heaven were separated from those who went to hell, by taking sides on doctrinal issues, when yet we are so often told that a man is judged, not by his beliefs, but according to his life.


We are frequently given accounts of Swedenborg's visits to a society in the world of spirits where they were discussing whether faith alone saves at such meetings Swedenborg frequently instructed them, and those who received the truth were separated from those who did not, and the former were saved, and the latter condemned.

     If we wish to understand the reason for the separation by disagreement in doctrine, we must understand the nature of heresies and their origin. When men followed the teachings of the Lord to the best of their ability, as was the case when the Ancient Church was in its purity, the differences of opinion, we are told, were now called heresies, nor did they destroy the church, but the variety made for the perfection of the whole. Heresies arose later, when men fell into evils of every kind and attempted to conceal their evils, as it were, in darkness, by inventing falsities from their imagination, and ingeniously endeavoring to make them appear as if they were drawn from the Word of God; and this with such zeal and apparent success that they persuaded themselves that they were in fact the very truths of religion.

     This is easily seen in the Catholic doctrine of the authority of the pope and priesthood, by which they usurped to themselves the power belonging to God alone; and in the Protestant doctrine of faith alone, by which they excused their sins under the pretense that they had faith.

     When new spiritual light is given to those who have been in a perverted religion, those who are in good see the truth: "they come to the light, that their deeds may be manifest that they are wrought in God." The reason they call easily throw off the false beliefs is because they have not loved and confirmed them by a life according to them. Evil confirms and deeply inroots falsity in a man's mind, so that it can not be eradicated, while good confirms and implants truth in the mind so that it will never be taken away. Truth not implanted by good is not retained after death; and falsity not inrooted by evils of life is dispersed as soon as new heavenly light comes to the man.

     The reason the evil man will not give up his false beliefs is because he loves them, for they act as a cloak to his sins; therefore, it is said of him: "For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved."


This then is the reason why in the accounts of the Judgment a man is given instruction and a chance to receive spiritual truths, and is afterwards judged according to his acceptance or denial of the truth.

     As was said in the beginning of this discourse, there is apparently much good in the world; good in fact seems to have a great ascendency over evil, in spite of the outbursts of passion which have appeared due to the turmoil of war. If, however, we are to make a just judgment, we must not let the natural good around us blind our eyes to: the true state of the Christian world. Natural good separated from spiritual truth has no power of salvation. There are two tests to be applied. Does the Christian world love righteousness, integrity, and justice? Judging merely from appearances we might differ as to our answer. The second test is, Does the modern Christian world love spiritual truth! Anyone that looks with unprejudiced eyes must see that, as a whole, it does not.

     The number of prominent men, especially of university professors, who do not believe in a personal God and, a life after, is amazing; and those who do believe in a religion, pay little heed to it; yea, for the most part are profoundly; indifferent. From these seats of learning agnosticism and indifference have been rapidly spreading throughout the world.

     In heaven, as we know, the Lord appears to the angels as a sun, and the love and wisdom from Him are to the angels as light and heat. Our sun, we are told, appears to the angels as something dark in the west. The actual fire of our sun does not appear to the angels, for nothing natural can appear in the spiritual world; but the light of the world in men's minds and reasoning thence does appear; and it is this that the angels see as something dark in the west.

     A large number of university professors have substituted for their God an inmost force of nature; this force is most clearly perceived in the sun. The sun, therefore, is a most fitting emblem of this inmost force of nature, and it is by this light alone that they perceive their truths of science. It is from, the light of this sun, reflected into their minds by the things of this world, that they think; and it is this light in their minds, separated from any spiritual light from heaven, that appears before the angels as darkness itself.


     We are told in the Writings that the worship of the sun and moon is the worst of all religions, worse than the worship of graven images, because in such a worship there is no idea of a personal God, of a God of infinite love and wisdom, and it is such a worship of an impersonal force represented by the sun, which is rapidly becoming universal among the educated. From what has been said it may therefore be seen that the words of our text are moat literally true: "And this is the Judgment of the world that light is come into the world and men love darkness rather than the light because their deeds are evil."

     If we do not see the evil of their deeds it is because they have covered them over with a veil of natural integrity, so that they may live in peace and comfort in this world, but still we may know that inwardly they are full of all uncleanliness; for we can see the effect of the evil in their hatred of the light, and where the effect is visible the cause must lie below.

     We must not, of course, think that all people around us are evil; there are doubtedlessly millions in this country who still love religion and a life according to it; these in the next world will be introduced into the New Church and will enter heaven. While we must not forget that this great mass of people are being prepared for heaven, we can not help recognizing that the hold of the Churches on the people is declining, and that the scientific worshipers of darkness are ever extending their control and sway to such an extent that if the New Church were not being raised up to defend the truth, dead science would gain dominion over all the kingdoms of the world.

     In what has preceded it has been shown that a true judgment consists in seeing whether men love darkness rather than light. It is most useful, in examining our love, to apply the same judgment to ourselves. It may be difficult to analyze our intentions and recognize the evil motives hidden therein. To ourselves we appear in general to be good. We can, however, with greater ease consider our love and affection for spiritual truth, and from this see our true state.


How easily this affection grows cold; how often interest in worldly things draws our thoughts and love from the things of heaven. Unfortunately, we not infrequently hear of New Church people who for a time seem greatly in love with the Heavenly Doctrine, but who afterwards grow cold and more or less indifferent; sometimes due, to personal difficulties and other times to no apparent reason. They are at first imbued with the: knowledge and to some extent with the love of the truths, but they "go forth and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection."

     Since ancient times there probably has never been any body so zealous in the affection of truth as were the men and women in the early days of the New Church, as was expressed in their loyal support and sincere and earnest study of the Writings. If we do not strive to maintain this first love, our Church is doomed to failure, for the little good that we may have will be of no avail, and will become merely natural, if not conjoined to spiritual truth.

     It is often said that truth is for the sake of life, but in order to come into spiritual good of life we must first love truth for its own sake, because it is truth, and because it reveals the glory of God to us; before we come into this affection of truth any good we may have, because it is not conjoined with spiritual truth, is mostly natural and not saving.

     In order to live an orderly and upright life it is necessary to know the Ten Commandments in their natural and spiritual sense, and live according to them. This is the essential of religion, but it is not the only requirement. If we are to become genuine Newchurchmen, all must try to learn to love all the truths of revelation. Some of these truths do not appear of much practical use to us; this appearance, however, is not the truth, for all truths help to form our mind, and when we do an act of charity the whole of our mind enters into it, and the truths we have are thereby confirmed and made living. We are told that if a man keeps one commandment from religion he keeps all in his spirit, but he then not only keeps all the commandments but he confirms all his love of truth.


For example, if a man learns a new truth about God, and his love of God is stirred thereby, and he is moved to do something useful for the sake of the Church, that truth,-no matter how abstract its character,-is confirmed and becomes part of his life. The fulness of man's life thus depends largely upon his affection for many truths; the actual knowledge of a great quantity of spiritual teaching is not as necessary as the love of such knowledge, because man can come into all the knowledge that he has acquired a love for after he enters the spiritual world. If, however, he does not have the love of truth in this world he can never come into the knowledge of truth to all eternity.

     How then can we acquire such a love of truth? There is only one way to learn to appreciate beautiful music, viz., by heating it; only one way to learn to love art, viz., by seeing it; and there is only one way to learn to love the truths of God given us by revelation, viz., by hearing and reading them.

     Owing to an unhealthiness in the organ of taste, children often do not like various wholesome and useful foods; but if they force themselves to eat them they usually come to like them. It is similar with our spirits. From heredity we are disposed to love what is, unwholesome; and divine truth we often find more or less distasteful. But if we nevertheless persist in reading the Writings and using the means of spiritual instruction at hand, we find that gradually what at first seemed tasteless becomes delicious, and finally as necessary to our minds as food and drink are to our body.

     The acquiring of the love of spiritual truth for the sake of truth is only the first state, the state of reformation, but is most essential. If there is no initiation into some little affection of spiritual truth, the second state, that of regeneration, in which we learn to hate evil and love good, can never commence.

     If we do not love the Word of God, any trust in the goodness of our lives will prove entirely futile when we arrive in the next world. Let us, therefore, earnestly try to cultivate a spiritual affection for the glorious new truths which have come as a great light to men; that it may not be said of us: "This is the Judgment upon them that a light was given to them, but they loved darkness rather than the light because their deeds were evil." Amen.




     In the ANNALS OF THE NEW CHURCH there occur a number of references to William Schlatter, the prominent New Church layman who, in 1816, built the first New Church Temple in Philadelphia at Twelfth and George, (now Sansom), streets. On December 14th, 1815, Mr. Daniel Thuun, of Philadelphia, in a letter to the Swedenborg Society, London, speaks of the New Church in Philadelphia as "fast increasing," and of the Divine Providence having "suddenly raised among us a member [Mr. Schlatter], who in zeal and ardor to promote the New Church, is indefatigable." (ANNALS, p. 245.)

     It is further recorded that Mr. Schlatter was very active in publishing and spreading Swedenborg's theological works and New Church literature, and several letters by this early receiver of the Doctrines have been published in NEW CHURCH LIFE, (1909, pp. 157 and 289.)

     In May of this year, just before the Centenary of the General Convention, the present writer was active in examining the valuable collection of New Church literature, documents and portraits deposited in the Library of the New Church Theological School, Cambridge, Mass., and while there the Librarian, the Rev. John Whitehead, permitted me to examine a typewritten copy of a collection of letters by William Schlatter, filling 444 quarts pages. This copy is one of several which Mr. George C. Warren has had made from the original collection in the possession of Mr. Alfred U. Chandler, of Brookline, Mass., a cousin of Mr. Horace P. Chandler, the well known New Church author and publisher, who informed me that Bishop W. H. Benade was much interested on hearing of the above mentioned collection of letters, but never saw them. Mr. A. D. Chandler very kindly permitted me to examine the original documents in question and also several heirlooms of great interest which had belonged to his mother, the daughter of William Schlatter. His family Bible and set of the ARCANA COELESTIA, and also oil portraits of William Schlatter's two sons, were of special interest.


The oil portrait of William Schlatter and his wife, Catherine Vaughan Lyon, formerly owned by Mr. A. D. Chandler, are now in the possession of an older brother, Mr. T. P. Chandler, the Philadelphia architect, who designed the New Church temple at 22d and Chestnut streets.

     Mr. A. D. Chandler also has a small painted portrait of Pastor Michael Schlatter, the grandfather of William Schlatter, whose father was Gerardus Schlatter. This portrait was made after an oil painting on paper done in Holland, but now in defective condition.

     Among the descendants of William Schlatter there exists a tradition that Michael Schlatter early imported Swedenborg's works into America and that from them his grandson, William Schlatter, learned to read Latin. An interesting Life of Michael Schlatter appeared in 1857, now very scarce. It is entitled:

     THE LIFE OF REV. MICHAEL SCHLATTER; with a full account of his travels and labors among the Germans in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia, including his services as chaplain, in the French and Indian War, and in the War of the Revolution. 1716 to 1790. BY REV. H. HARBAUGH, A. M. Philadelphia, Lindsay & Blakiston. 1857 pp. XXXI + 27-375.

     Mr. A. D. Chandler supplied the following i