LORD'S PERSONAL MANIFESTATION TO SWEDENBORG       C. TH. ODHNER       1900

NEW CHURCH LIFE Vol. XX. JANUARY, 1900 No. I.
     The worship and love of the visible God is the supreme glory of the Lord's New Church. Though the walls of the holy city be built of jasper and her gates made of pearl, - though every precious stone be her foundation and her streets transparent gold, - yet what treasure, what blessing, what glory is like unto the Lamb Himself who reigns within her, who is her lamp and her sun, whose face is seen, and whose name is written upon the forehead of her inhabitants. This vision of the Lamb, this constant sight, in faith and love, of God visible in His glorified Human, is that which makes the New Church the very Crown of all the churches that hare been upon the earth. For in this Church is fulfilled the eternal purpose of the Divine Love: the conjunction of the human race with its Maker and Sustainer; and the means of this conjunction is the revealing, unveiling, or manifestation of the LORD in His Divine Humanity. It is this revelation of the visible God that makes the New Church truly New; a dispensation or universal spiritual condition among men, absolutely unique and without precedent in the history of the race; a state of blessedness and beauty and strength, which, inmostly considered, is, or will become, superior even to the Golden Age.

     We cannot enter, at this time, into the internal reasons why the men of all preceding ages were not gifted with this immediate revelation of the visible LORD. Let it suffice, for the present, that "they were not able yet to bear it." But to the New Church He JEHOVAH-MAN, as God in Person, as the One Divine Person who as the "Angel of Jehovah," but as stands revealed, no longer Himself is the Divine Trinity. And how did this one God-Man thus render visible His Divine Humanity in these latter days? By revealing Himself in Person to His servant, Emanuel Swedenborg, whom He filled with His Holy Spirit, to teach the Doctrines of the New Church through the Word from Him.

     In order, then, to gain a clear understanding of this supreme doctrine concerning the Visible God, it would seem of exceedingly great importance to learn how the LORD revealed Himself " in Person" to Swedenborg; that is, not only internally, as the Divine Truth in the World, but visually, i. e. objectively, and definitely. For without a definite and objective view there is no determination for the natural thought, no ultimate in the mind upon which the ideas can rest, no bulwark against infesting doubts, no fostering home, in which the spiritual ideas can gather form and power.

     The New Church has been blessed with abundant materials for the formation of such an objective idea of the Loan in His Divine Humanity. To begin with, let us consider Swedenborg's own statements as to the fact of the Lord's personal manifestation before him.

     I sacredly attest that I have been intromitted into the Kingdom of God by the Messiah Himself, Jesus of Nazareth. (Adversaria n. 475)

     This statement, written in the year 1746, is the first of a series of similar, most solemn asseverations, as witness the following:

     By command of the LORD, who has been revealed to me, the following; works are to be published. (Doct. Lord. Pref.)

     The LORD alone has taught me, who has been revealed to me, and afterwards has continually appeared and does appear, before my eyes as the Sun, in which He is, just as He appears to the angels, and has illustrated me. (D. P. 135)

     It has pleased the LORD to manifest Himself to me, and to send me to teach those things which are to be of the New Church. (C. L. 1.)

     Hence it is evident that the LORD Will also now appear in the Word. That He will not do so in Person, is because after His Ascent into Heaven He is in His Human glorified, and in this He cannot appear to any man, unless He has first opened the eyes of the spirit [of that man]. (T. C. R. 777)

     That the LORD has manifested Himself before me, His servant, and has sent me to this office, and that after this He has opened the sight of my spirit, and thus has introduced me into the spiritual world, testify in truth. (T. C. R. 779)

     The manifestation of the LORD in Person, and the introduction into the spiritual world, - both as to sight and as to hearing and speaking from the Lord - this surpasses all miracles.

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This has never been granted to anyone since creation, except to me. (Inv. 43, 52.)

     Of the same import are the following statements in Swedenborg's private correspondence:

     I can solemnly bear witness that the LORD Himself has appeared to me and that He sent me to do what I am now doing. (Letter to Oetinger, Sept. 23, 1766.)

     I have been called to a holy office by the LORD Himself, who most mercifully appeared before me, His servant, in the year 1743, when He opened my sight into the spiritual world. (Letter to Hartley, August, 1769.)

     That our Saviour visibly revealed Himself before me, and commanded me to do what I have done, and what I still do; and that He thereupon permitted me to have intercourse with angels and spirits, I have declared before the whole of Christendom. (Letter to the king of Sweden, May 10, 1770.)

     As the LORD had prepared me for this from my childhood, He manifested Himself in Person before me, His servant, and sent me to do this work. (Letter to the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, July 13, 1771.)

     This fact being thus established, in Swedenborg's own words, it remains to be shown how and when this manifestation of the LORD took place.

     It will be noticed that the year 1743 is the earliest date assigned for this occurrence. A second manifestation took place on April 7, 1744, and a third, according to Robsahm's report, in April, 1745.

     Of the first manifestation, in 1743, We have no detailed account, but we are led to infer that it must have taken place in a dream, during a "preternatural sleep," of a kind which Swedenborg began to experience about the middle of October, 1743. (Doc. ii: 1125.)

     But though it may have been in a dream, this manifestation of the LORD was none the less actual, -as actual as the revelations which in ancient times came to the prophets "in dreams." (A. C. 1975.) It was a first approach of the LORD in Person, and must necessarily have been tempered to the state of Swedenborg, whose spiritual sight was not yet fully opened. During this dream, then, the sleeper first received the Divine "call" to the "holy office" which awaited him, and it would see in, responded to this call by a promise. And this call was twice repeated, each time more clearly, as Swedenborg gradually became more actually or consciously awake in the spiritual world. Does not this repeated call bring to mind the thrice repeated call to Peter,-"Feed My Sheep?"

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     The next manifestation of the LORD, which occurred in 1733, has been fully described by Swedenborg himself in his private Record of Dreams.

     [Delft, in the night between April 6th and 7th, 1744]: During the whole day I had enjoyed the grace of being engaged in profound spiritual thought, more profound and beautiful than I had ever before experienced. . . At 10 o'clock I went to bed, and felt somewhat better; half an hour afterwards I heard a rumbling noise beneath my head, and I supposed then that the Tempter had left me. Immediately afterwards a powerful tremor came over me, from the head and over the whole body, accompanied by a strong sound, and this several times; I felt that something holy was over me. I then fell asleep, and about twelve, one, or two o'clock in the night there came over me a most powerful tremor from the head to the feet, with a crashing sound, as of the concourse of many winds, by which I was shaken; it was indescribable and prostrated me on my face. Now, in the moment I was thus prostrated, I became wide awake and recognized that I had been thrown down. I wondered what all this meant, and I spoke as if I were awake, but still I noticed that the words were put into my mouth. And I said, "O Thou Almighty Jesus Christ, who of Thy great mercy hast deigned to come to so great a sinner, make me worthy of this grace!" I kept my hands folded, and prayed, and a hand came and strongly Dressed my hands. I now continued my prayer and said, "O Thou who hast promised to receive in grace all sinners, Thou canst not otherwise than keep Thy word!" At that moment I lay on His bosom and looked at Him face to face. It was a countenance of a holy mien, and everything such that it cannot be described it was also smiling, and I truly believe that such had been His face while He lived on earth. He spoke to me, and asked "If I had a certificate of my health?" I answered, "O LORD, Thou knowest this better than I." He then said, "Well, then do." This, as I perceived in my mind, signifies "Love me truly," or "Do what thou hast promised." O God, give me grace for this! I perceived I could not do it by my own strength. I now awoke in a tremor. (Record of Dreams, Swedish original, pp. 11, 12; compare Dec. 11: 158.)

     It appears from this most wonderful. account that Swedenborg understood the words, "Then do," as reminding him of something he had promised, - the promise, perhaps, which he may have given during the dream in the year 1743. It appears also that this second manifestation occurred similarly in a dream. Swedenborg being asleep as to his body, but becoming consciously awake as to his spirit. The final "I awoke" refers to the natural state of the sleeper.

     With this account may be compared the manifestation of the LORD in a dream which Swedenborg had, seven years afterwards, in the night between November 18th and 19th, 1751:

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     In a dream the Lord was seen by me, with the face and form which He had in the world. He was such that interiorly there was a fullness, and thus so that He could interiorly rule the whole of Heaven. There was a certain person not far from Him, whom he regarded, and then He elevated the eyes a little, and thus knew who and of what quality that person was; and often he was as it were sleeping with the eyes, when He was interiorly within Himself. When I awoke, He was still obscurely seen by me, and it was said that He had appeared thus: in a word. He was full of Heaven and the Divine. (Diar. Minus. 4831.)

     For an account of the Lord's third manifestation, occurring in the year 1745, we have only the narrative of Carl Robsahm, the young friend of the Seer in Stockholm, who wrote down his well-known Memoirs in 1782, thus twelve years after his last interview with Swedenborg. His report is as follows:

     I asked him where and how it was granted him to see and to hear what takes place in the world of spirits, in heaven, and in hell. Whereupon Swedenborg answered as follows: "I was in London, and dined rather late at the inn where I was lodging. I was hungry and ate with a good appetite. Towards the close of the meal I noticed a sort of dimness before my eyes; this became denser, and I then saw the floor covered with the most horrid, crawling reptiles, such as snakes, frogs, and similar creatures. I was amazed, for I was perfectly conscious, and my thoughts were clear. At last the darkness increased still more; but it disappeared all at once, and I then saw a man sitting in the corner of the room; and as I was then alone, I was very much frightened at his words, for he said, 'Eat not so much.' All became black again before my eyes, but immediately it cleared away, and I found myself alone in the room. . . . I went home, and during the night the same man revealed himself to me again, but I was not frightened now. He then said he was the Lord God, the Creator of the World, and the Redeemer, and that He had chosen me to explain to men the spiritual sense of the Scripture, and that He Himself would explain to me what I should write on this subject; that same night, also, were opened to me the world of spirits, heaven, and hell, and I recognized there many acquaintances of every condition in life"- (Doc i: 36.)

     Virtually the same account,-taken from Robsahm's Memoirs--is found in Abbe Pernety's preface to his French translation of Heaven and Hell (Berlin, 1782), but with some additional details supplied by C. F. Nordenskjold, of Stockholm, from a letter to him by Dr. G. A. Beyer, who writes as follows:

     The information respecting the Lord's personal appearance before the Assessor, who saw Him in imperial purple and in majestic light, seate3d near his bed, while He gave Assessor Swedenborg his commission, I had from his own lips at a dinner-party in the house of Dr. Rosen, where I saw the old gentleman for the first time.

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I remember that I asked him how long this lasted; whereupon he answered, "About a quarter of an hour;" also, whether the strong light did not affect his eyes; when he said, "No." - (Doc. ii., 426.)

     Now, as to the "vision at the inn" we have a somewhat different account in Swedenborg's own words, and it will be noticed that he is entirely silent in regard to the manifestation of the LORD on this occasion.

     A vision by day, concerning those who have been given to feasting, and who thus indulge the flesh. In the middle of the day, about dinner-time, an Angel who was with me spoke to me, that I should not indulge the stomach too much at the table. While he was with me there distinctly appeared to me as it were a vapour exuding from the pores of the body, plainly visible like steam, which fell down to the earth, where a carpet was seen, upon which the vapour collected and was turned into worms, which collected under the table, and in a moment exploded with a noise and the appearance of a fiery light. I supposed that in this way there had been cast out of my body all the worms which can be generated by an immoderate appetite, and that I had been then cleansed from them. (S. D. 397. Cf. Adversaria ii., 1956.)

     We are told here that it was "an angel" who first addressed Swedenborg, probably the same one as that "spirit," who "finally addressed him in a few words," as a culmination of the various phenomena which for a number of years had marked the gradual opening of his spiritual sight. (S. D. 2951.) But Robsahm reports that Swedenborg had told him that this same "man," ("spirit," or "angel"), was really the LORD Himself, who thus revealed Himself, and who again appeared in the following night, now announcing Himself as the Creator and Redeemer. We have no reason to doubt Mr. Robsahm's veracity, even though the lapse of many years may have confused his recollection of the details in regard to the "vision in the inn." As to the essential features his account agrees with Swedenborg's own statement in the Spiritual Diary n. 397, and We may therefore take it for granted that his report as to the manifestation of the LORD in 1745 is Substantially correct: that it was the LORD Himself who appeared, through an angel, in the night after the vision in the inn. That the LORD at times did appear thus to Swedenborg, by means of an angel, is evident from the following memorable statement:

     It has several times happened to me, that I judged not otherwise than that the LORD Himself was present and spoke. But the case is this: it is the LORD who then appears through others, who then are not themselves, and these suppose similarly that they are the Lord, - and the LORD then appears in the form of that [spirit], whose form still remains, for the Loan is not willing altogether to change the former individuality (indoles) of another, and thz1sto appear through him. (S. D. 2990)

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It might be inferred from this and other similar teachings in the Writings, that the manifestations of the LORD to Swedenborg, in 1743 and 1744, we've also effected through the medium of an angel, infilled for the time being with the Divine Human of the LORD. On this subject we may not venture any mere hypothesis. One thing is certain, however, - that the LORD did reveal Himself, in Person, to Swedenborg, immediately, in His Person Divine Human, - as He appears in the Sun of the spiritual world, in which the celestial angels constantly behold Him.

     It appears that he was gradually introduced and habituated to this glorious sight. Following his statements chronologically we read:

     In order that I might be confirmed in this, that the LORD appears to the Celestial angels as a Sun, but to the Spiritual angels as a Moon, the internal sight was opened even unto this, by the Divine Mercy of the Lord, and I manifestly saw the Moon shining. It was girded about with several lesser little moons, the light of which was almost solar, according to these words in Isaiah: "the light of the moon shall be as the light of the Sun" (xxx: 26); but it was not granted to see the Sun. (A. C. 1531; written about the year 1748)

     That the LORD appears as a Sun...has not only been told me by the angels, but it has sometimes been granted me to see. (H. H. 118; written in 1737.)

     It has been granted me to see the LORD in this way as a Sun. I see Him before my face; and for many years I have so seen Him, to whatsoever quarter of the world I have turned. (D. L. W. 131; written in 1763.)

     The glorious appearance of the Sun of Heaves, glowing and beaming with such splendor as cannot be described, is indicated in Heaven and Hell n. 159, and the Spiritual Diary n. 4639.

     This Heavenly Sun, however, is not the LORD Himself. "Beware of thinking it. God is a Man." That Sun is the first proceeding of His Love and Wisdom, a spiritual Fire, which appears in the sight of the angels as a Sun. But within that Sun, encompassed with the solar fire, He appears as a Man, the Divine Man, for "there He is in His Divine from eternity, and at the same time in His Divine Human, which are one like soul and body." (A. R. 465; compare A. C. 10809; D. L. W. 97)

     When, however, the LORD appears in Heaven, which often occurs, He does not appear clothed with the Sun, but in an angelic form, distinguished from the angels by the Divine which is translucent from His countenance.

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For He is not there in person - the LORD in person being always encompassed with the Sun; but He is in the presence of the angels by aspect.... The LORD has also been seen by me out of the Suit, in an angelic form, a little below the sun, at a great altitude. I have likewise seen Him near, in a similar form, with a resplendent countenance. Once also, in the midst of a band of angels, as a flaming beam of light. (H. H. 121.)

     What is meant by the LORD appearing by aspect, - out of the Sun, and not in His own person, - will be explained in a subsequent article. We must here confine ourselves to the accounts given by Swedenborg himself of the objective manifestations of the LORD before him.

     The appearance of the LORD, out of the Sun and in Heaven, was witnessed on various occasions, which have been particularly described:

     There suddenly appeared under the Sun a bright cloud, which did not obscure the Light, but transmitted it; and in that shining cloud there appeared angels with trumpet, and round about them there were altars and tables upon which, in heaps, were lying Books half opened, and above the cloud the LORD appeared, out of the Sun, speaking with the angels; and then out of the cloud there dropped as it were Dew, which was scattered about and was condensed into Manna; the angels took some of this and gave it to their companions, [certain novitiate spirits], and they ate of it. (Five Mem. Rel. 18.)

     On another occasion Swedenborg was shown a magnificent Temple representative of the false faith of the consummated church. Presently it was changed into a miserable structure, full of chinks, standing upon a swamp in which was immersed a great hewn stone, concealing the Word beneath it. Then an east wind came and dried up the swamp, and laid bare the stone, after which, in turn there appeared a Temple similar to that in Jerusalem. Finally the whole of that Temple vanished, and in place of it was seen the LORD alone, standing upon the foundation stone, which was the Word, in an appearance similar to that in which He was seen by John (Apoc. 1). But because a holiness then filled the interiors of the minds of the angels, by which they were impelled to fall down upon their faces, suddenly the way of light from the third heaven was closed by the LORD, . . . in consequence of which the former appearance of the [latter] Temple returned. (A. R. 926.)

     A very complete vision of the LORD was granted to Swedenborg on an occasion when he was in company with certain spirits from the planet Mercury:

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     As they were speaking thus among themselves, the Sun of Heaven appeared. When this was seen, they said that this was not the LORD God, because they did not see a face;...but suddenly the Sun appeared again, and in its midst the LORD surrounded with a solar circle. On seeing this, the spirits of Mercury humbled themselves profoundly and became quiet. Then the LORD was also seen out of the Sun to certain spirits from this earth, who, when they were men, had seen Him in the world; and one after the other confessed that He was the LORD Himself, and this they confessed before the whole company. (A. C. 7173; S. D. 3292.)

     The appearance of the LORD as a "flaming beam of light," which is referred to in Heaven and Hell n. 69 and 191, is described in detail as follows:

     There was seen an obscure cloud towards the east, descending from on high; in its descent it appeared by degrees lucid, and in a human form, and this finally in a flaming beam of light, surrounded with little stars of the same color. Thus the LORD presented Himself among the spirits with whom I was speaking.... This cloud, which thus appeared...was an angelic society, in the midst of which was the Lord. (A. C. 10810-11; S. D. 5513)

     From all that has been said we draw the general conclusion, that the Lord manifested Himself to Swedenborg in three distinct modes:

     1.      Mediately, and occasionally, through nit angel infilled with the aspect and presence of the Divine Human.

     2.      Objectively and at the same time subjectively, through the occasional aspect of the reflected image of the Lord Himself, in Heaven, out of the Sun of the Spiritual World.

     3.      Actually, and immediately, at first occasionally, but afterwards continually, through the personal appearance of the Lord in His Divine Human, in the Sun of Heaven.

     Not only was He thus revealed to the instrument of His Second Coming, but He remains revealed as the God-Man to those who have received Him in His Coming. These are able to see Him, mentally, in the Heavenly Sun-

     As One Divine Person, with rays of Heavenly Light around the head, spreading forth His hands, and inviting to His arms, He who is at once Creator, Redeemer and Regenerator, thus the Saviour. (T. C. R. 296 and 787.)

     They are able, and allowed, to represent Him thus objectively to themselves, because He has thus described Himself in His crowning Revelation. But even as the angels see Him objectively, outside of themselves, as The Divine Man in the flaming Sun of Heaven, because they see Him essentially, within themselves, as the Word, where He is really present in His Divine Love and Wisdom, -even so is the LORD present, and essentially visible to the man of His New Church, in the Divine Truth of the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. For this Doctrine is one with the Word which is in Heaven.

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     "Therefore, think of God from Essence, and from this of His Person; and not from Person, and from this of Essence; for to think from Person about Essence, is to think materially even about Essence; whereas, to think from Essence about Person, is to think spiritually even about Person" (A. R. 611).     C. TH. ODHNER.
THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION 1900

THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION              1900

RETROSPECTIVE.

     WHEN New Church Life began, some nineteen years ago, the question nearest the hearts of many of its readers was, "Shall we educate our children entirely within the sphere of the church?" This agitation led, step by step, to the establishment of schools for all grades and both sexes, in which the zeal and spirit and thought of the new movement was the controlling element, as it has continued to be.

     To the veterans in this work the question has long since ceased to be, "Shall we educate our children," for the LORD has answered this question in the affirmative, and it is more or less inscribed upon the life of this body. The question as it comes to us today

WHY DO WE EDUCATE THE CHILDREN WITHIN OUR OWN BORDERS?

     At first sight, the question sounds a little like asking "Why do we have any borders?" For the end is involved in the means, and no end is obtainable without its adequate means.

     But let us assume that we are speaking to those who acknowledge the interior state of the Christian world to be essentially such as described in the Writings, and that therefore a distinctive New Church must be built up, which is incompatible with the old, and destined to supplant it.

     "Education" then is the general designation which comprehends all the means used toward the ends of human development.

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It is the universal means whereby all human development is effected. It is the instrumental cause, without which no principal cause can come into effect and permanently impress itself upon mankind. In its widest scope, therefore, the term includes everything of evangelization, - of the communication to man of truth and thereby of good, -which two make the sum total of his life. But all that is said of Education in its entirety, is most especially true of the instruction and training of the young; for minority is the formative age, and with this our present question deals.

     Every era of human development may be viewed as a larger human life; - it has its conception, its birth, its adolescence, and its decline; - in short it is a larger homo, requiring to develop its own rationality and its own liberty. Thro' each era, therefore, there is a dominant spirit-an esse derived from some quarter of the spiritual world, and this is the itself, - this constitutes its individuality. All its development, all its derived activities, are imbued with this which we may call the ruling love of that era or dispensation. This inherent conatus of the age is always a state foreseen and provided of the LORD out of heaven, and furnished, - as the means of its existence and subsistence, - with Divine Truths revealed from heaven, or, in some cases, with a quasi revelation, containing a few vital germs of truth. This initiament, - consisting of a new good with a new truth, - then expresses itself by a new philosophy, which in turn is developed, strengthened and perpetuated solely by a new education.

     One-third our entire life in this world is required to initiate us into the cognitions and persuasions of our race - to acquire an introduction to its accumulated wisdom and experience; - but to cause all this to be imbibed is not the function of education, - is indeed not possible. Something more determinate is really being done. We get out of the limitless mass only certain most general or universal things, together with such details as will serve our particular genius and ends. Eating, like exercise, is for the sake of forming a sound and useful body; and learning, with discipline serves only the little use for our minds. It also is designed to develop our faculties of thinking and willing, and not to store a miscellaneous assortment of material inside of us. Together with the knowledges, which are always limited, and selected with certain ends in view, we are constantly imbuing ourselves with persuasions and habits of thought and life, forming character by structural additions to our growing wills and understandings; and this is the main factor in every education.

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     History teaches that no civilization was ever perfected, extended, and perpetuated except through its own education; and furthermore, that the vital thing required to make that education efficient in a new direction, is the dominance of the new spirit throughout all its parts.

     On universal grounds, therefore, it will be seen, that if we are to have a radically different civilization, a new era in any fundamental sense, we must have two things: First, a new spirit, received among men by repentance and the shunning of their evils, in obedience to the new Revelation; and, second, a new Education.

     Otherwise our new Revelation will tumble into the chaos of the perverted old, our new Philosophy prove barren, and the new Civilization abortive. As it is written: "Their root is dried up, they shall bear no fruit; yea, the' they bring forth, yet will I slay the beloved of their womb. My God will cast them away, because they did not hearken unto Him; and they shall be wanderers among the nations." (Hosea, ix. 11-17.)

     These words teach that the propagation of their truths is futile, because, through their evil loves, they have perverted the truth and good of the church. If the root is dry, there can of course be no fruit, and hence no perpetuation. The truths of the church are as fugitives and vagabonds in a land where they are only taught perfunctorily, and where men are not willing to subordinate all to their teachings, and also to sacrifice other things to have them taught. Israel will always be a stranger in a strange land as long as children are allowed to grow up in careless fashion among the nations. Jealous care of the young, diligent instruction, and in addition, marriage within the church, - are the means of saving the church, where there is any living church to save.

     Let us then try to group some of the confirmatory reasons for our course, under the following five heads, - recognizing, however, that underneath and throughout them all is the universal ground and spirit of a new age:-

FIVE REASONS WHY.

     First: - Because we can exercise a more careful supervision over the children's morals, provide them with more refining surroundings, and give each one better individual attention.

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     Second: - Because we can teach them systematically, and more thoroughly, the scientifics of the church.

     Third: - Because we can keep them in the sphere of reverence for the holy things of the New Church.

     Fourth: - Because we can thus reach the only field now open to us, where New Church can be received and grow.

     Fifth: - Because we need this work for our own regeneration. After considering these, an answer will be given to certain misconceptions prevalent in the church, concerning what is meant by "going down into Egypt," and by being prepared to meet the world. (To be continued.)
ENTERING INTO THE LABORS OF OTHERS 1900

ENTERING INTO THE LABORS OF OTHERS        PENDLETON       1900

And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth. I sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labor; other men labored, and ye are entered into their labors. - John iv., 37, 38

     IN the Old Testament the laws of spiritual life were not openly revealed, but a large part of the LORD'S teaching, as it fell from His own mouth, while in the world, was given in a form adapted to the natural thought of men, the laws of spiritual life were: accommodated to the understanding of the simple, the way to heaven was revealed in such a manner that even little children might hear and learn and be prepared by the knowledge of the truth for the spiritual duties of life. And yet, while the LORD speaks to the simple and to children, He speaks at the same time to the wise and intelligent; while He addresses men on earth He reveals at the same time innumerable arcana of wisdom to the angels of heaven; for there is a two-fold sphere of thought in all things the LORD uttered - a sphere of natural thought for natural men, and a sphere of spiritual thought for spiritual men and angels.

     Let us take an example - the words of the text - and let us consider first how those words are understood by men in the world, and the use of such a natural understanding of them, and then let us endeavor to enter into an interior or spiritual understanding of them, and see, as far as we are able, how those words are understood by the angels of heaven, and how they ought to be understood by men in the world who would elevate their thought above the appearance of nature into the spiritual light in which angels are.

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     The Lord had been speaking with the woman of Samaria at the well of Jacob; teaching her of that water, of which if a man drink he shall never thirst, but which shall be in him a well of water springing up into eternal life; which teaching the woman did not understand, for she said, "Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw." She, in common with the Jews, had no idea of a spiritual life, and could thus have no idea of spiritual drink; for a man recognizes truth by the light of that which he already knows and believes. In order to receive spiritual ideas some spiritual idea is necessary, even though it be obscure and general. But in the mind of the Jews there was no spiritual idea whatever, because of their sordid worldly loves. Nor did the disciples of the LORD have any better understanding at this time; and yet it was necessary that they should receive into their minds the idea of a spiritual life in a spiritual kingdom, or spiritual world, distinct from natural life in a natural world; for through them the Christian Church was to be inaugurated and established, which was to be a spiritual Church, by virtue of a belief and knowledge of a spiritual life, or eternal life in heaven after death, and by a preparation for that life while in this world; hence it was necessary that the LORD should from time to time teach them of this new life, of which they knew nothing before, and which they received with such difficulty that it was not until after the Lord's resurrection, especially on the day of Pentecost, that they were able to receive an idea of His spiritual kingdom.

     Therefore when the disciples came to the LORD sitting at the well, they said, "Master, eat," and the LORD answered, "I have food to eat that ye know not of;" but they knew not what he meant, and were surprised at His words, and said one to another, "Hath any one brought Him aught to eat?" thinking of nothing, knowing of nothing, but natural food. But the LORD wished to show them that there is other food besides natural food; hence He said unto them further, "My food is to do the will of Him that sent me, and to finish His work." Then He endeavored still further to insinuate into their minds the idea of a spiritual kingdom which He had come to establish, by impressing upon them that a spiritual harvest was at hand, and that they were the reapers in this harvest, a harvest for the gathering of men into the spiritual granary of the Church.

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"Say ye not, There are yet four months, and then the harvest cometh? Behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes and look on the fields; for they are white already for the harvest. And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal; that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together." In these words the LORD showed them that the work of preparation for the establishment of a spiritual kingdom among men had been already made, - "The fields are already white for the harvest." And He taught them that their work was now to reap the fruit of what had already been done by others. "And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth. I have sent you to reap that whereon ye have bestowed no labor; other men have labored, and ye have entered into their labors."

     The LORD in the words of the text teaches a general truth which it is most important for every man to realize, even in the natural life of the world, namely, that no man is self-sufficient, that no man lives from himself or for himself alone, and that the acknowledgment of one's dependence on others in all things, natural and spiritual, is the foundation and beginning of spiritual growth, without which here is no interior opening of the human mind, no formation of a truly rational faculty, no taking on of the true measure of a man.

     Our dependence upon the work and labor of others even in natural things is not fully seen or acknowledged by man in general, perhaps for the want of reflection upon it, or because the common habit of thought is self-centered, and begets a self-sufficiency that enables one to see clearly the dependence of others upon him, but dimly and obscurely his own dependence upon others.

     When we reflect upon what men do for us, merely in natural and physical things, the mind is filled with amazement at the extent of it. Does the individual man realize how many men have labored to produce what he has at any given time in the way of food, clothing, habitation, and other things necessary to his natural life? If he could compute the number of those who have actually labored upon the things which he now possesses, he would find the number exceeding great; but if he could estimate the number of persons who have contributed in some way to the given result, who have co-operated directly or remotely to produce what he now has, he would find no end to the links of the chain until it reached the limits of the human race itself, including every man in it; not only every man living now, but every man who has ever lived, even from the beginning of creation to the present time.

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     But how the view expands when we rise from the consideration of the merely physical benefits we derive from the labor of others, to the uses that are performed for our mental growth and development, in literature, art, science, philosophy, religion, and other like things; these uses performed for the individual are in like manner co-extensive with the human race from the beginning to the present time; to say nothing at this point of the uses performed for the individual man by the whole spiritual world.

     We see therefore how much is involved even in the natural sense of the LORD'S words; and that everything we receive and possess, even to the smallest, is a merely entering into and enjoying the fruits of the labors of other men, to which there is scarcely a limit. We have not labored in the production of the things we receive; other men have labored, and we have merely entered into their labors.

     All history shows, when it is regarded by a thoughtful and reflecting mind, and all human experience testifies the same, - that whatever a nation performs and executes in the way of development and progress at any given time, that whatever is accomplished for the good of mankind by any body or organization of men, that whatever any individual human being does or may do in the work of the world, or the Church, for the natural or spiritual good of men, is nothing more than the reaping of the fruits of the labors of others, who have sown the seed, who have prepared the way, who have done the work in past time and in the present, the fruit of whose work is being gathered. It will also be clear, to one who reflects, that the given work is the co-operative product of the whole human race in all ages; and perhaps he will see in this an evidence of the unity of the human race before the LORD.

     In these words of the text the LORD taught a natural truth; that is, a truth from a spiritual origin, but clothed with the light of nature, and adapted to the thought of men who live and move in the sphere of nature.

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He presented to view the operations of a spiritual law, as that law veils itself, and thus makes itself manifest, in the history of nations, in the doings of the Church, or in the experience of individual men, in the natural world; a law that is not unknown among men; for it was a common saying then, as it is now, which the LORD quoted, "Herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth;" a truth that is known, but scarcely acknowledged and believed; a truth that may be seen on every side, in all the business of the world, in commerce, in every trade and profession, in the history of every art and science, in every use among men, in the world and in the Church; history proclaims it on every page, it speaks aloud in all the activities of human thought and work. Yet men attribute to themselves what they do, oblivious to what others do, to what the past has done, blind to the fact that they are but reaping the ripe fruit of a tree which others have planted and tended and cared for, a tree that was fully grown and ready to blossom and fruit even before they came upon the scene of action.

     In civilization what could the work of this generation be without the work of the generations preceding? Wipe out what they have done, we should have to begin again with the savage, which is next to animal life. Every man indeed begins his life as an animal or savage, and he would so remain were it not for the labors of others, which he enters into. The infant at birth knows nothing and can produce nothing, he only receives of the labors of others, and prepares as he grows older to enter into the fruits of what others have done, merely adding, as he goes through life, a little to the accumulated store of ages, and transmitting what he has acquired, together with what he has received, to those who follow after. We must indeed make our own that which has come to us as an inheritance from the past, but we must acknowledge the labors of those who have preceded us, and how small our labor is as compared with that which has been already done, thankful if it be given us to add a little, while we play our part in the progress of the world or of the Church.

     It is of supreme importance that a man should learn what his limitations are, and it may be said that to truly learn this so as to see it in clear light, - to truly acknowledge what is due to the labors of others, - is to become a regenerate man or an angel of heaven; for it involves a humility such as belongs only to the regenerate or angelic life.

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     The first step in such acknowledgment is that which is taught in the natural or general sense of the text, the acknowledgment of the labors of others who have gone before in the order of time, whether the work of living men, or the work of the men of former generations. The disciples, and those who followed them in the Christian Church, were to acknowledge the labors of the patriarchs and prophets, without which the Christian Church could not have come into existence. The men of the New Church are to acknowledge the labors of the men of all the preceding Churches, without which this Church could not have become the crown of all. We of this generation of the New Church must acknowledge the labors of the New Churchmen who have preceded us, without whose labors we would not have the privileges which we now enjoy. Every man in every work and calling, in every trade and profession, in every form of use or human activity, must acknowledge the labors of those who have preceded him - who have labored before him, in his own chosen work, and without whose labors, which have come to him as an inheritance, he would be in the thick darkness of ignorance. The child must be led to acknowledge, by experience if not by precept, that he is not and cannot be self-sufficient and self-dependent, that what he has is not self-derived, but that it has come to him from others; that he is merely enjoying the fruit of what others have done, and are doing, without which he would be helpless, could do nothing or accomplish nothing. "I have sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labor; other men have labored, and ye are entered into their labors."

     But far more is involved in these words of the LORD than appears in their natural or historic sense. If it is important that man should see his limitations naturally, how important is it that he should see his limitations spiritually! The entire past is now present, and those who have labored in the past are still living and laboring in the present, but in the spiritual world, and far more effectively than when they were in the world of nature; and what is more, they are intimately associated with us in the work we are now doing, and are the mainspring and power, the inspiration and source, the main actors, in the work which we call our work, and which we think we are accomplishing unaided, because such is the appearance.

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And hence when the LORD said, "Other men have labored, and ye are entered into their labors," the real or spiritual meaning is that men in the work they do are but entering into the labors of angels and spirits, who are the "other men" that have labored in the past in the natural world, and the fruits of whose past labors we have reaped, but who are now actually laboring with us, doing the really interior and spiritual part of our work, who are working in the cause while we are working in the effect, and from whom we are therefore no longer separated by distance of time, or length of space, and whose labor is thus something more than a thing historical, something more than .memory, but an ever present existing reality, a constantly real, efficient cause, invisible indeed, unrecognized by our conscious faculties, but still most real and most potent, and all the more potent because invisible and silent.

     In his interior unconscious life, above or within the plane of his sensitive thought and affection, man is in constant association with angels and spirits; that is to say, with men who lived and worked in the world, but who have passed into the other world and are still living and working, though far more effectually than when they were here - work now done by them producing a far greater effect upon men than if they were still in the natural world, consciously, visibly before the eyes of men. For angels are in causes, men in effects; the angels sow, men reap; the angels labor, men enter into their labors. "One soweth and another rapeth;...other men have labored, and ye are entered into their labors."

     It will thus be seen that man can do only that which is already done. This will appear like a paradox to the unreflecting; but let us look through the appearance and we shall see that it conveys to the mind the very essential meaning of the Loan's words, "Other men have labored, and ye are entered into their labors." Man has an important part indeed to perform, which is, that he is to take what the angels have done and make it his own; he must do what is already done, in order that he may enter into the doing, and appropriate to himself as his own the labors of the angels, who are consociated with him in his spirit. Unless they were consociated with him and had already done the things necessary for him to do, had already appropriated from the LORD that which it is necessary for him to appropriate, he could no more make a motion in the things of spiritual life than a stock or a stone; for in that case he would be consociated with evil spirits, and would be doing the evils they have already done, would be appropriating that which his evil consociates in the other world have already appropriated to themselves from hell.

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     It is of supreme necessity therefore that man, while still in the world, should be dissociated from evil spirits and introduced into the society of the good, in order that he may be prepared for heaven and be saved. The necessity is so great that when it cannot be done because of the great multitude of the evil in the world of spirits the LORD comes and effects a judgment, casts the evil into hell, restores order and equilibrium, bringing back freedom of choice to man; so that, while man is permitted to remain in connection with evil spirits and do their work, if he wishes to do so, still for all there is provided the means and the power by which they may be released from infernal thraldom, and be brought into consociation with the angels, entering into the labors they have done and are doing.

     When the LORD Said these words to the Apostles events supremely important to the welfare of the human race were taking place; events that are not recorded in history, that are scarcely alluded to in the letter of the Gospels; events of which the world has known nothing (and of which the world at large still knows nothing) until now, in the LORD'S Second Coming, when He has revealed the internal sense of the Word and laid open the spiritual world to view: events that were accomplished by the Lone in the spiritual world with spirits, while He was still in the natural world with men, culminating in His resurrection from the dead; such events as the Last Judgment, the casting of the evil into hell and the gathering of the good into heaven, the breaking up of the false or fictitious heavens, the tearing off the mask of the seeming angels in them, thus bringing order where chaos reigned before, making salvation possible to every man born into the world.

     The Last Judgment, the subjugation of the hells, the formation of the New Heaven, the establishment of the New Church in the world of spirits preparatory to its establishment in the natural world - all these things, effected by the LORD When He comes - are supremely essential to the salvation of man, because they make it possible that he, while still in the natural world, may be consociated with the good who are in the spiritual world, without which consociation there can be no salvation.

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It is impossible for man to be introduced interiorly into the truth, and be kept in it to the end of life, unless he be in consociation with good spirits; otherwise he would profane. It is for this reason that a new revelation is not made and the arcana of heaven disclosed, until the Last Judgment has been accomplished, a new Heaven formed, and a New Church in the world of spirits. Interior spiritual truth cannot therefore he given to man by the external way until good spirits have their abode with him in the interior things of his life. This cannot be accomplished in the consummated state of the church before the Judgment. Without the labors effected in the spiritual world by "other men," without the labors of good spirits and angels, that is, without the labors of the Divine Truth in them and by them - for truths are "other men" - without the labors of the LORD in His Coming, man is powerless, he is dead, he is lost! But with these labors into which he can enter, he has power from within, he is alive, he is saved.

     It was said that man call do only that which is already done. This is a truth that can be applied to every natural use; but let us here examine its application to the spiritual uses of the Church - which essentially considered are the uses of the priesthood - namely, teaching men the truths of heaven, and so leading them that they may walk therein. The Church in the natural world can do only that which is already done in the spiritual world. The priest, in the performance of his use in teaching and leading, can do only that which the angels consociated with him in his use have done and are doing; that is to say, he can only do in his finite measure what the LORD has done and is doing for angels and spirits and by them.

     Since the Last Judgment, the LORD has formed the New Heaven, and is gathering together the good arriving from the world into societies in the world of spirits, and there by means of angels is teaching and leading them to heaven. This has been done - this is being done - in the spiritual world; and from this the Church derives the light and. the power to do likewise in the natural worlds; and in doing this the Church but enters into labors that are already done, without which the Church could do nothing, without which the Church could not be a Church, but a dead form, such as the old Church is today.

     The priest of the New Church, unless he enters interiorly into the light of the New Heaven, into the light of the angelic societies preparing for heaven, and unless from that light, he does the work which is there done - will be a priest of the New Church in name only.

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If he teaches and leads, it will be from his memory of truth, and not from the light of truth; the quality of his work will be natural and not spiritual; the essential element of the Church will be lacking; and the New Church, such as it is in itself, cannot be established in him and by him; because he does not enter into the labors of others, but thinks to establish the Church by his own might and his own power.

     This law, however, is not only for the priest, but for all who are coming, and are to come, into the Church. This brings us to the special application of the words of the LORD. They were addressed to the Apostles, who were the first priests of the Christian Church, and thus the address is to all priests who go forth to labor in the fields, which, according to the LORD'S words, are white already for the harvest; teaching them concerning those who are to receive, and are able to receive, the spiritual truth of the Word, the Heavenly Doctrine, which they are to proclaim. And the teaching is, that unless the Lord, by His Divine Truth, through the ministry of the angels, has prepared a man to receive, has introduced him into the society of the angels and good spirits, who are already in the truth that is taught, the work of the priest is without effect, barren of result; for there is and can be no interior reception of the truth that is taught in the form of doctrine where there is not this preparation in the other world, and from the other world in the spirit of man.

     Man can do only that which is already done; or, to put it into another form, man can only receive that which has been already received; and the priest can only give that which has been already given. No man can receive a truth that is not already with him interiorly. If the angels have not labored; if the truth of the Word has not labored; if the Word in the truth, and with the angels, has not labored; if the character and quality of the man has been such as not to permit of these labors within him - the labor of the Church, the labor of the priest of the Church, is vain.

     For the labor of man in the world is not labor in itself, though it appears as such, and the appearance is necessary. His labor is merely the entering into - merely the appropriating of labors already done in the spiritual world; and while he labors and must labor as of himself with all his might and power, he will not attribute or ascribe to himself that which is not his own, but which belongs to the LORD, and to the angels from the LORD.

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     Although the labor with him who is to hear and receive is already done, still that which is done must be called forth and ultimated in the natural world, must be seen in the conscious thought, must appear in the clear light of the understanding, must be brought forth from the interiors of his spirit and be made actually his own, in a conscious and willing confirmation in mind and life. This the teaching and the proclamation of the truth accomplishes, and can accomplish, where the preparation has been made, where the essential work has been already done.

     This is the reason why it is said in the Heavenly Doctrine, that the work of regeneration is easier than is commonly supposed; because the work is already done, and man is only to enter into it.

     Here a fatal error may be committed, such as was committed in the old Church, and which brought its consummation and ruin; namely, that since the work has been done, it is therefore necessary for man to do nothing, but merely receive as a passive instrument that which has been done for him. Here is where the fatal error is, that man must receive as passive instrument! Not so; he must receive as an active instrument, and actually make his own - actively appropriate to himself, in faith and life - that whereon indeed he has bestowed no labor, but which he is now to enter into, and actively receive. To receive as a passive instrument that which is done in heaven, is to receive as an active instrument that which is done in hell; and man will thus enter into the labors of evil spirits and make his own that which is theirs. For man cannot receive passively that which flows into him from the other world.

     The Church therefore in its work of evangelization, whether it evangelizes in the world at large, whether it evangelizes with its own members, whether it evangelizes with the children and youth of the Church - must acknowledge that it is only able to enter into the pasture which the LORD has prepared. The Church will thus come to see the true limitations and boundaries of its work; will come to see that it is to reap only where the LORD has sown; and the Church seeing this, the LORD will, in His own way and in His own time, point out where He has sown, and where the Church is to reap; and then will come the harvest.

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SWEDENBORG'S WORK "ON TREMULATION." 1900

SWEDENBORG'S WORK "ON TREMULATION."       LILLIAN BEEKMAN       1900

(On Tremulation, by Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated from Photolithographed copy of the Swedish M. S. By C. Th. Odhner. Boston, Massachusetts, New Church Union, 16 Arlington Street, 1899. Price, 50 cents.)

     SWEDENBORG'S fragmentary work On Tremulation, issued by the Massachusetts New Church Union, is noteworthy both for the interest of its subject matter and the acceptable accuracy and ease of the translation. It is noteworthy also because of the fact that, as the preface happily observes, through all the later "magnificent works of philosophic science, there vibrates the key-note which many years before was struck in the work 'On Tremulation.' Nay, even in Swedenborg's latest theological writings there will be found many traces of the principles and arguments first presented in this little treatise."

     This fact is deeply significant to the New Church student in view of Swedenborg's own statement, in Document 232. In this Document - a letter written November 11, 1766 - he answers a question raised as to the necessary relation between his having been a philosopher, and his choice by the LORD for the great work of the Revelation. "The cause of this has been," he says, "that the spiritual things which are being revealed at the present day may he taught and understood naturally and rationally; for spiritual truths have a correspondence with natural truths; because in these they termitlate, and upon them they rest. * * * * For this reason I was introduced by the LORD first into the natural sciences, and thus prepared; and, indeed, from the year 1710 to 1744, When heaven was opened to me."

     "Every one also," he adds, "is led by means of natural things to spiritual things, - thus affirming in general, that universal of Order concerning the opening and elevation of the mind, which is particularly set forth in the Arcana. "The rational constitutes the internal man, and the natural the external * * * the external of the natural is from the sensuals of the body, and from those things which flow in immediately through the sensuals. * * * But the internal of the natural is constituted of those things which are thence analytically and analogically concluded. * * * Thus the natural communicates with worldly and corporeal things by means of sensual things, and with the rational by means of analogical and analytical things; thus with those things which are in the Spiritual World." (A. C. 4570.)

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     Having adduced this General of Order - that the reasonable ground of such Providential preparation might be perceived in thought - and arguing on the basis of the well known fundamental, that every coming of the LORD is according to His own established order,* and thus His coming or manifestation to the rational mind must be according to the established order pertaining to the degrees of the mind,** he concludes: "Falsities that have been confirmed close the Church; wherefore truths rationally understood have to open it. How else can spiritual things, which transcend the understanding, be understood, acknowledged, and received?"
     *(T. C. R. 53, 89, 90; Inv. N. C. 34)
     **(T. C. R. 779; Influx 20; Dec. 232; A. C. 4570; Inv. 34.)

     And concerning himself personally, during this time of preparation, he affirms: "The LORD has granted to me to love truths in a spiritual manner, i.e. - to love them, not for the sake of honour, nor for the sake of gain, but for the sake of the truths themselves; for he who loves truths for the sake of the truth, sees them from the LORD, because the LORD is the Way and the Truth." (Doc. 232.)

     From all which we may anticipate that even in these few scattered leaves from the studies of Swedenborg's early manhood, bearing date of 1717 and 1719, the conceptions of his thought will be found to wear some general outline of the Natural Verities, the higher laws and principles of which were unfolded in his mind year by year during the period of ordained preparation and heavenly guidance. "For upon natural verities," Swedenborg says in The Last Judgment (Posth) 263, "angelic wisdom is founded;" and correspondence is mighty and orderly in the province of the mind, as in all other.

     It is significant that the man who was yet to state the great revealed definition of Order, in terms of substance and form (T. C. R. 52), and to formulate the law: "All things were formed in motion, according to motion and for motion" (E. A. K. Part I, 69), should thus early have written that there is in us, "a continually moving, tremulatory, and living force, in the leasts as in the greatest." (page 7):

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"That our vital force consists mostly of little vibrations * * *; that the external senses owe their existence to motion. * * * Thus also with the internal senses; what thought is there, or what living recollection in which motion does not effect as well as the first impression as the last?" (page 9.)

     In this is a first clear setting forth of the truth that our perception is the internal, sensitive register of variations. And later, on page 11, comes something still more interesting: "- that which makes the being of a sense is more subtle than the sense itself and whatever is effected by that sense; so that it seems that only a finer sense is able to form a judgment concerning a grosser one, but the latter cannot form any judgment concerning itself. The ear, for instance, cannot possibly know or feel what it is that is vibrating in its organ, or how one thing is moving against another, unless a more subtle organ reveals it. The thought *** is not of itself aware of that which constitutes its own motion and life. In any case the conclusion must be this, that those motions in which life resides are the most subtle of all motions, of a nature such as cannot be seen and comprehended by any comparison with the grosser forms of motion. In this paragraph is involved the doctrine of the degrees of the mind, and of influx, for after evolution. While the identification of the plane of finite man's conscious life with the plane of the membranes, grossest to least, - surprising as it must have been to the readers of his day, - is the first orderly presentation to thought, on the plane of natural verity and law, of that tremendous correspondence revealed in 1748, - that the whole of the Gorand Man is an Organism, to which correspond the membranous things of the body; in which Organism, the LORD alone represents the animal spirits or bloods, (S. D. 3419)

     Other great generals are given. The existence of the animal spirit or nervous fluid is affirmed (pp. 36, 38), - that same animal spirit concerning which it is said in the Diary, n. 3459: "As long as it is disputed whether are animal spirit exists in the fibres *** (the learned can never come even to the outer court of knowledge, nor even see it, but stand afar off)."

     We also find it clearly affirmed that the animal spirit or nervous fluid is distilled by the cortical glands (page 38); that the "undulatory" motion of the brain is the heart and propulsatory power of its circulation (page 16), and that lungs, heart and brains are the general fountains of motion in the body (page 22).

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     In the last chapter there is a very interesting study on the sense of hearing and the vibratory and structural mechanism of sound, which the reader will especially enjoy in connection with the section on the same subject in "The Mechanism of the Intercourse between the Soul and the Body."*
     * This is a different work from Influx, or the Intercourse between Soul and Body. - Ed.

     There is the clear recognition that the vital fluids of the body, by their tremulation, are the actives or agents in the internal, or intra-organic transmission of vibration (page 59); and of air and ether as extra-organic communicants of motion (page 61).

     The four Auras are mentioned also; and mentioned as the very actives and exemplars of modulation: "Air;" "the finer air or ether;" "the solar substances;" and, "the very finest atmosphere" (page 3.) The same four Auras are treated of in the Principia as constituting a fourth Kingdom, the Elemental Kingdom: "every particle having its own peculiar powers of motion and elasticty" (Principia, Chap. I) 1 and are explicated in the Economy of the Animal Kingdom in their physiological or animative relations; and referred to in the Animal Kingdom, Part IV, Sec. VI., where Swedenborg states: "We are never admitted into a knowledge of things unless we consider as many prior atmospheres in their order as there are sensations [or planes of sensation]. Whence are three natural ones, to which must be added a supreme *** by which the universe is ruled and by which the supreme beginnings are endowed."

     But not until later did he make the rational synthesis of these Auras with the successive "bloods," and membraneuus planes of the body, as being themselves the very substance of tremulation and transmitters of motion, in the body (as well as out of it) by incorporation into its structure; so that, - as he says in 1734 in Mechanism of the Intercourse between the Soul and Body (Secs. VII., VIII.), - a knowledge of the operations of human life presupposes a knowledge of the Auras. Though, indeed, something of the kind may have been given in the missing chapters of the short treatise before us.

     Nor do we find any such comprehensive statement as that given in the Corpuscular Philosophy of 1740, which thus associates the first or supreme aura with the human "formative substance," or an anthropoplastic protoplasm; the second aura, with the animal or simply animate protoplasm; and the third aura, or the ether, with the vegetative and insect protoplasm; a statement magnificent in its simplicity; tremendous in its consequence to all thought; and daring indeed, save that Swedenborg was able to affix to it - "This is true, for I have the sign."

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     Nor do we find any full particularization of the vital fluids or bloods as literally the ordinant and provident agents in the bodily economy, such as is given in Economy of the Animal Kingdom, Part I., n. 170, for instance; although "room was left" for it in the passage quoted above in connection with Spiritual Diary, n. 3419.

     This widening sweep and ascension of thought, year by year, and the particular direction of the farther unfolding and definition of conceptions appearing in his early work, is itself deeply interesting and worthy of note; and in one thing especially significant. To use as an illustration the actual organic correspondent of the thing itself, we see - "those parts which are to come continually delineated and projected, so that one is always a plane for another," - till the whole correspondent body of natural truths, - those natural truths in which spiritual truths terminate and upon which they rest (Doc. 232) - is formed complete.

     In the microcosm there exist three general planes, acting by correspondence: 1. The mind or spirit of man; 2. the interior substances of the body which are in intimate substantial and motor correlation with the higher atmospheres, themselves the interior substantiate and motor forces of nature; and, 3. that body itself; or the flesh and bones, full of inert and fixed ultimate matters.

     In this earlier work it was the manifestation of life upon this last most ultimate plane, with which his thought was keenly engaged; although at the same tide he distinctly perceived and noted the fact of the existence of a finer blood (and that of more than one degree) as "the active" to this plane; and also the fact of the Auras, and their external relations with the microcosmic economy in the organs of sense; together with a general idea of the duality of finer blood and aura.

     Later, after covering this ground in the succinct generals of this work "On Tremulation," and in other earlier writings, - the plane of his intimate, reflective study and perception appears to be rather the interior plane of nature; the intension of his mind being turned, with the entirety and thoroughness of inner affection, to the subject of the more interior membranes and active ordinant fluids of the microcosm; together with their macrocosmic correlates, the active atmospheres or Auras which mediate between the spiritual and the inertness of ultimate matter: the result of the "active use" of these providential years being preserved for us in those later works of philosophic science which our translator justly terms "magnificent."

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     In these works of the second period, and dealing we may say in general with the second plane, we find again the clear recognition of the correspondent plane above, both in man and in the macrocosm.

     In two works belonging to the same year, The Principia and On the Infinite, the connection was made between the supreme or first aura itself (that "universal spiritual" - "by which the universe is ruled"), and the "Infinite" and "Lord," as its own substantial and motive Source, Center, and Perpetual Empowerer; while somewhat later (E. A. K. Part II., 260-266), the universe is referred to the Spiritual Sun in terms the formulation of which with regard to the proceeding Divine is scarcely more definite in the Athanasii Symbolo.

     Already, in that pilgrimage in which the LORD was providentially providing for and leading each step of his rational thought, Swedenborg was well on his way to the Mahanaim where he was to have the sight of the "two companies."

     The light of that Spiritual Sun began to be actually perceptible to his very eyes, crowning with confirmatory brightness the daily meditation of his mind; and when, in the weariness of the day's end, he troubled lest those daring universals of the order of "Organic Forms" which he had written, - universals as counter to the science of his day as to ours, - might be of his own thought and leading, not of the eternal Verities and God's guidance, - he was comforted in a dream by night with the assurance that what he had there written, "with God's help was of such a nature that it would lead him on still further, and that he should see things still more glorious." (Dec. 209, no. 176.)

     Already was there formed in his rational life and thought that correspondent body of natural Verities upon which the Angelic Wisdom of the Revelation, in the Second Coming, was to rest (L. J. Post. 263)

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"For spiritual truths have a correspondence with natural truths, because in them they terminate and upon them they rest" (Doc. 232); for the very Word, now to be rationally revealed, was from the foundations of the world, and by it all things were made. In this manner the church, closed in the rational mind of man, by falsities confirmed, was to be opened again, for - "what else is to open it again, except an understanding illustrated by the LORD?" (Doc. 232.) So great is the force of correspondence, impowered by the influx of heaven.

     Thus the little work under notice, On Tremulation, charming as it is in style, and fascinating to the general reader of the Church, is of especial value to the mind that loves to companion Swedenborg, hand in hand, through the successive steps of this "fore-ordained" opening and preparation of the rational mind; since it gives early data not hitherto accessible; and because, too, from its relative place and connection in the trend of that mind's opening, it brings rational confirmation to Swedenborg's own statement upon this particular subject; and all confirmations of this are not only interesting, but it is important they should he firmly fixed in the minds of believers.

     Any word which denies the LORD'S providential opening of Swedenborg's mind into a perception of the verities and laws of interior nature, contravenes Swedenborg's own word.

     And any view of the early works which would tend to thus dissociate the LORD'S providential preparation, and operation according to Order, from this His Second Coming made by means of the enlightenment and opening of the rational mind, of His servant Swedenborg, although it plausibly present itself to a love of the Writings under color of a tendency to exalt them, will not exalt them.

     For let an opinion of this character once gain admittance and hold, in the minds of New Church men, and when it is afterwards seen by them that the Theological teaching of the New Dispensation does indeed rest upon Natural Verities unfolded in earlier works, and is correspondent with those verities, part for part, it will at once be apparent how grave an opening such a preconceived idea in the mind, concerning the early work, has made for infestation and assault upon all living confidence in those Truths which are the LORD in His Second Coming, as being a Divine revelation.

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     Yet, seen that correspondence will be: for it is there! And to such an after-realization of the fact, all the influences of the spiritual world inimical to a genuine faith in the LORD'S New Church, would there lend assistance! Scarcely, indeed, could a more far-sighted move be made by them, to snatch away the vital truth of the Second Coming, - not from the world, for the world does not have it, - but from the belief and love of allegiant hearts and minds in which it has already began to live.     LILLIAN BEEKMAN.
FIVE MEMORABILIA 1900

FIVE MEMORABILIA              1900

     I. THE QUALITY OF THE MERELY NATURAL MAN.

     I. ONCE, from the desire of knowing the quality of the mind of the merely natural man, I looked up into heaven, and besought this knowledge from the LORD. The reason was that I had heard a man, in the highest degree natural, saying that he could see, understand and perceive many things just as rationally as they who are called spiritual, and thence angels of heaven; and he added to what he had said: "Has not each one a like rationality? What makes the difference except a frivolous opinion?" Suddenly then a Satan ascended from the hells. Satans are all merely natural and can ratiocinate skillfully, but from the fallacies of the senses; wherefore they see falses as truths; for all falses derive their origin from those fallacies. When he came in sight he appeared at first with face shining, living white, afterwards with face dead pale, finally with face infernal black. I asked why his face underwent those changes. I received answer from heaven, that such are the successive states of the minds' (mens) of those who are merely natural, for faces are types of minds (animus). The inmost of their minds (mens), because they are infernal, are represented by blackness in the face; the intermediates of their minds by the pallor of death, because they have falsified truths; but the outmosts, by a living whiteness, because while they are in externals, which happens while they are in a congregation, they can think, confirm, understand and teach truths. They have this ability, because rationality is humanity itself, for by it man is man, and is distinguished from beasts.

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But the rationality with Satans is in externals alone; they have none, however, in internals; because in internals reigns the cupidity of adulterating the goods, and of falsifying the truths of the Church; and this cupidity inflows into their rationality and overshadows its light, and covers it with thick darkness, in so far that they do not see anything but falsities in place of verities.

     2. After I had looked at his face, I looked into his eyes, and behold their pupils sparkled as from rays of light; afterwards they became opaque, and the irises became quite green, and finally appeared as if covered by a film (tunica), from which the whole crystalline lens in the pupil appeared as ii it were albugineuus* Having seen these things I asked him whether he could see anything, and he said: "I see clearly and more things than before." And I asked, "How call you see when your eyes have gutta serena? Perhaps you see something from fatuous light within." We responded, "What is fatuous light?"
     * Having a disease that turns the crystalline lens of the eye to a substance like the boiled white of an egg. - TR.

     In order therefore that he might know what fatuous light was, I asked, "What do you think from your light?"

     He said, "I think in clear vision that beasts think just as rationally as man." Afterwards he said that God is nature, and nature is God; and then also that religion is vanity; and further, that nothing is good or evil but that which is delightful or unpleasant, and other like things.

     3. When these things had been said, I proffered some genuine truths, which, before while he was in externals. he had seen and confirmed; and instantly, when he heard them, he turned his eyes inward, recognized those truths, and turned his eyes back again, and with a kind of fringe (limbus) of the film which covered the pupil, he absorbed those truths, and injected them into his own fatuous light, and then he called them falses; but because this appeared before my sight hideous, and as it were deadly, - since in such a manner he slaughtered truths, from which, nevertheless, a man is a man and an angel is an angel, - I abominated his presence; wherefore I turned my face from him; and when I looked back behold I saw him sinking through a kind of gulf into hell; and because the place where he had stood stank from him, I went hastily home; for the Divine truth falsified by Satans, in the spiritual world, stinks like the filth of the streets.

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II. THE FIRST STATE OF MAN AFTER DEATH.

     4. WHEN any man after death comes into the spiritual world, which for the most part takes place the third day after he has breathed out his soul, he appears to himself in a life similar to that in which he had been in the world, and in a similar house, chamber and bed-chamber, in a similar coat and clothing, and in a similar companionship within the house. If he has been a king or a prince he appears in a similar palace, if a peasant in a similar cottage; rustic things surround the latter, splendid things the former. This happens to every one after death, to the end that death may not appear as death, but as a continuation of life, and to the end that the last of natural life may become the first of spiritual life, and that from this a man may go forward to his goal, which will be either in heaven or in hell.

     5. That such a similarity of all this appears to the recently deceased is because their mind remains the same as it had been in the world; and, because the mind is not only in the head, but also in the whole body, therefore a man has a similar body; for the body is the organ of the mind, and is continued from the head; wherefore the mind is the man himself, no longer, however, a material man, but a spiritual man; and, because he is the same man after death, there are given to him things similar to those which he had possessed at home in the world, according to the ideas of his mind; but this lasts only some days. That the mind is in the whole body, and is the very man who lives after death, appears manifestly from the speech of the mouth and the action of the body, instantaneously with the will and thought of the mind; for the mouth speaks in an instant what the mind thinks, and the body executes in an instant what the mind wills. The erroneous belief that man lives after death a soul or mind, and this not under the appearance of a man, but under the appearance of a breath, as it were, of respiration, or as a bubble as it were of air, is because men do not know that the mind makes the interior form of the whole body.

     6. When newcomers into the spiritual world are in this first state, angels come to them for the sake of bidding them welcome, and at the first they are greatly delighted from conversation with them, since they know that they do not think otherwise than that they still live in the former world; wherefore the angels ask them what they think of the life after death, to which the newcomers respond in conformity with their previous ideas: some that they do not know; some that they are breaths or ethereal appearances; some that they are airy transparent bodies; some that they are flitting ghosts, some of them in ether and air, others in water, and others in the middle of the earth; and some say that they are souls like angels in the stars. Some of the newcomers deny that any man lives after death.

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     7. When they have heard these things the angels say, "Be welcome, we will show something new, that you have not known, or have not believed before, namely this, that every man lives a man after death, in a body just a, he had lived before."

     To these things the novitiate spirits reply, "This is not possible. Whence has he a body? Does it not lie with all that belongs to him dead in the grave?"

     To these things the angels respond merrily. "We will demonstrate it to your sight." And they say, "Are you not men in perfect form? Look at yourselves and touch yourselves; and yet you have departed from the natural world. That you have not known this before now is because the earliest state of life after death is just like the last state of life before death." Having heard these things the new guests are astonished and exclaim from joy of heart, "Thanks be to God that we are alive, and that death has not extirpated us!" I have often heard novitiates instructed in this manner, and have seen them gladdened on account of their resurrection.

Translated by Prof. Enoch S. Price.
THINGS OF RATIONAL WISDOM 1900

THINGS OF RATIONAL WISDOM              1900

CONJUGIAL LOVE, n. 163.

     IN general they are called science, intelligence, and wisdom; but specifically they are called rationality, judgment, genius, erudition, sagacity; but because there are sciences peculiar to each one in his office, therefore they are multifarious; for there are those peculiar to the clergy, peculiar to persons of the magistracy, peculiar to their various officers, peculiar to judges, peculiar to physicians and chemists, peculiar to soldiers and sailors, peculiar to artificers and laborers, Peculiar to husbandmen, etc., so on.

     [The foregoing passage has been brought to our attention, as bearing on the recent communications on education. - ED.]

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RESOLUTIONS OF THE "PRINCIPIA CLUB" CONCERNING THE LATE DR. J. J. G. WILKINSON 1900

RESOLUTIONS OF THE "PRINCIPIA CLUB" CONCERNING THE LATE DR. J. J. G. WILKINSON              1900

To THE EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     At a meeting of the Principia Club of Philadelphia, held at Huntingdon Valley, Pa., December 18, 1899, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

     WHEREAS, It has pleased the LORD to call into the spiritual world our venerable brother, Dr. James John Garth Wilkinson, of London, on October 18th, 1899.

     RESOLVED, That the Principia Club of Philadelphia hereby records its grateful appreciation of the eminent services which Dr. Wilkinson, during a period of sixty years, has performed in the cause of New Church Science and Philosophy, as the first editor and translator of Swedenborg's scientific works, and as the first and untiring champion and expounder of that system of natural Truth which has been provided in these works for the use of the LORD'S New Church.

     RESOLVED, That the resolution respecting Dr. Wilkinson be communicated to the editor of The New Philosophy, to the editor of New Church Life, to the Secretary of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, and to the Swedenborg Philosophy Club of Chicago. C. E. DOERING, Secretary.

THE editor of the Western New Church Union Bulletin says that the "Need of the New Church" is, - loyalty in obedience to the light of the New Jerusalem. "We need to begin with ourselves, both ministry and laity, and look to a life according to doctrine. It is not contemplation of doctrine as the ideal of life, but obedience to doctrine as the law of life, that qualifies the church. We expect to see the "remnant" come to us, when we ourselves are only admiring and wondering at the doctrine, not living it. The desire to see the church grow may be only the form self-love takes.... A real concern for the spiritual welfare of others will lead us to live according to the truths we know and understand. The real need and duty of the New Church is, not to invent new methods of attracting people to the Church, and of interesting and holding them, from natural affection, but to live in obedience to what the LORD teaches in the doctrine of the church opened from the Word. This is the LORD'S commandment, and 'Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.'"

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STREAM OF PROVIDENCE 1900

STREAM OF PROVIDENCE       E. E. PLUMMER       1900

By wondrous ways Thy Providence, O Lord,
     Outflows to save and bless;
A stream of peace untold, a sure defence.
     A refuge in distress.

It floweth as a mighty river, free;
     And on its heavenly tide
The lowly bondman and the crowned king
     Alike in Thee abide.

Content with all Thou givest, blessed Lord,
     In each event they see
An angel, glad or grave, whom Thou dost send
     To lead them nearer Thee.

To him who seeks to stem the waves of life,

     Thy Providence appears
A flood of angry waters, vexed with storms,
     A sea of doubts and fears.

Who trust in Thee may dwell with equal mind,
     Or low or high their state;
Nor cross of pain nor mortal ill depress,
     No earthly crown elate.

Borne on the stream of life's unceasing round,
     Returning to Thy throne,
They rest in joy and peace. They see Thy face,
     And dwell with Thee alone.
E. E. PLUMMER.
NOTICE 1900

NOTICE              1900

     THE date of publication, of this magazine, will hereafter be the fifteenth of the month.
Principia Theory 1900

Principia Theory              1900

     JUST at this time, when the Principia Theory has been so fundamentally impugned, the publication of Swedenborg's work On Tremulation seems particularly opportune. In the review of the work which appears elsewhere in this number, are ably traced those universal principles which, enounced in general form in this very early effort, run through all the elaboration of later and riper years, weaving together his philosophy into wondrous unity, and exhibiting substantial correspondence with the revealed truth of New Church theology.

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Editorial Department 1900

Editorial Department       Editor       1900

     NEW CHURCH LIFE AS A MAGAZINE.

     WITH the present year and current number this periodical assumes the magazine form, a departure which, though involving no material change of purpose or conduct, seems to give occasion for somewhat of retrospect as well as for a definition or re-statement of policy.

     The publication of New Church Life began in 1881, just nineteen years ago, when it was decided to continue in that form a manuscript paper called "The Social Monthly," which two years before had been started by the Young Folks' Social Club, of the Advent Society, of Philadelphia. In its first issues the contents of the printed paper exhibited a miscellaneous character, natural in a young-people's organ, including subjects that ranged all the way from theology to humor. But as a logical result of its pronouncement for New Church distinctiveness the Life early began to meet the growing need for a periodical devoted to upholding the standard of the Divine Authority of the Writings of Swedenborg. This standard had been raised about the year 1876, by the then newly-formed "Academy of the New Church," and when the Life came upon the scene, this issue, with others allied to it, - such as "The Second Coming effected in the Writings," "The Writings the Internal Sense of the Word," "The Vastated State of the Old Church," etc., - were confronting the indifference, the mistaken "liberality," and the self-intelligence, which had invaded the New Church and threatened its integrity and very life. To the oft-raised cry of "Peace, Peace," the Academy answered that there was no peace, and could he none until these issues had been faced and settled. Into the struggle went New Church Life, with the enthusiasm of youth, and soon was in the thick of the fray, fighting in the shadow of that doughty champion, the Academy's serial, Words for the New Church.

     With the discontinuance of the serial, in 1886, the Life became the sole journalistic exponent of the Academy position, and about that time the then-editors offered it to the Corporation of the Academy. For a few years the offer was not acted upon, but in 1890 the Council of the Academy decided to accept it, and assumed charge: making no change, however, in the editorial management.

     This was at the time when the Academy. as a result of the distinctive church life which grew up from its teachings and uses, was developing an ecclesiastical tendency which soon after took form in the "Church of the Academy." But when the movement finally crystallized into the "General Church of the New Jerusalem" the Academy, which had become, as a corporate body, greatly reduced in size with the voluntary withdrawal of most of its members, - contented itself with the especial use of conducting schools, theological and secular: and, subordinately, the uses of publication and formation of a library.

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The scope of its prot?g?, however, - the Life, - had meanwhile grown until it included general ecclesiastical uses; and in recognition of this the Academy, in the early part of 1899, offered the paper to the "General Church;" which offer was accepted.

     New Church Life is now, therefore, the official organ and mouthpiece of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Its principles and its objects, which are set forth briefly upon the second page of the cover, are such as look to the establishing upon earth of a faith and life which shall fittingly and consistently embody the acknowledgment of Divine Authority in the Doctrines of the New Church. The work of the Life is therefore at once constructive and destructive; for the coming of the New necessitates the removal of the Old; and to the falses of an effete theology and the evils of a vastate Church the LORD comes not with the olive branch but with the sword. But even here the Divine work is seen to be really constructive; for the sword of truth slays only evil and the false, and this but liberates from death those in whom is any love of good and truth. In this sense alone, and with such a weapon, does this journal wish to wage war.

     The watchword of New Church Life is, - Distinctiveness of the New Church; since therein lies the journal's sole reason for being. For in the world the field of journalism is already crowded and most highly cultivated, - but in worldly things. To examine and re-classify worldly things in the light of the new Revelation, and to make them wholly subserve heavenly things, - this constitutes a field in which only pioneer work - and scantily at that - is being done. Finally, to further this work it is thought desirable that the pages of: the Life become not merely a channel for ministerial instruction but also a sort of mental meeting ground for its readers, for the interchange of ideas, the introduction of suggestions, questions and answers, on topics no matter how practical so that they are capable of being regarded from something of a New Church view-point. No suggestion is so humble that it may not contribute something to the rounding out of the subject concerned. If the importance of this contributing to the common fund of thought is once realized we think that there will be more who will be impelled to say "right out in meeting" some of the things which they have been in the habit of keeping to themselves or their private circle.

     And now, with these notes and suggestions, - with a thought to the past, an aspiration for the future, and for the present an appeal to kind friends for support and for co-operation in a common cause, - we wish all our readers a very Happy New Year.     EDITOR.
Dr. J. J. G. Wilkinson 1900

Dr. J. J. G. Wilkinson              1900

THE career of the late Dr. J. J. G. Wilkinson, although not closely connected with the organized New Church, represents a life work which gives his passing away especial significance. In recognition of that work, an unusually comprehensive account of its salient features will be begun in our next number.

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NEED OF THE NEW CHURCH 1900

NEED OF THE NEW CHURCH       A. A       1900

     THE New Church Messenger of November 1I5th contains a number of letters from ministers and other active members of the New Church, in answer to the question, "What are some of the special needs of the New Church?" The question seems to have been prompted by a realization of the fact that the message of the New Church has fallen on closed ears, or, to quote one of the Messenger's correspondents, that "after sears of self-sacrificing labor...our numbers barely remain stationary."

     The answers are varied and interesting as showing the general state of thought on this subject. And yet after reading them, one feels at a loss as to what the needs of the Church are. Several of the writers agree that the first necessity is a greater awakening of charity and spiritual life in the individual members of the Church, a greater conformity of life to doctrine. This is of course true, and, with varying conceptions as to what constitutes charity and spiritual life, would be acknowledged by all New Churchmen, even by those who differ most as to the needs of the Church. It is rather the end to be attained, and does not satisfy the mind as to what is needed that it may be attained. On this point several suggestions are made. According to one, the Church needs a "fuller unfolding of the Holy Word in its application to the concrete problems of daily work." According to another it needs a deepening of interest in the LORD'S Revelation; while a third implies that there has been too much interest in that revelation, and that the Church needs teaching from the Word, and "nothing but the Word,"- of the three essentials of the Christian life, relegating to a very secondary position what he calls, "merely speculative discussions." Other correspondents apparently assume that the great need of the church is an increase in its numerical strength, and to this end many suggestions are made. There should be more perfect externals of worship, greater unity of organization in the whole Church, and a scholarly clergy; a better paid ministry; greater activity of women in the councils of the Church; more fresh material in the make-up of committees; and a wider sympathy with the Christian world.

     Do these answer the main question? Would the adoption of the suggestions made result in the growth of the Church? To answer this we must dismiss from our consideration the idea of merely numerical growth, and confine our attention to the real and spiritual growth of the Church; for, as every rational man knows, the strength of a body depends, not on its numbers, but on the spirit and end of the members. How much more is this the case in the Church, whose life and strength are not from man - from numbers - but from the LORD, received in the heart. "Where two or three are gathered together in My Name, there am I in the midst of them."

     To know what the Church needs for its real growth and prosperity we must know what prevents such growth and prosperity. Why does not the Church at large grow? By its missionary efforts new members are brought in, but this addition is more than offset by the constant drifting away of its young people; and the interest of the new members is more than counterbalanced by the lukewarmness and indifference of many of the old members.

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To these two causes, desertion and indifference, more than to any other, must be ascribed the lack of growth, both spiritual and natural, of the New Church at large.

     To what cause is this due, and what remedy is needed? The answer to these questions is contained in the Writings. Three reasons are there given why the New Church will begin with but a few. 1. Because it can only be received by those who are interiorly affected with truths. 2. Because the doctrines of the former Church must first be removed. 3. Because the New Church grows on earth only according to its growth in the world of spirits. (See A. E. 732, A. R. 547.) When we consider the nature of these reasons, we will find that they are reasons, not only why the Church begins with a few, but also why its growth will be extremely slow. The lack of the interior affection of truth and the prevalence of falses, which render the beginnings of the Church small, are surely causes which cannot be removed except very, very slowly.

     The growth of the New Church must inevitably be slow, but the knowledge of this fact should not prevent us from inquiring as to our duty in contributing to that growth. Though it rests not with us to hasten the growth of the New Church except in our own lives, it does rest with us to follow out those means of growth which the LORD has revealed to us; to supply those needs which He has indicated. These needs are contained in the three reasons given above, why the Church will grow slowly. That the Church may grow, therefore, there must be: 1. The interior affection of truth. 2. The rejection of the falses of the former Church; and, 3. The growth of the Church in the world of spirits.

     As to the first, the LORD alone knows who are in or can come into the affection of truth. It is sufficient that we each for ourselves shun the evils which prevent that affection. As to the third, it is also the LORD alone who knows the state and growth of the Church in the other world. This is beyond our control. The second, however, indicates the one great need which we are called upon to co-operate with the LORD in supplying to the Church, that is, the removal of the falses of the former Church. The supreme importance of this is also further indicated by Swedenborg, where, at the end of n. 547 of the Apocalypse Revealed, he adds: "It is certain that the New Church will exist...and it is also certain that the falses of the former church must first be removed." Because of the falsities of the former Church, the New Church is with but a few, and these falsities are what prevent the growth of that Church. The first and crying need of the Church, therefore, is to recognize this, and to remove these falsities from itself. Only as this is done can the faith of the New Church be established with the members of our church bodies. Is this need supplied in the New Church at large? There is indeed a general recognition of the falsities of the former Church, as to purely theological doctrines, but there it has stopped. The church at large does not recognize that these falsities reside not only in the head, but also in the heart; and that they have perverted the whole body; that they are not only in the doctrines of the devastated church, but have entered into and vitiated the philosophy, the science, the thought and the life of the whole Christian world.

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And because this is not acknowledged, there is, throughout the New Church, friendship and sympathy for a church which is utterly vastated, - as to its ideas and its life. And what is the consequence? Members of the New Church seek their social life outside of the Church; they attend the services of the old Church; their thoughts are more active with, and receptive of, the notions and conceits of the day than engaged in the study of the Truths of revelation; their sons and daughters marry out of the Church and are reparated from its life. And we see the result foretold in the Writings, that the New Church will grow slowly because of the prevalence of the falsities of the Old.

     Of all the Messenger's correspondents, but one shows any real appreciation of the importance of this truth. "What means all this effort," - writes the Rev. L. P. Mercer, - "to find just as much good in the institutions outside, and to make believe that they are even better, and are doing more for the world? Clearly it is because we love the world more than we love the Church." The Rev. James Reed, it is true, refers to it, when he says that we should cherish the distinctive faith and life of the New Church, but he gives this rather as an abstract truth generally acknowledged, than one which is being daily denied in the life of the New Church; he shows the truth in a general way, but does not show its vital importance, nor the absolute necessity of its reception and observance. And yet it is just this that is needed to draw the members of the New Church from the falses of the Old, that the New may grow and prosper.

     In most of the letters, on the other hand, we find sympathy with those falses, - an adoption, for the upbuilding of the New Church, of ideas born from a church where not one stone stands on another. Woman suffrage, and interest in the leading problems of the day, are extreme instances of this. But the sympathy is shown not only for the falses of the vastate Church, but also for its concomitant "Charity." The need of the Church is stated to be greater charity in the members; but the whole conception of charity is not that of the New Church. It is not that charity which consists in acknowledging the LORD in His Second Coming, and seeing from His revelation the evils which have destroyed the Old Church and which seek to destroy the New, - evils of man's spirit, unknown or unnoticed in the world; - but it is the charity that the world advocates, charity which, in place of seeing and shunning the evils that surround us, seeks to cover them over; a charity, which as a consequence, sees in the merely natural good of the world an evidence of truly spiritual life. Witness the following from the letter of one of the leading ministers of the Convention: "We need more of the spirit of charity which respects the freedom of others, sympathizes with and enjoys whatever is good and true in them, and for itself, has no wish but to be helpful when there is opportunity." What minister of the Old Church but would agree with this? What idea is here given of the New Church as a New, a Spiritual Church, and of its charity as a New and Spiritual Charity? of the New Church as the ONLY Spiritual Church, and one made necessary by the utter destruction of the former Church, entirely distinct from that church not only in doctrine, but - and more especially - in life?

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With such an idea of the charity that is necessary for the growth of the New Church, coming from a leader in the Church, how can we look for the growth of the Church as a distinct Body! Can we expect more than that it will be regarded by many of its members as a more enlightened sect of the Old Church?

     The history of the New Church for many years past shows, and the letters before us confirm, that the truth regarding the Old Church, and the necessity of our separation from it in thought and life, is not sufficiently taught in the New Church; that the greatest need which it is in our power to supply for the establishment of the New Church, is almost altogether neglected. Can we wonder at the cry of failure, of the fruitlessness of efforts? How can we expect men to cleave to the Church, when they are not taught, and do not believe, that it is the Only Church? that all ideas from without are false? How can we hope to implant the truths of the New and cultivate delight in them, when we still sympathize with the offspring of the Old? How can the light grow when the darkness is not dispelled? Every now and then ideas are being foisted on the Church, by ministers and laymen, which are taken bodily from the "broad Christianity" of a perverted Church, and they are received by too many of our members as the fruits of a broad and liberal mind. What else then can we expect, but the slow, the very slow growth of the New Church - of New Church thought and New Church life?

     The Church does indeed need, as one of the correspondents says, to "return to its first love;" to that love which ruled in the early days of the New Church, when everything from the Old Church was viewed with suspicion: when the Writings were regarded as the Only source of all light and when unceasing war was waged against the notions of the world. In this way only can we have a "renewal and deepening of interest" in the Lord's Revelation. In this "need" of removing the falses of the Old Church be supplied from our pulpits and received in our church life, we shall have less cause to complain of men leaving the church, or being in different to its teachings. And if it be not, then, to again quote from Mr. Mercer, "the light (of the men and women of the Church) will go out and the Church will pass to others," and all the remedies suggested will be of no avail.

     Of what use, in building up the New Church, will it be to preach the "LORD, Faith and Charity," - to "further unfold the Word" as bearing of the problems of daily life, - until men are shown that the LORD and Faith and Charity and The Word. are rejected by the whole Christian Church and can be found in the New Church alone; and that all teaching from any other source is false? How shall men see the truth, until that which is before their eyes in the world around them is seen to be false? And how will more perfect externals, a united organization, make men to see that in the New Church alone is light, or will induce her members to cleave to her and love her truths? And shall we by fraternizing with to devastated Church - our deadly enemy, - or by adopting its false conceit as to the position and duties of women, advance the real growth of our Church?

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     It has been frequently acknowledged by both minister and layman, that many of the members of the church are indifferent, that the children do not as a rule stay in the church. To quote the sentiment of a former treasurer of the Convention, publicly uttered before that Body, Think, what the Convention would be now, had all the children of its members stayed in the New Church; no building that the New Church now has, could accommodate it. The facts are acknowledged and deplored, but the cause is ignored even when pointed out. The Church has suffered from desertion to the Old Church, and this it seeks and strives to prevent. But does it strive to do this by showing that the Old is false, is evil, is dead! No! On the contrary it strives to do it by seeing more and more spiritual life in that church, by preaching its charity and applauding its virtue; by seeing in its spirit of denial, the love of truth, and in its materialism, the awakening of spiritual understanding. The remedy is sought in the evil itself. Its failure has been made manifest again and again.

     And yet, despite all past experience, the Messenger, even while deploring the failure of the efforts of the past, still upholds that spirit of sympathy with the Old Church which has made those efforts abortive. "The message of the New Church," it says, "has apparently fallen on closed ears. For years the teachings of the church have been earnestly proclaimed. It has been a time of devoted effort; yet sometimes the heart of the Church has been tempted to cry out, 'O LORD, how long!'" And the same editorial continues: "The (old) Church has moved almost unconsciously, but still truly, out of the old narrow world into the new and vast world of our modern intelligence;" and again: "Today there is a spirit of inquiry such as perhaps has never been felt before.... Men want new light upon the problems of faith. They hesitate to give up their faith in the divinity of the LORD; for that has been the life of the Church." In which way do these words tend to the growth of the New Church? Do they not rather encourage fraternization, in life and worship, with that Church whose life and faith must first be rejected before the New Church can be established? Do they not encourage that desertion of the church, that paucity in its numbers, which the Messenger itself deplores?

     It is said in one of the letters, that the church needs more scholarly ministers. This is indeed true, but not so much in the way the writer seems to have meant it. The Church needs ministers scholarly with the learning of the church rather than that of the world; men imbued with its truths, impressed with their utter newness, and convinced of. and able to discern, the deadly poison in the conceits and notions of the world. Men who will lead their people to go to the Writings and to shun the vain imaginings of self-intelligence, which in the world pass for the truths of wisdom. With such leaders the Church will surely grow: with such teachers, the falses of the Old will he removed and the light of the New enter.                              A. A.

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NOTES 1900

NOTES              1900

     READERS according to the Calendar of Daily Lessons in the Word and the Writings, published by the General Church of the New Jerusalem, would do well to make up the lessons omitted, by mistake, from the reading prescribed for last December. The omitted lessons include numbers 39 to 90 of the Continuation Concerning the Last Judgment.

     SUGGESTION has been received that for one having no previous information on the subject misunderstanding might arise from the language employed in our December notes on the Rev. J. F. Potts' two papers, which were published in The New Philosophy for October, attacking the "Principia Theory of Creation." In that connection, it is suggested, the expression "an unsuspected mine" might be taken to imply that the publication of these papers in The New Philosophy was the first intimation of Mr. Potts' position which had been received by the "supporters and workers in the recent revival of Swedenborg's Philosophy." That this could not have been meant will be recognized by any one who has followed our news columns, in which was noted the reading of those papers last spring, before the Principia Club, and later, before the Conference of Ministers of the General Convention. The simile "unsuspected mine" was used simply to picture the startled advocates of Swedenborg's philosophy, confronted by a proposition - and from a fellow-advocate - which, if established, would do away with the very corner-stone of that philosophy, - namely the Principia Theory.

     THE Five Memorabilia, of which we begin to present a translation in the present issue of the Life, were written by Swedenborg about the year 1766. This little world contains important Divine instruction, which hitherto has been practically unavailable to the church.

     The original manuscript occupies thirteen folio pages in "Codex 11" of the manuscripts of Swedenborg, which are preserved in the Academy of 1869, nor has it been as yet reproduced by the new process of photo typing.

     A copy of the original was made by Mr. August Johansen in 1785, and conveyed to England by Mr. C. R. Wadstrom, in 1788. An English translation, made from this copy, was published in the New Jerusalem Magazine of London, in 1790, (pp 43-46, 76-84), but has never since then re-appeared in any form whatever. The copy itself subsequently came into the possession of the Swedenborg Society, which body, through Dr. Im. Tafel, procured its publication, in Latin, in 1846. It was incorporated in the Diarium Spirituale as part vii., appendix I, and will be found on pages 124 to 133 of the posthumous work De Ultimo Judicio. The divisions in the present translation are those adopted by the Rev. J. F. Potts in the Swedenborg Concordance.

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General Church of the New Jerusalem 1900

General Church of the New Jerusalem              1900

     THE Sixth Quarterly report from the Treasurer of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, which has just been published and received by the members, shows, on comparison with former reports, not only an increase in receipts, but also in the number of contributors. This is a very encouraging sign, since every contribution may be regarded as an ultimate sign of a desire to co-operate and support the uses of the Church.

     To the Treasurer's report is now added, receipts for the Orphanage, and this beginning, although modest as yet in size, should serve as a very direct reminder to the members and their families.
Monthly Review 1900

Monthly Review              1900

     Concordance to the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. By the Rev. J. F. Potts, - November, 1899, part 107. The latest installment of this invaluable work introduces the great subject of "Truth." Other important entries are: "Tree," "Tribe," "Trine," and "Trinity."

     Den Nya Kyrkan, ("The New Church"), a monthly journal, edited by Rev. Joseph E. Boyesen, of Stockholm, Sweden, - November, 1899:

     "The Love of Truth for its own sake;" by Mr. Emil Cronlund. (Translated from New Church. Life.)

     "As one having authority," - (translated from New Church Life).

     "The basis of Doctrine in the New Church," - (translated from the Rev. John Whitehead's reply to Mr. Bjorck, in the Messenger).

     Mr. Whitehead's article was reproduced in New Church Life for September.

     Monatblatter fur die Neue Kirche. Published by the Rev. F. Gorwitz, at Zurich, Switzerland, - October and November, 1899:

     Report of the twenty-fifth general meeting of the Swiss New, Church Union.

     "The History of the New Church in Switzerland," by Mr. Otto Erb. An extremely interesting review of the rise and progress of the Church in Central Europe, from the year 1848 to the present time. This address should be translated into English. We are informed through private sources that the meeting at which it was read was very successful and auspicious for the Church in Central Europe.

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     Morning Light, published weekly by James Speers, at London, - November-December:

     "The Motion and Position of the Earth and the Planets;" by Emanuel Swedenborg. This is a translation of Swedenborg's interesting and suggestive little work, entitled Om Jordens och Planctenzns Gang och Stand, which was published in the year 1718, and may be regarded as a companion to the work On Tremulation, lately published in Boston. The simultaneous appearance of these two works is a curious coincidence, as the respective translators are unknown to each other. It is to be hoped that the English-speaking New Church will before long come into possession of all those of Swedenborg's scientific works which were written in Swedish.

     A biographical sketch of the late Dr. Wilkinson, by his publisher, James Speirs, (Nov. 18). Many of the facts here related will be utilized in the more extended biography which we hope to publish in the next issue of New Church Life.

     "Dean Farrar on the Atonement;" by Rev. R. Goldsack, (Nov. 25) Review of a recent article in The Christian World, in which Dean Farrar boldly proclaims a doctrine which in a remarkable degree approaches the Doctrine of the New Church.

     "The Duration of Hell and the nature of its Punishments;" (Dec. 2) I showing why the infernals must remain in hell forever, but why, also, their punishment consists really in being restrained from the extreme consequences of their evil tendencies, - is not unmitigated torment.

     New Church Independent, a monthly, published by Weller and Son, at Chicago, - November, 1899:

     The "celestial" correspondent of this journal, Rev. J. M. Washburn, of Denver, in an article on "The Spiritual Church," presents a striking picture of the state of the Christian world. We wonder if he realizes that his teaching on this particular subject closely resembles the position of his pet aversion - the Academy.

     New Church Messenger; the organ of the General Convention, published weekly at New York, and edited by the Revs. C. H. Mann. J. K. Smyth and Frank Sewall, November-December, 1899:

     "Degrees of Substance;" (Nov. 29) an editorial review of the recent attack on the Principle in The New Philosophy. The editor shows that "Mr. Potts' critique rests upon a mere play of words, - an attempt to make Swedenborg mean by 'substance' that which he plainly did not mean, when writing the Principia, namely the All of Being."... "But to say that therefore, previously, he held that the Infinite was 'nothing' is to do him the greatest injustice."

     "Why do our Young People leave the Church?" (Nov. 29.) A correspondent, - ("M.") - here assigns as the cause of this evil a neglect to give the young people "something to do" in the work of the Church. "Cease preaching at them at inopportune times; do not let every gathering of the Church people be an occasion for the minister to talk,...appeal to their natural ambitions, to the pride of performance," etc. Such are the remedies suggested as the cure for the love of the world!

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This may be "Homoeopathic" in appearance, but is scarcely "Hahnemannian," and still less "Swedenborgian." The natural delights of the young should nor, indeed, be crushed, but the cultivation of the affection of truth has been tried - here and there and with great advantage, - as the very best means of retaining the young within the church.

     "Report of the Annual Meeting of the Michigan Association," together with the address of the presiding minister, the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. (Dec. 6.) Very interesting and instructive. Concerning the necessarily slow growth of the Church, the address says: "Since, as we are taught in the True Christian Religion (n. 397), published in the year 1772, had been admitted into spiritual temptation during the many centuries that had elapsed since the Nicene Council was held in the year 318, we cannot expect such a tremendous revolution in the spiritual nature of mankind as would be involved in the assumption that multitudes are now prepared, within a century and a half from the Last Judgment, to undergo, without calamity, those spiritual conflicts on which depends the real internal growth of the Church which is to be the wife of the LORD."

     "The Meaning of Wars," (Dec. 6), by Julian Hawthorne, the well-known novelist.

     "Spoiling the Egyptians," an excellent Sermon by Rev. James Reed. (Dec. 13.)

     "Report of the Annual Meeting of the Maryland Association." (Dec.13) The recent translation of Swedenborg's early work On Tremulation, ably reviewed by Rev. Frank Sewall. (Dec. 13.)

     "Worship," (Dec. 20), a favorable editorial notice of Bishop Pendleton's recent suggestions and recommendations on the subject, in New Church Life for November.

     "The Nativity," and other subjects relative to the birth of the LORD are explained instructively and at length by a number of writers in the "Christmas number" of the Messenger. In order, apparently, that the readers might have these on Christmas Day this number was mailed the week before; and it was dated Dec. 25th instead of 27th.

     Nunc Licet, a monthly, published by the Rev. Albert Bjorck, at Stockholm, Sweden, - November, 1899:

     "A visit to the annual meeting of the New Church In America." Mr. Bjorck here presents a sketch of the rise and historical development of the General Convention and of the Academy, and describes at length the two, radically diverging tendencies which have existed from the beginning in the New Church in respect to the origin and value of Swedenborg's Writings. Mr. Bjorck believes that the action of the late Convention in Boston, in respect to his own case, signalized the ultimate triumph of the anti-doctrinal position which he represents, over the remnant of "Academy principles" in the General Convention. Quien Sabe?

     Nya Kyrkans Tidning. Edited monthly by the Rev. C. J. N. Manby, at Gottenburg, Sweden, - October-November, 1899:

     "From God," a beautiful editorial presentation of the Divine Origin and eternal sufficiency of the Revelation given to the New Church.

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This article, and in fact most that comes from Mr. Manby's pen, deserves a wider publicity than the Swedish language can provide. We regard his productions as among the ablest and soundest in the modern literature of the Church.

     "Preparations for the Second Coming;" a translation of the recent graduation-essay of Mr. Alfred Stroh, A. B. (Nov.).

     The New Church Magazine, the organ of the General Conference, edited by Rev. J. R. Rendell, and published monthly at London, - December, 1899:

     "History of the New Church at Horncastle," in Lincolnshire, (with a charming picture of the chapel).

     "A Trinal Divine Humanity," by Rev. Adolph Roeder, who here describes the Divine Human as it has revealed itself, respectively before, during, and after the period of the LORD'S life on earth.

     "The Rev. William Agutter," a biographical sketch by Mr. Charles Higham. Mr. Agutter was a clergyman of the Church of England, who had warmly received the Doctrines of the New Church, and formed an intimate friendship with the Rev. John Clowes. He died in 1835.

THE WRITINGS IN ICELANDIC.

     Yu hina Nyu Jerusalem og hennar Himnesku Kenningu, ("On the New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines"). New York, 1899. Paper, 55 pp.

     Kenning hinnar Nyu Jerusalem um Kaerleikann, ("Doctrines of the New Jerusalem concerning Charity"). New York, 1899, 65 pp.

     The appearance of these little works in the most ancient of living European tongues is an interesting event in the bibliological history of the New Church. Thirty years ago the British Swedenborg Society published The Divine Love and Wisdom in Icelandic. The American Swedenborg: Printing and Publishing Society now resumes the work by the publication of these neat pocket editions. The translator is Mr. Jon Hjaltalin, who also translated the former work, and who is, as far as we know, the only receiver of the Heavenly Doctrines in Iceland. He is at present the principal of the College in Reikiavik, the capital of Iceland, and was at one time connected with the Icelandic department in the British Museum; and, while there he formed an intimate and life-long friendship with the late Dr. Wilkinson, to whom the present edition of the New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines is dedicated. The same volume contains also an introduction by the translator, embodying a brief sketch of Swedenborg's life. The reference to the Arcana Coelestia are omitted in this edition. It is to be hoped that means will be found to circulate these works not only in Iceland itself, but among the many Icelandic settlers in the Northwestern States of this country, and in Canada. We believe there is an Icelandic newspaper published in this country, and the Publishing Society would do well to advertise these publications in its columns.

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EPISCOPAL VISIT TO ALLENTOWN 1900

EPISCOPAL VISIT TO ALLENTOWN       J. W       1900

     FROM December 16th to 18th the Circle here was honored with a visit by Bishop and Mrs. Pendleton, who were accompanied by the Pastor, the Rev. A. Acton, and his wife. The party stayed at the house of Mr. Ebert, where the meetings during their visit were held. On Saturday evening (December 16) the Bishop was welcomed at an informal meeting of the men of the Society. The evening was spent in conversation, and in going over the music for the following day.

     On Sunday the Bishop conducted the services, preaching on the text, The woman clothed with the Sun, and the Moon under her feet (Rev. 12. 1) showing the quality of the New Church, and of the man who will be of that Church. On this occasion, was used for the first time in the Church, the service, "The Unity of God," written by the Bishop and designed to he the beginning of a new Liturgy. It was greatly enjoyed. The congregation numbered 18.

     The evening was given up to a supper at which there were 25 persons present, including children, the latter sitting at a separate table. After some justice had been done to the good things set before us, Mr. Acton, the Toastmaster, offered a toast to the Church, which was responded to by all singing "Vivat Nova Ecclesia." The second toast, 'To our guest the Bishop," was followed by all joining in a song of welcome, specially composed for the occasion. Mr. Ebert, responding, briefly yet affectionately gave expression to our delight in the visit, and to our hope that it may be often repeated.

     The third toast, "The General Church, a spiritual community" was responded to by the Bishop. He began by showing that even in a purely natural sense, it is not good for man to be alone. The life of a hermit is no longer considered a mark of holiness, for it is recognized that man has uses to perform to his fellow-men. From this he led up to the importance of our not only being together and doing uses with men on earth, but of also being with Societies in Heaven. This it is which makes the true church a spiritual community. From these societies all the strength of the Church comes. But this strength, this spiritual force which comes from the angels, cannot he received by a Church except so far as the members of that Church come into union with heaven. It is not for us to say whether we are a spiritual community or not, but it is our hope that such is the case. This however indicates to each one of our members - to those who seem to have no use to perform in the Body - the very important use which they are called upon to serve, - the use of bringing the Church into communion with the Church in Heaven. Only as this is done by the individual members can we hope to be a spiritual community.

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     The Bishop's speech, dealing as it did with our reasons for being together in a general body of the church, was a very important one, and was listened to with great attention. In the above account I have given but a very brief outline of it. After he had finished, the first verse of "Our Glorious Church" was sung.

     The fourth toast, "Friendship, the love of brethren in the Church" was responded to by Mr. Weirbach. The speaker dwelt on the love of brethren in the church as the tie which binds them together and forms them one Society. All the uses that they perform look to the common good of that Society, and beyond and above that, to the common good of the greater Body of which the Society is a part; and above all, to the LORD in whose love they are Brethren. He then showed that this tie only existed when the good and truth in a man, was loved, and not the person. He spoke at some length on the subject of personal friendship, showing that while it is necessary to form external friendships for the sake of business, etc., we should beware of intimate attachments, the friendship of love, which might be detrimental to us in the other life. Mr. Weirbach concluded with a reference to Conjugial Love as the "Friendship of friendships." All then joined in singing the verse, "Descending From Thy Lord Above."

     The fifth toast. "Contentment; the confidence of the Church in her LORD" was introduced by Mrs. Weirbach reading Miss Plummer's hymn, "The LORD Will Provide." Mr. Waelchli responded to the toast with a speech full of affection. The world is full of anxiety and worry. Men constantly fear misfortune; they dream of getting what they have not, or of losing what they have. The fruit of this is seen in the number of suicides that occur daily. That the LORD rules the least things of their life, is known to men, from the Bible, from song and proverb; and yet it has no more effect than a certain pious feeling, awakened when they read. Underneath all is discontent, unrest. This sea of unrest sends its billows against us, and the safety of the New Churchman is to be found only in the Writings. They are the elixir of life, the panacea for all ills and woes; and this, because in them, the LORD is present with man. face to face. True contentment is to regard all things of life as means for use which the LORD has set us to do. This contentment was in the Golden Age, it is in heaven, and it is to come to earth. In Allentown there seems to be cause for anxiety, - the circle seems to have declined; but this is only an appearance, for the Sower still cares for that which He has sown, an evidence of which is seen this evening. Let us remain faithful to our work, and be content in God. At the conclusion of Mr. Waelchli's remarks. Miss India Waelchli sang a selection from the 37th Psalm, "Trust in the LORD." (Psalmody, p. 199.)

     The sixth toast, "Our duty to the Church," was replied to by Prof. L. C. Brickenstein. After referring to our duty financially, Mr. Brickenstein said that our first duty to the church as a spiritual body is to be in it, and we are in it only so far as it is in us. To do our full duty therefore, we must be in conjunction with the LORD, and this is now possible as it never was before; for the New Church worships the Lone in His Divine Human, visible in the Writings of the Church.

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     Mr. Acton then proposed a toast to "The children." In his remarks he dwelt principally on the duty of parents who could not send their children to New Church schools. They should not allow the sphere of anxiety to come over them, but rest content with the LORD'S Providence, and cease not to do all that is in their power to initiate their children into the New Church, by teaching and by family worship.

      The clock now pointed to 10 P. M., and the party, after an informal toast of thanks to the host and hostess, dispersed, and visibly refreshed, wended their ways to their homes. J. W.
OUTSIDE COMMENT 1900

OUTSIDE COMMENT              1900

EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE:

     THE news of the recent donation of $400,000 to the Academy of the New Church does not seem to rest well on the stomachs of the editors of German religious periodicals. In Your November number was quoted the lament of the editor of Der Lutheraner ("The Lutheran"), that the Lutheran church did not receive this donation. Somewhat in the same strain is the plaint of the editor of the Katlaolische Glaubcnsbate ("Catholic Messenger of Faith"), in the issue of the 21st of September: - "A magnificent donation has been left by a deceased (!) merchant in Philadelphia, Pa., to his sect, the Swedenborgians. It consists of $400,000, which are to be applied to the distribution of the doctrines of Swedenborg. No wonder that those people are in a position to distribute gratis thousands of thick volumes of their false doctrines. If only our people were as zealous in the spread of pure doctrines, as those are in the spread of their heresies."

     Probably the only consolation these editors can find is in the fact that the "merchant" is dead, and there is no telling what symptoms they would develop should they learn that he has actually survived his action. And a third German editor has come upon the scenes; but -in his case the news has not affected the stomach, but instead has "gone down the wrong throat." The editor of the Bote der Neuen Kirche, the organ of the German Synod of the New-Church, in the issue for the 1st of December, quotes and comments upon the above article from the Catholic organ, and, imagining that the legacy referred to is the Jungerich Fund, speaks of the "extremely gratifying results" from the use of that fund in the distribution of the gift-books!                         W.

     The "New Year Number" of the Messenger, (Jan. 3d) appears with a new feature, - a cover, in design at once simple and artistic. The paper contains a symposium on "Significant Events of the Nineteenth Century," as follows: "National and Religious Events," by Hon. John Bigelow; "The World's Parliament of Religions," by C. C. Bonney, Esq.; "Nineteenth Century Literature," by Julian Hawthorne; "The New Education," by the Rev. Frank Sewall: and, "Science in the Nineteenth Century," by Prof. Frank W. Very.

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Church News 1900

Church News       Various       1900

     The General Church of the New Jerusalem.

     Huntingdon Valley ("Bryn Athyn"). - The schools of the Academy and of the Local Church closed for the Christmas holidays on December 22d, to reopen January 8th.

     On the evening of December 23d, the Children's Christmas Festival was held, consisting of simple services, in which the chief feature was the participation by the children in recitation from the Word and in song. Beside the usual representations of the Annunciation to the Shepherds, and of the Manger, there was a reproduction of the Tabernacle.

     On Christmas morning special services were conducted by Pastor Synnestvedt, following the new service, "The Unity of God," which was exceedingly enjoyed, as well for its simplicity and smoothness, as for its impressiveness. An accompaniment of stringed instruments added very much to the rendering of the music.

     In place of the Watch Meeting, this year a short service was held in the early morn of the New year, at 7 A. M., which was attended by considerably over half the congregation. Pastor Synnestvedt read numbers concerning the "morning" as being the first of a new state, and representing the coming of the LORD, to every individual as to the Church; accompanying it with simple but affecting remarks concerning the season and its opportunities for the Church and for its members, in the discharge of duty and the cultivation of charity. After the service all partook of coffee and a light breakfast, together, at which a strong sphere of good feeling and enjoyment prevailed.

     On Sunday, December 31st, the Holy Supper was administered by Pastor Synnestvedt to 47 communicants. The falling off from the usual number was due in part to the presence of some at the ordination service in Philadelphia.

     As a rounding up of the Holiday Season Mr. and Mrs. John A. Wells, on Friday, January 5th, gave a social, to which the guests came as the personification of historical characters, an assumption which consisted not in costume and manners, but in the answering of questions. A lively interrogation, kept up throughout the evening, disclosed the presence of as interesting a collection of celebrities as was gathered into the "Houseboat on the Styx." And these great ones of by-gone days were given an opportunity to display a knowledge (or ignoranc0 of literature, by identifying quotations, written on slips and drawn from a basket, with a sweet prize at the end of each, to be awarded to the correct guesser. The diversion was a marked success.

     The Rev. C. Th. Odhner, on December 3rd, visited the members of the New church in Harrisburg, Pa., where he preached, lectured and administered the Holy Supper. A very pleasant evening was spent, socially, with the Rev. A. B. Dolly and most of the members of his congregation.

     Philadelphia. - On December 31st, Mr. Emil Cronlund was ordained into the ministry by Bishop Pendleton. The Holy Supper was administered to about 37. The city congregation, which seems to be in a growing state, now worships in Glenn's Hall, No. 555 North Seventeenth street, - once the temporary place of worship of the Advent Society.

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     Brooklyn. - On Sunday, November I9th, Bishop Pendleton preached in Brooklyn, and administered the Holy Supper to about it communicants.

     On January 7th the Rev. Henry B. Cowley, of Huntingdon Valley, preached for the circle here.

     Chicago. - The congregation in Chicago has for several years past observed the stated festivals of the Church together with the Glen View members, but this year, owing to the marked increase in the attendance in the city, it was deemed best to have separate Christmas celebrations, - in the city on Sunday preceding Christmas, and in Glen View Christmas morning. At the latter the service on the "Unity of God," - from the advance sheets of the projected liturgy, - was followed, and proved very impressive. A delightful additional feature introduced was the unisonal reciting and singing from the Word by the school children under the direction of the Rev. D. H. Klein.

     There have been comparatively few social events this fall, but those few have been very successful.

     A set of Bulletins for the last quarter has just been distributed, giving information to contributors to the Church as to the total receipts of each of the funds, month by month, and the disbursements of the same. The Bulletin has been tired now for two years, and it has proved itself exceedingly useful in the administration of church finances, where uses have to be maintained continuously from year to year, including the support of the pastor's office, which is made as an act of worship at church services. The Bulletin services to preserve an equilibrium among the funds, so as to prevent the less important uses receiving a disproportionate support, while higher ones suffer, most important of which is the pastor's office. A. E. N.

     For the last two months the Rev. Andrew Czerny has been conducting services every Sunday morning for German members of the New Church.

     LETTER FROM MR. BOWERS.

     Pennsylvania. - Circumstances have so directed my course that the present missionary tour will extend into the year 1900. And though as to outward appearances, not much has been accomplished, yet there are evidences that my tour would have been in some measure incomplete, without my sojourn of four weeks in this State. It was pleasant to be with the people of the Church in Pittsburgh and Allegheny a few days; to call upon the ministers of the New Church in those cities; and, on Sunday, November 26th, to attend Divine Worship, and hear the E. C. Bostock deliver an excellent, practical discourse.

     There are, so far as we know, but few isolated New Church members in the western and central parts of the State; and those few are far apart. At Leechburg, Dr. and Mrs. H--- continue in the faith of the Church and also to instruct their children in the doctrines, and thus prevent those of them who are approaching adult age from being influenced to become members of the old church. It would be well if all New Church parents could make up their minds to pursue the same course. For then, in due time, in most cases, would their children rise up to bless them, - after growing old enough to see the difference between the darkness of the old beliefs and the glory of the New Jerusalem.

     At Johnstown, Messrs. Cyrus Elder and T. C. du Pont always give the missionary a cordial welcome. And though nothing can be done as to holding meetings in that city, those gentlemen have voluntarily extended their "aid to speed the missionary on his way," enabling him to preach the glad tidings in other places. Miss Laura Vickroy is the only New Church lady we know of in Johnstown.

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     A few days were pleasantly spent with our good friends, S family,-two brothers and a sister,-at Phillipsburg, Centre county. They are great lovers books. They possess a full set of the Writings, and a fine library besides, the largest I ever saw at a farm-house in all my travels of more than twenty years. These friends are, and have long been, regular contributors to the uses of the Church. And their manner of doing it, shows that they regard it as a privilege as well as a duty, and that they do it from affection for the Lord's New Church.

     Our people at Williamsport and Renovo were also visited; and, as usual, an enjoyable time was had with them. At Renovo, on Sunday, December 10th, services were held at the home of Mr. J. R. Kendig and family. A sermon was delivered, and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered. My time did not permit me to undertake to climb the mountain at North Bend, near Renovo, and visit the Van Sickles.      John E. Bowers.

     Canada.

     Berlin. - On Sunday, December 10th, as the result of an endeavor talent of our young people, a musicale was held at the house of one of the members. About seventeen of the young people contributed numbers, including piano and violin solos, and other vocal and instrumental pieces. Mr. S. H. Roschman's newly formed orchestra rendered several pieces most creditably. After the programme light refreshments were served. One condition, - which may not in the future be so strictly observed, - future be so strictly observed, - was, that only those willing to contribute to the evenings, entertainment could attend. It is hoped that this experiment may be repeated at certain intervals.

     Our Christmas services were held on the morning of Sunday, December 24th. He new form of service, on the "Unity of God" which was used on this occasion at the suggestion of the Bishop, the gave general satisfaction. In the evening a combined service for the society and school was held, for the purpose of bringing offerings to the LORD. There was a large attendance of little ones despite the wintry weather. After a short service and address the offerings were brought forward and later oranges and grapes were distributed.

     Parkdale. - On Friday, November 24th, a social was held, under the auspices of the young people; the evening was devoted to dancing, refreshments being served. The attendance was not quite so large as is usual on such occasions, but those present had an enjoyable time.

     On Sunday, December 24th, we has special services. In the morning the new service, entitled "The Unity of God," was used and an instructive Christmas address was delivered by Pastor Hyatt in place of the sermon. The Christmas celebration was held in the evening, and consisted of a short service, during which the school children sang five of the short selections from the Psalmody. The offering, in which both old and young participated, was followed by an entertainment consisting of recitations, choruses, violin and piano duets and solos, by the children of the school, who acquitted themselves remarkably well and afforded satisfaction and delight to all present. Charles Brown.

ENGLAND.

     Colchester. - On Sunday. October 8th, a scene, probably unique in the history of the Church was witnessed at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Godfrey on the occasion of the baptism of their infant daughter Doni.

     The dear old lady, whose career was briefly sketched in the July number of New Church Life, has become one of the truest members of our society taking an active interest in all its doings and in the development of the Church in our midst.

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Though dwelling, at a considerable distance from the centre, she often finds means to attend our services and social gatherings, and no one has participated more heartily in them. Events were so ordered as to enable her to visit Colchester for the purpose of taking part in our Annual Meeting on Thursday, October 5th. She was the guest of young Mrs. and Mrs. Knopp, who afterwards invited her to remain for the Sunday services, which she eagerly consented to do.

     During the many conversations which it has been our privilege to have with this lovable soul, the subject of baptism was several times touched upon, but as might be expected, the need for this did not present itself clearly to her mind at first. However, the point was not pressed, because those who knew her best, also knew that as soon as the necessity was seen, the steps needed to ultimate her conviction would be willingly taken. And so it proved; for when the arrangement to baptize the little newcomer was announced, she expressed a desire to be baptized herself; this decision giving us al the more pleasure because it was arrived at quite spontaneously, and as she herself put it, "under a direction indication of the Divine leading."

     Pastor Acton performed the ceremony, which was simple in character, but most impressive to the few friends who had assembled to see Doni Godfrey, aged 8 days, and Ann Maria Wagstaff, aged 78 years, admitted into the visible church of the Lord on earth. Singularly appropriate and touching were the words, "bless O Lord these thy children now before Thee," for most assuredly both were children in His sight; one in the Innocence of Ignorance, with life all before her; the other in the Innocence of Wisdom, which, as we are taught, comes from having seen evils and removed them by Divine help, with its attendant state of serene security in the Lord's protection. These she knelt, with most of her earthly course behind, patiently waiting for the curtain to be pulled back and to enter fully into the Life beyond. What a reality this is to her can be seen from the promise which she has already given to us: "when I go into the Spiritual World I shall be able to tell the angels how the Church is progressing here, and if I can do anything to help the near and dear ones I shall then have left behind, it will be my delight to do it.

     So, in His own way, the LORD builds up His church in both worlds; here by the birth of infants within its sphere; there by giving a perception of its Heavenly Doctrines to those of adult life; and yet again, by leading into its fold those of a ripe old age. And to the New Churchmen who realize the true significance of it all, it brings hearts swelling big with gratitude.

THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     Michigan. - Information concerning the Michigan Association Meeting, which was held October 14th and 15th, 1899, comes to hand - through the Messenger (Dec. 6) and private sources - rather late. The meeting, though necessities made the attendance less than last year, was considered "fully as useful and delightful, and, in some respects, even more earnest and important." The Presiding Minister's Address is referred to in our "Monthly Review."

     The Association consists of two active societies; one active in the winter, the other in the summer, - roughly speaking - one being in Detroit, the other in the farm country some miles north of that city. The Pastor, Mr. Schreck, who ministers in Detroit during ten months of the year, makes periodical visits to the Almont Society, and during July and August attends regularly to his duties there. What by many was regarded as the feature of the meeting, was the Rev. L. P. Mercer's powerful sermon on "Spiritual Affection for the Church." We may remark that if it was equal to his sermon on "Gifts for the Tabernacle," published in the Messenger for November 1, it "was a very good one indeed."

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It is stated that his appeals to the people for the Church, are bearing fruits.

     The officers of the Association were re-elected. Limited space compels our curtailing the account as to interesting features mentioned in the Messenger.

     The Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, President Minister of the Michigan Association, sent out a tastefully gotten up "Christmas Message" to all receivers of the doctrines residing within the limits of the Association. It sets forth the meaning of the Lord's Coming, especially as completed by His Second Coming, revealing Him in fullness to the sight of man's mind as well as to his body. Emphasis is laid upon the necessity of distinctive New Church worship as a common bond, and invitation is given all who wish to enter into that fellowship through the gate of baptism, and further by joining this, or some other, Association.

     New York. - On the first of the year the Rev. J. C. Ager reached the 35th year of his pastorate in the Brooklyn Society; and on account of his failing health and by previous arrangement, the office became vacant, Mr. Ager becoming Associate Pastor. This leaves him free to prosecute his labors as translator of the new editions of the Writings being issued by the American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society. Pending the selection of a Pastor Mr. Ager will continue to officiate.

     Missouri. - "The St. Louis Society has begun to hold quarterly meetings for the purpose of considering how to make the church more effective in its work. At the first meeting held on Thursday evening, November 16, the pastor, the Rev. S. C. Eby, read a paper in which he pointed out that the church, while constituted of good and truth, must come into the best organic form in order to perform uses. The Rev. L. G. Landenberger presented a paper on 'The Supreme Use.'" - W. N. C. M. Bulletin.

     Massachusetts. - The Massachusetts New Church Woman's Alliance held its regular monthly meeting on December 11th. The regular paper of the afternoon was read by Miss Margaret Worcester upon the "Life of Swedenborg." She gave much of interest in his life and the fundamental principles of the doctrines. - Messenger.

     New Jersey. - The Rev. J. S. David has accepted a call to the pastorate of the Vineland Society for the year 1900. He will preach of lecture every Sunday morning and evening throughout the year excepting during the month of August, when the church will be closed.

     Illinois. - At the last meeting of the Illinois Associate a resolution was passed requesting the superintendents of Sunday schools to have the scholars repeat the Faith of the New Church in concert. Mr. Geo. E. Morgan, of Fulton, Ill., kindly printed some cards for the missionary on which are the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments and the Faith of the New Church, which he will be glad to furnish gratuitously to schools and to isolated families for their children. Address, Rev. L. G. Landenberger, 3741 Windsor Place, St. Louis, Mo.

     A New Church Sunday school with fifteen scholars has just been organized by the Rev. B. H. Van Breemen among the Dutch people near Englewood. - Bulletin

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON 1900

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON              1900

NEW CHURCH LIFE. Vol. XX.          FEBRUARY, 1900.          No. 2.
[Photograph of James John Garth Wilkinson]

     THE name of James John Garth Wilkinson is carved deeply upon the annals of the New Church by uses manifold and great. For more than sixty years he was among the foremost of those who have carried the literary standards of the New Jerusalem, and stood eminent alike as a biographer of Swedenborg, as an editor and translator of the Theological Writings, and as a philosophical expounder of the Doctrines of the New Church. But the distinct mission of his life, the use in which he stood pre-eminent, nay unique, was not in the purely theological domain but in the untrodden field of New Church Science. Here he looms in the dawn of New Church history as the first scientist of the Church, as the pioneer who first discovered and made known the magnificent system of natural truth which for a century had lain hidden in the scientific and philosophical works of Emanuel Swedenborg. The first translator, editor, and commentator of these works - as such his name will be immortal in the endless history of that Church which is to pave a highway between Egypt, Assyria and Israel.

     Dr. Wilkinson stands unique also as the only professed New Churchman in the nineteenth century whose name and voice reached widely into the literary and scientific world, and as such he has effected more perhaps than any other single member of the Church in making known the name of Swedenborg and the existence and the general character of the new Revelation. This fame rests in the first instance upon the enthusiastic references made to him by Ralph Waldo Emerson, who characterized Dr. Wilkinson as - "a philosophic critic with a coequal vigor of understanding and imagination comparable only to Lord Bacon's, who has restored his master's, [Swedenborg's] buried books to the day, and transferred them, with every advantage, from their forgotten Latin into English, to go round the world in our commercial and conquering tongue... The admirable preliminary discourses with which Mr. Wilkinson has enriched these volumes, throw all the contemporary philosophy of England into shade, and leave me nothing to say on their proper ground." (Emerson's Essay on Swedenborg, in Representative Men.)

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     And in his volume on English Traits, in 1856, Emerson again refers to Dr. Wilkinson in his usual exaggerated style:

     "Wilkinson, the editor of Swedenborg, the annotator of Fourier and the champion of Hahnemann, has brought to metaphysics and to physiology a native vigor, with a catholic perception of relations, equal to the highest attempts, and a rhetoric like the armory of the invincible knights of old. There is in the action of his mind a long Atlantic roll, not known except in deepest waters, and only lacking what ought to accompany such powers, a manifest centrality."

     Such notices, and the personal friendship and admiration which he gained among other eminent contemporaries, for a time proved a delusion and a snare to Dr. Wilkinson by awakening with him and others the hope that through such means the light of the Heavenly Doctrines might be brought into the Egyptian darkness of the learned world. This missionary hope is evident in most or his works and has considerably weakened their usefulness to those who alone were willing or able to appreciate. The learned world paid no serious attention to his teachings. Ephraim remained "wedded to his idols," and Dr. Wilkinson finally came to recognize the unteachable condition of the learned as a class. The members of the New Church remained from the beginning to the end his one appreciative public.

     An interview with Dr. Wilkinson was ever a rich feast to a New-Churchman visiting London. His home ever since his marriage in 1840 was in the northern part of the city, at 4 Finchley Road, St. John's Wood, a quiet, pleasant neighborhood with a sphere of culture and refinement. Our venerable friend himself, when the present writer had the privilege of meeting him, was in his eighty-third year, a distinguished old gentleman, hoary and of heroic stature, erect and powerful like some ancient viking, but with the spirit of a youth and the heart of a child.

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A sweet geniality beamed through his eyes; the old-world courtesy of his greeting, the sympathetic grasp of his hand, and his conversation - lively, suggestive, sparkling and free, - quickly established familiar relations between host and visitor.

     What visions were called up in the presence of this faithful old champion of the truth! Visions of the childhood of our beloved Church, the days of the "thirties" and "forties," the intellectual labors of Noble and Mason and Smithson, of Spurgin, Clissold, Rich and Strutt; the bold aspirations and unfulfilled hopes of that little band of explorers who had discovered a very ocean of truth in Swedenborg's philosophical worlds, and who labored so earnestly to convince the world that the new waters were other than some deserted and messy old mill-pond. But there were visions also of that future day when the work of these men will have reached an unexpected fruition, when at least the members of the New Church will have become fully convinced of the discovery; when hearts will be found willing and minds able to set gut anew Church is to "feed the nations with a rod of iron."

     That day is distant still, but here was Dr. Wilkinson, the living monument of the discovery, himself the leader of the young explorers and the first to cry out in joy "He thalatta, He thalatta." (For the Doctor spoke in the Attic dialect, pure Athenian English, the dew of Hymettos well seasoned with the classic salt.) And now though he is gone, who was the last survivor of his brave comrades, he still is here, and any one can still have the pleasure of an hour's conversation with his spirit, - for he wrote just as he talked, vigorously, affectionately, instructively.

     The most striking characteristic of Dr. Wilkinson's mind was his intense devotion to the truth for its own sake. The witness of this love is the relative obscurity in which he chose to live and die. The love of this world and its glory must have offered many a sore temptation to a man of his genius, attainments and instincts. The friend and associate of Dickens, Oliphant, Tennyson and Ruskin, admired by Carlyle and flattered by Emerson, what a career could have been his had he been willing to compromise his principles or betray his highest ideals. But though the glamor of the literary world long continued to possess a certain fascination for him yet he never concealed the more unpopular elements of his faith, but continued to the end, the uncompromising Swedenborgian scientist and New Church knight of the pen, without fear or reproach.

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     With a manly honesty he never claimed for himself the honor of any of the grand principles which he expounded, but ever pointed with gratitude to his master, Swedenborg. And as he advanced in years he came to recognize and proclaim more and more clearly the Divine source of Swedenborg's inspiration.

     And yet, though claiming no originality, he certainly was one of the most original minds in the history of the New Church. His works fairly bristle and scintillate with fresh and unexpected thoughts and suggestions, with new puttings and applications of the Doctrines in the fields of natural science, political economy, history, and philosophy. Rapid, versatile, inexhaustible, he carries his readers into ever new regions. Now they are with him on some mountain top, enjoying grand perspectives of worlds and eons, now wandering peacefully in fields of quiet meditation, and now invading the dark abysses of human error where he is giving valiant battle to the monsters of modern infidelity, learned insanity and scientific cruelty.

     He had, of course, his faults and limitations. One of his weaknesses as a writer was the result, apparently, of a superabundant and embarrassing wealth of expression. One of his personal friends has said of him, - "A trouble with Dr. Wilkinson is his extraordinary knowledge of words. Apparently, his urgent eagerness to utter them sometimes causes them to tumble over each other." But a more serious fault than this is the lack of methodical arrangement and the diffusiveness from which most of his works suffer. He sometimes dives into a subject at the middle instead of the beginning, and when tired comes out of it again, leaving the reader in perplexity as to the conclusion. His thoughts are often too rapid to follow with convenience; his imagination is too lively and his mind too ardent and poetical to be strictly logical; and his arguments now and again are more bold and dashing than well-digested and convincing. His style is much affected by the mystic, oracular notes of the old Icelandic Sagas which he loved so well, and his latest works are especially obscured with an hierophantic but pathetic mist.

     But all these faults may readily be forgiven, for the great love which inspired him and the great use he has performed. This love gave him no rest and impelled him to labor unceasingly with an energy and industry which appear the more admirable from the fact that most of his literary work was accomplished in the midst of the arduous duties of his medical practice.

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His life was given to the service of the truth, and he labored joyfully, faithfully, and well.

     James John Garth Wilkinson was born in London June 3d, 1812. His father, James John Wilkinson, was a well-known barrister of Gray's Inn, and finally a judge of the County Palatine of Durham. His mother, nee Harriet Robinson, came of a family which had been associated with the history of the New Church from its very beginning, her father, George Robinson, having been one of the twelve men in London who, on June 1st, 1758, ordained the first ministers of the distinctive organization of the Church. Her brother, George B. Robinson, was one of the earliest members and most earnest supporters of the Swedenborg Society, and it was from this uncle that Dr. Wilkinson received his first knowledge of the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem.

     After a careful classical education the subject of our sketch began his study for the medical profession at Newcastle in 1828. Six years afterwards he was admitted as a member of the Royal College of Surgeons and began the practice of medicine in London.

     The year 1837 proved a most important turning-point in the spiritual and professional life of the young physician, then twenty-five years of age. He now became convinced concerning the genuine Law of Cure which had been promulgated by Samuel Hahnemann. The Science of Homoeopathy was at this time in its very infancy, and its principles were then, as indeed they are still - though with some modification - decidedly unpopular in England, and it required no ordinary courage to turn from the Old School to the New; professional ostracism and persecution would seem sure to follow, but we know not any particulars as to this in Dr. Wilkinson's case. In time he built up a large and successful practice and rose to eminence in his use as one of the most prominent Homeopathists in England; members of the aristocracy sought his services, and the duke of Northumberland was known as one of his patients.

     In the same year, (1837), our young savant embraced also those laws of Spiritual Cure which had been revealed to the world through Emanuel Swedenborg. Almost against his will he was constrained to admit their rational beauty and self-evident truth; but when once convinced he received them enthusiastically, sold all his theological belongings and purchased the precious Pearl of the Heavenly Doctrine.

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And now began his long career as an active member of the New Church, - for as such we must acknowledge him, although he never formally connected himself with the distinctive organization of the Church. His reason for remaining nominally in the Established Church is unknown to us. But he never attacked the outward organization, as has been done by so many other "non-separatists." In his reception of the new faith there was no reservation, and he always mingled freely with his co-religionists, associating and co-operating with them on the social plane and in the literary uses of the Church. The special field of his activity in this respect was the Swedenborg Society, then known as the "London Printing Society," which had been instituted in the pear 1810 for the purpose of "printing and publishing the Theological Writings of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg This body had long been the common meeting-ground for all classes of those who had accepted the Doctrines of the New Church, and remains to this day the most efficient instrument in this world for the dissemination of the inspired works in and through which the Lord has effected His Second Coming.

     Dr. Wilkinson became a subscribing member of this institution in 1837, and was elected a member of the governing "Committee" at the annual meeting of the society, on June 19, 1839. He was soon afterwards appointed the first librarian of the society, and his active mind seems to have inspired at once a new life and quality in the body. A bolder front was now shown towards the outer world, and the operations assumed a more literary aspect and greater proportions than before. Dr Wilkinson remained a member of the "Committee" until 1857, when he left it for reasons which will be explained hereafter. But in 1875 he returned to his old allegiance, and in 1886 he became a "life-member" of the body.

     At the meeting in 1839 the Rev. Manoah Sibly presented to the society several manuscript copies of minor works by Swedenborg, which after an adventurous history had come into his possession, and which never had appeared in any printed form. These were now placed in the hands of Dr. Wilkinson, who in the same year brought out for the Swedenborg Society the first English translation of The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Charity, and in the following year an edition of the same work in the original Latin.

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In the preface to the English version, the translator made a vigorous plea for the preservation and publication of the remaining manuscripts of Swedenborg, and he thus gave the first impetus to the movement which was continued, through various stages, by Dr. Immanuel Tafel, and Dr. K. L. Tafel, and which is still going on in the present work of reproducing the manuscript of the Spiritual Diary. Dr. Wilkinson himself continued his editorial labor by bringing out the first editions of Canones Novae Ecclesiae and De Domino et Athanasii Symbolo, both of which were published in London, in 1840.

     In the year 1839 Dr. Wilkinson began also to make a name for himself in the literary world at large by the preface which he wrote for his new edition of the then almost forgotten Songs of Innocence and Experience, by William Blake. This volume had been published, originally, in 1787, at the suggestion of John Flaxman, Blake's intimate friend and patron, through whom the poet received the ideas of New Church principles which appear in hazy manner in his works. The lively imagination, grand themes and symbolical language of Blake proclaimed him a kindred spirit to Dr. Wilkinson, who was the first that called public attention to Blake's real merits as a lyric poet.

     But simultaneously with this literary "find," the Doctor discovered another volume of neglected "poetry," a volume forgotten nearly a hundred years, - poetry far more sublime than William Blake's, the poetry of genuine truth concerning the body and the mind of man. Swedenborg's Regnum Animale came to his notice, and here our young physician "met his fate," in the shape of that cause to which he was to devote the best energies of his life. It was a case of love at first sight, and he entered at once upon his service by beginning, in October, 1839, his translation of this crowning work of Swedenborg's physiological and philosophical career.

               (To be Continued.)

"We shall help our children most by our regeneration, and by lavishing upon them the pure love with which the Lord will gift us."

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THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION. II. 1900

THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION. II.              1900

     THUS far we have attempted to show upon the broadest grounds that a new church requires a new education. Let us now take up in order the five reasons I have sketched out, in confirmation of our position and in answer to the question "Why do we educate our children in schools of our own?"

     FIRST REASON.

     Because we call exercise a more careful supervision over their morals, provide them with more refining surroundings, and give each one better individual attention.

     These advantages are more easily obtainable in our schools than in the public schools, partly on account of our smallness, partly on account of the zeal and intelligence of our teachers, but mainly on account of the closer touch between teachers and parents, and the greater unanimity and co-operation of parents with each other. Inasmuch, however, as these conditions might be duplicated by a private school, (say in a refined and well-to-do neighborhood, where the finest teachers can be obtained, or even in some cases in humbler surroundings, where the moral tone is good) and the teacher happens to he a gifted one), - therefore it must be admitted that we cannot make this alone a reason for maintaining exclusively New Church schools. These natural advantages constitute confirmatory reasons which add themselves to the deeper ones, but which without the latter are not conclusive. Under this head we might introduce a category of the errors and shortcomings of modern pedagogy; - but why criticize methods (from which, indeed, we are compelled to borrow) when it is the end for which those methods are used that is the real issue?

     Whether modern education really does educate in the broadest sense, - whether it is one-sided and ineffective in producing all - around men, - might be only a question of the relative perfection or imperfection of different schools, - imperfections from which even our own may not be exempt. As to efficiency in equipping youth for the external uses of this world, each school has its shortcomings; no school, probably, has them all. For a clear understanding of our real ground, it seems best that we should not rest our case against the schools of the world upon their shortcomings alone. These exist, and they are ofttimes grievous, but still one can find not a few schools which have good points, pedagogically, which we are glad to adopt.

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Especially in the matter of pedagogical methods and of the facts or phenomena of the kingdoms of nature and of man as a citizen of this world, are we indebted to them. This much by way of concession, - and I believe it is all that we can concede, consistently with our new light and new spirit and higher ends. But I will refer later on to "Egypt," and the necessity of discriminating as to what we should borrow thence.

     SECOND REASON.

     Because we can teach the children systematically and more thoroughly the scientifics of the Church.

     Sunday-schools, with their one hour a week and untrained teachers, are admittedly inadequate to this work, tho' daily teaching at home may make up this deficiency, and a good Sunday-school, whose teachers are filled with zeal, can accomplish a good deal. But the Writings tell us that the systematic teaching of Doctrine is best done by priests, and a New Church day school gives them the opportunity to do this more adequately.

     Sunday-schools, therefore, while useful auxiliaries, especially if filled with zeal and the new spirit, and backed up by the home influence and teaching, are still but partially adequate. And when, as is too often the case, they are not so good or well-backed up, well, the history of the church has no sadder page than the result.

     THIRD REASON.

     Because we can't keep them in the sphere of reverence for the holy things of the Church and the Word.

     This, I believe, is the very pith of the matter. n good school of the world may furnish the children with the needful preparation for the world and its temporal uses, - map also initiate them into the prevalent way of keeping the second or man's table of the Law, - but not as a part of the first table. It can teach morality, but not from the right ground; to shun evils, but not because they are sins against God. Thus their moral life covenants them unto the world, and not unto God.

     Do you question this? Let us weigh the first four commandments, each with a single sentence, just to suggest our meaning.

     First, - "I am the Lord thy God." Who is? The Lord Jesus Christ, who came on earth? What is the prevailing persuasion?

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     Second, - His Name - all that by which He is worshiped - the Word. Is there genuine reverence for this?

     Third, - the Sabbath, - the conjugial; - the spiritual union of the Lord with the Church, - of good with truth. Is not the prevailing persuasion respecting this commandment merely formal and even pharisaical?

     Fourth, - Honor father and mother, - the Lord and the Church, - the New Church, Bride of the Lord; what, I repeat, is the prevailing persuasion anent these? Are they not rather despised?

     The formation of the incipient will and understanding is effected more through the subtle spheres of persuasion imbibed from teachers and companions than by formal teaching.

     Here again we see that it is the spirit of the age - the public opinion - which dominates throughout a system of education. Can you imagine an English or American boy educated entirely abroad, and yet having the Anglo-Saxon spirit? No indeed. If you want to propagate the spirit of Anglo-Saxon institutions, you must educate your young within the pale of their influence, and then you may send them forth securely. But if they are also to perpetuate this spirit, carry it into new quarters, and hand it down to their descendants, they must get them a wife from their own country and their own people, as did Isaac and Jacob.

     FOURTH REASON.

     Because we can thus reach the best field now open to us, where the New Church can be received and grow.

     The field of protestant Christendom seems to have been pretty well worked by the many evangelistic agencies of the Church, but with meagre results. We cannot but feel deep regret that so much self-sacrificing zeal should have been so poorly rewarded; but is it not after all only a confirmation of the abundant teaching, in both the Writings and the Word that only a comparatively small remnant of the vastated church are likely to receive the new evangel, and that the New Church will be built up eventually among gentiles, or "those far removed from Christendom?" But inasmuch as there is not now any field open to evangelists of the New Church in gentile lands, and as the field in Christendom is so very limited, and difficult to reach, - since the "remnant" are widely scattered, and, moreover, "known to the Lord alone," - therefore it would seem that the only field now open to us that promises adequate returns, is among the children; for these, like the simple and the gentile, constitute an unsown field, their freedom from obstructive falsities making them especially receptive of the new evangel.

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The Lord, when He was in the world, "Exulted in spirit and said, I thank Thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hidden such things from the wise and intelligent, and hast revealed them to babes." (Luke x. 21.) The simple hearted, ignorant men who were His disciples, represent all those who are not imbued with the conceits and perversions of a decayed church. Such are the "simple good" in Christendom; such are the upright among the gentiles; but such especially are children - all children before they have been imbued with prevailing persuasions. The Lord says: "Behold me doing a new thing. Now shall she sprout forth. Shall ye not know her? I will even put in the desert a road, in the solitude, rivers."

     I have translated this last very literally - the better to exhibit the internal sense, - which is thus given in number 518 of Apocalypse Explained: "These things treat of the Lord, and of a New Church from Him, which is meant by, 'Behold I am making a new (thing), now shall it sprout forth. By 'putting in the desert a way,' and, 'in the solitude rivers,' is signified that truth, and the understanding of truth will be where they were not before:" - elsewhere, "where before they were in ignorance." (A. E. 650.) And in the little work on the "Prophets and Psalms," in loco, it is written: ubi prorsus non prius, "where they [i. e. truths, - here falsified] were not at all before." This language teaches as emphatically as the Latin language is capable of doing, the same doctrine which is elsewhere taught more at length, - that the New Church cannot be built among those who are already indoctrinated or imbued with the falsities and evils of the vastated church; that the "angels have little hope of Christendom," etc., etc.; - doctrines familiar enough to all readers of New Church Life, and wont to be considered rather discouraging. But, as our Bishop has lately suggested, are not children precisely in the state described, the state which fits upright gentiles to receive? Are they not as yet "deserts" and "solitudes" (in the good sense) - "virgin soil" indeed?

     True, inherited tendencies cannot be disregarded, but these can be overcome, as is evidenced by experience, not only in the other world, where, we are told, all who die as infants, of whatsoever parents, are ultimately saved, but also here.

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     All this can lead to but one conclusion - namely, that it is folly to wait until they have partly or wholly filled themselves with the prevailing persuasions which are so fatal to the growth of the true seed, and then try to convert them. Every year - every day - spent in the sphere of the contrary persuasions adds - must add - to the difficulty of inseminating the new. If we first let them go where they learn something- false and perverted about each of the holy subjects of life, and in a tainted form, then truly do they become those with whom the Lord's coming is difficult - they are not "deserts" in the good sense; - they are not ignorant, nor is it longer true that they have known nothing at all of these subjects before. Note that word, "before." To come in contact with the vastate sphere in adult life, after the goods and truths of the New have taken root, is manifestly a different matter.

     Finally, is it not a most manifest waste of effort to try to get more recruits - and these tough material because already deeply imbued with contrary habits, of life and of thought - while we neglect the raw material which comes ready to our hand? The little ones, whose minds are clean tablets, whereon as yet is no error writ, - recruits whose habits are yet unformed, whose faculties of will and understanding are as yet empty vessels, into which the Lord may pour of His Spirit, of His love and of His wisdom?

     FIFTH REASON.

     The work of New Church education is necessary to our own regeneration.

     That it is so is because it is necessary to the right development of the conjugial. The education of offspring is referred to (C. L. 176) as the primary use requiring mutual aid and consultation, whereby conjugial love is built up; and we may well conclude that the quality of the affection and thought put into this use will determine the quality of the resultant conjunction. If the natural welfare of the children be the only care, the resultant conjunction cannot be above this plane; for only affections which are mutually in play can meet and he conjoined with each other. But in order that a spiritual conjugial may be formed, it must put itself forth in spiritual-natural uses; and the chief among these, - inseparable from the conjugial (C. L. 385), - is, the rearing of offspring.

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And this use, to be spiritual, must regard the preparation for heaven as well as preparation for this world. (C. L. 404.)

     We are taught that "the human conjugial and religion go hand in hand." What has been said above of the preservation of the new religion and of its spirit, comes home to the individual in its bearing upon the conjugial. The church is promised this jewel, but how can she hope to get it so long as she remains in the sphere of that world which has lost it because it has divorced its religion from her true Lord and gone a whoring after other gods? There can by no possibility be a restoration of love truly conjugial among men without a repentance of these infidelities; for the true conjugial springs solely from the heavenly marriage of the Church with her true and only Lord.

     But to return to our more immediate subject, - namely, that to develop a true conjugial, we must give it activity in a true or spiritual-natural education of our offspring.

     If the "Kingdom of the heavens" be our chief love, then is the activity of that love in promoting this kingdom, the bread upon which our spirit lives. Everything that we do that has not this end within it, is no food for us, - it gives no exercise to our spiritual faculties - no play to our spiritual delights, and thus is useless to us, either for our spiritual life or for our real conjugial.

     I am not sure but that this is the best reason with us, for seeking in the education of our children the aid of New Church schools. Not only are we thereby providing the best that call be provided in the way of environment and natural opportunity for our children, but by so much are we enabled to give exercise to our delights in contributing to their spiritual as well as their natural welfare; and without such exercise, our love would starve, and the chief field of cultivating the conjugal be cut off from us. It is perhaps hardly necessary to digress here, in order to point out to New-Churchmen the importance of such a reason as this last one given. To do uses from the love of uses, is the only way to become a living use oneself, or an angel. It is for this reason an inestimable blessing when opportunity is presented for doing any use in such a way as to enable us, by means of it and within it, to promote the spiritual welfare of the neighbor, for thereby is spiritual charity formed, and man becomes a charity in form. If such opportunity be lacking, the love of so providing will have to subsist as best it can, by efforts toward providing the opportunity for its actual exercise at some future time.

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     But on the other hand it is hardly conceivable that such opportunities should be wholly lacking. Even if the pedagogical part of the education be perforce not obtainable within the sphere of the Church, there is still the whole of the other side - the home training. If the spirit, - that spirit which alone can make a new age, - is strong with the parents, and dominates all other ends in their life, it can be propagated in spite of the adverse sphere which dominates the schools of the world. But manifestly this spirit is not present-at least its distinctiveness is not very conspicuous - where a man carelessly or from indifference sends his children to the schools of the world. Or perhaps he does not clearly realize how the spirit of the age enters into and qualifies its education in all its aspects, both intellectual and affectional. So we are brought back at last to the consideration of our ends, and the interior duality which is dominant within the Church. Distinctive education leads to a distinctive life - (for that is what is in it), - and the latter cannot be perpetuated without the former. Therefore, I repeat, if the New Church is New and distinct from the old destined to grow apart from and eventually to supplant it, then the only means of accomplishing this is to segregate its young during the formative period, - to have its own education, which, as soon as obtainable should be New Church throughout. Then, as far as the Lord blesses us with any sphere of distinctive New Church life, we shall be able to initiate into it these whom He indicates as almost the only ones within our reach capable of receiving Him at His Second Coming. They in turn, having been initiated, will be able to take up our work where we leave off, and to carry it forward, so that the Church will not he forever "marking time."

     To the New-Churchman, therefore, who believes in the distinctiveness of the New Church, and who is conscious that there is a vitally new state of life and faith among us - not compatible with the old, - into which we would initiate the young, - the question is answered.
               (To be Continued.)

"A wise man gets happiness rather from what he is than from what he has. What he is remains." - Anon.

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GOLDEN AGE 1900

GOLDEN AGE              1900

MEMORABLE RELATIONS ADAPTED.
      I. THE GOLDEN AGE.

     Once when Swedenborg was in the other world, he was thinking deeply about the people who had lived at various times since the creation of the world, and particularly about their married life, - how husband and wife had lived together, how much they had loved each other in the first ages, and how, with the people of succeeding ages, that love had grown less and less, as men turned away from the Lord and began to love only themselves - and many other things about their Conjugial Love. Thinking so intently, he had a strong desire to learn more about these things, so he prayed earnestly to the LORD that he might he allowed to see and speak with the men who had lived on earth in the times of which he was thinking, and learn from their own lips about their Conjugial Love and their married life; for he well knew that they were all living in the other world, and that he could speak with them if the LORD would grant him permission.

     When he had thus prayed, he looked up and saw an angel standing by his side.

     "I am sent by the Lord," said the angel, "to lead you to the people of whom you have been thinking, and to be your companion on the: way. We will go first to those who lived in the Golden Age."

     The Golden Age was the first age of the world, before the time of the Flood, and it is called the Golden Age because men then loved the Lord and loved to obey Him, more than any people who have lived after them. In their days there was continual spring; at all times the earth brought forth abundance of beautiful flowers, and delicious fruits; there were no poisonous plants nor evil animals; there was no hatred nor evil passions, but men lived together in peace and security, loving each other and being content with all that the Lord, their Heavenly Father, had given them. Then men spoke with angels and angels with men, as friend with friend.

     The angel told Swedenborg that the heaven where these men now lived was a long way off and the road to it a difficult one, passing through a dark forest, and so hard to find that no one could reach that heaven unless the LORD gave him a guide to show the way.

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     They then started on their journey. They walked towards the east, and as they went on, they saw in the distance a great mountain, so high that they could not see its top, which was above the clouds. Between them and the mountain was a great desert, and beyond this they could see the forest of which the angel had spoken, and which covered the mountain side for a great way up. They passed safely through the desert, and coming to the forest, found it crowded with various kinds of trees, which, by the thickness of their foliage, shut out the light. Here they saw many narrow paths.

     "These paths" said the angel, "are so many ways which lead away from the heaven we seek, and, unless the eyes of the traveller are opened and he see olive trees and vines to guide his steps, he will wander upon them, and be led down to Tartarus, where wicked men dwell."

     When they had entered the forest the Lord opened their eyes, and they saw at the sides of the path olive trees entwined with grape vines, which ran from branch to branch and from tree to tree. Wicked men who try to go up the mountain without the Lord's permission, can never see these trees and vines; for their eyes are not opened, because they would seek the people of the Golden Age only to destroy them.

     Swedenborg and his companion, following the path, found it to be very winding, sometimes making almost a complete circle, and with many roads running from it; but guided by the olive trees, they could not lose their way. It was a beautiful path, with the large green olive trees at the side, and the vines hanging between with their green clusters of rich, dark blue grapes.

     At last they came to the end of the forest, and entered a grove of tall cedar trees, in whose branches were several eagles. All this time they had been going up the mountain, and when the angel saw the cedar grove and the eagles, he told Swedenborg that they were not far from the top.

     They passed through the grove and came to a large, round meadow in which were lambs feeding and gambolling together. Walking through this meadow, they saw beyond it, thousands and thousands of tents stretching, in front of them and at the right and left, as far as the eye could see.

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     "Now we are in the Camp of the Army of the Lord," said the angel, pointing to the tents, "for so the men who live here call themselves and their dwellings. These are the men who lived in the Golden Age, and the tents you see before you are similar to those they had on earth."

     Turning to the right the angel then led Swedenborg towards the south of the Camp, where the wisest men lived. On their way they saw in the distance three boys and girls sitting at the door of one of the tents, but on drawing nearer, they discovered that they were not boys and girls, but men and women of the ordinary height of men and women on earth. These were three husbands and their wives.

     It was very unusual for any visitors to come to the Camp of the Army of the Lord, so that when these three men saw two strangers approaching they were much surprised, and running to meet them, they said: -

     "Whence are you, and how did you come here? Your faces are not like the faces of the men of our mountain."

     The angel then told them why the Lord had permitted him to bring Swedenborg, and how they had been guided on their way through the forest.

     When he heard Swedenborg's object in coming, one of the men courteously asked him and his companion into his tent. They gladly accepted the invitation, and went in with their host and his wife.

     These two, though they had lived thousands of years, were still, like all the dwellers on the mountain, in the freshness and bloom of youth, with life and beauty shining from their faces. The man was dressed in a cloak of rich blue, under which was a woolen garment of dazzling whiteness. His wife wore a beautiful purple gown, open at the front, through which was seen on her bosom a linen waist or tunic, covered with the finest needlework.

     Swedenborg, because he had been thinking so much about the love between husband and wife, looked with delight at this beautiful pair, now at the husband, now at the wife; and in their faces, he saw a remarkable likeness to each other. When he looked at the wife, although he saw the face of a beautiful woman, still he saw also an image of her husband; and when he looked at the husband, he saw a man's face, but in it was the image of the wife.

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     Struck with this beautiful likeness, he turned to the man and said, "You two are one."

     "Yes" answered his host, "we are one. She is my heart and my life, and I am her breath and her wisdom. We are two bodies, but one soul. That is why you see such a resemblance in our faces."

     They then talked together for a long time about Conjugial Love as it was on earth with the men of the Golden Age. The angel told Swedenborg that in those days when he was on earth, men loved only one woman, and could not possibly thing of loving more than one. During all the thousands of years in which he had lived, he had loved his wife with the most tender love, and they had lived together in the test happiness.

     He spoke so wisely that when he had finished, the angel guide, turning to Swedenborg, said, "You hear now the speech of the angels of this heaven. It is the speech of wisdom."

     After this they went out, and when they were in the open air, Swedenborg, looking round, noticed that the whole of the tent from which he had just come was covered with gold. He had not seen the tent so covered when he entered it, so he asked how this came about.

     His host explained that it was because they had been talking about Conjugial Love, for whenever those in a tent talk about this Love, the Sun of heaven shines more brilliantly, and with its flaming light glittering like gold, covers the whole tent and tinges its curtains with its golden color, making it appear as if overlaid with gold.

     He then talked with Swedenborg about the delights of Conjugial Love, and concluded by telling him, that during all the years they hall lived both on earth and in heaven he and his companions had clearly seen that a husband and wife loved each other and lived in delight and happiness, only so far as they loved and obeyed the Lord.

     When he had said this, Swedenborg saw a great light shining from a hill in the midst of the Camp.

     "That," said his host, in response to his inquiry, "is the Light that comes from the holiest place in our Tabernacle of Worship."

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     Swedenborg asked whether they might be permitted to see this Tabernacle, and upon his host answering "Yes," they all three went to the centre of the Camp, and ascended the hill. There they saw the Tabernacle from which the great Light had come. It was surrounded by a court, and on examination, Swedenborg found it to be exactly like that Tabernacle which the children of Israel built in the wilderness, from a pattern the Lord had shown to Moses.

     On entering in, they saw that the Tabernacle was divided into two parts by a vail, or curtain, stretched from side to side. They stood in the outer part, but went no further, for the place where they were was glorious with light shining through the vail.

     Turning to his host, Swedenborg pointed to the vail, and said, "What is within in that Holy Place, from which comes so great a light?"

     His host answered in these words, "It is a Tablet, on which is written, The Covenant between the Lord and the heavens." He then remained silent.

     After this they left the Tabernacle of Worship, and Swedenborg and his companion started on their way home, their host walking with them through the Camp. On the way, Swedenborg asked him whether, when he had lived on earth, any of the people had more than one wife.

     "I have not known a single one to do so," he answered. "We could not have thought of such a thing. There were a very few who desired to have more than one wife, and they have told us that all heavenly happiness then immediately left them, and that they became utterly miserable. As soon as the character of such men was known they were banished from the society of their companions and became outcasts."

     Then their host, excusing himself, ran to his tent. He soon rejoined them, however, holding in his hand a beautiful pomegranate, with seeds of gold within. This he presented to Swedenborg, as a sign and remembrance to him that he had seen and spoken with the men who had lived in the Golden Age.

     Then, after the salutation of peace, Swedenborg and his angel guide returned to their own homes.

     "To the present belongs the future, and as we lay the foundations so will the structure endure."

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"IN THE BEGINNING." 1900

"IN THE BEGINNING."              1900

GEOLOGY IN A NEW LIGHT.

     In looking back over the past hundred and fifty years, and considering the immense strides which have been made in all directions in the acquirement of knowledges, one of the most noteworthy features demanding attention is the inception and growth of the science of geology. This prominence is due not only to the rapid growth of the science, and to the fact that it is peculiarly a product of the last century and a half, but also, and chiefly, to the marked effect which its teachings have had on almost all branches of thought. Without a knowledge of the vicissitudes in the earth's history, of the great and many changes which have taken place in its physical features and in the character of its inhabitants, and of the enormous periods of time covered by such changes, the modern theory of the evolution of living organisms could never have come into existence, nor could the subsequent revolutionizing application of the principles of that theory to all branches of knowledge have been made. It is doubtful whether the verbal inspiration of the scriptures would meet with such general disbelief had not geology so thoroughly discredited the Mosaic cosmogony.

     In view of the perplexing questions raised by this youngest of the sciences. it becomes to the New-Churchman interesting matter for inquiry as to in how far Swedenborg's philosophy would have been affected had present geological knowledge been at his disposition. Prior to 1745 there had been many crude speculations as to the origin of the earth's crust and the nature of fossils, but at that date the Mosaic account of creation remained without serious challenge; and Swedenborg (though a professed mineralogist and presumably acquainted with some of those speculations) made no step in the direction of modern geology. In his Worship and Love of God, the crown of that remarkable series of works which formed his intellectual preparation for his use as the instrument of the New Revelation, Swedenborg gives an account of creation closely resembling that in the first chapter of Genesis and seemingly quite as incapable of reconciliation with the teachings of modern geologists, - teachings (be it remembered) based on the patient accumulation of undeniable facts by the labours of a continually increasing army of investigators during the whole of the nineteenth century.

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     Towards the end of the eighteenth century it was felt that no approach to a true theory of the earth could be made without a much fuller knowledge of the earth's crust than then existed. A great step towards the acquirement of a solid foundation of fact was made in England by William Smith, the "Father of modern Geology," who, in 1790, Published his "Tabular View of the British Strata." The British Islands contain a singularly complete geological record, and the science, happy in its birthplace, made rapid progress. From his investigations Smith made important deductions, one of which is that the strata are: always laid down in a certain order of superposition, and the other is that in that order the place of any given rock formation call always be determined by an inspection of the fossils embedded therein. These conclusions have been confirmed by subsequent investigators in all parts of the world, and geologists have largely occupied themselves in correlating the strata of other countries with those of England. Although in many places there are formations for which England can show no equivalent the same law prevails everywhere and in the compilation of a complete geological history such formations can be interleaved among the pages of the English geological history.

     The work started by Smith and so successfully carried on by Cuvier, Murchison, Lyell and others, has opened our eyes to a realm of knowledge of the most fascinating description and to glimpses of past times whose remote antiquity impresses us with the same awe as do the majestic spans of intersellar space.

     Turning over the pages of the history revealed by geology, we learn that the densely populated city of London was once part of a great forest inhabited by savages armed with flint weapons, and by elephants, rhinoceri, hippopotami, bears and hyenas; that at one time arctic conditions reigned over the whole country, when the seas round England as far south as London were blocked with ice. Turning back many thousands of years earlier, to the period of the London clay, we lose all trace of the human race and we learn that the site of London was then covered by a warm tranquil sea, with types of life resembling those now found in southern Asia.

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On the land of that period grew forests of magnolia, ebony, cinnamon and other tropical plants, among which roamed peculiar animals of a generalized character, the most important of which were thick-skinned animals bearing more or less strong resemblances to many now sharply separated genera. The nearest approach to these animals amongst living species is found in the tapirs of Malay and Brazil. Prior to this there is evidence of many changes of level, but, skipping several chapters, and going still back many thousands of years, we again found ourselves in mid-ocean; for the 600 feet of chalk upon which the more modern deposits of London rest, was accumulated at the bottom of a sea similar to the Atlantic, where even now a similar deposit is being formed. We may turn still further back and see hideous sea-reptiles, flying dragons and other strange creatures which have entirely disappeared from the surface of the earth. If there were means of reaching still greater depths below London, we know still earlier conditions of life would be found, the characters and durations of which are surmised from investigations made elsewhere.

     In the very early days of geology one of the most interesting of its facts was established, namely, that as we go further and further back into the dim past, we gradually leave the higher types of life behind and find simpler and yet simpler forms. Thus, the very lowest fossiliferous rocks at present known contain nothing higher than sea shells. Higher up in the scale, fishes appear. Higher still is the great "Age of Reptiles." The first mammals to put in an appearance are of the lowest kind, resembling those now only found in Australia. Before true birds are found, there existed strange creatures, some of great size, half reptile, half bird. It is not until after the chalk period that placental mammals are found, and these are at first of a more generalized type than those found in more recent deposits. With the vegetable kingdom there is the same appearance of gradual progress. In the lowest strata the only plants found are seaweeds. Later, in the carboniferous rocks, though plant life was luxuriant, there were no flowering plants. The fern was the dominant type. Later, naked-seeded plants, such as cycads and conifers put in their appearance. Then came endogenous plants, and the dicotyledons (the prevailing type of the present day) were the last to appear.

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     These remains of past life are preserved to us by being buried in deposits of mud, sand or gravel, laid down in the estuaries of rivers or in the beds of seas or lakes; and geologists attempt to get some idea of the length of time involved in these vast changes of the earth's surface from the thicknesses of the various deposits. The fossil-bearing strata of Great Britain attain a thickness altogether of not much less than 14 miles. It is important to weigh well what this means. Some formations, such as the coral limestones, can only add to their thickness as the land is slowly sinking. Others, like chalk, are accumulations of microscopical shells. The majority, however, are sedimentary deposits, and these sedimentary deposits are the measure of the waste of the dry land. Some idea, therefore, of the time involved may be formed by considering how little effect the denuding influences of air and water have upon natural scenery in the course of a hundred or even a thousand years. To impress this lesson of past time upon our minds, we must go out of doors and look nature in the face. Contemplate some particular deposit, it may be of a few feet or it may be of several hundred feet thickness. Consider well how that deposit was accumulated, and think of the time necessary to form such a thickness over a considerable superficial area. Then try and think of the ages required to pile up the 14 miles of strata which compose the British Islands. The mind reels in the effect to grasp what is utterly beyond its power. How infinitely little seem all human efforts and institutions in the presence of such unfathomable antiquity. It must be remembered, too, that between the various strata are unrecorded intervals of time, during which the land was lifted out of the water, so that the 14 miles mentioned represents only a portion of the time occupied in the building of the British Isles.

     Having briefly glanced at these now well-known facts, we are in a position to compare the philosophy of Swedenborg with the teachings of modern geologists. There seems hardly anything in common between the two. Swedenborg teaches in The Worship and Love of God that the creation of the vegetable kingdom was completed before that of the animal kingdom was commenced, following the order given in the first chapter of Genesis. In opposition to this, geology teaches that the first appearance of the lowest types of animal life was contemporaneous with the first appearance of the lowest types of vegetable life; and that thereafter the vegetable and animal kingdoms developed together side by side.

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On this point alone Swedenborg's theory seems so diametrically opposed to observed facts as to effectually bar it from serious consideration at the hands of scientists. Again, geology teaches that previous to the advent of man, thousands of species of both animal and vegetable life have been ushered into existence only to be afterwards destroyed and replaced by new species. This process of extinction was a great puzzle to the naturalists of the early part of the nineteenth century and remained inexplicable until Darwinism offered a possible solution. It is (to say the least) very difficult of reconciliation with the principles of creation given in The Worship and Love of God. These discrepancies alone will, to most of those who read The Worship and Love of God be deemed sufficient reason for condemning it as valueless in the light of present knowledge.

     Let us turn, now, to those Writings which we have every reason to believe come to us with Divine authority as the Revelation for the new age. We ought to expect to find in those Writings some light on the facts of geology, involving as they do questions of the profoundest import. The history of life, of the animate creation, would seem to be a subject peculiarly within the scope of the New Church philosophy, and the domain of geology to be one of the first which the New Church should bring under her sceptre.

     Turning to the True Christian Religion, we find that that book contains several memorable relations on the subject of creation, and in one of those memorable relations (T. C. R. 78) a description is given of the scenery in the heavens, and of the animals and plants which are created there, according to the affections and thoughts of the angels. Then follows this striking phrase - "In your world they were created in like manner at the beginning." What is the meaning of the expression "at the beginning." Shall we assume that it indicates a belief in the Mosaic account of creation, which supposes the world and all its inhabitants to have been created within the space of six days. The word "beginning" might well be used in connection with such a belief. Or shall we assume that the term applies simply to the beginning of each species: that it teaches that the beginning of each species on the earth was a separate creation? A reference to other passages will clear this up.

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Let us take the last interpretation first. Divine Love and Wisdom, n. 339 speaks of the creation of evil animals and states that they "have not been created from the beginning." Now in numbers 340 and 341 we are taught that evil animals (like the animals spoken of in T. C. R. 78) are separately created, so that it is evident that the expression "from the beginning" occurring in D. L. W. 339 cannot have reference to the first appearance on the earth of evil animals, when it is said that they "have not been created from the beginning." Therefore the assumption that the term "beginning" used in the passages quoted, refers to the beginning of each species on the earth, will not hold good, and we are driven to the first and natural interpretation, - that the expression refers to a particular period of the earth's history.

     Now what particular period of the earth's history is it that is meant? Is it the period recorded in the lower Cambrian strata, which contain the earliest types of life? Clearly not, for while these rocks contain only such lowly organisms as molluscs and crustaceans, we are taught in Athanasian Creed n. 90 that beasts of the highest natural degree (i. e., mammals) were created from the beginning. If, then, the particular period is to include the mammalian period, shall we look upon the word "beginning" as embracing all the long ages from the lowest Cambrian to the Tertiaries? There are very strong objections to this, but apart from all others, it is surely a gross misapplication of the word to speak of nine-tenths of the period covered by the history of life on the earth as the "beginning" of that period.

     We seem then to be brought face to face with the same difficulty over which so much controversy was waged in the first half of the past century. We have not to deal with the first chapter of Genesis, which we now know was never intended to he taken literally, but we have to reconcile with the facts of geology the following plain teachings of the Writings: That in the beginning God created plants and animals in their order up to man; and that that process of creation occupied but a short period of time when compared with the whole history of life upon the earth.

     The problem now before us is very like the old one, but we have additional elements to consider which, while they render all previous hypotheses as to the scene of creation untenable, furnish us with more full guidance to the true solution of the question.

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     It would be tedious and useless to attempt any recapitulation of the theories brought forward in the early days of geology with the view of reconciling science and Scripture, or of locating that "paradise" where the first human pair was created. These early hypotheses were all alike defective in that they supposed the creation of the first "paradise" and of the human race to be subsequent to all geological history. The important point which I wish to urge is hat this "paradise" must have existed "in the beginning" of geological history.

     Incredible as this may appear, let us consider it a little. And, firstly, if the first and principal process of creation occupied only a restricted portion of time compared with such ages as are represented by the 14 miles thickness of British strata, it is obvious that the British Isles could not have been the main scene of that process, for the "beginning" of the geological history of Britain is occupied only with the lowliest forms of life and the highest forms do not put in an appearance there until after immeasurable ages; whereas in the main scene of creation, according to Athanasian Creed n. 90 (A. E. 1201), the highest forms also were created in the beginning. What has been said of Britain applies more or less to a large portion of the present dry land of the globe, but we have necessarily to assume a nuclear region somewhere on the earth where the highest animal and vegetable types were in existence at a time when the beginnings of Britain (its Cambrian deposits) were being formed in the bed of the primeval ocean.

     Now to suppose that such a geographical region (which geologists would describe as of Tertiary character) could have existed contemporaneously with the low Cambrian fauna and flora of another country, is quite opposed to the accepted interpretation of geological facts. The truths of revelation we cannot question and we are bound, therefore, to call in question the interpretations of geology. And here one word of digression. Let it not be thought that in this matter undue importance is being attached to what are merely incidental expressions in the Writings. The Writings are not of course verbally inspired in the same sense as the Hebrew Word. But they are a revelation. Everything therein was written under the Divine guidance, and, although the expressions used are Swedenborg's own, - although in some instances there may perhaps be redundant expressions, - we may be very certain that no words would have been permitted which could in any way convey erroneous ideas.
(To be Continued.)

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FIVE MEMORABILIA 1900

FIVE MEMORABILIA              1900

III. THE CONSUMMATION OF THE AGE, THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD, AND THE END OF THE CHURCH.

     8. I HAVE Often heard the conversation of the angels with new spirits, and I once heard them conversing about the consummation of the age and the destruction of the world. And because those new spirits had hitherto known nothing of heaven and of hell nor of the life of man after death, nor of any other sense of the Word than the literal, they gave responses void of reason and full of paradoxes. They said that by the consummation of the age they understood the destruction of the world; by the coming of the Lord then, His appearing with the angels in a cloud; by the last judgment, sentences decreeing salvation and damnation upon all the dead after their resurrection from the grave.

     When the angels had heard these things they asked with smiling countenance, two or three times, whether the spirits said these things from faith of heart which is believed to be the truth; or from an historical faith, which in itself is tradition from others; or from imagination.

     To these questions the new guests retorted with indignation, "What have we said from indulgence of the imagination, or from mere tradition? Are not these things truths revealed in the Word? They must be of faith of heart."

     The angels, when these things were said, politely answered, "It does no harm for you to believe thus, but that it is not thus, you shall hereafter be instructed."

     9. Immediately after this speech little flames appearing like tongues flowed down from heaven upon the heads of the newcomers, by which they were inspired with the affection of knowing from reason how they had faith; and they exclaimed, "What is faith but truth? Where is truth in its own light except in the understanding! If the understanding be in darkness, what then is faith but a sleepwalker?

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And if to this faith be added confirmation from natural light separate from spiritual light, it becomes a bat.

     Among the newcomers was a priest, who, when he heard these things from his associates, said with an inflamed voice, "What has faith to do with the understanding?"

     The angels replied, "What is faith without the understanding, but a blind faith?"

     Suddenly then the little flame fell down from the top of the priest's head upon his shoe and shone there a little while.
     
     10. After this the angels asked the novitiates what further they had thought from their faith, concerning the consummation of the age, and what they still thought.

     They replied, "We had thought of the destruction of the universe, both heaven and earth; since we read that heaven and earth should be destroyed, and it was said that they should pass away in smoke."

     The angels then inquired, "What heaven and what earth; the heaven and earth of the natural world or of the spiritual world? There are also heavens and earths here - heavens where the angels are, and lands upon which they dwell."

     At this the novitiates responded, "What is this? Perhaps you are joking? Are not angels spirits' What is a spirit but a breath of wind? And where is this breath? Does it not fly about in the atmospheric heaven, and go even to the stars?"

     The angels then replied, "You are now in the spiritual world, and as yet you know no otherwise than that you are in the natural world. Here heaven, where the angels are, is above your head, and hell, where the devils and satans are, is under your feet. Is not the soil, upon which you and we stand, earth? Stamp it with your feet and find out."

     But at this, because it was foreign to previously conceived ideas, they wondered greatly; yet, because they were in illustration, from the little flames upon their heads, they listened willingly to the speech of the angels, and comprehended the truths they uttered.

     11. The angels asked further, "In what manner did you believe that the destruction of your world would take place?"

     They said, "By fire, about which we have believed and predicted many things: some of us, that flames from heaven would be cast down everywhere upon the earth, as they were upon the sons of Aaron, and upon the burnt offering of Elijah; some, that the fire of the sun would be let loose, would break forth, and set the universe on fire; some, that the central fire of the earth would break the crust round about it, and hurl itself forth everywhere, as it does from the fire-vomiting mountains, Aetna, Vesuvius, and Hecla; some, that a great comet would invade the atmosphere of the earth, and would set it on fire with the flame of its tail; some have said that the universe would not perish by fire, but would go to ruin, and fall to pieces, as does a house from age; and others have believed otherwise."

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     When the angels had heard these things they said to one another, "O what simplicity! arising only from utter ignorance of the spiritual world and of the angels, and of their heavens and earths, and also from utter ignorance of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word! From this ignorance all things of eternal life have become mere things of the memory, and of no reason; and if there be any thing of reason, it is not above the memory but below it, where confirmations from fallacies counterfeit the light of reason. This was represented by what we lately saw, namely, that the little flame fell down from the priest's head upon his shoe, and shone there; and this appears to us as though a person were to take his hat from his head, and wrap it round the soles of his feet and walk thus shed."

     12. The angels then said, "We have been chosen from heaven to instruct newcomers from the lands of the natural world, since all who arrive here from there, are in a faith of foolishness about heaven, yea, even about salvation; wherefore unless those follies be dissipated, which is done by instruction, their rational, - which is above the memory, and grows wise there, from the reception of celestial light, - would be closed; and this being closed, from being men they would become animals, with this sole difference, that they would still be able to think from the external senses, and speak from this thought alone.

     13. "Since this duty of instruction is enjoined upon us, we will teach you what is meant in the Word by the consummation of the age." And they said, "The consummation of the Church is meant, which consummation is also called Desolation and Devastation, and this is when there are no longer truths of faith and goods of charity in any essence of their own; and thus all the ways to heaven are obstructed. This consummation appears scarcely anywhere in the world, because those things which are of faith are not truths but falses, and those things which are of charity are not goods but only deeds of self-love, which, when they go forth in the breath of the mouth, do not elevate themselves to heaven, but as soon as they rise up they are turned aside and fall down to the earth, just as does the water of a bath when cast upon the shoulders, or as rotten fruit falls from trees in the time of winter.

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     14. "In this consummation or end of the Church, it will be proclaimed from all pulpits, and the people will vociferate in all temples, 'Here is the dwelling-place of God! Here is the temple of God! Here is the Church of God! Here is salvation! Here is the light of the Gospel!' And they do not know at all that they are in mere darkness, and that they dream the dream of the age. This is because they believe that falses are truths, and truths falses, as also that evils are goods, and goods evils. This night and this dream the Lord predicted in Matthew xxiv, 37-39, and in Luke xvii, 26 to the end.

     15. "You shall he confirmed in this truth - that the consummation of the age is the end of the Church - not only by reason but also from sight: Know then that the end of the Church will not be at all recognized on earth, though fully recognized in the heavens.

     "Heaven and the Church are like a single containing house: The Church is the foundation and substructure, and Heaven is its superstructure and roof; and the inhabitants are consociated like members of a family with domestics. When therefore the Church, by evils and falses slips from under, that house does not hold together except as to its walls, and within, communication with the angels of heaven is cut off, and the stairway, by which there is ascent and descent, is taken away.

     "Lest the house should then fall into utter ruin the Lord returns into the world and establishes a new Church, and by it restores the house, and supports heaven.

     "But this will appear more evidently before your sight, if we pray to the Lord, and go away from here and walk about."

     "Morality is spiritual only when it rejects the merits of its own goodness and becomes a servant of the Lord."

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Editorial Department 1900

Editorial Department       Editor       1900

THE "MESSENGER'S" REVIEW OF THE JOURNAL OF THE ASSEMBLY.

     IN the literary department of the Messenger of January 17th the Journal of the General Assembly is reviewed at length, and in an open and friendly spirit. It is a matter of congratulation that the Messenger in its policy and management, although not departing from its past theological bias or opinion, enter; on the broader plane of a more generous recognition of other work in the Church than that immediately under the auspices of the General Convention. An open and manly expression of view, however opposite, is better than the freezing attitude of silence; for the latter is farther away from charity, and is worse for him who exercises it than for him who is the object of it. The policy of ignoring another and his work may be an evidence of strength, but it is for the most part a sign of weakness. We have for years regretted this policy of the Messenger, as not tending to the best good of the Church; and we therefore now rejoice in the appearance of a broader policy, and look for good reedits to flow therefrom. It is undoubtedly useful to see ourselves as others see us; and criticism, if given and received in a friendly and affirmative spirit. will conduce to self-examination, to a better understanding and more fraternal relations.

     The review speaks first of the membership of the General Church as being less than that of several existing New Church societies, and commends the zeal which will bring together in Assembly over a third of the entire membership; but it questions whether the apparent unanimity in the proceedings of the General Assembly "exhibits that variety in freedom" which usually characterizes larger associations of men. And after speaking of the contents of the Journal the review says that "the session of the Assembly resembles more a meeting of the Conference of Ministers of the Convention, with some items of business interspersed from time to time," adding that "the ability of the discussions as well as the harmony and orderliness of the proceedings make the Journal interesting reading." In all this, however, is seen nothing "so distinctly unlike other bodies as to warrant so marked a separation as this organization seems to regard as imperative." Fault is found with some points in the Bishop's Address, and finally warm commendation is given to the zeal which would lead to so large a donation to the uses of the academy as the endowment which the Journal records.

     In the comment on the Annual Address to the assembly there is at least one point that seems to require a little further notice. The writer of the review says, "We are surprised to see what is certainly a free paraphrase of the Writings, if this declaration of principles can be called even that, made to assume so august a place as to be identified with the divine revelation itself," - with more to the same effect.

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     The language in the Address which the reviewer regards as justifying his criticism, is, that the principles of the Academy "are one with the Divine Doctrines given by revelation to the New Church." It is not quite clear from the language of the review whether the writer believes that in our body the teachings of the priesthood are actually regarded as Divine Revelation, or whether the wording of the address is such as to lead the unreflecting or the uninformed to such a conclusion. We presume that the latter is the view intended to be conveyed, for we are disposed to believe that no intelligent New-Churchman, and certainly not one so well-informed and withal so liberal in his views as the writer of the review, would hold that any priest of the New Church in his right mind, and with the full control of all his faculties, would claim for any utterances of his the character of Divine Revelation; we therefore dismiss this view as unworthy of consideration, merely remarking that the language of the review left us at first a little doubt as to whether so serious a charge was not intended.

     It may be well, however, to endeavor to make our position clear on this subject, so as not to justify any misunderstanding. To begin with, it is plain that a priest or minister of the Church, as well as a body or organization, must believe, the one that his teachings, the other that the principles held, are "one with Divine Revelation," - that is to say, from it and in agreement with it, and in this sense identical with it as being a correct interpretation or true understanding of it. What the priest teaches is either one with Divine Revelation or it is not: if it is not, then it is not true, and he is not speaking from the Lord in His revealed Word; but if it be one with Divine Revelation, then it is true and he is speaking from the Lord and not from Himself. To take away from a priest of the Church, from any organization of the Church, yea, from any individual member of the Church. the belief that his principles are one with Divine Revelation, and so from the Lord, is to infuse doubt, to undermine faith, and lead to denial and rejection of spiritual and Divine things.

     But it does not follow that because a priest believes that his teaching is one with Divine Revelation he believes that he is speaking as an inspired prophet or illuminated scribe, immediately from God Himself. Swedenborg so spoke, but no other man is ever again so to speak. All other men, all priests and ministers of the Church, speak mediately from God as He reveals Himself in His open Word. open now to all men, and this by the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth, which leadeth unto all truth. This distinction between the mediate and the immediate. is all-important, and is set forth at large in the Writings of the Church, especially in what is said of Moses and Aaron.

     With this brief explanation of the language used in the Address to the Assembly we trust that our friend the writer of the Messenger review, and others who may think that the language on this point is subject to misconstruction, will feel satisfied that the monstrous claim of immediate inspiration for the priesthood is not held in our body, and that no such idea is lurking in the words of the Address.          W. F. P.

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"REVIEW" ON THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 1900

"REVIEW" ON THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY       Editor       1900

"THE NEW-CHURCH REVIEW" ON THE NAME "GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM."

     THE Third General Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem receives attention in the New-Church Review for January, 1900. The review of the Journal of that occasion is noteworthy both for its tone of friendly appreciation and for its recognition of the uses and the spirit of the General Church. The Review, in its more recent departure from the practice of discrediting the General Church on the score of not performing living Church uses, not only justifies its professions of desire for greater unity in the Church, but also strengthens the cause of charity in general. It further strengthens its position by conceding the point, that lack of unison of view upon important doctrines or in church polity, may be legitimate occasion for separateness of organization without detriment or loss of harmony to the Church in general; in support of which is cited the "variety in harmony" which prevails among the distinct societies of heaven.

     In behalf of this harmony the writer of the review-article appeals to the General Church to reconsider the name it has chosen, as tending. "so far as a thing so external can, to produce jarring and a sense of discord;" the ground of objection to the name being that it is thought hardly "just to the larger and older general bodies of the Church, that this, one of the lesser if not the least general bodies, and the newest, should take upon itself a title so comprehensive and even exclusive;" - in short, it is maintained that the title is not a true one. It is further suggested that the insertion of the qualifying word "Episcopal" before the words "General Church" would at once describe the body's form and government and evidence a desire to promote harmony and brotherhood throughout the general bodies of the Church.

     The right to state a grievance, or even what is only believed to be a grievance, must be recognized among brethren, the more so in this case because the objection raised by the Review against the name in question was considered by a few members of the General Church as likely to be urged,-and some thought, urged with justice; so that action was deferred for two years, at considerable inconvenience, and much thought and discussion was devoted to seeking a name that would be equally suitable and yet free from the apprehended appearance of exclusiveness. But the hope of ultimate revision of the choice, which the Review builds upon this suspension of action, and hesitation of a few, we must affirm to be without substantial basis. For after taking great pains to find a title equally satisfactory, and thus meet if possible the divergent views and anticipated desires of our brethren of the Convention, it was finally agreed, with full unanimity, that we could not go to the extreme of sacrificing use by rejecting the one name which was increasingly felt to he exceptionally descriptive, appropriate, and acceptable to the members. Moreover by perhaps most it was believed that Convention's members would not put upon the name a construction not intended and held not to be legitimately involved.

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     Use is what must determine the choice of the name, - that is, fitness, descriptiveness and quality that appeals to the affections. The name "General Church of the New Jerusalem" means to its members all that goes to make up a church according to the teachings of the Writings, and therefore includes not only the episcopal idea but much more. To insert the term "Episcopal" would emphasize, more than is desired, the idea of formal government. At the same time it would add four syllables to an already lengthy name, besides suggesting associations which would be disturbing to at least quite a number. According to the doctrinal understanding of the members referred to, there may be any number of general churches of the New Jerusalem, according to requirements. That there not only can be but are, more than one, is in effect stated by the Review, as we have quoted it, where it refers to our body as "one of the . . . general bodies." And they might even be so named, using a qualifying word, as "First," or "Second General Church of the New Jerusalem," etc. If these bodies are not general churches of the New Jerusalem, why are they not so?

     Of course it is not the size that qualifies a body to be a general church, but the form and scope of the organization as adapted to the uses of a general church; possessing these, it is capable of indefinite growth.

     If it be once seen that "general," in this connection, does not mean "all-inclusive," but rather the inclusion of particulars, the appearance even, of invidiousness, falls away. If the name "A General Church of the New Jerusalem" had been a feasible one it probably would have been chosen. As to the phrase, "of the New Jerusalem," it supplied an indispensable element, New Church distinctiveness, and as, such was received with affection. That its adoption is unexceptionable we feel sure, the more so since Convention itself has not hesitated to refer to its meetings as "meetings of the New Jerusalem in the United States;" which might equally well be construed as exclusive, if it were desired to do so.

     The danger of "jarring" and "discord" in this matter is, we think, liable to exaggeration. Members of the General Convention know themselves to be in freedom to understand and apply the Doctrines differently from the members of the General Church, and they will concede the same freedom to their brothers, exonerating them from any charge of lack of charity on that account; and themselves not manifesting that lack in way of resenting the exercise of an inalienable right. This is to be the more confidently expected, since Convention itself in the past has acted on the principle of putting what it believed to be useful above consideration of conciliating brethren who saw things differently. This was illustrated in the year 1881, when the decidedly exclusive term "The New Church Theological School" was chosen for the Convention school, in face of the fact that two other New Church theological schools then existed, and despite the vigorous protest of those interested in them. We deprecate, therefore, the implication that in the present instance the Convention will be either uncharitable, or inconsistent and thereby unfair.

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     Another criticism the Review makes, namely, that the Bishop's Address, - which is correctly described as "chiefly a proclamation of doctrinal views, which were those of the Academy, and are the distinctive principles on which the 'General Church' is founded," - gives no passages from the Writings in support of the "dogmatic statements therein contained. The complaint would be valid if the address had been intended as an argument, or as a missionary document; but it was in fact, what it professes, simply a "brief general statement," - that is, a review of accepted principles given for the benefit of members of the General Church and of those already more or less affirmative to the positions thus reviewed. Through the pages of Words for the New Church and of New Church Life, and through other channels, the members of the General Church have for over twenty years kept up a bombardment of passages in support of their principles, so that to be reproached now with having neglected the literal statements of the Writings, and on an occasion when these were not called for, affects somewhat our sense of humor. However, the implied suggestion that a statement of principles accompanied by comprehensive citations might be useful, is worth considering, and for it we acknowledge our indebtedness to the Review.

     We have assumed the risk of being tedious in order to fully assure our contemporary that the main point of its courteous protest had been already considered by the General Church, whose action in the premises was accompanied by conviction that it involved no reflection on other bodies of the New Jerusalem, either in intention or in fact. THE EDITOR.
"THE BUDDING OF THE FIG TREE." 1900

"THE BUDDING OF THE FIG TREE."              1900

     Among the utterances in the recent "symposium" on "The Needs he Needs of the New Church" in the Messenger for November 15th, 1899, none is more significant than the reference to "the budding of the fig tree in the Rev. John Worcester's plea for "Charity, Sympathy, Breadth."

     "We need," he explains, "a broader knowledge of our own doctrines, which will not confirm a faith based upon a single passage or class of passages. Perhaps it is too early to expect this, and with it a generous appreciation of the reasonable results of scientific study." [The Higher Criticism, etc.?] "We are afraid of these now, but a few generations hence our successors will know that the budding of 'the fig tree and all the trees' was from the sunshine of the same Divine Presence that we enjoy; and they will find in the fruit of it support and illustration of the revelation of which we are the present custodians."

     The trend of these remarks is unmistakable, and affords a solution to the problem which is presented by the present attitude of the New Church at large towards the churches of the Old Christianity. By the "sunshine of the same Divine Presence which we enjoy" can he meant only the Divine Truth of the Revelation given to the New Church. This Divine Truth is supposed to be operating in the Old Church no less than in the New, causing a grand development of genuine natural good, and preparing the way for the descent of the New Jerusalem into the Old so rapidly that in "a few generations hence" there will no longer be any necessity for our distinctive Church as the exclusive custodian of the new Revelation.

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     We have here the "Permeation Theory" in a nutshell and brought to a logical conclusion. But the question remains, Are the premises correct? Mr. Worcester finds a basis for his argument in the Lord's prophecy concerning the Fig Tree. If his interpretation of the Word is warranted by the Revelation of the Internal Sense, then his conclusion will stand and the present distinctive organization of the New Church will disappear. But if not, his theory will fall and the Church will be freed from what will be recognized as a deadly infestation.

     "Behold the Fig Tree and all the trees. When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is nigh at hand." (Luke xxi, 29; see also Matt. xxiv, 32.)

     This has been interpreted by Mr. Worcester as "a sign of the Lord's Coming, because the first effect of this Coming would be an active interest in practical philanthropy and all useful knowledge. Is not this spiritual sign now visible in the immense increase of benevolent feeling and work in our day? in the associations for the relief of the poor, the sick and insane, the imprisoned, and the unfortunate of every class? in the fact that the pulpits of all the Churches are inculcating the precepts of a good moral life, instead of the arbitrary dogmas of the last century?" (Correspondences of the Bible. Part II, p. 43)

     According to this authority the "fig tree" signifies natural good, - such, indeed, as exists and has always existed in the fallen Church. For "practical philanthropy," "benevolent feeling" and charitable associations existed in the darkest of the dark ages, and notably in the Roman Catholic
Church with all its convents and hospitals and medieval orders for the protection of the poor and the oppressed. And yet it is clear that this kind of good was merely natural, without a scintilla of that spiritual charity which alone is living and genuine good. This natural good was continued in the Protestant Churches, still as merely natural, because the spiritual truth which alone could make it genuine. had not yet been revealed. Order having been established in the spiritual world by the Last Judgment in the year 1757 and freedom thereby restored to mankind, this natural good has now assumed unexpected proportions, and it is this unparalleled development which Mr. Worcester understand as the fulfillment of the prophecy concerning "the budding of the fig tree and all the trees."

     Judging from purely human observation it would thus seem that "Summer" has indeed come into the wintry state of the consummated Church, that the Lord in His Second Advent has truly been received by the Old Church as a whole, and that the professed New Church has made a stupendous mistake in assuming that a knowledge of the Heavenly Doctrines revealed through Swedenborg was necessary for the establishment of the New Church! The new dispensation would seem to have come upon the dead Church as irresistibly as a summer day, and everybody, therefore, must nolelas volens be a New-Churchman.

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The proof, it is asserted, lies in the changed natural conditions of the civilized world!

     But compare with these notions the picture of the state of the Christian World as presented anywhere in the Doctrines of the New Church, - as in the instalment of the Five Memorabilia which appears in the present issue of the Life. We are told there that the Consummation of the Church "will be apparent scarcely anywhere in the world, since those things which are of faith are not truths but falses, and those things which are of charity are not goods but only the deeds of the love of self, which do not elevate themselves to heaven but, as soon as they rise up, they are turned aside and fall down to the earth, as rotten fruit falls from the trees in the time of winter. At this consummation or at this end of the Church it will he proclaimed from all the pulpits, and the people will vociferate in all the temples. Here is the habitation of God, here is the temple of God, here is the Church of God, here is salvation, here is the light of the Gospel, - and they know not at all that they are in mere darkness, and that they are dreaming the dream of the age. The reason is that they believe falses to be truths and truths falses, and evils to be goods and goods evils. This night and this dream the Lord has predicted in Matthew xxiv: 37-39, and in Luke xvii, 26 to the end." (Five Mem. nos. 13, 14.)

     Very different indeed is this from Mr. Worcester's description of the state of the Christian world,-as different as the interpretation and application which the Doctrines of the New Church give to the Lord's prophecy concerning "the budding of the fig tree." In the revelation of the Internal Sense of the Word we are taught by the Lord Himself that - "the budding of the fig tree" signifies "the first of the New Church. The fig tree is the good of the natural, the branch is its affection, and the leaves are truths." For "when the New Church is created by the Lord, then first of all appears the good of the natural, that is, good in external form with its affection and truths; by the good of the natural is not meant the good into which man is born, or derives from his parents, but a good which is spiritual as to origin, into which no one is born, but is led by the Lord through the knowledges of good and truth, wherefore, before a man is in this good, namely in spiritual good, he is not a man of the Church, however much it may appear that he is, from connate good." (A. C. 4231; compare A. E. 403c.)

     This is the teaching of the Writings concerning "the budding of the fig tree," and is the only one which has been revealed by the Lord. It is manifest from it that it is the New Church, not the Old, which is here treated of, and that the fruits of the "fig tree" are not worldly good works, but the external good which first appears with the men of the New Church when they, in the beginning of their regeneration, compel themselves to act according to the spiritual knowledges of good and truth which have been revealed to them, and thus bring forth the first fruits of spiritual repentance.

     "A good which is spiritual as to origin:" can it be maintained that "modern philanthropy," etc., has any such origin? that it is founded upon depicted for instance the knowledge of the Heavenly Doctrines, which alone reveal what is spiritually and genuinely good and true?

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If so, it follows that the Writings of the New Church must actually be accepted as Divine Revelation by the old Christian Church, - which everybody knows is not the fact; or else this knowledge has come from some other source, through some kind of immediate influx, - which is equally inadmissible, in view of the Divine teaching that men do not receive any knowledge by immediate perception from within, but only by means of external teaching from written Revelation.

     Where, then, is the scriptural or doctrinal warrant for the "Permeation Theory?" Where the excuse for that self-deception which is spreading like a contagion through the New Church, inspiring indifference to the heaven-revealed Doctrines, paralyzing the uses of the Church, driving the youth into the supposed greater New Jerusalem without, and threatening the very existence of the New Church as a distinct organization?

     What is the reason for the numerical standstill, nay, steady decline of the General Convention, which in the year 1893 numbered 104 societies and 6,461 members, but now, at the end of the decade, counts but 95 societies and 6,274 members! What else but indifference and decline can be expected when the official organ of the body week after week and year after year has steadily poured the sweet monotone of "Permeation" into the ears of its readers? when in most of the books and magazines and pulpits of the Church the one theme, ever uppermost, has been for years "the stupendous progress of the century," "the marvellous growth of light and toleration and goodness" in the Christian world, the "mighty spiritual revolutions" within the Old Church. which now by an immediate, imperceptible and indescribable "outpouring from the New Heavens" is said to be discarding all false dogmas, outgrowing narrow conceptions, establishing "the universal brotherhood of men" and by vast and bewilderingly rapid steps is becoming the true ultimation of the New Jerusalem on the earth!

     This kind of "mussitation" has been kept up so persistently that the leaders in the Church seem at last to have lost all practical sense of theological proportions and actual conditions in the world at large. Wastings and breakings, wars and the rumors of war are heard on all sides in the denominations of the Old Church. Ancient ecclesiasticisms are decaying and former bulwarks of Orthodoxy are welcoming within their borders the open deniers of the Divinity of Christ and of the Integrity of the Word. The mortar which so long has kept together the dogmatic structure of Protestant faith has crumbled, and the stones in the temple of the Old Jerusalem are tumbling down with a mighty noise and in the sight of the whole world.

     But the most popular teachers in the New Church seem actually to rejoice at the growing infidelity, and are pointing to the devastation of the Old Jerusalem as identical with the upbuilding of the New. Forgetting that a false faith is better than no faith, and that a simple belief in the Letter of the Word is far preferable to the denial of any part of the Scriptures, they ignore the vengeance which was to pursue "whomsoever would slay Cain," and the miserable fate of Joab who had destroyed Absalom.

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The fashionable "Christology" is hailed by them as the close approach to a genuine doctrine concerning the Lord, although it is only an euphemistic name for Arianism and worse, the idealistic worship of Christ as a mere man, and thus essentially the worship of humanity. The scientific wolves who have fallen upon the Letter .f the Word, tearing it into shreds and tatters in the name of the "Higher Criticism," are welcomed by them as heralds of a new day, preparing the way for the acknowledgment of the Internal Sense. When lamentations are heard in the ruined city at the destruction of the most holy, these New-Church teachers shrug their shoulders, declaring that they have no sympathy with such "Jeremiads." (See Messenger Nov. 1, 1899, p. 240.)               

     Why will not our brethren take heed at the Lord's warning! Why will they permit themselves to be deceived by the modern prophets of liberalism and sentimentalism who have arisen in these latter days with signs and wonders so great as to deceive, if possible, the very elect! "Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there, believe it not." The Lord has come in the glory of the Cloud, not in the tumultuous streets of the doomed Jerusalem. "Behold, I have told you before!" Woe unto us if we return to Judea! W, are commanded to flee to the mountains, to the mountain where towers the City of God, the New Jerusalem, the Doctrine revealed out of Heaven in the Writings of the New Church. There alone is salvation.

     The natural good which reigns at this day in the world does not differ in essential duality from what it has been in any previous age, in any consummated Church, or from what it is in any unregenerate man. The difference is simply one of quantity and appearance. Regarded from Divine Revelation, this good is recognized as the Moab by whom the children of Israel were enslaved in the days of the Judges. And into such a Moabitish bondage would the men of the New Church be led, were they to follow the ignis fatuus of the "Permeation theory." A fat and wealthy individual is Moab, "benevolent" and "helpful" and "broad" as long as he receives his tribute of obedience and flattery. But to the young Bride of the Lord he is the most dangerous of present enemies. Sweetly enticing with offers of "brotherhood" and patronizing toleration, he seeks but to defile her purity and smother her life in his arms.               

     Why then this covenanting with our most cunning foes? Why this constant looking outward for the re-vivification of the Old Church, instead of inward to the Heavenly Truth is which the Bridegroom has come? Why look for "buds" upon that fig tree which has been smitten with a curse and is dead. The Lord is not among the dead but among the living. Let the dead bury their dead. There will be no "resurrection of the body" of a dead Church.                    C. T. O.

     "When you find one especially fitted to do the work it seems like following the lead of Providence to sustain such a one. We cannot make people for the work; we have to find them and see to it that they are enabled to go on with it." - Anon.

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"SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY." 1900

"SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY."       Editor       1900

THE "MESSENGER" SYMPOSIUM, (JANUARY 3D AND 10TH).

     THIS symposium is noteworthy not only for the picture that is drawn, by practised pens, of the state and progress of the world, but for the index it involuntarily furnishes, as to the trend of current thought in the New Church; for the writers form a very representative corps.

     In the way of "National and Religious Events" the Hen. John Bigelow opines that the most significant event on the natural plane, was the War of the Rebellion, as the Revolution was the most significant one of the last century. The latter initiated the first practical and practicable experiment of popular sovereignty on this planet. The century's most significant moral and spiritual feature the writer thinks has been the reaction against the notion of God as a vindictive and implacable being. This reaction was initiated by the Unitarians, who nevertheless "sawed off as it were the branch they were sitting on, by practically denying the divine origin of the Bible and the validity of the assurance that 'the Word was with God, and the Word was God.'" Still, Mr. Bigelow thinks that this destructive Unitarian movement was valuable as loosening up things among the more educated class of theologians, the better to prepare for the "percolations" of the spiritual sense of the Word, which was to be given through Swedenborg and was to effect a "perfectly logical and satisfactory reconciliation of the Godship of the Old Testament with the Godship of the New," "so that the clouds which darkened the letter of the Word to them have been effectually dispelled." Hence Mr. Bigelow, taking heart from the "rapidity with which this new view of God [as infinite love] has already impregnated modern ecclesiasticism," looks forward to continually greater changes in the spiritual condition of the world, till the time comes, of which we read, "when the wolf shall lie down with the lamb, and the leopard lie down with the kid . . . and a little child shall lead them."

     This "Permeation" note is pretty well sustained through most of the symposium. C. C. Bonney, Esq., the President of the World's Congress of Religions of 1893, finds in that event the greatest significance that the century has to offer, and quotes Senor Emilio Castelar as saying "that never has history recorded an event so momentous," and that "the logical deduction from all that happened on that notable occasion is, that all the religions there assembled found a common ground in Christianity." But this would be hard to prove. Would not the Buddhist, the Confucian and the Mohammedan each think within himself that in respect to the views uttered which he could accept all the others were finding a common ground in his particular religion? What real religious change was effected by that event? what more than a degree of increased toleration, and of personal acquaintance and friendliness?

     In "Nineteenth Century Literature" Mr. Julian Hawthorne finds nothing of creative imagination, only adaptations of what has been said in earlier centuries.

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"Material fact (not truth) has been the quarry of mankind in this age, civilization aiming at conquest of natural forces, even philanthropy exhibiting a utilitarian flavor, and religion preaching private judgment and reason rather than faith." The Press, he says, the real literary innovation of the century, devotes itself to reproducing the actual routine of existence, the facts of life, with the result of showing to us an ugly picture of ourselves. This, he surmises, is designed to serve as a means to show us our self-love and love of the world in their true light, and so turn us to truer views and conduct of life, by showing us how ugly those loves are in our neighbor; for though each may embrace vice for ugly picture of ourselves.

     To this we would urge that to see evil from self and not from the Lord is not to see it truly at all. The criminal is never reformed by the evil he sees abandoning about him; he does not distinguish the evils he abominates in others, from the persons, whom he hates. What is needed is the affection of truth, and this is not to be found in the press, but only in the Word laid open by the Writings. Mr. Hawthorne therefore assigns to the press too high a place when he says that it "rescues us from a fool's paradise, and opens the way for our entrance into a paradise of the wise."

     "The New Education," reveals the influence of the New Church, - says the Rev. Frank Sewall, - in three regards: in the revolution wrought in the general idea concerning the objects " - in the change of attitude toward the child, on the part of society and of educators, (with a recognition of the importance of the infantile period as ultimately affecting society itself), - and the importance which modern education attaches to the affection of use, as determining the choice of studies and the estimate to be put upon them. The principle governing in the schools of heaven - of learning not by rote but by heart, by actual exercise of knowledge in uses that are loved - "has become perhaps the most distinctive mark of what may be called the modern education."

     To this we would add that the breaking away from the old, dry, "intellect-alone" quality of education, and cultivating affection, is likely to serve indeed a most important use in preparation for a living education; but that the awakening of the spiritual affection which alone can make education living, can come only through spiritual truth, thus through the Heavenly Doctrines.

     "Science in the Nineteenth Century" is treated by Professor F. W. Very in interesting but hardly New Church style. Apropos of Swedenborg's science quiet seasonable is the paragraph which records the efforts being made "by some of our greatest mathematicians to develop a tenable theory of some kind of vortex-atom, not unlike the elementary particles originally suggested by Swedenborg." And suggestive is the statement that "Wonderful and unexplained things have been discerned in the growth of cells," so that "infinity confronts us no less in the very little than in the very large." But in vain do we look in the article for a leading New Church principle, whereas to Evolution is accorded an importance which makes the lack referred to the more striking. One might think that the writer fancied himself restricted on the subject assigned him, to the aspects of the dying century exclusive of the New Church.

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     Deeply impressed by the modern theory, apparently, is also the Rev. S. C. Eby, in his review of "The Philosophic Import of Evolutionary Science;" although he says: "For the moment (!) I am not endorsing the theory," - whatever this reservation may mean. Evolution, he states, (while deprecating materialism), has exploded the ancient theories of creation by jugglery with nothing," and has "magnificently demonstrated the universal reign of law and the inexorable logic of cause and effect." "Whatever the universe is, it is now seen by every school boy that it is not the work shop of magic or the home of caprice." And he concludes that "No amount of metaphysical reasoning or spiritual revelation could have brought home these truths to the natural mind with anything like the force and clearness of evolutionary science."

     The premises and the conclusion are at fault. Evolutionary science has magnificently failed to demonstrate the true logic of cause and effect. For instance, it finds in protoplasm causation such as belongs not to matter, and it assigns to creation a successive and not a discrete character, in the continuous steps of which the lower is made the cause of the higher. What logic here? Not that we would depreciate the truly "magnificent" records of facts, made by science. Evolution has indeed brought to the observation of nature an eye acutely trained to sensual things; but it is utterly blind to the true order involved in nature by the Creator and capable of being evolved only by an eye made clear through knowledge and acknowledgment of the Divine First Cause, and of the world of spiritual causes, and of the discreteness in the latter's operations upon and in the natural world. Whatever of method has been disclosed on the lower scientific plane by evolutionary science, could have been done as well and better by a science developed from and inspired by the principles of Divine Revelation; but in the existing conditions Providence has made use of what was available, the world not being ready for something better.

     We quite agree with the writer that "It is of immense use to the future of New Church philosophy that materialism should have been seen at its best," but regret that so many New-Churchmen fail to see how poor and flimsy that best is. With the concluding paragraphs, and where he seems to identify "evolutionary science" with "materialism," we find ourselves quite at one, but must leave the writer to establish their consistency with his assertion that it has laid a "very solid groundwork for an understanding of higher degrees of truth;" and that "Other things being equal its students should be the most competent readers of the 'Arcana Coelestia' and the 'Divine Love and Wisdom.'" In the paragraphs referred to he well says concerning "the antithetic manifestations of spiritism, Christian Science, Theosophy, auto-suggestion, etc.:" "Thus we have the uncovering of a large number of forms of irrationality. For the most part these developments are strictly on a plane with evolutionary science, and in the case of spiritism and Christian Science, however much there may appear of idealism in form, at the last analysis we find in substance only a diseased materialism."

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     The Rev. P. B. Cabell divides "Events Theological in the Nineteenth Century" into - 1. Events which indicate rejection of the old errors, and, - 2. Events which indicate reception of the new truths. Under the first he classes the Unitarian movement-which he correctly differentiates "theologically from the New Church more widely than any other" (sect); - Ingersol's destructive criticism of Christianity, and, the Higher Criticism and its "half-friendly, half-hostile labors." From the latter he expects to result, an "enforced acceptance in time by the Churches of the doctrine of an internal sense," a hope which is not very near to realization. Of "events which indicate reception of the new truths" he finds, as "we would naturally expect nothing phenomenal or startling." "The enlightenment of some one mind in a community, the establishment of a small society, even the building of a modest temple for worship, are events of seemingly little importance to themselves, but they are really epochs in the history of such community." This writer, too, finds great significance of progress in the Congress of Religions.

     Dealing with "The Study of the Bible in the Nineteenth Century" the Rev. Jacob E. Werren notes among the "harvest of fruits for human use" which the century has ripened, that of freedom and independence of thought; - the improvement in which, the world enjoys without consciously realizing it. "Fostered on the plane of laboratory work, and schooled in the lecture rooms of scientific thinking, it is fast becoming common property as a part of religious thinking." And the writer, without giving thought to the teaching that true freedom is based on affections of good and truth, - affections which it is the trend of modern free thought to uproot and destroy, - views with complacency the attack of that free thought upon not only creeds but - "the very stronghold behind the creeds: The Sacred Scriptures." Says the writer: "The critical spirit engendered by this freedom of thinking has fully awakened to the consciousness of its power.

     In its youthful accomplishment it seems to enjoy the pleasing task of having plucked the golden plumage from a bird of paradise and rendered its aspect more earthly; that is, it proclaims that the human tests of literature prove the Bible to be a thoroughly human production. It traces behind the face of this palimpsest of the ages, the unwritten history of its growth and perfection (!) and in it all rejoices in the evident manifestation of the broadening grasp and growth of the human mind (!)." He admits that "This new thought about the Bible is yet young" and "has all the faults of youth," yet he deprecatingly asks: "Shall we join the world in its fears and wish to set back the hands on the dial of time? Or shall we not rather rejoice in the attitude which the world is taking in learning to think for itself about the Word of God?"

     That he here means "thinks from itself" is evident from language which we lack space to quote; yet the amazing conclusion he reaches is, that the world, in its self-assertion, is to come to see "in its own power of rational thought the presence of God, and with this [will] press on in the way of investigation toward the goal of spiritual reality, which is laid bare in the deeper sense of the Wordy and before it, the human will put the shoes from off its feet, and worship with a new spiritual reverence."

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     "Charities and Corrections" is treated by the Rev. B. M. Stone rather from the sociological than the New Church standpoint.

     "The New Position of Woman," according to Lydia Fuller Dickinson, "leads inevitably toward a new and truer idea of marriage," upon which "depends the integrity and even the existence of society itself." "The equality of man and woman does not lie in their mental and spiritual identity, as some suppose, but in the fact that wholly and eternally diverse as they are, they are nevertheless equally dependent, the one upon the other, on all planes of the being." This is well said, but Mr. Dickinson would have been more felicitous if she had not gone on to nullify the diverseness she postulates by making the creative equality of man and women find "ultimate expression" in "Woman Suffrage;" involving feminine exercise of distinctively masculine functions.

     "Freedom of Thought" is given by the Rev. John F. Potts as probably the most striking because most universal feature of the ecclesiastical developments of the Nineteenth Century, - meaning, thereby not merely freedom to choose one's own creed but freedom from the spiritual influences which had enslaved the Church to its own authorities in the centuries preceding. This freedom, - brought about by the changed spiritual conditions effected by the Last Judgment and the consequent removal of obstructions to the influx, of light from above, - suddenly conferred upon the race, produced effects, the writer says, of "very mixed character - terribly so," because of the state of the world and its incapacity to appreciate its freedom. To quote: "The shock of conflicting elements was sure to be tremendous, and now that the first threes of it are over (I do not say the worst threes, for the future we know not), and we stand at the close of a period of nearly a century and a half, during which it has been going on, we may well feel deeply thankful that the Divine Providence has succeeded in saying the world and the Church from the utter ruin which might reasonably have been anticipated under circumstances so apparently hopeless as those which existed at the time of the complete devastation and spiritual destruction of the First Christian Church."

     The only reservation which we could have as to accepting the foregoing ideas, is the uncertainty as to what is meant by the "Church" which is there depicted as being saved from "utter ruin." The agency of salvation we are told in the succeeding paragraph, is the New Church, but as this is said to be invisible as a spiritual organization to the eyes of man, we feel the lack of a clear statement as to the definition and relationship of the Old Church and the New.

     "The Parliament of Religion" finds another advocate in the Rev. A. Roeder, who sees the tendency to unification of the race, shown in the inter-connecting work of steam carriage and electricity, culminating on the religious plane in the Parliament of Religions, which he describes as an effect of the opening of the Word. As we have already indicated our inability to see in that event any unification whatever as regards the really religious standpoint, we have here no comments to make.                         THE EDITOR.

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Monthly Review 1900

Monthly Review              1900

THE PERIODICALS.

     Annals of the New Church. (No. 13, January, 1900, presents a fine portrait of the Rev. Samuel Noble, - a beautiful intellectual face, a truly noble countenance. It is reproduced from a larger engraving belonging to the Rev. John Faulkner Potts, whose maternal uncle, Mr. R. B. Faulkner, painted the original portrait; he was for a long time the organist in Mr. Noble's church at Cross street, London. In the present issue of the Annals there are brief but vivid biographical notices of Rev. Thos. F. Churchill, M. Edouard Richer, and Rev. Robert Hindmarsh, who now close their earthly labors, while the names of M. Le Boys des Guays and J. R. Hibbard make their first appearance in the Church. Among the events in 1835 we notice the organization of the Massachusetts Association and the beginnings of the Church in Chicago, Ill., and Allentown, Pa.; and, in 1836, the formation of the Maine Association and the development of a great interest in distinctive New Church education among the societies in New England. In the General Convention there developed at this period a strong tendency towards Episcopal form of government; the principle of "close communion was much favored, and also the abolition of hymns or any "human compositions" in the forms of worship. The Precursor, edited by Rev. Richard De Charms at Cincinnati, appears on the stage at this time as the exponent of the same principles which are now represented by New, Church Life. Year by year the history of the New Church is now being opened up by the Annals, and it is becoming more and more evident that that history is not so void of significance as our contemporary, the Messenger, seems to think.

     A Nova Jerusalem, our Brazilian contemporary, is still being published each month by L. C. La Fayette at Rio de Janeiro. It is a journal of eight pages, with three columns to the page, and is distributed gratis for missionary purpose. The articles are written chiefly by the editor. It would be interesting to learn some particulars as to the result of the propaganda.

     Aurora, the only journal at present published in the Danish tongue, now enters upon its second volume. It is edited by Rev. S. C. Bronniche, who is the leader of a circle in Copenhagen.

     Kinder Bote der Sontagschulen der Neuen Kirche, a New Church Sunday-school paper in German, published at Brooklyn, N. Y. It is now twelve years of age, and is working quietly but steadily.

     Neukirchenblatt, the organ of the German Missionary Union in America, is edited and published at Berlin, Canada, by Rev. L. H. Tafel.

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A German translation of the Adversaria has been running through its columns for some time. An English version of this suggestive work of Swedenborg's would be most acceptable. We wonder how long the Church will have to wait before it has ready access to everything written by Swedenborg!

     The Juvenile Magazine is a New Church illustrated monthly for the young people, edited by the Rev. Isaiah Tansley, at London. It has a very attractive appearance and could become of great usefulness if imbued a little more with the distinctive spirit of the New Church. The same may be said of its American companion, The Sower, which is published each week by the Western New Church Union at Chicago.

     The New Church Independent, now in its forty-eighth volume, has decreased its monthly issues from forty-eight to forty pages, owing to reduced financial circumstances.

     New Church Messenger. January 1. "It is not probable," exclaims one of the editors, "that the first New-Churchmen imagined or dared to hope that in so comparatively short a time [as a century] all things would indeed begin to appear as 'new.'" "Improvement in facilities of travel," "advancement in science," "progress in the comforts and luxuries of natural living," these things are proclaimed as "the John the Baptist to the coming of the New Church," while the history of the organized New Church is declared too 'insignificant" for notice in the jubilant paean which is sung the "Symposium" on the Nineteenth Century (received below). Old-fashioned New-Churchmen might indeed demur at this summary treatment of the Church they love, and at the new interpretation of "John the Baptist." The latter has always been understood in the Church as representing the Letter of the Word and the faith in it, (not "the Higher Criticism"), and Spiritual Repentance, (not "the luxuries of natural living"). Quousaue tandem, Catalina.

     New Church Magazine. January, 1900. History of the Society at Leeds, with a picture of the temple which was built in 1885. The Church here began through the evangelistic work of Rev. Joseph Proud in 1816. It has had quite a checkered career, and several times has seemed at the point of extinction, but is now prospering under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mark Rowse. We are not sorry to learn that "there is still much prejudice against the New Church in the city of Leeds." This is a healthy sign. When the New Church becomes popular with the denominations of the Old, there surely something wrong with it.

     Swedenborg's Anticipation of the modern theory of Telepathy. An interesting note, by the editor.

     The Future of the Church, by George Trobridge. The writer, in this first installment of his paper, draws a striking Picture of the divided and disintegrating state of modern Protestantism. There seems at present to be a powerful reaction in favor of Roman Catholicism, but Mr. Trobridge shows that this movement can only he of temporary duration. But by the "Church" he means - the Lord's Universal Church, that which exists with the good among Christians and Gentiles alike.

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And yet, with lack of consistency he identifies "the Church" with "the Christian world," that is, with the Old Christianity which is dead and judged, and for which therefore there can be no "Future."

     What the New, Church teaches. The Rev. Jas. F. Buss here commences a second series of articles on the general Doctrines of the Church and presents "the reality of the other world" in his usual able and convincing style.

     The Rev. Isaiah Tansley, in the "Notes and Comments," dwells on Dean Farrar's recent attack on the "orthodox" doctrine of the Atonement, and justly remarks that "something more than destructive criticism is required." Destruction is one thing; instruction is another. The Old Church is destroying itself, but the New Church will not be built up by the destroyers.

     The New Church Review, for January, contains: "The Worship of Prayer," by Rev. John Worcester, "The Worship of Life," by Rev. H. C. Hay, "The Hypothesis of Evolution in the Light of the New Church" (II) by Gilbert Hawkes, "Behold the Man," by H. Gordon Drummond, "Distinction between Material and Spiritual Substances," by Rev. H. Vrooman, "How to Think of God," by Rev. G. L. Allbutt, "Courage," by Warren Goddard, and "The Sabbath: its Past, present and Future," by Rev. T. F. Wright. In the Editorial Department "S. M. W." combats the position of Mr. Gilbert Hawkes, - in the body of the magazine, - that the Most Ancient Church was not the most ancient church, but the degenerate descendants of one still earlier. In the department of "Current Literature" is a review of the Journal of the Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, which is considered elsewhere in the present number.

     
Books Received.

The Heavenly Arcana: Rotch Edition, Vol. xi. Massachusetts New-Church Union. 1899. Price $1.25.

De Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia. Divina Providentia. New York. American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society. 1899.

Reincarnation in the New Testament. James M. Pryse. New York. Elliott 8. Page and Co. 1900.
ERRATA 1900

ERRATA              1900

     In the January number a line on page 18 failed to print, the words of which are as follows: "without which this Church could not have become the crown of ...."

     Also, it will be noticed that the footnote which is given at the foot of page 31 belongs on page 32.

     In the title of the Icelandic translation of the Doctrine of Charity, Nyu Jerusalem was printed as Nigu Jerusalem.

     In the December number, on page 182, fourth line of the last paragraph of the article "How to Think of God," the second word should be "visible" instead of "invisible."

[These corrections have been made to the electronic text.]

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ORPHANAGE 1900

ORPHANAGE              1900

From a private letter, written abroad, we take the following pertinent extract:

     "It was a source of great pleasure to my wife and self to see in the "Life" that an Orphanage for the General Church of the New Jerusalem has actually come into existence. The Church is to be congratulated on this account; it is a step forward; it is active New Church life, which is sure to bear good and sound fruit. . . . I have often thought of the desirability of letting the children save up their little savings for future needs, but hitherto nothing has been done in that direction. When we now noticed the news about the Orphanage, it struck both me and my wife that the best way in this direction would be to arouse the interest of the children themselves for this work. This proved an easy task, and B - and A - cheerfully send one dollar each for the year 1900, to the Orphanage."
PRINCIPIA CLUB 1900

PRINCIPIA CLUB       C. E. D       1900

     THE Principia Club of Philadelphia held its regular meeting on Monday evening, Dec. 18th, 1899. After the routine business had been transacted the memorial resolutions, respecting Dr. Wilkinson, which were published in the January Life, were presented by the Rev. C. Th. Odhner and unanimously adopted. A number of speakers called attention to the services Dr. Wilkinson has rendered to New Church science and philosophy, and to the debt of gratitude the Church owes to him for his great work. Special reference was made to his fight for Homeopathy and Anti-Vaccination.

     Rev. C. E. Doering then read a paper in reply to the articles by the Rev. J. F. Potts, which were read before the Club last spring, and recently published in The New Philosophy (October, 1899).

     In answer to the point that Swedenborg could know nothing properly of creation before the opening of his spiritual sight, the essayist took the position that Swedenborg could know something rightly about creation, because he knew from the Word that the world was created by God; he accepted this as a fact, and did not reason as to whether it was so. But with that knowledge and acknowledgment as a starting-point he then reasoned about the formation of natural things, all of which are on the plane of effects and therefore could be investigated, and truths concerning them could be elucidated, without any special revelation.

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     As to the point that Swedenborg did not limit himself to the plane of effects in his investigation, but tried by that means to arrive at spiritual causes, the essayist cited what Swedenborg says in the Principia concerning the purpose of his work - that it is to investigate elemental nature; and he also cited passages to show that Swedenborg knew that he could not by philosophy transcend the bounds of nature; and that therefore, as he limited himself to nature, it follows that his investigations are within the legitimate sphere of science and philosophy.

     In answering the second paper he thought that the term "substantial" as used in the Principia had been confused with the same term as used in the Writings, and cited passages from the former work to show that in it Swedenborg meant by "substantial" that which is limited, bounded or finited, in contradistinction to what is unlimited, unbounded or infinite; and hence where he rays "that in the Infinite there is nothing substantial," with his own limitations on the term, he does not contradict what is said in the Writings about "God being Substance Itself and Form Itself." He did not at all consider that the Infinite or God was nothing, but rather the all in all, from which and compared to whom all the finite is nothing.

     Referring to the section in the Divine Providence No. 6, which had convinced Mr. Potts that the Principia Theory of Creation was wrong, the speaker said that that theory was not condemned there at all. First, because that number says, "There are some who think there is only one substance from which are all things," while the Principia teaches that all things are from God, Who is the sole Cause and Origin of all. Second, because that number is evidently referring to all creation, the spiritual as well as the natural, while the Principia treats only of natural creation. And, Third, because the Principia does not teach that all nature consists of an accumulated mass of points, as is held by those who are condemned in the passage referred to.

     The speaker held that the world is derived from Swedenborg's Natural Point, - which is the purest substance in nature and the first natural receptacle of the Divine activity, - in the same way that the human body is formed by its fines: and purest substances, which are the first receptacle of the soul.

     Chairman Potts then invited discussion, at the same time pointing out the typographical errors in his article as printed in the New Philosophy, and offering to the members the use of a corrected copy of that paper.

     Rev. Alfred Acton, speaking to the subject, said in substance: That Swedenborg was a rational man, and that his science was a rational science, needs no proof, for how can we as rational men, - as New-Churchmen, - doubt that that man who was called upon by the Lord to perform the highest use which has ever been committed to man, who was prepared from his infancy for this use, was a pre-eminently rational man. And this is confirmed by the Writings, where Swedenborg, in answer to one whom he calls a wise man, practically says - though in a most modest way - that he was a "natural fisherman." that is one who has studied natural sciences rationally. And his questioner adds, that the Lord alone knows who is fitted to perceive and teach the things of the New Church. Swedenborg was so fitted, and the Lord called him to the work.

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Surely, no man who was irrational, - no man whose science was false, - could perceive, still less teach, the things of the New Church.

     The statement that Swedenborg's science is right, is thus perceived by us prima facie to be true. If then we find any passage in the Writings which seems to impugn that truth, it is our duty as rational men rather to see how that passage is to be understood, than to at once overthrow ideas which are so evidently true. With all personal respect to the writer of the articles under discussion, he had not - the speaker thought - approached the subject in the rational way. In Divine Love and Wisdom, n. 107, as it had been quoted to show that Swedenborg before his inspiration was in falsity as to his theory of creation, three very important words had been omitted, - de quibus agendum ("which are to be treated of"). The passage reads: - "It is most necessary to be known, that there are two suns, one spiritual and the other natural. Unless this be known nothing can be justly understood about Creation and about Man, which are to be treated of; effects indeed can be seen, but unless at the same time the causes of the effects be seen, the effects cannot be seen, except as it were in the night."

     The words "which are to be treated of," indicate the true meaning of the words "creation" and "man." Unless the two suns be known, nothing concerning creation and man, which are to he treated of, can be seen. And turning to the fourth and fifth parts of the work we find those subjects treated of, and there, therefore, we find what it is, concerning creation and man, that could not be known without a knowledge of the two which was therefore revealed to us. We have revealed there, not the science of the creation of the earth from the sun, such as it is in the Principia, but the doctrine of the creation of the Natural from the Spiritual, and of all from the Divine. And in the part on man, we learn, not of his anatomy nor of the uses of the various organs of the body, but of the operation of the spirit into the body. These then are what are meant when it is said that without a knowledge of the two suns, nothing of creation or man can be known. If this be not so, then not only must we reject the principia, but also all of the anatomical works, for these treat of far more important things than mere descriptive anatomy. Swedenborg before his illumination, was, as it were, "in the night" as to the relation of the spiritual to the natural, - the knowledge of how from the spiritual the natural was created, - how from the spirit of man his body was formed.

     In his scientific works he never attempts to explain this, but always pauses at the threshold of the natural, and reverently acknowledges that the philosopher can go no further.

     But still he was not absolutely in night even as to this: for he was a reverent man filled with Piety and Christian in life. He had the Word, and this he read and studied, and from it he knew that there was a spiritual, and he acknowledged that from the Lord comes all creation. His night was the night of ignorance, it was not the night of denial. He knew not; but, being a truly rational man, his mind was so filled with natural truths that when spiritual knowledge, - truths concerning creation and man, - were revealed, he at once perceived them and was able to teach them.

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That he could be in natural truths on these subjects before his spiritual eyes were opened, is evident not only from his works themselves, where we see the wonderful agreement with revelation, but also from this, man. In this was his rationality shown. He was never led to denial by the evidence of his senses. Thus when he failed to find the soul, he did not deny its existence, for he was a devout man. In nature he saw the kingdom of God in man, the kingdom of the soul; and surely nothing but truth can result when these are investigated to confirm the perceptions of the mind, investigated by a man of great learning, of powerful intelligence, and with a Christian faith and love.

     Rev. C. Th. Odhner referred to the controversy as having been a trial of the Principia Club, as to its fundamental principles, and this had been useful, as occasioning closer study, examination and thought; but he suggested that the Club had now established its raison d'etre, and that it was time to enter the temple of Swedenborg's philosophy and enjoy the treasures therein, and not wait longer on the outside, wondering whether it be safe to go in.

     Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, while recognizing the use suggested as having been performed by the papers, regarded their tendency to be, to cast discredit on Swedenborg's knowledge and rationality. To say that the teaching of the Principia is "rubbish" he thought was going too far.

     Rev. G. G. Starkey dwelt upon the universality of the laws involved in the Principia Theory, - laws of form and of motion, - entering as they do into all stages and processes of creation and into those of preservation; so that the forms of the atmosphere, which are the formative agents in creation, find in man organs receptive of their activities; which activities are according to form. So that if we invalidate the Principia we invalidate all the subsequent works, which treat of man and which especially depend upon the "First Principles" contained in the Principia.

     Bishop Pendleton spoke appreciatively of Mr. Doering's paper, and suggested that the Mr. Potts, in his reply to the arguments advanced, consider especially the significance of the words, "de quibus agendum," dwelt upon by Mr. Acton as having been omitted in the paper, in its quoting from Divine Love and Wisdom n. 107.

     Mr. Potts, in replying to the speakers who opposed his position, said that if the arguments that had been adduced against his papers were really the strongest that could be produced, he was convinced that his arguments were right. He refused to accept the deduction, that if he was right the Principia was worthless. Neither did he hold with one of the speakers, who had said that if the Principia theory of Creation was wrong this club would have no raison d'etre.

     He had been a student of Swedenborg's scientific works all his lifer and thought that Swedenborg had a special perception; but he did not think that we ought to accept everything without discrimination. Those who opposed him acknowledged in a general way that there might be errors in the scientific works, but when particular errors were shown they would never admit them to be such.

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     There are many great truths in Swedenborg's scientific works, and if the speaker had set out to state them, his papers would have been very different; but this was done by others, and unless he had presented the other side it would not have been presented at all. He had written his two papers under a sense of duty; and, in deference to the Authority of the Writings, he was prepared at any moment to surrender the most dearly beloved theory.

     He referred to the Divine Providence No. 6, which says: "It is acknowledged by many that there is only one substance, which is also the first, from which are all things, and ... it is believed that it is so simple that there is nothing more so, and that it may be likened to a point which is of no dimension, and that from an infinite number of such the forms of dimensions have come into existence. But this is a fallacy, which originates from the idea of space." He said that it is, in his opinion, indisputable that this passage refers to the Principia theory of the creation by points. He could see clearly that this theory is there condemned, but his opponents could not see it, and "this is the whole difference between us." It is not a question of acknowledging the authority of the Writings, but of seeing what they mean.

     And this shows how inadequate mere verbal authority is; for while in this case we all equally acknowledge the authority of this passage, this does not prevent us from coming to an opposite conclusion in respect to the meaning of it. He, however, would not force his own interpretation of the passage upon others even if he could. Let everyone maintain his own mental freedom. Even the Lord Himself will not allow His Divine authority to be used to take away the intellectual freedom of men. It cannot any more be taken away. If God Himself were to write some declaration of truth across the heavens in letters of fire, only those would receive the message who were disposed to do so: for. without intentionally denying the Divine authority, there is always some way of getting round it.

     As to the words "de quibus agendum" they simply mean that the two subjects referred to in the passage will be treated of in what follows.

     Mr. Acton explained that he had never thought that Mr. Potts would reject the whole of the Principia, but he, - and, he supposed, others who held with him, - had endeavored to point out, that if Mr. Potts is right it would involve the rejection not only of the whole of the Principia but also of all Swedenborg's Scientific works. Referring to Mr. Potts' statement, that passages which did not agree with their position were explained away by the Academy people, he stated that it was not a matter of explaining away, but of seeing passages in the light of reason, of entering into their meaning and not being misled by the mere letter.

     Mr. Odhner thought that it was not a matter of acknowledging the authority of the Writings, but it was a matter of application.

     Mr. Doering, in concluding the subject, also thought that Mr. Potts did not mean that we do not acknowledge the Authority of the Writings, but that we differ, as was suggested by Mr. Odhner, in application.

     For the next meeting Mr. Reginald Brown was invited to read a paper substance, which is also the on the Doctrine of Unities. C. E. D.

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CHURCH NEWS 1900

CHURCH NEWS       Various       1900

THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.

     Huntingdon Valley, Pa. - On January 15th Prof. Odhner gave a lecture on the History of New Church Education, in which he reviewed the earliest efforts that have been made toward establishing distinctive New Church schools. Three different movements are recorded:

     1. The New Church "Free Schools," in Salford and Manchester, started as a missionary institution, providing for poor children free schooling on the condition of their receiving New Church indoctrination. These schools became so excellent from a secular point of view that the Government gave them support, and they became entirely secular in character. 2. The "Woodford School," established near London in the year 1827, by Mr. W. Malins, a devoted member of the Church. This was a regular New Church college, in which the Doctrines were taught and in which Rev. W. H. Smithson was instructor. As this enterprise launched out on too large a scale for its means it became necessary to open its doors to young people of the Old Church, for the sake of the tuition fee. New Church distinctiveness disappeared and the school was given up about the year 1830. 3. The movement in New England received its impulse from a Committee on Education of the General Convention, in a splendid report, delivered in 1836, favoring New Church education, and distinctive baptism. Schools were established in Boston and Abington, Mass., and in Portland, Me., in which New Church baptism was obligatory. Rev. E. A. Beaman was master of the Boston School. This movement was successful until "liberal" ideas entered, and distinctive baptism, dropped. The Boston School was closed in 1844.

     Interest in the subject of the lecture was increased by remarks from the Rev. J. T. Potts, who gave some personal reminiscences of the Manchester school.

     Mr. Odhner will continue the subject in a second lecture.

     THE social features of this month grouped somewhat about the visit of Mr. and Mrs. George Heath, to Bryn Athyn, as guests of Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Glenn, during the performances of Mr. Heath's company in Philadelphia. The visit was much enjoyed by the members of the local church, who, through the amiability of the visitors, enjoyed a taste of their histrionic and vocal gifts which was much appreciated.

     THE PRINCIPIA CLUB held its monthly meeting on January 22nd, and the paper of Mr. Reginald W. Brown, "Simple Substances, Simples and Points, and the Divisibility of Nature," was read and discussed.

     ON the evening of January 29th, Swedenborg's Birthday, the Principia Club entertained the members of the local church with a program of speeches, to the informal accompaniment of light refreshments.

     Bishop Pendleton, speaking to the subject of "Swedenborg, Servant of the Lord," noted that his theological works were published with no author given, until the work on Conjugial Love was reached, when he subscribed himself simply "Emanuel Swedenborg, a Swede." He avowed the authorship of the "Brief Exposition," and "Intercourse between the Soul and Body," also; but upon the last work, the "True Christian Religion." he wrote, "By Emanuel Swedenborg, Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ: and this, he testifies, was done not only with the Divine permission but by command. Without speculating upon the reason for this command, or upon its restriction to this particular work, Bishop Pendleton assumed it to indicate at once Swedenborg's own state of humility, and his greatness as a man.

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All are servants of the Lord, even the evil, but he was so in a sense different from any other, chosen out of millions and hundreds of millions, because he was eminently fitted for the use required. He was truly a great man: not as Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon were great. Philosophers, writers, and men in all departments of life who have done great things, have been called great; but this only faintly suggests what is called great in heaven, in which sense Swedenborg was great, and comparable with no other men whom the world calls great. He claimed only the title, Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ:" but this is a greater title than that of king or ruler. "He who is greatest among you let him be your minister." The celestial angels are the truly great, for they serve, and love nothing better, thus carrying out the spirit of the Divine Law of Love to all. The stupendous revelation of the Internal Sense of the Word could not have been effected but by a great man, a giant. "In heaven the greatest are servants more than others, because they are in the greatest obedience of humility." (A. C. 5164.)

     Space will not suffice in this number to more than give the titles of the speeches, which were carefully prepared, thoughtful and much appreciated. Mr. John Pitcairn, as Toast Master, introduced the speeches by reading, with remarks, an article from "Morning Light," - "The Greatness of Swedenborg's Mission." Rev. J. F. Potts spoke on - "Recognition of Swedenborg's Science and Philosophy," (a very much enjoyed paper); Mr. Acton on "A Rational View of the Relations between the Scientific and the Theological Works;" Mr. Price on "The Use of Swedenborg's Science in the Educational Work of the Church." Mr. Asplundh on "The Swedenborg Scientific Association;" Mr. Doering on "The Principia Club." and Mr. Odhner on the late Dr. Wilkinson.

     Philadelphia. - Swedenborg's Birthday was celebrated by the congregation of the General Church of the New Jerusalem in Philadelphia, worshiping in Glenn's Hall, No. 555 North 17th Street. Some toasts were offered, the first being "The New Church," after which "Our Glorious Church" was sung. The second was to "Swedenborg the Revelator," which was responded to by Rev. E. R. Cronlund. The third was to "Swedenborg the Scientist," which was responded to by Dr. Farrington. One of the pleasant features of the evening was the rendering of vocal selections by several of the ladies of the society. After the regular program was completed a few dances followed. The Society is making progress, and a lively interest for the cause of the Church is shown by the members.

     Pittsburg, Pa. - On Sunday, December 2qth, the usual services were held at the Church; and in the afternoon a special service for the children at which the Pastor made an address appropriate to the occasion, after which the children were each presented with an orange, the Pastor explaining the correspondence and calling attention to the wonderful perfection exhibited in the fruit. Those present then carried forward gifts for the Church school orphanage, after which the children there invited into an adjoining room to see a representation of the Angel appearing to the shepherds, announcing the birth of the Lord.

     On Christmas morning the Sacrament of the Holy Supper was administered, of which about forty partook.

     On the evening of Jan. 3d a supper was given at the Church, during the progress of which the Treasurer read his annual report, and very much to the gratification of those present it was found that the finances were in a fairly satisfactory condition; judging from promises received by him the next annual report will show even a more satisfactory condition of affairs than the present one.

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     Berlin, Can. - On Thursday, Dec. 28th, I left for Toronto and spent a few days at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Roy. On Sunday, the 31st, I preached for the Parkdale Society, while the Rev. E. S. Hyatt visited Berlin and administered the Holy Supper.

     The twenty-fifth anniversary of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Roschman was fittingly celebrated on New Year's Day. Mrs. Roschman entertained the Society at a supper given in the School room, an account of which will be furnished the Life by one who was present.

     The Friday Suppers and Classes were resumed on January 19th. Orchestra practice is held every

     Sunday at 3 o'clock, and the usefulness of it has been demonstrated on several social occasions and in worship every Sunday.

     The School was entertained at supper by Mr. and Mrs. Steen on January 16th.

     Swedenborg's Birthday was celebrated by the School and Society. A dinner was given to the School children at the School. This, together with some games, caused a few hours to pass rapidly and pleasantly, all the girls were attired in Swedish costume. The general effect of this, amply compensated for any possible inaccuracy of detail.

     The celebration by the Society was in the evening. A musical program occupied the first part of the evening. Refreshments then followed, with toasts and several speeches, which had especial reference to Swedenborg's mission. The evening concluded in the orthodox way.

     A dancing class has been started for the young folks. E. J. S.

     Parkdale. - On Sunday, December 31st, the Rev. E. J. Stebbing preached here, Pastor Hyatt having gone to Berlin. The following Sunday the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered, eighteen persons partaking.

LETTER FROM MR. BOWERS.

     ABOUT twenty years ago, soon after my work in the missionary field began, I made the acquaintance of a New-Churchman, at Bridgeport, Belmont county, Ohio, who was born and raised near Toronto, Canada. When a young man, about fifty years ago, he went down to Ohio and lived at or near St. Clairsville, Belmont county, which was then the home of a zealous and active New-Churchman, the Rev. John H. Williams. A public debate between Mr. Williams and a Presbyterian minister was arranged to take place at St. Clairsville. The Canadian referred to decided to go; and hear the debate, and "to see how the Presbyterian would 'wipe out' the Swedenborgian." The debate continued for several evenings. But as Mr. Williams was a fluent talker, and strong in argument from the standpoint of the true doctrine of the Word, the result was that "the Swedenborgian completely wiped out the Presbyterian." The young man was deeply impressed with the truths presented, which appeared in striking contrast to the falses of the old theology. He became thoroughly interested, and at once began to read and study the Doctrines. He was a man of strong convictions, and afterwards was an intelligent and a firm believer in the Writings, until he passed into the spiritual world, thirteen years ago.

     Nearly a year ago, at Cambridge. O., an aged gentleman of our faith gave me the address of a son of the New-Churchman above spoken of. The impression became fixed in my mind, that some day Should have the pleasure to meet him and make his acquaintance. This expectation was realized on January 8th, when a visit was paid to him at his home. He is a man in the prime of life. Has been out in the world, intensely occupied in business, and has had but little association with New- Churchmen. He had to contend against the sphere of agnosticism for several years. But the instruction received from his father in his youth prevailed: and he is now a most earnest believer in the Writings of the Church, reading them with increasing edification and delight.

     This newly found friend and his wife gave me a most cordial invitation to make them other visits in the future. JOHN E. BOWERS.

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THE LATE NICHOLAS K. WADE.

     FROM Santa Barbara, California, comes the news that on November 14th Mr. Nicholas K. Wade, once a not-infrequent contributor to New Church Life, passed from earth to the other world. Mr. Wade was a mathematician, a student of languages and a most scholarly New-Churchman. He was also one of the earliest and most enthusiastic members of the Academy of the New Church. He died at an advanced age, but his last years were burdened with sickness and infirmities.

THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     The Centennial Celebration in Baltimore.

     THE dedication of the first New Church temple in Baltimore, just a hundred years ago, was commemorated by a celebration in that city on January 5-7, 1900. As this temple was at the same time the first ever erected in America, and thus signalized the first external appearance of the New Church in this country, the original suggestion was that the occasion should be made thoroughly representative and national, inasmuch as all branches of the Church on this continent had their common cradle in Baltimore. It is to be regretted that this object was not fully carried out. There were present, however, representatives from Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington and other cities, and the occasion, we understand, was very enjoyable and useful. Addresses, historical and otherwise, were delivered by the Rev. Messrs. Hinkley, Sewall, Allbutt, Waelchli, Smith, Cabell, Reed, Seward, and others. A delightful social meeting was held on the evening of Saturday, January 6th, at which Mr. William McGeorge, of Philadelphia, spoke with great earnestness in favor of a more distinctive social life in the Church.

     At the close of the services on Sunday, January 7th, Mr. Walter E. Brickman, a son of the late Rev. Arthur O. Brickman, was ordained into the ministry of the New Church.

     North-Western Territories, The newly-formed German New-Church Society in Rosthern, Saskatchewan, has finished the construction of a chapel and begun New-Church services.

     Stockholm, Sweden. - Owing to the sudden death of Pastor Boyesen's daughter Laura, which took place on December 20th, in her twenty-fourth year, the pulpit was filled on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day by Rev. J. E. Rosenquist. On Christmas he administered the Holy Supper to about thirty-five communicants. Mr. Rosenquist also conducted Miss Boyesen's funeral, there being over sixty in attendance, who gave a favorable reception to the extempore address.
WRITINGS AS THE WORD 1900

WRITINGS AS THE WORD       W. F. P       1900


NEW CHURCH LIFE.
Vol. XX. MARCH, 1900.          No. 3.
     Among the causes of difficulty in seeing that the Writings are the Word for the New Church is the fact that there are passages which appear to teach what is directly opposite to this. But in admitting this we are admitting a fact that exists throughout the Writings, and is characteristic of all Divine Revelation, as well as of all the works of God in nature, namely, that paradoxes appear on every hand, and that in every subject there is extension of truth from opposite to opposite; no truth is presented against which something which appears contradictory may not be brought to bear, even in the very words of Revelation. In this is made manifest the operation of Providence in the formation of rationality and the preservation of liberty.

     Another difficulty arises from a lack of knowledge or realization of the fact that whenever a New Church is established the Lord appears and reveals Himself as the Word, and that without this the establishment of a New Church would be impossible. In the Most Ancient Church there was indeed no written Word I still the Lord was present with them as the Word or Divine Truth, and taught them by means of angels who appeared to them in vision. To the Ancient Church a written Word, which is called the ancient Word, was given, by means of which that Church was established in many nations of Asia and Africa; and indeed in some form it spread over the whole earth. The Israelitish Church was established by means of the Word of the Old Testament, or Israelitish Word, given through Moses and the Prophets. To the Christian Church, the Lord appears as the Word made flesh in the four Gospels and in the Apocalypse; from and by this new Word the Christian Church was established. The Christian Church also had the use of the Israelitish Word.

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And now in His Second Coming, the Lord again appears as the Word through the instrumentality of a man, in whose Writings is to be found the Word for the New Church, or wherein the Lord Himself is seen as the Word; and by those Writings, as the spiritual Word of God, He establishes His New Church which is the New Jerusalem. This New Church has also the use of the Christian Word, the Israelitish Word, and will in time have the use of the Ancient Word, since it has been preserved in Great Tartary.

     Although there are these various Words, - a new Word for every New Church, each Word being a Divine Accommodation to the genius of the men of the Church, - still the Word is in itself ever the same, for it is the same Omnipotent God and Lord Who thus reveals Himself. The Lord is one, and His Name one, even though the outward form is variously adapted to the needs of the human race in the different ages of the world. And as the Lord is ever one and the same, so is the Word or Divine Truth in heaven ever one and the same; but this Divine Truth or Angelic Word descends into the world in forms variously adapted to the needs and conditions of men. In the Ancient Church it clothed itself in correspondences and representatives, that is, covered and concealed itself by means of things from nature and in the sphere of nature, which represented and corresponded with itself.

     The same is true of the Israelitish Word, except that in its historical portions the veiling and concealing was more complete.

     In the Christian Church, the Angelic Word, or Divine Word in heaven, also descends and clothes itself; but it is not a complete veiling as before, for many parts are left bare, like the hands and the face; the Divine Truth in heaven appears in the form of interior natural truth, or the general precepts of moral and spiritual life.

     Again for the New Church the Word as it is in heaven descends into the world, but it no longer veils itself in figures, in representatives, in correspondences; it clothes itself in human language indeed, but in the language of science and philosophy, the language of the learned, the language of rational thought among men, but at the same time in language so chosen that it accommodates itself to the understanding of the simple. And in this descent, the Angelic Word lays itself bare, presents itself to be seen and heard by such men in the world as have eyes to see and ears to hear. This is the Angelic Word, the Divine Word, the Lord Himself appearing in great glory and power to establish a Church that is to endure forever.

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It is a new Word, in a new form, but it is at the same time the Word of all the ages, the Word as it is in heaven, that has always appeared to men, but appears now in its own heavenly splendor and glory, a form exciting wonder and astonishment where it is seen.

     In the consideration of this subject, it is necessary to see clearly that the Word is a spiritual thing; yea, it is Divine; it is the Lord. What is spiritual and Divine cannot appear on the plane of nature, or before the natural senses, except in and by those things which represent and correspond. The things which represent and correspond are in nature and of nature; they are not spiritual but they have what is spiritual in them. The spiritual in them is the Word itself, or the Word in itself. This spiritual is what is called the spiritual or internal sense, contained within the literal sense, within the correspondences, representatives, and significatives, of the Words of the Ancient, Jewish, and Christian Churches. Nor is the literal sense the Word, nor the correspondences, representatives, and significatives which compose it. These are no more the Word than the clothing is the man; when we call it the Word, we are speaking according to the appearance, since it is the appearance of the Word in ultimates; but those ultimates are not in and of themselves the Word; even as the Lord says, "The words which I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life." (John vi. 63)

     The Word which is spiritual is therefore veiled in the sense of the letter, and does not appear to the carnal or sensual mind. Man must be elevated above the sensual, above the idea and thought of time and space, in order to see the Word or Divine Truth such as it is in itself, or such as it is in heaven; for the spiritual or internal Word, which is the Word itself, is in heaven, and can be seen by man only in the light of heaven. And it may be well to remark here that those who hold that the Word is only in the letter, are perilously near believing that the letter is itself the Word, and that the internal sense, or Angelic Word, is not the Word itself; in other words, they are in imminent danger of an idolatry of the letter, rather than a love and worship of the spirit. "God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him, must worship Him in spirit and in truth." (John iv. 24)

     It is not contended that the Writings are the Word such as it is in heaven in its entirety or fulness. It seems necessary to say this, but it ought not to be necessary, and would not be but for the obscurities that have enshrouded this subject in the New Church.

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It seems necessary therefore to say, that the Word or Divine Truth in heaven cannot be completely expressed or written out in natural language; for "even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written." (John xxi. 25). But still the Word in heaven can be involved and interiorly contained In books that are written, and by means of the written books man may enter interiorly into the light of Divine 'Truth as it is in heaven; for the Word in heaven, which is the Lord in heaven, is interiorly in every form of Divine Revelation that has ever been given to the world. The difference between the Writings and previous revelations, is, that the Divine Truth in heaven is present immediately, and not mediately as before; that is, not mediately by correspondences and representatives, but immediately to the rational mind or understanding of man, without the veilings of the letter. The Word in heaven is therefore veiled or covered in the letter, but unveiled, laid open plainly to view, in the Writings.

     It is a spiritual law that what is from a thing is that thing itself, that thing in its operative manifestation, that thing accommodating itself to reception; and hence the teaching throughout, that what is from the Lord is the Lord, and therefore that what is from the Word is the Word which is the Lord, and that what is from heaven is heaven, wherein the Lord is the all in all. When it is said that what is from a thing is that thing, it is meant what is continuously and immediately from it, and not that which is contiguously and mediately from it; for if the latter were true, nature would be God, and the mere fallacies and appearances of the letter would be Divine Truth. It is under the former law, namely, that what is continuously from the Lord, is the Lord, that the Writings are the Lord, and so are the Word. And hence we read that the Writings are a revelation given immediately from the Lord, (H. H. 1), and not through the media of correspondences and representatives; and that the doctrinals of the New Church are truths continuous from the Lord. (T. C. R. 508)

     Still we have in the New Church this remarkable paradox, which has been actually asserted, that the Writings are a revelation from the Lord, but that they are not the Word; as if there could be a revelation from the Lord that is not His Word! If it is not the Word, it is not Divine Truth, and so is not from the Lord, but from some other source; for nothing proceeds from the Lord but that which is Divine, and this Divine is the Divine Truth, or the Word.

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The Divine Truth which is now revealed to men is the Word which in its beginning is with God, and is God, and which in its procedure is God manifest; at first God veiled in the flesh, but now God revealed in glory, which is the Lord in His Second Coming; a real or spiritual Coming, because of the fact, and by virtue of it, that it is a revelation of Divine and Spiritual truth from the Word in heaven to man in the world.

     The Word is that which is spoken, that which God speaks to man; and it can be said with truth, that the man who reads the Writings and does not realize when he reads, that it is God speaking to him, will not realize a spiritual elevation of thought, nor receive power from on high to do the works of repentance.

     The idea herein set forth does not do away with, nor destroy, the letter of the Word, nor its use in the Church, but fills it full, even as the Lord says, "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." But since the passages which appear to teach the opposite of this, should receive a fair and candid consideration, we hope to give this in another article, presenting numbers from the Writings, pro and con. W. F. P.
RECEIVE NOT THE WITNESS OF MAN 1900

RECEIVE NOT THE WITNESS OF MAN       Rev. HOMER SYNNESTVEDT       1900

     I am the Amen, the Faithful and True Witness. - Apocalypse iii. 14.

     IN OUR last discourse was presented the affirmative side of this doctrine, or how confirmation of Divine truths is granted to those who toward those truths, are affirmative from good - from innocence and humility; and as the affirmative side is indispensable to a right apprehension of the negative side let us recall a few of the points previously made.

     1. Confirmations are appearances in the plane of nature, which is the plane of the natural rational of man; - which confirmations are useful for strengthening Divine truths with man, but are quite inadequate to reveal them to him.

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Consequently confirmations do not effect anything apart from an influx of spiritual light into them from above or within; and this influx is possible only through an elevation of the understanding.

     2. Truths are seen not from confirmations but in or behind them, from the light of heaven.

     3. The witness of man avails not unto spiritual faith. The Lord alone, in His Human, can set the Divine forth. "I am the Amen, the faithful and true witness."

     Natural considerations, miracles, etc., however useful they may be as confirmations to an enlightened and affirmative mind, of themselves produce nothing but natural faith, which is persuasive, and, like the owl, blind in the sunlight of heaven. The same is true in regard to the detection of falsities. The rule laid down for us, when a proposition is presented, is thus stated in Divine Love and Wisdom, n. 267, "Set aside the confirmations, come back and view the proposition itself from thy rationality, and thou shalt see its falsity in its enormity."

     This is said in connection with those who from their great ingenuity can prove anything, howsoever false, by what appears before the senses.

     In Divine Providence, n. 168, we are shown that a truly rational man has some perception whether a proposition is true or not, before he confirms it. Hence he sees things from both sides, even on the natural plane; while a merely natural man, lacking this touchstone - the Divine Witness - can see but one side of the matter, and that the side which he wants to see. Hence such are wont to be more blatant, appearing often more sure and insistent than others, and this is why persuasive faith is so bigoted.

     All this is calculated to put us well upon our guard, lest we endeavor to subject the things of Divine revelation to our natural rationality as the final test. This rationality is a lower court, where external applications of the Law are to be tried, while the Supreme Court, which overrules all others, is the Court of the Lord within us, - the region of the Spiritual Rationality, which every man has in potency and which he can appeal to if he will.

     This is premised here because it is realized that sensual appearances are opposite to their spiritual realities, as are the images of trees mirrored in the water; and hence the natural man naturally inclines to doubt spiritual truth; and therefore we must be guarded when we tell men to doubt.

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It is like everything else the natural man is prone to, - it is not necessary to urge him to it, it is important rather to point out the limitations beyond which he should not allow himself to go.

     But having said thus much it becomes necessary to present clearly the other side; for there can be no court and no judgment whatever, without a weighing of two sides, and a submitting of cases to the test of the law.

     The court does not pass upon the laws which are justice, but upon their application to the case presented. Neither is it allowable for us to question the truths of Divine Order, but to judge whatever is presented, whether it be such a truth or not. What comes down from above is above all; but what is taught by men may or may not have the truth within it; and there is but One who can say "Amen" to it - "The Faithful and True Witness" - He who comes to man as the Word, both in its letter and in its Divinely-given spirit.

     The things which men teach must be shown to be in that which the Lord has revealed, or they are not to be appropriated. As we are taught: "Unless...confirmed from the Word the truth of doctrine appears as if only the intelligence of man were in it." (S. S. 54.) Even stronger is the following. The angels say, 'How can you believe a thing, when you do not see whether it is true or not? And should any one affirm that what he advances must nevertheless be believed, they reply, 'Do you think yourself a god, that I am to believe you? Or that I am mad, that I should believe an assertion in which I do not see any truth? If I must believe it, cause me to see it.'" (Faith., 4.)

     So much is said in the Writings of the danger of doubt as leading to denial, and we are so constantly warned against the negative attitude, that we might easily become alarmed and cease to reject, or doubt and deny anything. But it is evident this negate wrong; for our spiritual health depends upon rejecting some things at every stage. What the Writings condemn, is, admitting any negative doubts concerning that which comes to us from the Lord, or from the Word. Such doubts come only from the hells, who can manufacture more doubts in a moment than we could struggle through in weeks.

     But of the other kind of doubts we are told that they are even insinuated by the permission of the Lord; that indeed no rationality can be exercised without them.

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In Arcana Coelestia n. 7298 it is written: "It is according to the laws of order that no one ought to be so persuaded about truth in a moment, that is, be so confirmed, that there is no doubting left; because truth so impressed becomes persuasive truth, and is devoid of extension, and is also devoid of what is yielding; it is hard. Hence it is that as soon as any truth is presented by manifest experience before good spirits there is immediately afterward presented something of the opposite, which causes doubtfulness. Thus it is given them to think and consider whether it is so, and to collect reasons, and so bring that truth rationally into their minds. From this the spiritual sight has extension as to that truth, even to opposites: hence it sees and perceives in understanding every quality of the truth, and hence can admit influx from heaven, according to the states of the thing; for truths receive various forms according to circumstances." This is why doubtfulness was excited in the Sons of Israel as to whether the miracles of Aaron with his rod were Divine, by the magicians doing likewise.

     Viewed in another aspect this subject presents itself as the practical question, when to entertain a doubt and when to lock the door upon it. Most doubts should be resolutely shut out altogether. Hell is very prolific of them, and the natural man is ever prone to them, - especially such as may carry enough plausibility to seriously weaken our faith or our good purposes. Nevertheless some doubts are angel messengers, who come at first unawares, to prepare us and warn us of a coming judgment.

     The thoughts and affections which come to us are to the spirit what the food is to the body. We first scrutinize it with the eye, perhaps even ask to hear whence it comes; then touch it; then smell it; then test it with the lips, the teeth, the tongue, the palate, - all these before we swallow it; and then the real, searching judgment begins. But what if we were to consider it our bounden duty, - lest some good thing should escape us, - to swallow everything presented, in order to submit it to the final analysis at once! This would indeed be disastrous. And so it is with the food of our spirit. Some things we would fain reject at once - knowing their source - without scrutiny. Some we reject at sight. Some offend our sense of smell; some are rejected at the lips; some the teeth warn us cannot be sufficiently broken up; some the tongue and palate condemn. All these are cherubic guards, servants of the soul, to protect us from wasting the "vital juices" and energies of the mind upon useless matter.

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If properly exercised they will save us from indigestion, or even poisoning.

     Now every one of these tests is a "doubting." You will see at once that there are degrees of doubt, and that the Lord, who presides as Judge within the soul similarly as the soul presides over the senses of the body, has means of guarding us not only before we appropriate what appears to us, but also must searchingly after we have swallowed, - i. e. when we have entered upon the effort to apply those appearances to life.

     The state of doubt is an intermediate one, a state properly of rumination, corresponding to the function of the stomach with all its servants, or to the world of spirits in the Gorand Man. If something good or wholesome is introduced into the memory of a good man, he weighs it, examines it, and since he has a good appetite, or desire for it, he is able to assimilate it rejecting from it only what is unsuitable The attitude of the whole digestive tract, in general, and in the judgments effected in particular, by liver, pancreas, kidneys, etc., - is affirmative; searching for good, eager to find it, sparing no trouble to preserve it and draw it out from among impure things.

     This illustrates that is stated in the Writings, that with the sound man the dubitative or intermediate state tends toward the affirmative, while with the evil it tends toward the negative. The latter, it will be seen at once, is not a state of health, it will produce torpidity, indigestion, and inadequate nutrition. The whole success of the ruminating mind in finding spiritual nutrition and appropriating it, will depend upon its appetite for good; which in turn is dependent upon a healthy state of the exercise of its faculties in proper uses. Anxiety, distrust of Providence, and fear and distrust of others, affect the Spiritual digestion just as they do the physical; indeed the latter diseases have their origin in the former.

     There are certain truths which are the axioms of all spiritual thought and intelligence. They are above the realm of doubt, and above the necessity of proof, though confirmations group around them everywhere. Such truths are these: God is; He is Good itself and Truth itself; Man is immortal; Good ought to be done to others, etc.

     The recognition of such truths springs from the universal influx into the souls of men, and they are established by the itself evidencing reason of love." (Canons: Prologue.)

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If a man begins to argue against these, - as, that it is not expedient to exercise charity, - you say at once that he is speaking from evil; you admit no doubt. It is vain to try to submit what is Divine to the test of one's own rationality. "What cometh from above is above all." The Lord witnesseth of Himself and the Father witnesseth. If ye believe not these, then "believe for the very works' sake." If the doctrine of love itself and truth itself does not appeal to you, what you need is not argument, but the shunning of evils, to clear your mind and create an ability to taste and see how sweet Divine Good is. To question such axiomatic truths is as if in this world one would say that he doubts the existence of the sun, of the earth, or any other visible object. As Swedenborg once said to certain spirits, an experience which is constant and certain is not to be doubted.

     The Word, therefore, or whatever comes from above, is what we are shown it is folly to doubt. The true affirmative is toward the Word; but the legitimate subjects of doubt, are all things that are or may be from man. Any man may be mistaken; even the angels may be; and it is fitting and necessary for us at all times to have direct access to the Lord Himself, and to ask Him whether what is presented by others is from Him or not. In olden times He answered by visions and signs and oracles, and this only occasionally. But now He answers directly to the rational mind, out of the Word, which is His constant presence with us. Let us ever go to Him, and if our desire in consulting His sacred pages, be good, He will answer with heavenly light in our understanding - our Urim and Thummim. But if we are actuated only by the pride of self-intelligence, - are afraid of being taught or led thro' others, or are in the sphere of the actual delight of some evil, - we shall see nothing but darkness. There are none so blind as those who will not see.

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JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. II. 1900

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. II.              1900

     DR. WILKINSON was now fairly launched upon his professional career. Having received the Doctrines of the New Church, and having entered upon the distinguishing use of his life, his young manhood was crowned and his many blessings completed by his union with the partner of his life, Emma A. Marsh, who, from her wedding in 1840 to her death in 1886, remained not only his loving companion but also an intelligent sympathizer in his faith and work. She was herself a woman of literary tastes and ability, and has enriched the literature of the Church by her translation of Baron Frederic de Portal's scholarly and fascinating work, Des Couleurs Symboliques. She also, in the course of time, presented to her husband four original and living volumes, - one son and three daughters.

     The life of Dr. Wilkinson is henceforth very much like that of any other profound student and diligent writer - the quiet life of the study. No thrilling adventures nor world-stirring deeds have been recorded, and but few external incidents afford a frame to the picture of his intellectual career. Our sketch must therefore be confined, almost exclusively, to the simple account of his literary labors.

     In 1839 he entered, as stated, on the translation of Swedenborg's scientific works, at the same time seizing every opportunity for preparing the public and creating a receptive audience for what was to come. For this purpose he utilized the various literary magazines, - where his contributions were always welcomed, - and thus, incidentally, did excellent service for the Church. One of his articles on the works of Swedenborg was published in the London True Sun, of 1839, and was immediately reproduced in the Corsair of New York. Another, on "Coleridge's Comments on Swedenborg," was published in the London Monthly Magazine, in 1840, and attracted wide attention in the literary world. It gained him the friendship of that brilliant but erratic philosopher, Henry James, Sr., who to a considerable extent "patronized" Swedenborg. The interesting correspondence between these two literati led to the publication of Henry James' celebrated work, Christianity the Logic of Creation.

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     More important than these is the account of "Swedenborg and the Swedenborgians," which Dr. Wilkinson, in 1842, contributed to the Penny Encyclopaedia, an immensely popular work, edited by George Lang and published by the "Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowledge." While Swedenborg and the New Church had long before this figured in encyclopaedic works yet this was the first time that the subject had been presented in an unprejudiced manner and by one who was at all acquainted with it; moreover, the article was distinctly original as the first attempt ever made to give a rational analysis of Swedenborg's scientific works and philosophical principles. The Penny Encyclaedia, with its circulation of twenty-five thousand copies, thus became a powerful medium for the wide "diffusion" of correct and hence "useful knowledge" concerning the most remarkable phenomenon in the history of the Christian Church. It is a pity that all subsequent encyclopaedias have not availed themselves of this material in their accounts of Swedenborg, thereby forestalling much false testimony and ludicrous nonsense. This article was hailed with enthusiasm by the members of the New Church throughout the world. It was re-published as a telling tract, both in England and in America. M. Le Boys des Guays translated it into French, and Professor Immanuel Tafel, of Tubingen, published it in German, in true Teutonic style, with copious notes and voluminous additional documents.

     Dr. Wilkinson about this time began a long-continued series of "Letters" to the New Jerusalem Magazine, of Boston, describing the condition and progress of the New Church in England, and especially the doings of the Swedenborg Society. This body had now secured those manuscripts of Swedenborg which, at various times between 1788 and 1790, had been carried to England by Augustus Nordenskjold and Charles B. Wadstrom, in the hope of finding a publisher in London. Disappointed in this, these Swedish gentlemen, before setting out on their fatal African explorations, had deposited the precious manuscripts, (among which was the Diarium Spirituale) with Mr. Benedict Chastanier, who in his old age and distress pawned them to two or three other persons. Finally, in 1841, a watchful Providence gave them into the safekeeping of the Swedenborg Society.

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Dr. Wilkinson, as librarian, now began to investigate their history, and before long discovered that they had been borrowed, originally, from the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, and that this body there fore, was the rightful owner. A long correspondence ensued between Dr. Wilkinson and Baron Berzelius, the immortal "father of modern chemistry," who at this time acted as secretary to the "Swedish Parnassus." The Academy's ownership of the Manuscripts was cheerfully acknowledged by the Swedenborg Society and permission was secured to have them copied and published by Prof. Tafel before their final return to Stockholm. The Swedish government in recognition of the sincerity and courtesy of the Swedenborg Society, and of the services of Dr. Wilkinson in this affair, directed Count Bjornstjerna, the ambassador to the Count of St. James to wait upon the doctor in order to convey the thanks of the Academy of Sciences. The distinguished visitor was received on October 21, 1843.

     In the same year, Dr. Wilkinson, with the financial assistance of Rev. Augustus Clissold and some other friends, published the first volume of his translation of The Animal Kingdom, considered Anatomically, Physically and Philosophically; by Emanuel Swedenborg. The translator, in his extended and highly valuable "introductory remarks," prepares the reader for intelligent appreciation of the work itself, by a summary presentation of those general philosophical doctrines which Swedenborg had developed in his preceding works, the Principia and the Economy of the Animal Kingdom, that is, his unique and universal doctrines of Forms, of Order and Degrees, of Series and Society of Influx, Correspondence Representation and Modification.

     The second volume of this monumental work, - which we will not attempt to describe in this brief sketch, - was published in the year 1844, and is enriched by the translator's index to the whole work, together with a biographical and bibliographical index of all the anatomical authors quoted by Swedenborg. An American re-print of the work was published at St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1850, and a second edition was printed at Cincinnati in 1858. Since that time, this the most mature and valuable of Swedenborg's scientific works, has remained "out of the market" and procurable only from second-hand booksellers!

     The appearance of the Animal Kingdom created quite a sensation in the learned world, as may be evident, for instance, from the following extract from the review in the London Forceps for November, 1844:

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     "This is the most remarkable theory of the human body that has ever fallen into our hands; and by Emanuel Swedenborg, too! - a man whom we had always been taught to regard as either, a fool, a madman, or an impostor, or perhaps an undefinable compound of all three. Wonders, it seems, never will cease, and therefore it were better henceforth to look out for them, and accept them whenever they present themselves, and make them into ordinary things in that way For thereby we may be saved: from making wonderful asses of ourselves and our craft, for enlightened posterity to laugh at."

     Not less enthusiastic was the reviewer in The Monthly Review: "If the mode of reasoning and explanation adopted by Swedenborg be once understood, the anatomist and physiologist will acquire more information, and obtain a more comprehensive view of the human body and its relation to a higher sphere, than from any single book ever published; nay, we may add, than from all the books which have ever been written (especially in modern times), on physiology, or as it has been lately named, transcendental anatomy."

     Encouraged by the rather unexpected interest with which this publication had been greeted, both within and without the New Church, (the entire edition of the first volume was exhausted before the second volume had appeared), - Dr. Wilkinson and his fellow-laborers and sympathizers now organized the "Swedenborg Association," for the distinct purpose of furthering the translation, publication, and distribution of Swedenborg's scientific and philosophical works. This body was rendered necessary from the fact that the "Swedenborg Society," instituted in 1810, was at this time prevented, both constitutionally and financially, from publishing any but Swedenborg's theological Writings.

     The new "Association" was organized at London, on January 16, 1845, with the Rev. Augustus Clissold as president, and Dr. Wilkinson as secretary. Among the other members we may mention Dr. Spurgin, Dr. Strutt, Dr. Allen, Dr. Stocker, Elihu Rich, Henry Bateman, Henry Butler, R. N. Wornum, William Newberry, Rev. T. C. Shaw and L. S. Coxe, - names prominent in the history of the New Church.

     The "Swedenborg Association" created a great deal of interest among the more learned and intellectual of the members of the New Church, especially in the United States, where branch-associations were established.

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Considering its paucity in membership and financial resources, its activity and devotion are truly remarkable. Under its auspices were published nearly all of the scientific works of Swedenborg that have appeared during the Nineteenth Century, and yet its career extended only over a period of seven years. In all, twelve different works were published eight of these were translations into English and four were Latin editions from the original manuscripts. Dr Wilkinson himself translated four of the works, and was the editor of all the publications, with the exception of two volumes edited by Prof. Tafel.

     The aims of the Association were not limited to the publication of these works, but members looked forward to the development of a general system of true scientific principles, upon which might be based a genuine New Church Education. The need of such principles is well expressed by Dr. Wilkinson in a letter to America, dated February 3, 1845:

     "If we are ever to have New Church Schools, for children and adults, (and who would not he a scholar throughout his life?), these works must be the present fountain, from which teachers and taught alike shall draw their principles. The present scientifics may be likened to vast heaps of stones, which the learned, wonderful to say, digest after a fashion. The idea they have of feeding the public, - of "diffusing useful knowledge - is no other than reducing these stones to powder, and strewing them around in small quantities, and at a cheap rate. But such materials have an affinity for the bones only, and can only nourish the bones, and the consequence is that the scientific world is more like a great overgrown skeleton, than a human body. Now what we want to do is to feed upon the order of ultimates, and not upon the earthly substance, to eat mentally the resulting animal and vegetable kingdoms, which are the reason for the mineral kingdom, in order that our blood and softer solids may come into existence, and hold the reins and wield the destinies of the natural body, civil, political and social. But by what other system are we introduced to organic ideas of creation? by what other system are we led to feed upon its prevailing order, than by the views vouchsafed to Swedenborg?" (New Jerusalem Magazine, April, 1845.)

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     Dr. Wilkinson himself makes a first brave attempt toward an original application of Swedenborg's universal doctrine of Use, in the brief but brilliant essay on The Grouping of Animals, which he read before the Veterinary Medical Association, of London, in 1845. In his re-arrangement of zoological classification he here makes man the centre of creation and groups all animal creation around him, not according to mere external similarity of form or anatomical structure, but according to the degree of excellence of the uses which the various animals perform to man. Hence instead of the ape, the horse is placed next to man, and then the other domestic animals; after which follow the wild beasts, all according to the degrees and series of their uses to man. A bold attempt this, but one which will be honored by the New Church zoologists of the distant future!

     The first-fruit of the Swedenborg Association was the two noble volumes on the Economy of the Animal Kingdom, (London, 1845 and 1846), translated by Rev. Augustus Clissold, and edited and indexed by Dr. Wilkinson, who also furnished a small volume of masterly "Introductory Remarks." These, together with his "Introductory Remarks to the Animal Kingdom," remain to this day the most thorough Analysis of Swedenborg's philosophical principles that has ever been attempted; in lucidity, of thought and beauty of expression, they are probably the very best that have flowed from Dr. Wilkinson's pen. They should, by all means, he republished and circulated widely throughout the New Church, as the best possible means of rekindling the interest in these works of Swedenborg's.

     The year 1846 witnessed the publication of Swedenborg's Principia, or the first principles of natural things, being new attempts toward a philosophical Explanation of the Elementary World, a work which is the foundation stone as well as the portal to the entire structure of Swedenborg's scientific system. It was translated by Rev. Augustus Clissold and edited by Dr. Wilkinson, who in the same year brought forth the Opuscula quaedam Argumenti Philosophici, a collection of brief scientific, philosophical and semi-theological treatises by Swedenborg. They were translated and published in English, by Dr. Wilkinson, in 1847, under the collective title of Posthumous Tracts, and treat of such subjects as "a way to the knowledge of the Soul," "faith and good works," "the red blood," "the animal spirits," "sensation," "action," etc.

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     The culmination of Dr. Wilkinson's activity as the translator and editor of Swedenborg's scientific works, was reached in the year 1847, when his industrious pen produced -

     1. A Latin edition of Swedenborg's Introduction to a Rational Psychology, treating of the fibre, the arachnoid tunic, and the diseases of the fibres, and published by the editor as Occonomia Regni Animalis. Transactio Tertia. This has not yet appeared in English, with the exception of the part on the "Diseases of the Fibres," which was published in New Church Life for 1897, '98.

     2. The Posthumous Tracts, noted above.

     3. A new translation of the work on The Infinite and the final cause of Creation. To this edition Dr. Wilkinson furnished, also, a valuable preface, controverting the transcendental philosophers in his usual bright and convincing manner. The work was reviewed at length in The Harbinger, of New York, and thus attracted the notice of Ralph Waldo Emerson, who now opened a friendly correspondence with Dr. Wilkinson.

     4. A new translation of Swedenborg's Hieroglyphic Key to natural and spiritual mysteries by way of Representations and Correspondences.

     Besides these, Dr. Wilkinson in the same year appeared with two original productions in the form of popular essays on the principles for which he labored so zealously. The first of these is entitled A Popular Sketch of Swedenborg's Philosophical Works, an eloquent and comprehensive dissertation, which brings the apparently abstruse and difficult philosophy of Swedenborg within the easy grasp of the average reader. In the second essay Science for All, the writer applies the general scientific principles and philosophical doctrines of Swedenborg to the subject of Science as a whole, and shows that by these principles alone can there be effected any genuine reconciliation between Religion and Science, while at the same time by them alone can all the various sciences be harmonized, unified, and rendered truly comprehensible and adapted to all kinds and conditions of men.

     These essays were published both at London and New York, as Nos. 2 and 3 of a series of "Tracts for the New Times."

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The appearance of Dr. Wilkinson in this series led to a rupture between him and his friends in the organized New Church in America, as it seemed to them to countenance and endorse the first of these "Tracts," Letters to a Swedenborgian, by Henry James, in which this atrabilious writer attacks the New Church with excessive rancor and violence. The New Jerusalem Magazine took the Doctor to task for thus associating with an open enemy. The accused considered this an infringement on his liberty and personal friendships, and broke off his relations with the American journal.

     Dr. Wilkinson now entered on an extensive foreign journey; in company with his friend, Lord Wallscourt. He was in Paris during the revolution of 1848, witnessed the bloody combats on the barricades and was kept in the city for some months, virtually a prisoner. He afterwards visited Sweden, Norway, and Iceland, and finally the United States, for the institutions of which he conceived a rather passionate dislike, though he always remained exceedingly fond of Americans.
               (To be Continued.)
THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION. III. 1900

THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION. III.       HOMER SYNNESTVEDT       1900

GOING DOWN INTO EGYPT.

     IT is the prevalent idea in the Church, that "Going down into Egypt" and "sojourning" there, refers to sending the young to the schools of the world during the Period when they are to be instructed in worldly and other scientifics, and this without discrimination. The Divine command to the children of Israel to "spoil the Egyptians" is interpreted to mean an indiscriminate appropriation of whatever exists on that plane, - that is, without other discrimination than that which the "Egyptians" themselves exercise. Both of these interpretations are most seriously and dangerously fallacious, in so far as they omit discriminating that which, from a New Church point of view, will be useful to the future man of the Church, from that which will be only a stumbling-block.

     There is Egypt the New, and Egypt the Old; there are scientifics which accord and those which discord with truth, - those which are serviceable to a Newchurchman, and those which are not, and cannot be.

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(See Arcana Coelestia, n. 1568.) The latter are cursed, but the former are blessed.

     "Egypt," therefore, is used in the Word in two opposite senses - one evil, the other good. It is only to the latter Egypt that the man of the Church is to be sent during his childhood, - never to the former. Yet it seems to be supposed in the Church that the former is included, - that the Lord actually commands the Church, in order to prepare them for their life in the world, to send its young into the sphere where evil and falsity reign. But let them beware of a Pharaoh who "knoweth not Joseph," and of making their sons and daughters bondmen in Egypt!

     The Lord commanded the children of Israel to borrow of the Egyptians - not everything they had, but "vessels of gold, and vessels of silver, and raiment," - genuine goods, and genuine truths of the natural, and their appearances; for these alone could be serviceable afterward in building a sanctuary unto the worship of the living God.

     The modern scientific world (of which the schools are the nurseries), is after all - like Egypt of old - only the storehouse of the world's hoardings of scientifics,--its facts, as they are fond of calling them, or the phenomena of this world and of its inhabitants. But the use, or good of all these things, and their relation to the world of causes and ends, they do not know. Only those who seek this wisdom from the Lord, out of His opened Word, can rightly use this vast store, or separate the genuine from the spurious.

     "Egypt" must herself be made new. Not until she have been converted, and a highway established between her and "Assyria (the Rational) with "Israel" (the Spiritual) as the third or dominating influence in the midst, - will "Egypt" be a fit place to which to send our children for their education. When a Newchurch child is to "go down into Egypt" in his first or unformed scientific age, he should be in the care of a "Joseph" and a "Mary" - he should be in the sphere of what is spiritual-celestial, and under the care of the New Church, so that the Lord may be able to call him out thence at the proper time.

     PREPARATION FOR THE WORLD.

     Children must indeed be prepared to live in the world and to share in its uses; and this involves, not only technical preparation, but the ability to meet and overcome its evils.

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How shall this best be done? By sending them right into it' Some claim that this is the only way. Here we may learn a lesson from the method employed in the other world, as described on a certain occasion, by Swedenborg, where boys were taken in the world of spirits, and there shown, - while in the sphere and under the instruction of their angel educators, - a certain gruesome representation of the dead state of thought prevailing in the world. (A. R. 611.) This is an instance which well illustrates the true principle; for how can children better learn to know the world, to refuse its evils and to choose its goods, than from and through their elders, who are able to discriminate? The world is wide, and very complex. There is much in it that is beautiful and good; but with men at this day, evil predominates, and what makes the danger in meeting it, is that the young incline more strongly toward its evils than toward its goods. To our perverted hereditary, evil seems more attractive at first than good, and the young need an older head to show them the difference between the sham and the real. In infancy, the home should be the world; in childhood, the school; and in youth, if they love it, the sphere of the Church will go with them, like angel tutors, while at the same time, under the protecting sphere of some definite and active use, they are gaining their introduction to the outside world, from the safe side. This is far better than to send them unguarded and unprepared among the mixed multitudes of good and evil (mostly the latter) which the undiscriminating, call "the world." It is far better to know about evil than to know evil. Here is a case where too much knowledge is possible. The best protection is from knowing about evil, as do the angels, and yet being innocent of any knowledge of it from having tasted it or been in it. Newchurchmen do not take kindly to the inoculation method of preventing disease. The best preparation to meet the world and overcome its evils, is not, therefore, to be steeped in them beforehand. For children there is enough of "the world" met with for purposes of instruction, even when they are kept within the Church, as to school and social life, for we have it always with us, and around us. But "the world" as it is among us, is in some measure tempered with the general acknowledgment of those heavenly principles which are destined to make the earth a footstool of the Lord.

     The Lord makes both a New Heaven and a New Earth, and as He lends us His protection through the journey of life in this world, showing us its evils, and guarding us from its snares, so should we keep the young under our protection, until they also are thus prepared to go forth and take care of themselves, which is in truth to be taken care of by Him.

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     Therefore let us diligently instruct our households in His law, and write it upon our doorposts, and bind it for a memorial between our eyes and upon our hands, lest the Lord say of us, as he said to the faithless daughter of Jerusalem: "My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me. Seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children." (Hos. iv. 6.)
HOMER SYNNESTVEDT
"IN THE BEGINNING." - Concluded 1900

"IN THE BEGINNING." - Concluded       GEORGE E. HOLMAN       1900

     WE are bound then to question the interpretations of geology; and is it not very possible that geologists may up till now have been blinded by appearances in the same manner as astronomers were prior to the introduction of the Copernican system? It was a natural mistake for the early geologists to make when they assumed that the equivalent deposits of two separate countries were contemporaneous; and this mistake has been perpetrated mainly because no special reason has hitherto been brought forward for opposing it Hugh Miller, anxious to show that the three great geological periods were synonymous with the three last days of creation (the first three being astronomical periods), sets down this error in the dearest and strongest terms. He wishes to prove that the carboniferous plant life was the main feature of the Palaeozoic period, and says that in the carboniferous era, "from where Melville Island now spreads out its icy wastes under the star of the pole to where the arid plains of Australia lay beneath the bright Cross of the South, a rank and luxuriant herbage cumbered every foot-breadth of the dark and steaming soil, and even to distant planets our earth must have shone through the enveloping cloud with a green and delicate ray." This view is entirely fallacious, for, though it is a fact that a carboniferous flora flourished in many parts of the earth, it does not at all follow that it was ever a universal flora at one time.

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We might just as well agree with those who saw in the fact that marine fossils are found all over the dry land, proof of a universal deluge. Probably nearly every part of what is now dry land has been under the sea, but one part at one time, another at another time; and the carboniferous flora has flourished at one time in one country, at another time in another country.

     Hugh Miller's view was severely criticised by Mr. Herbert Spencer in a paper on "Illogical Geology," which appeared in 1849 and is now published in the first volume of his collected essays. On any scientific question the opinion of Herbert Spencer demands respectful consideration, and his paper on "Illogical Geology" is especially interesting as it fully admits the possibility of as great a degree of non-contemporaneity of equivalent formations as is demanded by the view taken in this article. He shows that if a portion of the southern Pacific were to be gradually elevated so as to form an island, geological deposits would be gradually formed containing embedded organisms arranged in a very similar series to the geological formations of Britain, and that this result might be brought about entirely by the colonization of the island by emigrants from the nearest continent, thus assuming that the lowest geological deposits of the island might exist contemporaneously with the highest types of life on the mainland.

     Huxley, in 1862, expressed a similar opinion, and most modern text books of geology are careful to point out that there is no means of knowing whether the equivalent deposits of any two separate regions where contemporaneous or not; but having pointed this out, they nevertheless always proceed on the assumption that similar deposits are practically contemporaneous. Geikie's Text Book makes mention of the question, but his Class Book of Geology entirely ignores the point. Popular books on geology especially are sinners in this respect, and certainly convey the idea of the universality of each geological "period." To speak of, say, the carboniferous "period," is strictly correct when dealing with any particular locality, but used apart from and specified locality, is entirely misleading.

     It is not, however, to be wondered at that geologists should tacitly assume the practical contemporaneity of equivalent formations; for if the contrary be assumed, they have no solid ground on which to base any theories of distribution in the past.

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The whole study of systematic geology must be dropped, unless re course he had to a system of geology which has yet to be formulated by the application of the principles revealed in the Writings of the New Church. The radical fault of the Ptolemeian system of Astronomy was that it was based solely on appearances. The sister science of Geology lies at present under the same defect. Copernicus pointed out the true centre of the solar system, and the New Church alone call point out the true centre from which all geological phenomena must be traced. In the beginning there was a restricted area or nucleus of life on the earth, a paradisiacal region inhabited by creatures of the highest type from this central nucleus outwards the earth's surface was tenanted by lower and yet lower grades of vegetable and animal life.

     Readers of New Church. Life may remember that this is the same conclusion as that arrived at by the study of the geological distribution of evil animals (see articles in the numbers for September, October and December, 1898). It is a rather remarkable instance of the consistency of the Writings throughout, that these incidental expressions regarding "the beginning," when applied to a science of which Swedenborg appears to have been quite ignorant, lead us to the same conclusion as does the application to the same science of the general principles involved in the teaching concerning good and evil animals.

     And here I would emphasize the importance of the consideration of this subject by all those actively engaged in spreading the truths of the new revelation. With the ever increasing popularization of science, questions on this subject will inevitably be asked by every new recipient of the doctrines. He has read descriptions of the hideous pterodactyl and plesiosaurus of the secondary rocks and, learning from geology that they existed before man, he wants to know the cause of their existence when he is taught that evil animals were not created in the beginning, but arose together with hell. The difficulty is sometimes evaded by stating that they arose by influx through evil spirits of other earths. This is contrary to the teachings in Arcana Coelestia n. 9967, 9968, that the spirits of every earth appear about their own earth; and it is contrary to the whole philosophy of creation as given in the Writings.

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"In the beginning" the world was as a womb, in which all things conspired to the production of the most perfect of all forms, the human. Such a result could not have been achieved by the insemination of poison during the process.

     Evil forms are found in nearly all the principal geological formations of Europe and North America, but it is evident that in the geographical nucleus of the world no such forms would be found below the tertiary period of that region, - that is, the period when the higher vegetables and animals with man first put in an appearance. Indeed, may we not assume that in that region there would be no pre-tertiary formations whatever? It is evident that we cannot accept the modern hypothesis of slow development by transmutation of species; and the only intelligible theory before us is that outlined in the first chapter of the Worship and Love of God. In accepting the general principles of that theory, it is not going beyond the bounds of legitimate speculation to assume that the first dry land was also the main scene of creation. There, all things were created in their order up to man, the lower forms preparing matrices for the higher. We can understand how, in the vegetable kingdom, lowly plants may have prepared the soil for the higher fruit trees, but it is difficult to see any reason why, when the ground was ready for the reception of the highest types, it should be dipped beneath the sea and the whole of the preparatory work destroyed. And yet, unless a subsidence of this first dry land below the sea and a subsequent upheaval intervened between the creation of the lower types of life and the creation of the highest forms, no pre-tertiary geological deposits could occur in the formation of that country. It may possibly be that marine formations, such as limestones (the work of coralline and foraminiferal earth-builders) were necessary before the first emergence of dry land, but if Swedenborg's theory of creation be true, it would certainly seem that in the nuclear region of the earth we ought not to see any trace of a pre-tertiary terrestrial fauna and flora.

     For this reason I assume that although Palestine was inhabited by the Most Ancient people it could not have been the scene of the creation of man; for in the Nuhian Sandstone, which rises from under the Chalk of Palestine, impressions of terrestrial vegetation have been found. The Most Ancient people who lived in Palestine must, therefore, have migrated thither from the real nucleus of creation.

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This nucleus was probably near the equator and may have been part of the traditionary continent of Lemuria, now sunk beneath the Indian Ocean. From there the first peoples may have spread over vast areas which, with the exception of a small remnant of which Palestine is part, are now covered by the sea.

     In our endeavor to locate this nucleus, the only direct statement we find in the Writings bearing on the matter is that with reference to the land of Canaan, i. e., that it was inhabited by the Most Ancient people, and I therefore assume that there must probably have been land connection between that country and the nuclear region.

     But we have also in the Writings these important general statements to guide us, viz., that "All things in nature, from the least to the greatest, are correspondencies, because the natural world and all that it contains exists and subsists from the spiritual world." "Universal nature is a theatre representative of the Lord's kingdom."

     If all things are correspondencies, geological phenomena are correspondencies. But in applying spiritual principles to the elucidation of geological phenomena, great caution is necessary. We must not expect that when a spiritual change takes place it will necessarily be obviously represented in the natural world. We read that in the spiritual world "The earths there, like all other things in that world, are from a spiritual origin, therefore changes occur according to the state of the church among the inhabitants; and when the state of the church is perverted, they quake and tremble, nay, sink down and are moved out of their places." (A. R. 331.) It might be thought that, on the principle of correspondence, the Last Judgment ought to have been evidenced by great geological changes in nature. But this is not so. The natural world is a plane discretely lower than the scene of the last judgment, and, moreover, the last judgment was only a preparatory work for a new state which at present is only in its beginnings. It will be many ages before it effects any great change in the natural world, for the material world is ruled by the sum of the activities of the spiritual world. We may take an illustration from the human form. The substance of the brain answers promptly to the activities of the mind, and in the eyes, the lips and the muscles of the face every passing phase of thought and affection is reflected.

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But in the inert substance of the skull changes of form are effected only by a continuance of brain activity in special directions throughout long periods. So, too, in the material earth (the outermost inert covering of its mind, the spiritual world) there will only be recorded the aggregate of spiritual activities which have persisted through long periods.

     The present physical features of the earth, then, have a meaning for us if we can only interpret them. Look at the apparently capricious arrangement of the land and water of the globe. Taking London as one pole and its antipodes as another pole and tracing an equatorial line between the two, we may divide the whole of the earth's surface into two hemispheres, the one of which (the more northerly) contains nearly all the dry land, while the other is nearly all water. But was this always so? May it not be that in the beginning the southern hemisphere contained the greater part of the dry land and the northern hemisphere was largely open ocean? It is the opinion of Darwin that: - "The great oceans are still mainly areas of subsidence, the great archipelagos still areas of oscillation of level, and the continents areas of elevation. But we have no reason to assume that things have thus remained from the beginning of the world. Our continents seem to have been formed by preponderance, during many oscillations of level, of the force of elevation; but may not the areas of preponderant movement have changed in the lapse of ages?" (Origin of Species, Chapter 10.)

     Bearing in mind the great truth that "Universal nature is a theatre representative of the Lord's kingdom," and applying the teaching that "Earth-motion denotes a change of the state of the church" (A. C. 3355), We may ask what has been that radical change in the human race represented by the great and prolonged earth-motion described by Darwin' The answer is obvious. From the Most Ancient times there has been a continuous retro cession of the race away from the celestial kingdom to the lowest of the spiritual. The whole race now belongs to the spiritual kingdom. So far are we removed from the celestial that we can hardly form any idea of the genius of the Most Ancient people. Correlating the southern (now) oceanic hemisphere with the celestial, and the northerly land hemisphere with the spiritual, we may say, paraphrasing the language of Darwin, that from a very remote period in the history of the human mind there has been, during many oscillations of level, a preponderant movement resulting in the subsidence of the celestial and the elevation of the spiritual.

     An important corollary to this conclusion is that the greater part of the geological history of the northern hemisphere is representative of the fall of the Most Ancient Church and the uprising of the Spiritual Church, and. that with the fall of the Spiritual Church, either nature has become less plastic, or the human spiritual forces at work have, from some cause, been comparatively impotent, for they are represented by geological phenomena on a small scale compared with the gigantic phenomena of the past.

     The great antiquity of the human race involved in this view, compared with which all written history is as the history of one day in the lifetime of a nation, probably conflicts with the notions of many as to the length of time Covered by the first few chapters of Genesis. But is not this due to traditional errors of interpretation? In accepting new teachings, we unconsciously read into them as much as we possibly can of our old beliefs. Revelation is silent on questions of time, except that the fall of the Celestial race was a very slow process.

     The earth is and always has been a theatre representative of the Lord's kingdom of humanity. Man is old indeed, but his memory goes back a very little way; yet, by the light of the New Revelation he may study his past history - a history spanning an unknown but enormous lapse of time - in the great stone book of nature, a symbolical record written in once-living hieroglyphics.      GEORGE E. HOLMAN.

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SWEDENBORG'S SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY 1900

SWEDENBORG'S SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY       J. F. POTTS       1900

THE RECOGNITION OF SWEDENBORG'S SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY*

* A response by the Rev. J. P. Potts, to a toast on the subject given, at the Principia Club's celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday, January 29th, 1900.

     The Science and Philosophy of Swedenborg are partly his own, and partly not his own. It may be quite proper to call Swedenborg's own that science and philosophy which are contained and delivered in his scientific and philosophical works; but it can by no means be proper to call Swedenborg's own that science and philosophy which are contained and delivered in the Writings of the New Church. Yet these two sciences and philosophies are in a great measure identical, and the one of them cannot possibly be recognized, or accepted, apart from the other. It is in fact impossible to draw any line of demarcation between them. There are indeed parts of Swedenborg's own science and philosophy which are not to be found in the Writings, and there are parts of the science and philosophy of the Writings which are not to be found in the scientific and philosophical works of Swedenborg; but still it remains true that a great part of the science and philosophy of the Writings and of the scientific and philosophical works of Swedenborg, is identical. As, therefore, it is utterly impossible to separate the science and philosophy of Swedenborg as contained in his scientific and philosophical works from the Divine science and philosophy of the Writings themselves, is asking you to honor the present toast or aspiration, I ask you to honor the science and philosophy of Swedenborg as being - in so far as it is identical with the science and philosophy of the Writings - both human and Divine.

     And this is truly an amazing thing. That Swedenborg, in the preparation of his scientific and philosophical works, was endowed with an extraordinary power of mental perception, and that by means of that perception he was enabled to make many new and great discoveries, even before the opening of his spiritual sight, is very evident to all who are acquainted with those works.

     Swedenborg has himself said (in his Second Letter to Oetinger) that he was "introduced by the Lord first into natural knowledges, and was thus prepared, and this from the year 1710 to the year 1744."

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BY "natural knowledges" I understand him to mean truths about nature and natural things - the truths of natural science and natural philosophy. By means of this introduction, he says he was prepared to understand the correspondence that exists between spiritual and natural things.

     "The reason why, from being a philosopher. I have been chosen," he says, in the same connection, "has been, that the spiritual things which are now being revealed may be taught and understood naturally and rationally; for spiritual truths have a correspondence with natural truths, because in these they terminate, and upon these they rest....For this reason I was introduced by the Lord first into natural knowledges, and thus prepared." (Docu. 232) And this preparation went on, as he here says, from 1710 to 1744, thus for 34 years. 1710, Swedenborg was 22 years old, so that it is evident that the work of his preparation by means of natural knowledges occupied the whole of his manhood up to the time of the opening of his spiritual sight. He was twenty-two years old when it commenced, and fifty-six when it was completed.

     It does not appear, however, that Swedenborg began to write any scientific works when he was twenty-two. For according to Dr. Rudolf Tafel's "Chronological Account" it was not until the year 1716 - that is, when Swedenborg was twenty-eight-that he began to write articles on such subjects for the Daedalus Hyperboreus; his first paper being on the subject of "a hoisting machine for ore," which he had invented.

     Thus practically - in the most practical way possible - was his work of introduction into natural knowledges commenced by the Lord. It was among machinery that this work of his preparation commenced. The natural knowledges he thus acquired were the most basic and ultimate of all - those connected with mining, which is itself the lowest down and most basic of all human employments and operations.

     This paper on a new hoisting machine for ore was followed by many others on similar practical subjects. One was on "a new and easy method of making air-pumps." Another contained, "A project for a machine with wings and sails, by which one may attempt to fly in the air." There were other papers on "the manufacture of salt:" on "the resistance offered by snow and water to projectiles;" on "a new method of finding the longitude;" in almost every paper which Swedenborg wrote for this during the two years of its life, was on a practical subject.

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This shows what was the nature of his studies at that time, and very basic and ultimate were the natural knowledges into the Lord at that time introduced him.

     And so must it ever b, with a true New Church education Swedenborg in this respect was a model for all who will follow him in the way of spiritual and Divine knowledge To well they must begin with natural knowledges Machinery, geology, natural history, chemistry, astronomy - these are the schools in which we must begin our studies, if we wish ever rise to the greatest heights of spiritual and divine science and philosophy. In "recognizing" Swedenborg's science and philosophy, let us not lose sight of the tremendous lessons it teaches.

     For the sake of clearness I make no reference, in these brief remarks, to the very earliest published writings of Swedenborg, which, it is well known, were of a more purely literary character, and neither will it be necessary for me to enter any further on this occasion into any consideration of the further development of his strictly scientific and philosophical labors. What I have said will be sufficient to emphasize the high estimation in which we hold, and in which we desire others to hold, these great preparatory works and studies of the distinguished servant of the Lord whose birth into the natural world we are met together to celebrate.     J. F. POTTS.
FIVE MEMORABILIA 1900

FIVE MEMORABILIA              1900

IV. THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD AND THE COMING OF THE LORD IN THE CLOUD

     16. While walking they first turned their faces to the East, where they saw the sun shining. in its strength, and when they were under its direct rays, the novitiates asked the angels about that sun, whether it was the sun which they had seen in the former world, "for," said they, "it is in the same height and of the same size; it glows red also and burns from fire in a similar manner, and furthermore heat and light proceed from it in a similar manner; and if it be the same sun are we not in nature?

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Whence is nature except from its own sun?"

     But the angels said, "This Sun is not the sun of the natural world, but the Sun of the spiritual world. From this Sun is our universe; from its light and heat angels live and spirits live; from its light both they and we have understanding, and wisdom, from its heat both they and we have will and love.

     "The essence of this Sun is pure love, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who is the God of heaven and earth, and is one with God the Father, is in the midst of it.

     17. "The Divine love proximately proceeding from Him, and encompassing Him, appears as a Sun; wherefore by the light and heat thence proceeding, He has omnipresence, Omniscience and Omnipotence, from end to end of both worlds. But the sun from which nature came into existence is pure fire; in the light and heat of which there is nothing of wisdom and love, therefore nothing of life, but still it serves life, that is, wisdom and love, for a swathing and garment, in order that the forms of those lives, namely, wisdom and love, may endure, and that they may have as it were times and spaces; but yet they do not have times and spaces; but love and wisdom only affect those who are in times and spaces, which takes place according to reception, and reception is according to the affection of being wise, and according to a life conformable to wisdom."

     When the novitiates heard these things, they exulted with joy, and said, "We perceive that our hearts leap with joy as never before."

     "You have this," replied the angels, "from the celestial and spiritual love and its delight which proceed from our Sun."

     18. When these things had been said, on a sudden there drove across the sun a shining white cloud, which did not dull, but transmitted the light; and in that shining white cloud appeared angels as with trumpets, and round about them were altars and tables, upon which in heaps lay half-open books; and above the cloud appeared the Lord, speaking out of the Sun with the angels. Then from the cloud fell as it were dew, which, being scattered about, was condensed into manna, some of which the angels took and gave to their companions, who ate it.

     After a quarter of an hour, there was seen from the cloud a shower, which the angels called the morning rain, which flowed down, and dissolved the manna into its original dew.

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This was collected into drops of a sweet taste. The manna was soon fully melted and flowed into the ground and penetrated it; and then from the dwellers under that ground were heard voices of gladness:-

     "Hey! Come forth! Be ready! Drops of the blessed water are falling from heaven! We are sprinkled! - For it was the melted manna which was dropping down.

     19. After this the angels instructed the new guests about what they had heard and seen: -

     "The things," said they, "which you have seen, exhibit in a summary the Coming of the Lord, and the things which will then happen. God, Who appeared out of the Sun above the cloud, was the Lord our Saviour. The white cloud under Him was the angelic heaven, where the Divine truth was in its own light. The speech of the Lord with the angels there, was inspiration. The trumpets seen in the hands and at the mouths of the angels, were not trumpets, but representations of their speech with one another from inspiration. The dew falling from the cloud upon the earth, and condensing into manna, represented the heavenly affections of the thoughts in their speech. The rain dissolving the manna - that heavenly food - into its original dew, which, absorbed by the earth, distilled through to the dwellers beneath, represented the influx of Divine Truth from the Word with the men of the world who go forth and receive it in spirit and heart. The tables and the heaps of books upon them, were not tables nor books, but they were representations of the intentions of the mind, and thence of deeds, according to which the faithful and the unfaithful will be judged. That shining white cloud, in which the angels were seen, represented the Divine truths of the Lord with them: for the sphere of thoughts from truths, and of affections from goods, proceeding from the angels, appears everywhere as clouds."

     20. At this the new spirits inquired, "Why do you say that those things that were seen, represent, and do not say that they are?"

     "Because," answered the angels, "each and all things which appear to the sight in this world are correspondences and representations, which contain in themselves truths, and thence signify them. Thus spiritual things are here presented under forms similar to natural things.

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     "The spiritual things which are proper to our world, as they here appear, are also described in the Word. For the Word was written by correspondences, in order that it may be at one and the same time for angels and for men. These things are first offered to your sight, and are seen, that you may know how the Coming of the Lord is to be understood."

     V. THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION.

     21. After this the angels prayed to the Lord. They then led the novitiates from the East to the south, and thence to the west, and they said, "Here you shall see the abomination of desolation predicted by the Lord through Daniel, Matthew xxiv, 15."

     They then pointed out a black cloud, stretched out from the boundary of the East to the end of the west, and pouring darkness into the south and into the north at the sides.

     At sight of the cloud the novitiates were terrified, and they asked, "What is that great black cloud and the darkness and whence is it?"

     "Those," answered the angels, "are Satanic spirits, who have collected themselves into crowds, and by magical arts, by abuses of correspondences, and by phantasies, have formed for themselves heavens, so to speak, by seizing the hills, and building upon them high places and towers, - as was done in the valley of the land of Shinar (Genesis xi, 1 et seq.) - in order that they may contrive for themselves ascents into the heavens where the angels are, for the purpose of thrusting them down; and because they are on high above this land they appear as though they were in the expanse of the sky, and the expanse appears as a cloud."

     The angels continued, "Lift up your eyes and stretch your sight." And behold they saw a multitude of spirits, and they heard outrageous expressions from them, intermixed with the filthy things of lasciviousness, and sounds as of drunken revelers in brothels.

     "These," said the angels, "are they who are meant by the Dragon and his two beasts in the twelfth and thirteenth chapters of the Apocalypse; these are they who are meant by the harlot sitting upon many waters, and upon the scarlet beast, in the seventeenth chapter. They are all from the Christian world.

     22. "And how," asked the novitiates, "can these things be called the abomination of desolation?"

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     The angels replied, "They are all in falses as to faith, and in evils as to life. The interiors of their minds are infernal, and the exteriors from feigned morality, are, as it were, heavenly; for they are sycophants and hypocrites, and because they are in the midst between the heavens where the angels are, and the earths where men are, no Divine truth can pass through from the Lord b) the heavens to the men of the earth, but that it is first received by them, and being received is inverted and falsified, not otherwise than is the case with light falling upon an opaque cloud, and the heat of the sun falling into a swamp."

     23. Then suddenly the eyes of the novitiates were opened, and they saw flowing down from that cloud, hail mixed with fire, and they saw upon the earth as a result of that rain something sticky, and in that sticky substance worms. And farther towards the North they saw descending from the cloud, as it were, bruchi* and locusts, which consumed the grass of the earth. And eagles appeared flying out of a desert, and also birds of the evening, which devoured the worms and licked up that sticky substance as though it were water.
*Bruchi is said by philologists to signify wingless locusts. Tr.

     Amazed by these things, the novitiates besought the angels to tell what they signified. "The abomination of desolation upon the earth," said the angels. "The hail signifies falsified truths; the fire mingled with it, evils of life; the sticky substance upon the earth, coherence; the worms, life from those things; the bruchi and locusts, the falses of faith; the birds of evening signify men of the earth who eat no other food flowing down from the spiritual world; and the eagles signify ratiocinations and confirmations.

     24. "Know therefore, that by the former heaven and the former earth which John saw to have passed away. (Apoc. xxi, I.) nothing else is meant but those black expanses where the Draconians and Babylonian have fixed their dwelling-places and called them heavens. So long as those expanses remain, the communication of men with the angelic heavens, thus also in a measure with the Lord, is intercepted; and when that communication is intercepted, then every truth and good of the Word is falsified and adulterated.

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     "Thus appears the abomination of desolation with us; but with the dwellers of the earth it does not appear by any signs, wherefore they induce a belief in falses, and by confirmations from the natural man they encircle that belief with a fatuous light, from which falses are believed to be truths."
     TRANSLATED BY PROF. ENOCH S. PRICE.
ADORATION 1900

ADORATION       EVELYN E. PLUMMER       1900

Cleanse Thou my sinful heart, O Lord,
Set free the soul before Thee;
That I may worship at Thy feet.
And in the dust adore Thee.

Thou art alone the life and light
And strength of all the living;
The will and power to seek Thy Face
Are of Thy gracious giving.

Unnumbered blessings from Thy band
The lowly are receiving.
Thou waitest but to give Thine own
To all who ask, believing.

O Thou Most High, the heavens above,
Make strong my weak endeavor
To learn Thy law, to love Thy will,
And worship Thee forever.
EVELYN E. PLUMMER.

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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 1900

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT       Editor       1900

Editorial Department.

     UNDER the heading "More Pages Wanted," a correspondent invites discussion on a subject which we commend to the consideration of our readers.

     THE publishers of New Church Life hope to have ready, before long, a complete index for the nineteen years during which this journal was issued in newspaper form. Those who have not yet bound their numbers for 1899 would do well to wait a little, so as to include this index.

     THE advertisement for New Church Portraits, to be reproduced in Annals for the New Church, already has met with a gratifying response. A list of the subjects not yet supplied is presented again this month in our advertising pages, to which the attention of readers is invited.

     FOR the guidance of contributors we wish to say that articles for publication, when of any considerable size, should be in the editor's hands not later than the middle of the month preceding that of publication. Shorter communications, if received by the 20th, will ordinarily be given space in the current number. News items, in order to secure publication in the current number, should be sent in not later than the 25th of the month.

     To us the gravest aspect of "Human Vivisection" is not the inhumanity of its most active perpetrators, but rather the state of the community in which such practices can thrive. Physicians are a class peculiarly representative of the community's morality and culture, owing to the requirements, the opportunities and the personal relations involved in their ministrations. Yet the great bodies of physicians, who know or might know from their journals, the main facts of this practice, show an apathy and inaction which is the more exasperating in that they are so very sensitive to the lightest hand laid on the benevolent designs of animal vivisection. We think there is here much food for reflection.

     UNDER the heading: "Wanted: - A School for the Teaching of Religious Doctrines," the New Church Messenger for January 31st editorially emphasizes the importance of systematic religious teaching of the young in the New Church; and says that the two crying needs in this matter - which the Sunday-school fails to supply - are, - more time given, and better teachers. The field of the Sunday-school is recognized, but not as able to meet all the requirements, especially as for the most part they are conducted, by teachers not paid and very often not competent.

     "But we need more than a revision of our Sunday-school.

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We want immediately a college, or institution for the teaching of the doctrines of the New Church systematically and, comprehensively."

     To this we cordially agree; but we must call attention to the fact, ignored in the last quoted sentences, that one such college is already established, with a history of over twenty years, and a record of scores of pupils carefully imbued with New Church doctrine.

METHODISM SURRENDERING TOO?

     THE New York Daily Tribune, of February 18th, editorially chronicles another step in the vastation of the Old Church, by noting the inroads of the higher criticism upon the hitherto resistant stronghold of Methodism. No less a citadel of Methodism is involved than Boston University, from which a short time ago a number of students withdrew after an unsuccessful protest against the Biblical teaching of Professor Hinckley G. Mitchell, of that institution. It seems that persons sympathizing with the protesting students are taking the matter up, and that an organized movement is on foot to oust not only Professor Mitchell but his supporter President Warren himself, and other sympathizing members of the faculty. Moreover, the annual conferences of Des Moines and Oklahoma have condemned the Biblical teaching of the university's School of Theology. But it is stated that the authorities of the university are substantially in sympathy with the accused professors, and, it is believed, most of the Bishops of the church likewise.

     Says the Tribune:

     "These Protestants against the right of private judgment [?], so greatly prized by Methodism, declare that the so-called higher criticism of the Bible, as taught in Boston University, must inevitably chill the faith of Methodists, paralyze the zeal of the Church and reduce its creed to the low human conception of Unitarianism. They say:

     "The teachings of Professor Mitchell involve all these divergences from Scriptural truth and Methodist doctrine, either by direct assertion or denial, or a carefully insinuated scepticism that accomplishes practically the same result. One of the gravest features of the whole situation is the extent to which Professor Mitchell's views have already permeated the Church. With his growing experience he is more and more gaining control over the students coming under his instruction, and swinging the school to his position. If he is permitted to remain he may succeed in realizing his boast 'to revolutionize the theology of the Methodist Church.'"

     The Tribune refers to the Professor's defense of his teaching with evident sympathy, saying that he simply places facts before the students and asks them from those facts to draw their own conclusions. For instance, he suggests to them two ways of explaining Christ's apparent endorsal of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch; one view being that He knew that Moses did not write it but that He conformed to the current phraseology, and refrained from correcting it; the other, that He did not know the facts. The professor makes no secret of his taking the latter view, saying that he does "not believe that Jesus in His humiliation was omniscient."

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The professor also affirms that belief in the deity of Christ is not essential to salvation-which, applied to men of Christian lands, is a terrible falsity.

     Waiving the open question as to how far the disintegrating process has as yet undermined Methodistic faith in the Word, we would call attention to the fact that in Professor Mitchell's reply, - where he claims not to have forced his views upon the students, - he ignores the point which is made by his accusers, and which at least partly forestalls him, - namely, that of his "carefully insinuated scepticism." Any sensible man will agree that a teacher who holds definite views on any subject of dispute, can hardly teach upon that subject without coloring it, although he can if he be so disposed, so cover up his tracks by a show of impartial candor and impartiality as to make successful impeachment almost impossible. New-churchmen know from doctrine, that the assault upon the literal integrity of the Word is inspired by spirits who are in themselves sensual, irreligious and crafty beyond belief, and these qualities those spirits insinuate into their work and scheming as carried out on earth. How consummate is their craft may appear from their choice of instrumentalities, namely, the very champions and exponents of theology and of professed religion. Knowing this should forearm us against the plausibilities and the natural good of the whole school of modern criticism.      THE EDITOR.
Monthly Review 1900

Monthly Review              1900

     Bulletin of the Western New-Church Union. A newsy little monthly, designed "to further the missionary interests of the New Church in the west, to give instruction in its principles and to promote a fraternal intercourse among its members." (It is the source of the greater part of out Illinois news.)

     From the Missionary. An account of how two non-members of the New Church, but interested in the teachings, assisted in making it feasible for the missionary to hold services and to spread the doctrines.

     The editorial notes bear on the necessity for self-sacrifice as taught by the Lord, as the only way to spiritual life; and on the Lord's presence in the Church by and in His Doctrine. which is the "living bread," - there is no other. Peter said, "Lord to whom should we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life." (January number.)

     Morning Light. No. I of Volume xxiii (Jan. 6); contains an editorial retrospect of the New Church in England for the year past. Also inaugurates the department, "Our Junior Members' Corner."

     Dr. Wilkinson's Lust Book. (Jan. 13.) Rev. James Hyde's review of Isis and Osiris in the Book of Respirations, - dips informingly into the status of Egyptological knowledge, and volunteers to supply some preparatory ideas which the author (too-confidently) seems to have assumed the reader to possess.

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Osiris is the supreme God; Isis his wife, the Church; and his appearing on earth to save mankind and becoming thereby a sacrifice to evil, of course plainly foreshadows the Lord's incarnation and redemption.

     The Greatness of Swedenborg's Mission. (Jan. 20.) A forceful and unostentatiously thrilling treatment of a great subject.

     "Not Wanted." (Jan. 27.) By Miss A. D. Hook; read at a Meeting of the Women's League of Nov. 17. An unflinching statement of reasons for the non-reception of the Doctrines, and for the slow growth of the new Church: i. e., they are "not wanted."

     "He that hath no Sword let him sell his Garment and Buy one." (Jan. 27.) A lecture by the Rev. R. R. Rodgers, arraigning the Beers and upholding the English Government and the War. Purely political, and admitted to the columns of Morning Light, - the editor says, - "merely as an item of news, remarkable in many respects."

     New-Church Messenger. God and Nature: An. Estimate of Prof. John Fiske's "Through Nature to God." By the Rev. S. C. Eby. (Jan. 24) Quite a sympathetic review. It shows that Prof. Fiske in the face of materialism, had some sense of the faculty of perceiving and being affected by truth, distinct from and as occupying a higher plane than evidence obtained through the senses, - that "that other influence, that inward conviction, the craving for a final cause, the theistic assumption, - is itself one of the master facts of the universe, and as much entitled to respect as any fact in physical nature can possibly be." In fact Mr. Eby says of the author: "His books are redolent of sincerity in the desire for a knowledge of truth."

     Nevertheless, Mr. Eby shows that we need not suppose that for his belief in super-sensuous verities Professor Fiske is "indebted to science or the evolutionary theory as the source of his faith." Mr. Fiske's pronouncements for the higher life "are true, but they are not science."

     The New Humanism. A review by the Editor, of Edward Howard Griggs' work with the foregoing title. Quotations are given in support of the statement that "We have not come in touch with any thinker lately that gives such a sane and spiritually hopeful conception of the outcome of our immediate religious social and economic problems." Mr. Griggs says: "The mainspring of the intellectual life is the need to organize into a rational universe the countless impressions which enter the spirit through all the doors and avenues of relation between it and the world. As the universe [man] builds in his soul is never an exact and adequate copy of the universe, so his system of philosophy is never the absolute truth of things. It is necessary and right that he should build it, for it is a basis upon which he may live, a form in which the spirit may grow for a time. But every experience must change the aspect of the whole, as every step up a mountain widens the horizon in all directions; and therefore if his system is not to crystallize, and become a limitation instead of an aid, it must be kept fluid. and must change with his growth."

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     This seems to agree with true doctrine. Man's formulations of truth for today will not meet the need of tomorrow. Only the Writings can give us a permanent "Faith of the New Church."

     ...The Meaning of the word Death as Applied to Angels. Rev. E. J. E. Schreck; with reference to the statement in A. C. 2077, that "for the sake of saving a soul from hell [the celestial angels] make no account of death." "Death" here, is shown to mean, deprivation of delights.

     Mr. and Mrs. Schlatter as Divine Healers. (Jan. 31.) Rev. W. L. Gladish here gives what seems to us an unduly sympathetic account of these personages, based on a personal visit, - speaking of them as sincere, earnest workers, doing their healing as a means of bringing men to the Lord.

     Religious Ferment. (Feb. 7.) A keen editorial diagnosis of the modern irreligion which Governor Rollins, of New Hampshire, recently painted in such strong colors before the Boston Ministers' Union.

     The Religious Policy of Harvard. (Feb. 7.) Here the Literary Correspondent (presumably), answers President Eliot's enunciation, that no Church can be an educator that teaches with authority, because "authority is not stimulating to independent thought or the practice of self-government," - "It does not follow that an education with no religious standards is the highest ideal."

     A Christian Daily Newspaper. (Feb. 14.) An editorial comment on the projected undertaking of a daily newspaper to publish the paper for one week under the control of the author of "In His Steps," to show what a Christian daily newspaper should be. The Messenger sees in it nothing but a money-making scheme. Nevertheless, as the "editor for a week" will doubtless be sincere and zealous, the project ought to furnish a lesson of some sort.

     THE Messenger seems to use from time to time two very different kinds of spectacles through which it scans the world; one rosy tinted and most often used, but the other decidedly blue in tint, so that if we were to speak of our contemporary's utterances at such times from its own tone at the other times, we might have to fall back on expressions such as "pessimistic," "cynical," etc. And though we do not uphold pessimism which is really such, it is at these times that we most often find what the Messenger says striking a responsive chord, because based on Doctrine, on observation and on common sense. Such an impression does the number of February 14th make upon us. First we have the editorial -

     "Are the Leaders Blind?" - which discusses a new feature of the New York Herald, in securing and reporting for its Sunday edition a meeting of six "leaders of thought," held to converse upon the subject of, - "The Modern Man: his Religion and his God." The six "leaders," it seems, included Dr. Slicer, a Unitarian; Dr. Eaten, a Universalist, and Dr. Porter, a Congregationalist (Assistant Pastor of Plymouth Church). Rabbi Schulman, another rabbi and an agnostic (not named).

     From the Messenger's extracts we glean these statements concerning the Lord.

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To the agnostic's question. What do you menu by an Infinite Being, Dr. Eaton replies:

     "I mean by a being something that has existence."

     The Agnostic - "Do you mean force?"

     Dr. Eaton - "I think I mean much more than force. I think it is the mind of God in operation."

     Dr. Eaton - "Well, that can be answered only in the most general way. I would say that God is the Cause of all things. In the beginning was God. I have no figure of God. I have no figure to give you at all, because I do not think of God as a gigantic man."

     [Well does the Messenger ask: "Are the leaders blind that they can not without all this circumlocution tell the people who God is?" - and we would add that even with it they have not told. Empty they send the questioner away. Empty must their weekly congregations go away lies and lectures, - empty of any food for the spirit].

     Concerning the Person of Christ Dr. Eaton has this to say: - "I may be wrong but I look upon Jesus as a special manifestation to the religious world just as Shakespeare was a special manifestation in the dramatic world[!] I have the same allegiance for Jesus that the Jew has for Moses." [This is addressed to Rabbi Schulman.]

     A rabbi - "We have no reverence for Moses in that sense."

     Dr. Eaton - "Dr. Slicer does not believe that." [Note the evasion.]

     The Agnostic - "He arose and eventually went to heaven. Now, what is Jesus now? Is He a man?"

     Dr. Eaton - "He always was a man, and is still a man."

     The Agnostic - "Well, where is He?"

     Dr. Eaton - "I do not know. Somewhere in God's universe I presume."

     The Agnostic - "Christ died, Christ lived again and Christ ascended?"

     Dr. Eaton - "Well, that is the story."

     The Agnostic - "Well, was the story according to the fact?!"

     Dr. Slicer - "You are mixed in your mind. You have testimony to the effect that He died, was buried and arose from the dead. I believe that He lived, and died in the same way that any human being would die, and that what happened to Him could happen to any human being."

     The Agnostic - "You are Jew and you are a Christian. How do you differ?"

     Dr. Eaton - "There is not much difference between a Jew and a Christian."

     [Well may the Messenger interject, - 'What other answer could a man make who 'presumes' that Christ the Man is 'somewhere in God's universe?"]

     Rev. Mr. Porter to Rabbi Schulman - "You answer first, as you date the furthest back."

     Rabbi Schulman - "It can be put in a few words. Assuming that Christianity turns around Jesus as a central personality, leaving everything else aside, the difference is simply this:

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- That the attitude of the Jewish mind is not hero worship. No man has ever embodied divinity for us, and the point of emphasis is not the man, but He whose instrument any man is."

     Mr. Porter - "We believe that God is revealed to us more clearly through Jesus Christ than through any other source the human mind has yet reached [!], and we look to Him as the embodiment of exemplification of the Spirit and will of God. Now the Jew thinks He finds Him sufficiently outside of Jesus Christ. We think we find Him more clearly through Jesus than outside."

     Whereupon the Messenger dismisses these half-hearted leaders of the blind as follows: -

     "Since when have the Lord's followers had to speak in this timid fashion about Him? 'Think!' Have we ceased to know, as the apostle knew when he said, 'We believe and are sure that Thou art the Christ the Son of the living God?' Does not such a conversation as we have called attention to emphasize the need, the absolute need, of positive spiritual truth to counteract the effects of such uncertain and unspiritual opinions of prominent clergymen and thinkers?'"

     The need is rather for the affection of truth; the will to obey truth in shunning pride and lust, it is for man to see that need met.

     [Text is missing from the printed version of the Life.] questions"); by Rev. John A. Hayes. Exposes the fallacy of any man's

     Dr. Brigg's "Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scripture." The Higher Criticism and Divine Revelation. (Feb. 14.) Here the Rev. S. C. Eby presents a clear statement of the issues between the higher critics and the old theology, on the one hand, and between both these and the New Church on the other. Of the two former - "all their differences and exploitations and innovations are entirely on the same plane of literalism and naturalism....In other words neither the higher nor the lower critics seem to have the first glimmer of satisfactory insight respecting the essence of the Word of God." Despite the claims for the higher criticism, that it rescues from the depths of "dry rubbish" (the accretions of the centuries) the "central contents" of the Word, - its revealed truth, - Mr. Eby says that "the higher criticism at best means only that an embarrassed Church in its defense of the Word has taken refuge in a somewhat more elevated kopje, from which we expect presently to see it shelled." The difficulties which some find in the aforesaid accretions, Dr. Eby dismisses thus: "The Word owes nothing of its divinity or truth to heaven, the Church, or holy men. So far from its dependence upon the taste of the faithful or the devotion of scholars, it is written so as to be acceptable to the least spiritual and most virulent and pharisaical states of an abandoned ecclesiasticism, as in the case of the Jewish dispensation. No correspondence, no spiritual sense, no heavenly-mindedness, no angelic influence, no growth of the Christ idea, no Church evolution could make a syllable in the Word of God. The Word was in the beginning with God and was God; the Word is forever established in heaven, for the Lord's truth makes heaven, and the angels are regenerated forms of truth in conjunction with God."

     From Our English Brethren. - A letter from the Special Correspondent of the Messenger (Rev. Joseph Deans). Refers to the war-fever as unfavorable to Church work; says that Newchurchmen in England, generally speaking, regard the war as a defensive one.

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Mentions a patriotic demonstration at Birmingham, January 19th.

     Especial notice, but of very general character, is made of mission work and providing for the ministerial needs of smaller societies. The care being given to Junior Members, is mentioned, and the starting of a "Junior Members' Corner" in Morning Light. The greatest evidence of activity offered consists in the increase of places of worship during the past few years, the improvement in the older ones, and the steps taken preparatory to building others. Recognition is made of the action of American women in fitting out the hospital ship Maine, for the African war. Also mention is made of the Thousand Guinea Fund in signalization of the blessings of the Nineteenth Century; and of the projected Twentieth Century Fund for distributing to ministers and lay preachers 10,000 copies of "Silent Missionaries."

     How the Young People's League May Encourage the Study of the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. (G. M. C., Feb. 14.) Emphasizes the importance to Newchurchmen of a knowledge of the doctrines they believe, and at the same time the difficulty, to young people, of understanding the abstract topics and treatment of the Writings. Suggests the use of introductory works on Swedenborg, in order to enlist interest in his writings and as preparatory to a grasp of them. Suggests annotated editions of the Writings, to help the reader in difficult passages and obscure references, and to provide synopses to aid in following the narrative or the thread of argument. Further, advocates informal and free discussion of the works read by the League bodies.

     We think that while annotated editions of the Writings may in time have their place, the work would require to be done by men of no ordinary qualifications, and along such general lines as would not impose upon the reader any sense of restriction of view, - this constituting perhaps one be the greatest dangers in the case.

     Man's Reactivity to Providence. Rev. S. C. Eby (Feb. 14). The weekly commentary on reading in Divine Providence. Opens as follows:

     "In these days, when Christian Science, Spiritism, Unitarianism, and ethical-culturism are ringing the changes on the notion of man's innate perfectibility, no truth needs more to be taken to heart by the Newchurchman than that affirmed in No. 183: 'The Divine Providence never acts in accord with the will's love in man, but constantly against it; since man, because of his hereditary evil, is always panting for the lowest hell; but the Lord by His providence as constantly leading and drawing him away from it, first to a milder hell, then out of hell, and finally to Himself in heaven.'"

     Divine Healers (Feb. 14 - Under the department, "Queries and Suggestions"): by Rev. John A. Hayes. Exposes the fallacy of any man's claiming to be a Divine healer, and protesting against the recent reference to Mr. and Mrs. Schlatter, and against all such references to "Divine Healers" in the Messenger's columns. "Sentimental writers have been giving us their gushing remarks about the of Science, and 'Divine Healing,' to the New Church.

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But the whole movement is false to the New Church, and indeed one of its most deadly foes; for it is a supernatural movement whose animus is profanation; a movement which uses divine and supernatural things for natural if not purely selfish ends."

     Theosophy. (Feb. 21). The first paper of a series by Rev. John A. Hayes; chiefly historical, coming down through Egyptian and Greek mysteries to Gnosticism. "Christian theosophy," which is contrasted with the interpretations of the Holy Spirit in the Gospels, - especially John Gnosticism is said to have survived in the bosom of the Church under the forms of mysticism and occultism. Modern Theosophy is defined as a "worldwide mixture of the ancient symbols of dead churches or religions, and the more recent discoveries of students and psychic phenomena." The paper assumes without apparent doctrinal that gnosticism is referred to in the words of the message of Thyatira. "But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have nor this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they say; I will put upon you no other burden." The Writings give no hint, we believe, that the "depths" of the Gnostic doctrine, and its difficult comprehension, are meant here.

     The New-Church Review. (January, 1900.) How to Think of God. In this paper Rev. G. L. Allbutt leads the thought to the Divine Man not as a God limited by finite human properties and conditions but as the Prototype of mankind Who lifts them to Himself. What is called the "supernatural" idea of God is shown to be a delusion, which disregards the very structure of the human mind, - the finite organization by which the mind is distinguished, - and to assign to it a "capability of grasping infinite things in an infinite way;" - a manifest absurdity, for from the boundaries with which the create is necessarily circumscribed it can by no possibility free itself. "The mind cannot even grasp the idea of human love, of human wisdom, without locating them and environing them." Hence, "to express regard for anyone abstractly, and not to show it openly,...is really not to entertain the regard professed." Whence the necessity for a visible, a Human God.

     The New Philosophy, - which took a vacation during the hot weather, and another during the Indian Summer, - reappeared last month with its "December" number, belated, it is true, but evidently refreshed. New paper makes a new "paper" of the Philosophy indeed. But this bright garb is put on only as a preparation for greater splendors, for hereafter the journal is to appear as a quarterly, the January number of which is expected now any day; subsequent numbers to appear at the regular time of publication, April, July and October, and so on.

     The December number is wholly taken up with three papers written in answer to the two, by Mr. Potts, which appeared in the October issue. The first reply, by the Rev. L. F. Hite, is addressed to M, Potts' statement that Swedenborg tried to deduce the world from mathematical points, in ignorance that mathematical points are more positions, of which nothing material could be made.

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Mr. Hite meets this statement by quoting from the Principia to show that Swedenborg's natural point is not a geometrical "nothing" but an ens belonging to a plane above geometry, namely, that of the mind. Thus the point is made to have the properties not of geometry, but of the origin of geometry. Says the paper, "Geometry has its origin in the conceptions of the mind and not in the properties of bodies, and the conception of the point is the first of those conceptions which make the science of geometry.... This course of thought is in entire harmony with his [Swedenborg's] teaching that the spiritual world is the world of causes and the natural world the world of effects. This is enough to show that Mr. Potts is mistaken at the start and therefore in his whole contention."

     The paper goes on to define somewhat the natural point as it really is, according to Swedenborg's conception:

     "Defined as to its structure it is simple. In terms of its relations it is midway between the finite and the infinite. Defined as to its essence it is mere motion. Geometrically considered it is nothing; philosophically considered it is the means of creation. It is what he afterwards described in Divine Love and Wisdom, n. 4, as a created and finite thing so formed that the divine can be in it and by means of it create distinct outer subjects."

     In this citation - which we think involves a misinterpretation of the passage, the writer seems to identify the natural point with the first of spiritual creation. This understanding of his words is borne out by what he says later, practically identifying the series of "divine, spiritual and natural" with that of "infinite, simple and finite." This view is adopted and more explicitly stated by the Rev. John Whitehead, in the third of the papers referred to, where he says: "It is evident that what Swedenborg is endeavoring to reach, in his conception of the first ens, is covered by what he afterwards reveals to us as the entire spiritual world, including the spiritual sun. It is also evident that Swedenborg in the Principia holds that there is an ens which possesses supereminent qualities of motion, through which the infinite accommodates his activity to the finite. It is the cause of all the succeeding series. It is certain from his theological works that spiritual substance is this Errs which is the origin and cause of all succeeding forms. This spiritual substance is really the first created ens, if we think of it in its first form as existing in the spiritual sun; but Swedenborg as a natural philosopher could not give us the clear conception of it and its degrees."

     It strikes us that these writers, in laboring to remove one obscurity have raised another; and to do this they have to ignore the limitations which Swedenborg himself places upon the discursions of the Principia. For he expressly includes what he there has to say of the natural point, under the head of elementary nature, - not spirit.

     Mr. Doering's reply to Mr. Potts, which was read before the Principia Club, of Philadelphia, last December, takes up his opponent's position in detail, covering nearly eight pages of the Philosophy. Lack of space prevents our doing justice to this paper in the present issue.

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     Nunc Licet. January, 1900. The Rev. Albert Bjorck here continues his account of the meeting of the General Convention in 1899, in which he took so prominent a part. He informs us that "the Convention officially declared that his published views respecting the doctrine concerning hell is not any 'radical deviation from the faith of the New Church.'" This is surprising, as we have not been able to find any resolution to this effect in the Journal of the General Convention. But not less surprising is his own attitude, in this number of his paper, towards the Doctrines of the New Church, and towards his own utterances as previously published. While in Nya Kyrkans Tidning for August, 1898, he frankly admitted that Swedenborg, throughout his Writings "clearly and unmistakably" announced the doctrine that the evil ones would remain in Hell to all eternity, but that all this had now been changed by virtue of certain "new laws and changes of which Swedenborg and the angels of the highest heaven had no idea," he now, in Nunc Licet, maintains that he has never denied what is taught in the Writings respecting the eternity of Hell, but appeals to the authority of the Writings and of the Word against the "conclusion" that individual devils may not be saved. But, lest this challenge should be taken seriously, he argues that Swedenborg could not possibly have been enlightened as to "the whole truth" in the Word, and that hence "the doctrines which were derived from that truth, concerning which he had illustration, cannot embrace all time and all development, so as to remain a conclusive authority in all particulars."
MORE PAGES WANTED 1900

MORE PAGES WANTED       Harvey Farrington       1900

EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     Dear Sir: The "Life" in its new form is so pleasing in appearance and contains so much good, solid matter between its covers that little seems left to be desired. There is one point, however. in which it appears to be inadequate, and which detracts somewhat from its usefulness as an "all-round" New Church paper, namely, its comparatively small number of pages. This is especially felt in its necessitating the division of the more weighty and important articles and even those of moderate length. I might instance the biography of Dr. Wilkinson, and Mr. Holman's very interesting article on Geology in a New Light, in the February number, neither of which seems to have been written with the idea of its appearing in two or more chapters.

     I am well aware that this subject was discussed pretty thoroughly both at the General and Local Assemblies, but I do not believe the subscribers in general have been canvassed as to what they could do to alleviate the difficulty. A small increase in the subscription price might be all that is necessary.

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At any rate, I should like to hear the opinions of others on the subject. Yours sincerely, Harvey Farrington, M. D.
BERLIN'S SILVER WEDDING 1900

BERLIN'S SILVER WEDDING              1900

     ON January 1st Mr. and Mrs. Richard Roschman, together with the members and friends of the Berlin Society, celebrated their silver wedding. Just twenty-five years ago Mr. Roschman, then known as "the little German," - having been in Berlin but a short time, - married Miss Nancy Ahrens, of the Berlin Society, and added his name to the list of the society's members. So that tonight, among the guests that come crowding in with bright, sympathetic faces, eager all not to miss what is considered a society event of considerable moment, - there are many who can look back and recall the passing years of the Church's slow but certain progress, - with states of peace and onward movement checked at times but not halted, by seasons of disturbance and even despair, - rejoicing that now, in these days of greater peace to Jerusalem, their two friends have reaped such rich realization of the general good wishes with which they started, twenty-five years ago. Surely the fruitage of those years has been rich, including as it does a career of active work in and for the Church, and a family of children educated within its sphere, prepared and preparing to take up the Church's work, each in their several ways.

     The Worship Hall is filled with a laughing, chattering crowd, including friends from afar, among whom we note the faces of visitors from Parkdale, - Rev. E. S. Hyatt, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brown, Mrs. Peter Bellinger, and Mr. Ray Brown; from Stratford, - Mr. A. E. Ahrens, with wife and daughter; from Kiliarney, Manitoba, - Mr. and Mrs. William Schnarr; from Rat Portage, - Mr. Nelson Schnarr; from Philadelphia. - Mr. Robert Schnarr; also, Miss Lucinda Bellinger, of Wellesley; Mr. and Mrs. Albert Doering. Cross Hill. and Mr. and Mrs. William Doering, of Nebraska.

     And now to the strains of Mendelssohn's "Wedding March," - well-played by a little hired orchestra of violin, oboe, and harp, - the "happy pair," preceded by "bridesmaids" in white, lead the march to the wedding supper spread in the "Long Room" below. The room is scarcely to be recognized: for beside the lace-hung windows and the rosy-lighted candelabra-graced tables, opposite the entrance is erected a temple-like decoration of ivy-twined, white pillars, white curtains and red background, while above the seats of the honored pair. is the inscription, "And I will betroth thee unto Me unto eternity;" and over them, when seated, hovers the emblematic figure of a dove.

     The seating takes place quickly, according to prearranged order, and Mr. Hyatt invokes a Blessing. Another moment and again the music bursts forth, and waiting girls, in white caps and aprons. enter and discharge their duties with quiet yet quick movements, and in rivalry with the music (played with perfect tempo and "snap") rises the chatter and joyousness of the feast.

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     The music ceases, and Mr. Rudolph Roschman as Toastmaster, proposes, - with appropriate remarks, - "The Church." As the last notes of "Our Glorious Church" die away, our minister, Rev. Mr. Stebbing, rises and in responding reminds us of the many blessings received through the Church, for which our gratitude is due to the Lord.

     As the toasts succeed, the intervals are filled with the hum of conversation within and the music without.

     "Married Life" is proposed, and the "most recent" bridegroom is called upon to respond, - who while deploring the present predicament speaks earnestly of the blessings of that state which the Church holds so sacred.

     To "Conjugial Love" Mr. Hyatt responds feelingly, showing - from the Doctrines how the Church is founded upon conjugial love and how the growth of the Church is from it; how it is peculiar to the New Church, and with what a sense of its holiness it is to be regarded; and how we must, by shunning self-love and the love of one s own intelligence, beware lest we obstruct and prevent the possibility of its reception. He closed by saying in reference to the "bridal couple," that if we are permitted to judge from the appearance, in this case we may believe that we behold the blessings the Lord can bestow on those who, in a state of truly conjugial love, are willing to be led by Him and His Providence.

     "The Growth of the Church by Offspring," is proposed, and Mr. Theodore Kuhl, as the father of a happy family, is called upon to respond, and in doing so he ably shows the need to look to our children for the Church's greatest growth, commenting on the very slow increase of the past from outside sources. He emphasizes the need, in educating the young for the Church, for the home to co-operate with the school, so that the work of education, in home and in school may be one work.

     "Mr. and Mrs. Roschman" are proposed, and as the harper strikes up "Home, Sweet Home," the former desists from an attempt to overcome a sudden emotion and respond; but Mr. Jacob Stroh, as a friend of many years, speaks in affectionate testimony to the steadfast loyalty of his two friends, to the Church, through years of trial, and he finally presents to them, on behalf of the society, in recognition of their "sterling" worth, a set of spoons. The evident spontaneousness of the gift now elicits from Mr. Roschman hearty thanks.

     "The Visitors" are toasted, and respond appropriately. Adjournment to the large hall follows, and the society's orchestra, after a few preliminary selections, take up Scharwenka's beautiful minuet, to the stately strains of which the eight of the society's maidens (the "bridesmaids") in appropriate attire and powdered hair march forth to "step the minuet, in style so graceful to turn Ye Olde Time Dames pale with envy.

     The room below now is cleared, and there the dance recommences and the evening ends in cheery, delightful festivity.

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"HUMAN VIVISECTION." 1900

"HUMAN VIVISECTION."       HARVEY FARRINGTON       1900

     "A HUMAN life is nothing compared with a new fact in science. The aim of science is the advancement of human knowledge at any sacrifice of human life... If cats and guinea pigs can be put to any higher use than to advance science, we know not what it is. We do not know any higher use we can put man to.

     The above rather startling assertions appeared in the New York Independent several years ago (Dec. 12th, 1895), but are again brought to mind by a pamphlet, entitled "Human Vivisection, a Statement and an Inquiry," recently issued under the auspices of the "American Humane Association." This pamphlet goes far to show that the author of the article whence the quotation was taken, - a physician of some prominence, - stands by no means alone in the opinions he thus expresses; that his words but reflect what is in large measure the attitude of the science of the day. The pamphlet adduces conclusive evidence of the ultimate result of such an attitude. It shows that in this country as well as in Europe, "human vivisection" is practiced to an alarming extent; the phrase "human vivisection," being rather broadly defined as "the practice of subjecting human beings, men, women and children, who are patients in hospitals or asylums, to experiments involving pain, mutilation, disease or death, for no object connected with their individual benefit, but entirely for scientific purposes." The bulk of the pamphlet consists of a reprint of a document which was not long since published by the United States Government, but which seems to have elicited little or no comment. We have space for only a few quotations, but these will afford ample illustration of the subject matter.

     About a year ago the Morning Leader (London) published a dispatch from its Vienna correspondent to the effect that physicians in the free hospitals of that city experimented systematically upon their patients, injecting pus and other disease products into women, new-born children and others. A youth who was on the high road to recovery, died in twenty-four hours after being thus inoculated. The Deutsche Volksblatt, of Vienna, published a similar report. Many needless operations were performed merely for the sake of experiment; eighty cases were inoculated with disease-germs; some of these cases were mothers, who thereafter gave birth to infants suffering from horrible diseases.

     Dr. Sanarelli, Italian experimenter in Montevideo, South America, having discovered, as he thought, a specific germ which produced yellow fever, tells in the British Medical Journal how he confirmed his supposition. He inoculated five patients - probably ignorant natives of the region, and saw a perfect picture of the disease unrolled before his eyes, the haemorrhages, vomiting, etc., etc., even to "the final collapse," "thanks to the potent influence of the yellow-fever poison" prepared in his laboratory.

     Dr. Menge, in Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift, referring to the investigations of one of his colleagues, says:

     "My experiments on new-born babies (girls) disproved the professor's deductions. Unfortunately I could get only three babies to experiment on.

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There I took immediately after birth....I inoculated these subjects with very considerable quantities of staphylococci [disease-germs]."

     In the same German periodical, another doctor writes:

     "I am sorry to say that it is very difficult to obtain subjects for such experiments.... Finally I got a little boy for the purpose. The treatment to which I subjected him was to be a sort of punishment for some slight naughtiness of which he had been guilty at home.... My patient was very susceptible to the [tubercular] poison. After I had given him an injection of one milligramme, the most intense fever seized him. It lasted three or four days; one of the glands of the neck swelled up enormously. I cannot yet say whether the boy will be consumptive in consequence of my treatment."

     Dr. Jansen, in a lecture before the Medical Society of Stockholm, related in the most cold-blooded manner his inoculation of small children with black small-pox pus:

     "I should perhaps have chosen animals for the purpose. But the most fit subjects, calves, were obtainable only at considerable cost. There was besides, the cost of their keep. So I concluded to make my experiments upon the children of the Foundlings' Home and obtained kind [?] permission to do so from the head physician Dr Medin."

     The Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore) contains an account, by one of the professors of the university of that name, of experiments with the extract of the thyroid gland upon eight inmates of the City Insane Asylum. With one exception, they had passed, or were about to pass the time limit when recovery could be confidently expected. From being docile all became violent and one in a short time, died.

     Where can there be found a more striking commentary upon the state of the Christian World? Often do we hear it said by some of the more optimistic of our brethren in the New Church, that the "New Dispensation," permeating the hearts of all mankind, is slowly but surely molding their thoughts and deeds into conformity with itself. How then do they explain the prevalence of such revolting practices as herein related? And the half has not been told. Much of this work is done secretly, and only a portion of the results published. It is indeed true that men no longer kill one another on the streets at the slightest provocation, as in times gone by; but here we see murder committed secretly, under the saintly cloak of "scientific investigation," - not upon the irate burgher with sword drawn on the king's highway, but upon the poor little babe, or the harmless imbecile, who are unable to strike back in self-defence. The utter heartlessness towards these little ones calls to mind the devils in hell, who when they see an infant are consumed with the desire to destroy it.

     At the root of the whole matter lies enmity to innocence. The powerful influx from devils in the lower regions finds a ready outlet and many willing instruments in this world, for the working of its evil ends. These are not alone confined to doctors and learned scientists, but may be found in the households of sanctimonious clergymen, the millionaire, the thrifty merchant, in fact in every walk of life. But in these latter cases it takes the apparently more excusable form of prevention of offspring.

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This is the "evil of the age." This in itself would have wrought the total destruction of the inhabitants of this earth, had not the Lord made His Second Coming; this is the evil by which in centuries to come, the old, dead church will cause its own extinction. But after all, is it surprising that such things are done in an age which worships human science, the self-intelligence of man as its god? Although the unnatural mother seems prompted in the prevention of offspring only by her selfish desire for ease and bodily comfort, and although the scientist in his ruthless destruction of innocents is apparently following the dictates of his own lust to be immortalized by the discovery of some unknown microbe or startling scientific fact, still when traced to its origin, the ruling affection is same. HARVEY FARRINGTON
SWEDENBORG'S ANTICIPATION OF THE MODERN THEORY OF TELEPHAY 1900

SWEDENBORG'S ANTICIPATION OF THE MODERN THEORY OF TELEPHAY              1900

     AT the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, at Cardiff, 1891, the Section devoted to physical science was quite startled by the views of Professor O. Lodge, F. R. S., the President of the Section, on the subject of telepathy. He said:

     "Again it is familiar that a thought may be excited in the brain of another person transferred thither from our brain, by pulling a suitable trigger; by liberating energy in the form of sound, for instance, or by the mechanical art of writing, or in other ways. A pre-arranged code called language, and a material medium of communication, are the recognized methods. May there not also be an immaterial (perhaps an ethereal) medium of communication? Is it possible that an idea can be transferred from one person to another by a process such as we have not yet grown accustomed to, and know practically nothing about?     In this case I have evidence. I assert that I have seen it done, and am perfectly convinced of the fact. Many others are satisfied of the truth of it, too."

     Since that time the subject has been illustrated by the action of a pair of tuning forks accurately tuned to the same pitch. When one is sounded the other vibrates in unison with it. So it has been supposed that two brains "tuned" to each other, might under some circumstances influence each other without the operation of any of the senses.

     All this has been clearly anticipated by Emanuel Swedenborg. In No. VI. of his periodical called Daedalus Hyperboreus, published October 1718, we find the following interesting passage:

     "It also frequently happens that a person falls into the thought of another person; that he perceives what another is doing any thinking, that is, that his membrane trembles from the vibration of the other people's cerebral membrane, just as one string is affected by another. if they are tuned

     [The last paragraph is taken from the work "On Tremulation," translated by Rev. C. T. Odhner and recently published by the Massachusetts New-Church Union. Reviewed in New Church Life for January and in the New-Church Magazine for February - Ed.]

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CHURCH NEWS 1900

CHURCH NEWS       Various       1900

GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.

     Huntingdon Valley ("Bryn Athyn"). - Our doctrinal classes have been of especial interest this winter. The subject of the Conjugial was the occasion of some very important teaching.

     On Monday evening, February 12th, Professor Odhner continued his lectures on New Church Education, dealing especially with the development of the Academy movement, which may be said to have begun with the propaganda inaugurated by Rev. Richard de Charms, in the Precursor, in 1836.

     On February 16th the Friday evening classes gave way to a discussion of plans for entertainment of the General Assembly next June.

     On the evening of February 22d, our "local talent" gave us what was indeed a dramatic treat. Two short plays were presented with a spirit and naturalness which amateurs do not often attain. The first was a dramatization of a storyette, done by one of our number, and the second was, "As Strangers," by Annie Eliot. (Scribner's Magazine.)

     On the evening of the 26th the Issues of the Contest in South Africa were considered by the Civic and Social Club, with the Beer side in the extreme minority.

     The social event of the month was the Euchre Party given at the Club House, by the young ladies of the Cairnwood household, which was well attended and much enjoyed.

     Allentown, Pa., and Brooklyn, N. Y. These circles are now under the pastoral care of Rev. Alfred Acton. The former he visits on the third, the latter on the first Sunday of every month.

     Scranton, Pa. - On Sunday, February 25th, Rev. Homer Synnestvedt visited Scranton, and conducted services at the home of Mr. and Mrs. A. G. Gilmore. Notwithstanding the severe cold and biting wind, which kept all but one of the children away, 13 persons attended. In the evening the subject considered was the Necessity of the Sacraments for the Preservation of the New Church upon Earth.

     A flying visit to Allentown, on the way home, revealed a happy state there. All were well and looking forward to the Assembly in June.

     Glenview, Ill. - We take pleasure: in being able to report good progress from Glenview. Three children have been born in the Society since the New Year, though one of them stayed in the world only a week. The colony has also been strengthened by the addition of Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Boericke, who have recently moved here and are now snugly settled at Rose Cottage.

     Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Maynard held a reception at their home on Washington's Birthday. Patriotic " music and games were prominent features of the delightful evening they gave us.

     On and after Sunday. March 4th, services in Chicago will be held at 2:30 in the afternoon and in Glenview at 10:30 in the morning, reversing the present order; thus carrying out an arrangement made last September that each congregation should share alike in afternoon and morning services. The members in Glenview say that the afternoon services have been far less inconvenient than they had anticipated. Nevertheless they will be very glad to have church in the morning again. A. E. N.

     Parkdale, Canada. - On Swedenborg's Birthday a social was held which the children attended, when a very pleasant, happy time was spent, the most interesting feature of the evening's entertainment being the reading of short essays on the Life of Swedenborg prepared by the children of the school.

     A Soiree Musicale recently given in the School Building, at the invitation of a member of the Society and his wife, was much enjoyed.

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     Very grave fears are entertained just now of the practicability of continuing the Girls' school, owing to scarcity of funds; but it is to be hoped that our friends here may combine in a strenuous effort to provide the means required, so that this most important use may not be interrupted even temporarily. CHARLES BROWN.

     Berlin, Canada. - The Friday Suppers and Doctrinal Classes continue to be well attended, in this respect fulfilling our most sanguine expectations.

     The forthcoming Assembly is receiving individual attention, and if all who have hopes of attending are able to realize them a creditable representative, of the Berlin Society may be expected.

     The second musicale of the season, similar to the one previously recorded in the Life, but with the invitations somewhat more extended, was held on Sunday evening. February 18, at the home of Mrs. Bellinger, and was much enjoyed.

     The announcement, on March 1st, of the relief of Ladysmith was celebrated in Berlin and Waterloo by a school holiday. A procession of sleighs, carrying all classes end ages, with shouting and singing and waving of flags, proceeded from Waterloo to Berlin and returned. Our own children took part, through the kindness of Mr. Iler, than whom the children have no warmer friend.
E. J. S.

LETTER FROM MR. BOWERS

     New York. - I preached for the little society in Buffalo, on Sunday morning and evening, February 18. The services are held in Klein's Hall. The attendance was 22 in the morning, and about 30 in the evening. The people are zealous and hopeful in the effort to secure a regular minister.

     Pennsylvania. - Arrived in Erie on February 20. Called on all the New Church people in the city whom I could reach, and also conversed with some who have for some time been considering the question of becoming members of the Church by being baptized.

     On Friday evening, February 23, an enjoyable social was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Evans. Twenty persons were present. There was conversation by the older ones, and the children had a good time. Some music was rendered on the piano and violin. The hostess served wine and refreshments. Two toasts were proposed: "The Church in Erie," responded to by Dr. Edward Cranch, who gave an interesting account of the progress of the Church in this city,- how the old order of things came to an end and the remnant were led into affiliation with the Academy movement. This dated back as early as 1875. The other toast was: "The Children of the Church," responded to by the writer of this report. This social was a cheering event for the Erie Circle.

     On Saturday evening. February 24, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel G. Beckman. and their eight-year-old daughter. Thora Estellal were baptized at their home. Mr. and Mrs. Beekman also applied for membership in the General Church of the New Jerusalem.

     On Sunday morning, the 25th, services were held at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Edward Cranch. A sermon was delivered, and the sacrament of Lord's Supper was administered to all the adults present, thirteen persons taking part. The evening meeting was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Burns, and on that occasion there was another service which was the cause of much rejoicing with everyone of this Circle of earnest members of the Church. Mr. John G. Stidham, Mrs. Anna Frederica. wife of Robert Bums, and their four children (who had not yet been baptized), were introduced by baptism into the Lord's New Church. Mr. Burns also applies for membership in the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Besides these, an infant was baptized at another house near the Burns home, whose parents are not members of the Church. John E. Bowers.

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THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     Pennsylvania. - The annual meeting of the Philadelphia First Society was held on January 15th The Registrar's report showed a membership of 446, four more than last year, - 12 new members and 8 deceased. The pastor's report contains a paragraph emphasizing the important use of the meetings preparatory to the Holy Supper, when the "formality of the Sunday service is laid aside, and we come down to the foundation of religion-self-examination and repentance.

     New York. - On February 22 the New York Association held its 36th annual meeting. Delegates were present from Brooklyn, Manhattan, Riverhead, Long Island, Jersey City and Orange, N. J., and Buffalo, N. Y. Rev. S. S. Seward presided. The idea was broached that a New Church college be established in New York, and a committee was appointed to consider its advisability.

     The Endowment Fund of the Messenger has received a bequest of $1,000, from the estate of Sarah P. Ropes, of Salem. Mass.

     The New Church Club met on Monday evening, January 29. The question discussed was, "What should be the Attitude of the New Church toward Evolution?" Henry E. Crampton, Ph. D. of Columbia University, a guest, speaking from the purely scientific point of view, pointed out the distinction between what is hypothesis and what established doctrine. Papers were read written by Prof. Frank W. Very, Dr. Louis C. Ager and one anonymous, beside the presentation of quotations from one by Rev. S. C. Eby. Messrs. Swanton, Roeder and Mann took part, and the general trend of the discussion was that "the Church had nothing to fear from the doctrine of Evolution, but should look upon it as giving in outer form images of spiritual things which through them could be thus more rationally discerned."

     [Without more discrimination between the more external and subordinate features of Evolution and its real inner thought and purpose, there will be no growth in any but an apparent rationality and discernment. - ED.]

     A SOCIETY of the New Church was organized in Buffalo, New York, on Sunday. January 14th, by the Rev. S. S. Seward, President Minister of the New York Association. Meetings have been held in Buffalo for the past four or five years, having been begun by some earnest members of the Berlin, Canada Society, all of them Germans. Reference has been made in these columns to the work done in Buffalo last summer by the Rev. G. L. Allbutt.

     During the morning service of January 14th one man was baptized and five young women were confirmed. After the service those who had signified their desire were called forward by name and inaugurated into a society of the New Church, under the name of "The Buffalo in Society of the New Church." The Holy Supper was administered during the day to 30 communicants, and 25 Signed the roll. Others would the have been present had they been of able.

     New Hampshire. - The second Sunday In January Rev. J. B. Spiers began to hold meetings in the school house at Davisville, at 3 P. M., to audiences that average about 25. Similar meetings are contemplated in Putnam's Hill, about as far from Coontoocook (two miles) but in the opposite direction.

     In Manchester. where are about 20 receivers, work was discontinued in December, owing to the illness of the leader, Miss Hubbard.

     Vermont. - Mr. Spiers has made visits also in this state. "In November he administered the rite of baptism and confirmation to a devoted New Church lady in Windsor." In the evening a little company gathered at her home and enjoyed two hours conversation on the doctrines. Several here are becoming interested. Mr. Spiers is in correspondence with all in the two states who are sufficiently interested to write.

     Washington. - The pastor of the African New Church Mission, Dr. P. C. Louis, resigned early in December, since which time the society has been without a minister.

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The Sunday-school, kindergarten, sewing school and boys' gymnastic class are as well attended as ever.

     Tennessee. - Rev. W. H. Hinkley visited Johnson City in the latter part of January and made a "very favorable impression in behalf of the New Church." We lectured on Sunday to more than 100 people, including the best citizens of the town, - on "The God of Our Salvation," - eliciting very favorable comment.

     Missouri. - Rev. S. C. Eby, pastor of the St. Louis Society, during mid-winter delivered a course of Sunday evening lectures, reviewing in the light of the New Church such works as. "The Study of the Bible," by Dr. Briggs; in "What Would Jesus Do?" by Rev. Charles M. Sheldon: John Fiske's "Through Nature to God," and others.

     Illinois - The annual meeting of the Chicago Society was held in Steinway Hall, on January 15th attended by a" unusual number of members. The reports showed the usual activity in the parishes, reviewed the special efforts made in the several parishes to increase the sense of responsibility and contributions for the support of the ministry and the particulars of the transfer of the Steinway Hall building to the Society, to which the leasehold reverts by the failure to pay rent on the part of the company previously holding the lease. The Executive Committee reporting the settlement, held out little hope that the income from the building for the current year would be more than sufficient to safe-guard the property. In pursuance of a carefully digested recommendation from the Executive Committee, a new set of by-laws was adopted, re-organizing the Executive Committee on a conservative basis and readjusting the relations of the parishes to the Society. Under the new laws the parishes elect their own officers, employ their own pastors, are in every way distinct from the Society, and have equal representation on the Executive Committee charged with the administration of the Society's affairs.

     In order that the Kenwood parish might be free to organize on the new basis and choose its own pastor, and because of the requirements of the office of General Pastor, the Rev. L. P. Mercer resigned from that parish.

     The annual meeting of the Englewood Parish, "Church of the Divine Humanity," was held on December 11th. Despite rainy weather there was good attendance and lively interest in the affairs of the parish, the spiritual outlook being considered bright. In addition to the Parish Committee a larger body of laymen was formed, to be known as the Church Council. The Council will meet quarterly, beside special meetings at calls of the Committee, the idea being to educate the laymen in the management of Church affairs and to keep the parish in touch with all of its movements.

     "The Chicago Society in all its parishes, and indeed the entire Church in the west; seems to be entering into anew state. A spirit of earnestness and devotion is manifest among the members that promises well for the future. This may be partially due to changed conditions in the affairs of the Chicago Society which involve more self dependence among the parishes. The new state of the church began to crystallize and take tangible form several weeks ago. when the General Pastor returned from his summer vacation apparently animated by a more earnest spirit, and began to infuse that spirit into his own congregation and into all members of the church with whom he came in contact." - Western New Church Union Bulletin.

     Hamilton, Canada, - On New Year's Day Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, pastor of the Detroit Society. officiated in Hamilton at the funeral of a sister of one of his parishioner. There was an unusually large audience, including the pastor of Zion Methodist Church and his predecessor. Funeral colors were absent. Some prejudices, excited by a "foreigner" invading the land, (and he a Newchurchman), melted away before the true doctrine, being evolved out of the sense of the of the Word.

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In the evening of the same day nearly a score of New Church friends came together in one of the homes. The widower and a young lady were baptized into the New Church, and there followed "a most delightful and inspiring conversation on the heavenly doctrines of the New Church.... One of the number exclaimed that the early Christians must have had such meetings when they came together in the catacombs."

     France. - From Paris a member of the New Church in France writes:

     "Since March, 1598, some members of the New Church here wished to found, with the help of the Lord, a French society, absolutely free and independent, that is to say, without any external tie with the two great divisions of the Church, the Academy and the General Convention, but united to all societies of the New Jerusalem by our common bonds, love and light.

     "These members, seven in number, met on the first Sunday of March, 1895, and after worship - I conducted by one chosen according to common consent - they laid the foundations of this new and French Society. We wished it to be French first of all, for the Church must he congenial with the habits of each country.     

     "A 'Chief of Worship' (chef de culte) was elected, and for nine months worship took place regularly on the first Sunday of each month. Later on, as the Chief of Worship refused to give the sacraments - for a layman must not do it - and as the Society wished to progress and live, a meeting was decided upon in which to discuss the choice of a pastor from among us.

     "Was it regular to act in this way? Every one may regard it as he chooses. But so it was, and the pastor, [M. F. Hussenet], was and appointed by us, and we acknowledged in him the right to direct and instruct the society according to the principles contained in the work, The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine."

     We learn of the death of two members of the New Church in France, - Dr. Poirson and M. Louis Lucas. Dr. Poirson, well-known to many American Newchurchmen, had attained an extreme old age. M. Lucas was a young man, married in September, 1897. He leaves a widow and two children. Dr. Poirson died early in November last, and M. Lucas early in December.

     We are informed that M. Hussenet, who lives in St. Cloud, near Paris, would give, during the Paris Exposition, board and lodging to a few persons at the rate of $40.00 a month, per person
WRITINGS AS THE WORD. II. 1900

WRITINGS AS THE WORD. II.       W. F. PENDLETON       1900


NEW CHURCH LIFE.

Vol. XX.          APRIL, 1900.     No. 4
     IN OUR former article on this subject, it was remarked that there is extension of truth from opposite to opposite, producing the appearance of contradictory statements in Divine Revelation, which is true of the Writings, as of the literal sense of the Word. In both, no statement is giver against which there may not be brought to bear, from elsewhere, some passage, opposite in the outward form, and in some cases apparently irreconcilable, because of the limitations of human understanding But that all Divine Revelation is in harmony with itself, whatever the appearance may be, is a truth that is accepted by an affirmative mind, as soon as it is stated.

     It is so with the subject under consideration; opposites appear. In one set of passages it would seem that the Writings are not the Word, but that the Word is only the Word in the form of the literal sense, as in the Old and New Testaments; but in another set of passages statements are made which lead to the conclusion that in the Writings the New Church has no other than the very essential Word itself.

     The object of this paper is to consider the contradictory passages, and to discover if possible wherein their real harmony lies.

     The teaching which appears to militate against the position that the Writings are the Word, is to be found in such passages as the following:

     "Divine Truth in the sense of the letter of the Word, is in its fulness, in its holiness, and in its power. (S. S. 37)

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     "The Word is the Word itself in the sense of the letter." (S. S. 39)

     "The celestial and spiritual senses are not the Word without the natural sense, which is the sense of the letter, for they would be like spirit and life without a body." (Ibid.)

     "Since the Word in ultimates is such, it follows that it is not the Word until it is in that ultimate, thus until it is in the sense of the letter." (A. E. 1087)

     "Divine Truth is what is called holy; but it is not holy until it is in its ultimate, which is the Word in the sense of the letter; wherefore the Divine Truth there is holy, and may be called the sanctuary; the reason is, that that sense contains and includes all the holy things of heaven and the church. It appears as if Divine Truths in the heavens, which are called spiritual and celestial, were holy above the Divine Truths in the sense of the letter of the Word; but the Divine Truths in the heavens, which are called spiritual and celestial, are comparatively as the lungs and the heart in man, which, unless they were covered by ribs, and enclosed in the pleura and diaphragm, would not make the breast." (A. E. 1088. See also S. S. 33. A. E. 175, 260, 593. W. 221.)

     The teaching, which appears to establish the position that the Writings are the Word, is to be found in such passages as the following:

     "The Internal Sense was to them the Word itself" (i. e., in the Ancient Church. A. C. 3432.)

     "The Internal Sense is the Word itself." (Ibid.)

     "The Internal Sense is the Word for the angels." (A. C. 3954 The same language is used in A. C. 1929, 2249, 4027.)

     "The Internal Sense is the Word of the Lord in the heavens." (A. C. 1887. The italics are in the original. The same words occur in A. C. 2094. See also A. C. 7089A. R. 768.)

     "The Divine Truth, which is the Word in its Spiritual Sense, is what makes heaven." (A. E. 960)

     "The Internal Sense is the Angelic Word" (A. C. 2311. The same language occurs in A. C. 4122.)

     "The Word which is in heaven is the Internal Sense of the Word which is in the world." (H. H. 526)

     Read also passages which teach that the Internal Sense is the soul and life of the Word, without which the Literal Sense is dead, as a body without its soul; such as the following: A. C. 1143, 1408, 1873, 1984, 2311, 4857. S. S. 5.

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     If the Internal Sense is the Word itself, and if it can be shown that the Writings are the Internal Sense, it would logically follow that the Writings are the Word, that is, the Word in its internal or spiritual form now given from heaven to men in the world. That the Writings are none other than the Internal Sense will be seen from the following passages:

     "The Internal Sense has been dictated to me from heaven." (A. C. 6597.)

     "The Internal Sense has been revealed to me by the Lord." (S. S. 4.)

     "It has pleased the Lord now to reveal THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD." (T. C. R. 271. Small capitals in the original.)

     "The Spiritual Sense of the Word is at this day disclosed by the Lord." (S. S. 25.)

     "The Spiritual Sense of the Word has not been revealed before . . . because the church would have profaned it." (D. P. 264.)

     "The Internal Sense of the Word which is spiritual, has been disclosed, and only for those who will be of the New Church." (A. E. 759.)

     "And they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory, signifies, that then the Word will be revealed as to its Internal Sense, in which the Lord is." (A. C. 4060.)

     "That the Lord rose again on the third day involves also that Divine Truth, or the Word as to the Internal Sense, as it was understood by the Ancient Church, will be raised up again in the consummation of the age, which also is the third day; wherefore it is said, that then shall appear the Son of Man, that is, the Divine Truth." (A. C. 2813. See also A. C. 67, 3398, 6929; A. R. 1; H. H. 1; T. C. R. 192, 780; A. E. 36, 376, 594, 641, 948, 950, 1094.)

     Let us now consider the passages quoted above, which teach that the Word is the Word only when it is in the form of correspondences and representatives, as in Moses and the Prophets, in the Gospels, and the Apocalypse.

     We note first, (S. S. n. 37), that the reason why Divine Truth in the sense of the letter of the Word, is in its fulness, in its holiness, and in its power, is "because the two prior or interior senses, which are called the spiritual and celestial senses, are simultaneously in the natural sense, which is the sense of the letter."

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These words show that the real essential Word is spiritual, is within the letter, and causes the Word in the letter to he the Word of God.

     The same is shown in n. 39, where it is said, in addition to what is quoted above, - "spirit and life are interiorly in the sense of the letter; the spiritual sense is its spirit, and the celestial sense is its life; as the Lord says in John (vi. 63) 'The words which I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life.'"

     The context of A. E. 1087 shows the same; as for instance, this: "Now inasmuch as in the ultimate sense of the Word, which is called the sense of the letter, are all interior things, simultaneously, namely the spiritual and celestial things which are in the Words of the three heavens, - for in its inmost contents are those things which are in the Word with the angels of the third heaven, in its middle contents are those things which are in the Words of the angels of the inferior heavens," -     etc. It will be seen from this that the Divine Truth in each heaven is called the Word. Now the Word in heaven is the Word in its spiritual sense, for the literal sense of the Word does not appear in heaven. (See A. C. 1143, 1405, 3382, 8891, 9349, 9407, et passim.) But in the words quoted above from this number mean, what they are supposed to mean by some, it would not be proper to call Divine Truth in Heaven the Word, since it does not appear there in the form of the natural or literal sense; but this is a manifest absurdity.

     What is meant, therefore, when it is said in the same number, (A. E. 1087), that the Word is not the Word until it is in its ultimate, or until it is in the sense of the letter with men? We have seen that it does not mean that the Divine Truth with the angels in heaven is not the Word; it does not mean that the spiritual sense is not the Word; nor does it mean that the Writings are not the Word; for the Lord Himself is the Word, and wherever He reveals Himself to angels and to men, and speaks to them, that speaking is called the Word, because it is the Divine Speech of God. It is plain therefore that if it were essential for the Word to be in the form of correspondences from nature, in order to be the Word, there would be no Word in heaven, and the Lord Himself would not be the Word.

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     What then is the meaning? How is it to be understood, that the Word is not the Word until it is in its ultimate?

     The meaning is simply this, that the Word or Divine Truth in heaven could not be contained or held together, it would be, as it were, dissipated, if it did not descend into the lowest ultimate, into the very sensual with men in the world, and there clothe itself - by correspondences and representatives, - with the hard and resisting forms of nature.

     The Word in heaven would cease to be the Word, if its ultimate with men were removed or destroyed, nor could the heavens themselves hold together. This is the reason it is said that there must always be a Church on the earth where the Word is read, and the Lord is known by the Word, in order that the heavens may be preserved in their integrity.

     In the light of this principle let the reader examine, carefully, A. E. 1088, part of which is quoted above, in which it is said that the Divine Truth is not holy until it is in its ultimate, or until it is in the sense of the letter; and note carefully that it is the Divine Truth which is holy, and not the letter in itself, and of itself. We read also, in S. S. 18, that it is from the spiritual sense that the Word is holy in every syllable. (Compare A. C. 4154, 4559, 4581, 9419, H. H. 506.) The meaning therefore is, that the Divine Truth in heaven, or the spiritual sense with the angels, is not holy with them, and so not with men, until it is in its ultimate in the sphere of nature; for the Divine Truth must descend into its lowest ultimate, as it is with men in the world, and there react when read by man, and thus as it were return, before it can be perceived by the angels of heaven, and thus be sensated as holy: For it is a universal law that it is not the influx but the reflux of truth that is perceived; which law renders the written Word, in the form of the letter, a never ending necessity to both worlds, in order that heaven may be conjoined to the human race and the human race to heaven, and both dwell together in the sphere and light of Divine Truth.

     The same principle applies when it is said, that Divine Truth in the sense of the letter of the Word is in its power.

     The power is the Lord's power over heaven and over hell; it is the power of angels over evil spirits, - spiritual power, Divine Power; but, for the exercise of this power in the spiritual world, there must needs be a fulcrum in the natural world; this fulcrum is the Word in ultimates, or the Word in its literal sense.

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The power is in the ultimate, is exercised by the ultimate, but is not from the ultimate; the Divine Truth in heaven is in its power in and by the sense of the letter of the Word in the world with men.

     Fulness is in ultimates, holiness is in ultimates, and power is in ultimates; and the lower the ultimate the Greater the fulness, holiness, and power. Still the fulness, the holiness, and the power are of the internal, and from the internal in the ultimate. The fulness, holiness and power of the Divine Truth in heaven, eternal1y resting upon and operative by the sense of the letter, are now made known in the Writings by the Lord, Who has come in them as the Word in power and great glory; for the Lord never comes to man, and has never come, except as the Word.

     Because of the basis and foundation of Divine Truth in the heavens, eternally constant and fixed in the literal sense of the Word, it is not only possible for Divine Truth in the heavens to remain constant and fixed as the eternal Word of God with the angels; but for the same reason the Word that is forever settled in heaven, may now be made known to man in the world, to the man who has established a plane in himself by the literal sense of the Word, through faith in it and obedience to it.

     To say, therefore, that the Writings are not the Word, is to say too much; it is to say that they are not Divine Truth, that there are not a Divine Revelation, that they are not from the Lord, and that the Lord is not present in them; and if this be true "we are of all men the most miserable."

     But it will not do to push this too far; for New Churchman who hold this view of the Writings do not themselves believe the force of their own logic; or if any one believes it he is not willing so to confess, for it would be said that he is not a New Churchman; since the logic of the position is that there is no new Divine Revelation, no Second Coming, and therefore no New Church.

     To say that the Writings are not the Word is to say that they are not immediate revelation from God, but that they have come into the world mediately from Him.

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This establishes them on a par and a level with the writings of men, and like them subject to the shade of human limitation and error. For every book in the world so far as it has in it anything of truth, comes mediately from God, and Swedenborg is in the same category, except that he is a little higher up the ladder, having better opportunities of information that other men! If this be true, then indeed the Writings are not the Word, nor are they the Internal Sense of the Word, nor are they Divine Doctrine for the New Church, nor are they a Divine Revelation, but merely the views of a very respectable and learned man, who has traveled in the spiritual world, and talked with the angels, and has given us the benefit of his notes and observations!

     Let those take this view who wish, but it is an idea that has in it no saving or regenerating quality for the New Church, for it eliminates the Lord Who is the all in all of Revelation, and thus the all in all of the Church.

     It is incumbent, therefore, upon those who hold that the Writings are not the Word, to show that they are not the Internal Sense of the Word, for they are one and the same thing, as we have shown; and when they have done this, let them take the next step, which will be to show that they are not a Divine Revelation, and finally that they are not the Doctrine of the New Church; for these steps, without a change of mind, will follow one after the other, as surely as there is any force in analysis, logic, or reason; as surely as the setting of the sun follows its rising.

     The Word is one, whatever form it may take among men. The Writings and the Sacred Scripture, or literal sense, are one, although their form in the world is twofold; the older Revelation is the Divine Sensual and Divine Natural of the Lord; the newer Revelation is the Divine Rational; nor is it lawful, that is, it is and possible, for the human understanding to enter into the mysteries of faith, into the interior things of the Word of God, until the Lord reveals Himself as the Divine Rational; which Revelation constitutes His Second Coming into the world, as the former did His First.

     The two Revelations, then, are revelations of one Divine Word, because revelations of the one only God of heaven and earth. They indeed appear as two in the natural sphere, but when viewed in rational or abstract light, or under a rational or spiritual idea, they are seen as one Divine Word, the appearing of the one only Lord in His Glorified Human. W. F. PENDLETON.

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"IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME." 1900

"IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME."       HOMER SYNNESTVEDT       1900

     AN EASTER ADDRESS.

     This is the Day which the Lord hath made: let us rejoice and be glad in it.

     THE custom of celebrating this day which is called Easter on account of the Lord's rising from the sepulchre, is derived to us from the primitive Christian Church, and it is fitting that upon such an occasion we should call to mind the continuity of the great work then consummated; and also its relation to that crowning work which was effected some eighteen centuries later, - namely, the Second Coming, and the establishment of the real Christian Church, a Church which is to be eternal because internal - which is complete on every degree even the lowest, because the Word is now complete, and thus the communication with heaven is perfect. The everlasting doors stand open, that who will may enter in. No hordes of robbers now bar the roads which lead to the Holy City, and no enemy now holds its Sates Our Great King has wrought a glorious Redemption for all his people.

     Eighteen centuries ago there was born in Bethlehem, Judea, a Saviour, the long expected Messiah, He who should redeem Israel. The fulness of time had arrived. The thick darkness of night overspread all minds, and weary indeed were the few who still watched for the morning. Even the semblance of a church had perished from among His "chosen people," so-called, and their worship had become only a whited sepulchre, their temple but a glittering mausoleum, full of dead things. The earth was full of hypocrisy and crime. Ignorance and wickedness were rampant. Imperial Rome, also, was steeping her royal garments in bloods and fornication, in the natural sense of those words, even as Jerusalem did in the spiritual sense. The "Lower Earth" was full of helpless but well-meaning victims of this all-prevailing tyranny, and salvation and spiritual life were become all but impossible, even to those who desired it. But one short step intervened between mankind and utter destruction.

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     Then the Lord came, and thro' the Human which He assumed, met the hells in single-handed combat, overcame their stubborn resistance, drove them back step by step, until they were confined to their own proper hells, the dens and lairs whence they were nevermore to issue without leave, and then with fear and trembling. His power with mankind was then restored. His Human was glorified; and then, as the culmination of all that grand work, in order that this judgment might work itself out even to the bitter end, and in this world too, it was necessary that the infernals operating thro' their willing tools, the Jews, should complete forever their own damnation, and forever make themselves execrated even by the simple good by putting His infirm assumed human to death. This they did, upon the cross. But its use was accomplished, its work done, and therefore it went the way of all the earth, and according to His own established order it died. But as the soul within, even down to the lowest things of its life, was Divine, and not finite, as ours, therefore He made Divine all its life, even to that of the flesh and bones, and dissipated all that remained of the infirm human derived from (or through) the Virgin mother; for there was nothing now left of this but the mere matter, - which is dead, and cannot by any process of Divine Order be glorified - nor is it needed to complete His presence with us. Once seen here on earth, in a material body, the history of that fact is sufficient, and to retain such a gross shell as mere matter would only impede His operation and manifestation with the good, and at the same time interfere with the freedom of the evil to reject Him; of whom He said that He would blind their eyes and stop up their ears, lest seeing they should see, and hearing they should hear, and should have thereby the greater damnation.

     But this work, for which He thus laid the foundation once for all, could not yet be perfected. The proper materials had first to be prepared, and hence another cycle had to be passed through before the temple itself could begin to be reared upon this most solid foundation. The Word in its letter was complete, but the natural heaven, which was to be formed with this as its basis, was not yet; altho' preparation had thus been made for it. Of this work it is thus written in David: "He foundeth the Earth upon its bases: it shall not be moved forever and ever.

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The Great Corner Stone had been laid, - that is, the Doctrine that He alone is to be approached and worshiped, and that all access to God is through His Divine Human. "Behold the Stone rejected of the builders, is become the head of the corner."

     The Jews rejected Him, but He in His Human, was the Head of the new church, which from Him is called Christian. But how soon was this center-stone lost sight of, covered as it were with a great mass of rubbish. Where is now that acknowledgment?

     The Lord's crucifixion upon the eve of the Passover and His rising again on the third day, are supposed by the consummated church to embody His whole work of Redemption. This is one of the errors springing from the central falsity of a divided trinity, or dividing the trinity into three persons. The doctrine of Salvation by Faith Alone, presupposes and requires the doctrine of the Vicarious Atonement, - that is, of one Divine Person suffering as a voluntary sacrifice to propitiate the wrath of another Divine Person, who, from a kind of inexorable justice, (so-called) was estranged from the human race, His own creatures, and about to punish them all with eternal fire in hell, because their first ancestor had disobeyed Him. On this day especially, in all the pulpits throughout Christendom, is this doctrine of the Atonement expatiated upon and variously bedecked and disguised in order that its glaring inconsistencies may not be so apparent, and that men may be led by their natural sympathies with the manifest sufferings of the one upon the cross, and by the fear of eternal damnation if they do not have faith in the same, - to draw near and attempt to believe in what is contrary to all human rationality and to all perception concerning the Divine Mercy and Compassion.

     But let us turn our eves away from this sad scene of darkness and error, toward the East, whence He who came to Bethlehem, and who suffered upon Calvary, has again emerged from the tomb wherein His human is buried by the consummated church, as indeed He predicted and where the angel whose countenance is like lightning, and whose raiment is white as the light, has rolled away the stone, standing and admonishing as of yore all who have the Lord and the Church at heart, to seek Him no more in the tomb, for He is risen.

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To magnify the pain of His suffering upon the cross and to seek in this for His Redemption, - is not this to seek Him among the dead? What is there Divine in this by itself! Not without its significance is the habit some churches have, of placing ever before them the crucifix, or the image of the Saviour's death. Yet many have suffered, to all outward appearance, even more atrocious martyrdoms. No, it is not in the sufferings which the Lord's body was called upon to undergo before His Divine work could be completed, that we are to seek for His Redemption; but in all that internal work of which this was but the culminating event, namely, the Glorification of His Human, and its unition with the Divine from which it had come forth; while He effected a judgment upon all the evil in the world of spirits, met the hells in equal combat, overcame them by His own proper power, and reduced them forever into order and under obedience to Himself. What was visible in this world was but the effect of this truly Divine task, upon the Jewish Church, who, in judging, condemning and crucifying Him, as they thought, did this to themselves; for this is His way of dealing with men, in order that freedom may be maintained.

     Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah this that is glorious in His apparel, travelling in the greatness of His strength? I that speak in justice, mighty to save.

     I have trodden the winepress alone: and of the people there was none with me. (Isaiah lxiii, 1. 3.) HOMER SYNNESTVEDT.

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LORD TRANSFIGURED 1900

LORD TRANSFIGURED       Rev. EMIL CRONLUND       1900

     And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart, And was transfigured before them: and His face did shine as the suit, and His raiment was white as the light. And behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him. Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here; if Thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for Thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. While he yet spoke, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them; and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him. And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid. And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only. (Matt. xvii, 1-8.)

     That there is a God is known from the Word and from the common influx from God into souls of men. From these sources it is known that there is a God and that He is one; and that the Lord Jesus Christ is that one God. This influx from the Lord is universal, as the light and heat of the sun are universal; for the Lord inflows equally into every man, the evil as well as the good, but He is received differently by different men; and by the evil He is not received at all. The evil, through evils of life and falsities of faith, intercept and cut off this influx and close their minds and hearts against it, and open themselves towards hell and receive the influx from thence. By this means they separate themselves from God and deny Him. Evil is what separates man from His God, as is also taught in the Word, where it is written, "Your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid His face from you, that He will not hear." (Isa. lix, 2.)

     Because the evil cannot see God, they deny Him, and confirm themselves in favor of nature. But he who opens his mind towards Heaven and is willing to be led by the Lord sees clearly that there is a God; for every day of his life gives evidence in favor of God's existence when he sees the wonderful leading of His Divine Providence; and nature itself testifies that it has been made by God and not by itself.

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"The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament announceth the work of His hand. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night pointeth to knowledge." "O Lord, how manifold are Thy works! in wisdom hast Thou made them all: the earth is full of Thy riches." (Ps. xix, 1-2; civ, 24.)

     "Let every one therefore beware of confirmations in favor of nature, and let him confirm himself in favor of the Divine; there is no lack of materials." (C. L. 421.) And he who removes evil in himself sees clearly that there is a God who is the author and creator and consequently the life of all that exists. It is therefore evident that those. only who are in good can see God; for it is written: "Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God." And this is also what is taught in the words of the text; for it is said there, "After six days Jesus taketh Peter, James and John," for by those three disciples are understood, faith, charity, and the good of charity or good works. By Peter is represented faith, by James charity, and by John the good of charity. This is what is represented by these three disciples wherever they are named in the books of the Evangelists; "and by their being alone present was signified, that no others can see the glory of the Lord, which is in His Word, but they who are in faith, in its charity and in the good of charity; others may indeed see, but still they do not see, because they do not believe."

     By a name in the Word is always represented some quality, and in order to understand the Word it is necessary to bear this in mind and to keep out the idea of persons and places; for such an idea "bounds the thought, inasmuch as it determines it to those things, and thus limits it. Such idea of the thought is properly natural, whereas an idea abstracted from persons and places extends itself into Heaven in every direction." (A. E. 405.) If a man when he reads the Word has an idea of the persons only that idea obscures his view so that he cannot see the glory of the internal sense which lies beyond. Any one who does not know of the internal sense might wonder why the Lord chose those three disciples, and allowed them only and no others the privilege of seeing Him in His glory. But he who knows something of the internal sense of the Word would know that the Lord took those three on account of their representation; for no one but he who is pure in heart, no one but he who is regenerating, is able to see the Lord.

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     Inasmuch as those three apostles signified those things, they followed the Lord more than the rest, as may also appear from Mark, where it is said, "Jesus suffered no man to follow Him, save Peter, Tames, and John the brother of James." (Mark v, 37.) These three disciples were also with the Lord in Gethsemane. No one can follow the Lord who does not have faith in Him and who does not live according to His commandments. No one can take his cross upon him and follow the Lord in temptation who does not shun his evils as ins against Him.

     "After six days Jesus taketh with Him Peter, James and John." It says "After six days" and this is a significant and noteworthy statement. Six days denote so many successive states of regeneration. There were six days of creation, and on the seventh day God rested from all His works. By those six days is described man's spiritual creation or rebirth, and when he reaches the seventh day his regeneration is completed, and he is at rest from temptations and is in Heaven. It is therefore said here, "After six days Jesus taketh with Him Peter, James and John." When those who have passed through their states of temptation and combat and "who have come out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb" (Rev. vii, 14) and consequently are established in faith and love to the Lord, then the Lord taketh them up into a high mountain, that is, into Heaven, and reveals Himself to them in His Divine Humanity.

     When the Lord had taken the disciples into the mountain, "He was transfigured before them, and His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment was white as the light." He was so seen by the disciples when they were withdrawn from the body and were in the light of Heaven. And "inasmuch as the Lord on this occasion was seen in His Divine, He appeared as to the face like the sun, and as to the garments like light; for the face corresponds to love, and garments correspond to truth; and inasmuch as the Divine Love was in Him therefore His face shone as the sun, and inasmuch as Divine Truth was from Him, therefore His garments became as light. Light also in Heaven is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord as a sun." (A. E. 401.)

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     When John saw one like unto the Son of Man in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, it is said that His countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. (Rev. i, 16.) And when the Lord was seen by John as an angel, it is written, "And I saw another mighty angel come down from Heaven, clothed with a cloud, and a rainbow was upon His head, and His face was as it were the sun, and His feet as pillars of fire." (Rev. x, I.) By a mighty angel here, is meant the Lord, and that His face shone as the sun was because the face signifies the interiors, which, being Divine, shone as the sun: for the sun is Divine love. The Divine love of the Lord also appears as the sun of the Angelic Heaven; and from that sun proceed all spiritual heat and light.

     The regenerated man is an image and a likeness of the Lord, and therefore it is said, "Then shall the just shine forth as the sun in the Kingdom of their Father." (Matt. xiii, 43.) "In the Word, they are called just, who love the Lord, that is, who from love to the Lord do His commandments; and the faces of such shine with an effulgence like that of the sun, because the Divine love of the Lord is communicated to them and received by them; by virtue of which the Lord is in the midst of them, that is, in their interiors, which manifest themselves in the face." (A. E. 401.)

     When man had so far removed himself from his God that he no longer knew Him, then, in the fullness of time, "Jehovah bowed the Heavens and came down;" and lest the Divine should perish with man, altogether immersed in corporeal and earthly things, it pleased Jehovah to present Himself actually such as He is, and such as He appears in Heaven, namely, as a Divine Man. It pleased the Redeemer thus to reveal Himself to the three disciples, in order that men might know that the human form is the Divine form, and that the Divine Human of the Lord, or the Son of God, is the Divine Itself in form. Thus we know that the God of Heaven and earth came into the world and that He is a Divine Man, not because we have seen Him with our natural eyes, but because we have His Divine Word which tells us so, and because others saw Him and have told us about it; "and we know that their testimony is true." (John xxi, 24) It was not necessary that all men should see the Lord in the World, but it was necessary that a few should see Him, in order that they might proclaim it to future generations.

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     The case is similar with the Lord's Second Coming. It is not necessary for us to go through Swedenborg's experiences or to see the things that he saw, but it was necessary that he should be intromitted into the spiritual world, in order that men might no longer make the objection that no one has ever returned from thence and told us anything about it.

     The Lord reveals Himself for the sake of the salvation of men, that their ignorance may be enlightened and their incredulity dissipated; and He revealed Himself on this occasion as the Divine Lord, - for "His face did shine as the sun," - in order that men might no longer think of Him as an angry and merciless God, but that they might think of Him as Love Itself; for "greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down His life for His friends." (John xv, 13.) If it be admitted that God is unchangeable, then if He loves at any time, He must always love, otherwise He is not unchangeable. The angels think of God as love itself, for they know that He loves every one, and wills the salvation of all.

     When the Lord was transfigured the disciples had a glimpse of Him in His Divine Human, and they saw Him as the angels in Heaven see Him. For when the Lord appears in Heaven He appears as an angel, but He is known apart from the angels by the Divine sphere and splendor which surrounds Him. By Moses and Elias who conversed with the Lord, was represented the Word of the Old Testament, which is also called Moses and the Prophets; by Moses, the books of Moses and also the historical books, and by Elias the Prophet, all the prophets. No others could talk with the Lord, when His Divine appeared in the world, but they who represented the Word, for discourse with the Lord is by the Word. (A. C. 6752.)

     Peter, being entirely overcome by the presence of the Divine said, "Lord, it is good for us to be here; if Thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for Thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias." And it is said in another Evangelist that he knew not what to say; for they were sore afraid.

     "While he yet spake, behold a bright cloud overshadowed them." It is said in the Word that no one can see God and live, and therefore it was that a bright cloud overshadowed the disciples. It was necessary that the Divine Glory should be covered, and to some extent concealed, for the finite cannot behold the Infinite such as it is in itself.

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It is therefore frequently said in the Word that the Lord appeared in a cloud, as in the following: "And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud." (Ex. xvi, 10). The Lord also appeared in a cloud upon the mercy-seat. (Lev. xvi, 2.) And when Jehovah descended upon the mountain to give the Decalogue to the Israelites He was covered with a cloud.

     In the same manner the Lord has covered the glory of the internal sense of the Word with a cloud, for it is said in the Word that "upon all the glory shall be a covering;" and that cloud is the sense of the letter. The Lord represented the Word in its glory when He was transfigured. He Himself, clothed with Divine majesty and glory, is the Internal or Spiritual sense of the Word; and the cloud which was around, is the sense of the letter. By means of this veiling the Divine is tempered and accommodated to man, who otherwise could have no idea of it. This veil, the cloud of the letter, also serves as a guard for the internal sense; not that the Divine may be guarded, for this can suffer no harm, but that man may be guarded, lest he who is unworthy should approach and hurt his own soul.

     It is said in the Gospel of Matthew that the Lord was to come in the clouds of Heaven with power and great glory, and by this cloud is meant the letter of the Word, in which the Lord has now come and revealed Himself in His Divine Glory. But He has not revealed Himself to all, but to those only who are in the affection of truth for its own sake, - to those only who are in faith in the Lord and in charity towards the neighbor; for Peter, James and John only, were allowed to accompany Him into the mountain and see Him transfigured. Those who love the Lord, and consequently are in the genuine affection of truth, will look beyond and above the cloud and see the glory of the Lord in the Word. But they who are in the love of self and of the world will not see Him, for they love falsity more than truth.

     As the Lord formerly spake out of a cloud to the Israelites so He speaks to His Church at this day out of a cloud, the cloud of the Letter, which teaches that His Human is Divine; for "behold a voice out of the cloud which said, This is my beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him."

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     By the voice from the cloud is signified the Divine truth from the Word; and the Lord does not speak to men except by the Word. And if men do not see the Lord in His Word they will not see Him anywhere else; if they do not hear the Lord's voice in the Word they will not hear it anywhere else; "for the Scriptures are they which testify concerning Him." The Scriptures declare that He is the only God and that He made His Humanity Divine; for a voice out of the cloud said, "This is My beloved Son," by Whom is meant the Divine Human. This statement was made concerning the Lord when "His face did shine as the sun and His raiment was white as the light," and from this Picture of the Divine Human given in the Word we can have some idea of how the Lord appears in Heaven, and how man might picture God to himself and thus Him before the eyes of his spirit.

     Because Divine truth is from the Lord, and hence all the truth of the Church, it was said out of the cloud, "in Whom I am well pleased, hear ye Him." This is also signified by that His raiment was white as the light. It was said, "Hear ye Him," because Divine Love cannot be heard or seen, but Divine truth can be heard or seen, and we know of the Divine love only by means of the Divine Wisdom or the Divine truth; for "No one comes to the Father except by the Son."

     "And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, "Arise, and be not afraid." "From these things it appears that such is the quality of the presence of the Divine Humanity of the Lord with the man who is in humiliation of heart, that he falls upon his face, and by the touch of the Lord's hand is raised upon his feet." When man acknowledges the Lord from the heart "he then comes as it were out of himself, and hence falls upon his face, and when he is thus out of himself, he is also removed from his proprium, which in itself is mere evil; which being removed, the Divine fills him. Not that the Divine desires such humiliation for Himself, but because evil is then removed, and so far as evil is removed from man, so far what is Divine flows in; for evil alone opposes." The state of man, when the Divine Presence removes his proprium, and afterwards fills him, is thus described in the Apocalypse: "When I saw Him I fell at His feet as dead; and He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me. Fear not." And in the words of the text, "And when the disciples heard it they fell on their faces and were sore afraid; and Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid."

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"And when they had lifted up their eyes they saw no man, save Jesus only."

     In order that man may see the Lord and be interiorly conjoined with Him, it is necessary for man to remove the evil of his proprium, and to pass through states of temptation and combat, in order that the Lord may be able to lead him into the mountain of His holiness, where he may bow himself down before the Lord and humbly worship at His footstool. - Amen.
NEW TRANSLATION OF THE "DIVINE PROVIDENCE." 1900

NEW TRANSLATION OF THE "DIVINE PROVIDENCE."       G. G. S       1900

     As a piece of book making the recent edition of the Divine Providence,* issued by the American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society, is especially acceptable, and the publishers have taken the further pains to provide an attractive little 16 mo, edition, which adds one volume more to the Society's series of handy-sized editions of the Writings, and which is furnished in a variety of styles calculated to suit any taste and purse. In addition, the plates of the recently published Latin reprint of this work have been made use of to issue a handsome Latin-English edition,** at the very low price of one dollar.
* Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence, by Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated into English by the Rev. John C. Ager. New York. American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society. 1899 PP 400. Price 40 cents.
The Same. 16 mo edition. 40 cents.
** Sapientia Angelica de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia, pp. 214. Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia, pp. 305. New York. American Swedenborg P. and P. Society. $1.

     A very full index, based on that of hi. Le Boys des Guays, has been prepared by Mr. George Woolworth Colton, a valuable feature of which is an index of the comparisons and illustrations occurring in the work.

     The translation is by the Rev. J. C. Ager, who we understand devotes himself almost exclusively to the American Society's work of republishing the Writings. Concerning its merits opinions will differ, but there is no gainsaying Mr. Ager's zeal and industry.

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His efforts to produce a readable English version have resulted at least in smoothing out many places where a too literal rendering would be needlessly awkward and unpleasing, or even obscure. Nevertheless in many other passages, gone farther in this direction than is either called for or warranted by the nature of the text; not to speak of meanings given not to be found in the original Latin.

     In the New Church there has not been, I believe, the same effort to arrive at a common basis of principles of translation in regard to the Writings as has been the case with reference to the Word. But there would seem to be an equal need, for in each cast: the form of revelation has been given to us by the Lord, and upon both has been set the Divine seal; so that the jealous guarding and preservation of their integrity is one of the very first duties of the New Church.

     The task of the translator, therefore, is to reproduce the form of revelation, not to teach or interpret, these belonging to another function in the Church the Lord, in. giving His Truth, and providing the instruments and means thereto, has Performed all the accommodation in respect to its form which is needed or possible. No addition, from the translator's intelligence or prudence, is permissible. In case of doubtful passages it is his privilege to assist as he may in throwing light upon them, but separately from the text, and accompanied by the original Latin, as the only safe and reverent course. The reader should never be forced to accept unsuspectingly, any human interpretation as being the Divine Law itself.

     It is remarkable how it has been lost sight of, that the Divine Providence, which gave the Writings their form, in its operations is universal in that it enters into every particular. Thus, Swedenborg's preparation on the natural plane, for his office, was not merely in intellectual and scientific things, but, in order that he might be eminently fitted to serve as a mouthpiece for a rational revelation, he was trained even in the arts and science of expression, in languages, and thus in the knowledge of root meanings of words. More than this, his familiarity with philosophic thought and style gave him a discriminating and profound understanding of the value and scope of terms.

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And when we further consider his perceptivity and illustration in his use and mission, and his introduction into the science of correspondences, and how these permeate the whole fabric of his work - not only in the figures of thought he employs but in the very root ideas of the more important of the words themselves - and, finally, when we remember the Divine guidance over all that he wrote, - it would seem borne in upon us irresistibly that even the very mould in which his thought was cast, the terms and figures in which his teachings are couched, have a significance; and this we dare not ignore even where we fail wholly to comprehend.

     There is room to differ, therefore, with Mr. Ager when he says, it; his prefatory "Translator's Note," that "The defects in previous translations of Swedenborg have arisen mainly from too close an adherence to cognate words and to the Latin order of words and phrases;" and that - "This is a formal rather than an essential faithfulness to the original." Not to deny that in the more faithful translations unnecessary crudities have appeared, it needs to be said that the really important defects have arisen in those translations which were made without just acknowledgment that in the Writings it is not Swedenborg the man but the Lord in His Second Coming who speaks.

     The influence of such non-acknowledgment appears on nearly every page of Mr. Ager's work, many of the instances being not very serious, but some gravely so. Again and again he ignores Swedenborg's root significations, neglecting to use their natural and available derivatives, while the words he selects in preference seem to offer no compensating advantages, to say the least. In his efforts for literary effect and finish (which Swedenborg seems in great measure to have purposely disregarded) he is led to needless paraphrasing and unjustifiable interpolations. No explanation, however, is obvious, for his offering; as translations words which simply do not translate. But to illustrate.

     In No. 3 we find the well-known sentence: sustentatio enim est perpetua creatio, sicut subsistentia est perpetua existentia, which may be translated with both accuracy and smoothness, - for sustenance [or 'sustaining'] is perpetual creation, as subsistence is perpetual existence;" but the translation before us twists it into - "For maintenance involves perpetual creation, as permanence involves a perpetual springing forth."

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     Now we cannot thus disregard, without distinct loss, the root idea and concrete image of sustaining, or holding up, as applied to the Divine support and carrying-through of the operations of the universe.

     The word "involves" is not only weaker than "is" but brings in a different idea. Who will say, for instance, that the statement "Life involves loving" is of identical force and meaning with "Life is loving?"

     "Subsistence" is a holding fast, abiding, keeping in existence; but "permanence" is a consequence of these and therefore not synonymous: it is less universal.

     Existentia, is simply "existence," which etymologically is a "standing forth" or coming into existence to import the idea of "springing" seems as needless as unscholarly.

     In No. 5 it is said that the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom are in every created thing as in a certain semblance, (in quadam imagine) yet "image," which is the natural rendering, of imagine, means something more interior that "semblance," for image is of the form while semblance is rather of the shape.

     In the sentence, quae causa est, quod quo interius aliquod objectum spectatur... ("which is the reason that the more interiorly any object is viewed", - interius is rendered "more deeply," which is not adequate We may think "more deeply" on the most worldly subject, but to think "interiorly" is to think spiritually.

     Where the translator for "notum" ("known") has "acknowledged," as in No. 10, and elsewhere, he ignores the frequent statement of the Writings that in the consummated church many truths of the Word are "known," but because they are not "acknowledged" they are rejected and interiorly denied.

     Mr. Ager everywhere translates affectio veri, ("the affection of truth") and affectio boni, ("the affection of good") as "affection for truth" and for good; as in No. 28; where nevertheless, as abundantly elsewhere, the doctrine is clear, that these affections are not of the man for the thing, but of the thing, from the Lord, in the man. We may indeed say that man has an affection for the truth, when speaking avowedly according to the appearance, which is, that man has the power or faculty from or in. himself, to love truth. But the truth descends from the Lord bearing with it affection, which is life; and in so far as man receives the truth, acknowledges and obeys it, he is gifted with its affection.

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We are allowed to speak according to the appearance but not to make the Writings speak so, where the Lord has not so expressed it. Similarly with the affection of knowing and the affection of understanding: each of these is a well-defined term standing for a well-defined philosophical idea concerning man's mental make-up or structure, and to translate them "affection for knowing," and "for understanding," is to render the idea indistinct, and indeed inaccurate; it does injury to the doctrine.

     A similar departure from the text occurs in No. 63, where the phrase - -affectio quae est amoris boni ("the affection which is of the love of good") has been rendered - "affection from the love of good." (See also n. 74, 75, 80, etc.)

     Such words as esse, existere and proprium, which for want of terms to adequately translate them have long been adopted as part of the New Church vocabulary, are in this version rendered into English as "being;" "coming forth," "own," etc.; though usually the Latin word is added in parentheses, which is fortunate. These Latin words involve more than seems to be contained in any terms, single or compound, of English origin. We cannot afford to allow any accepted rendering, - nor indeed any expression made New-Church by usage, - to be dispossessed except on very strong grounds. And it may be added that technicality is not a defect except where it is unnecessary and therefore out of place. Many pure English words have been given distinctive meanings in the New Church for which one would seek in vain in the dictionary; as for instance, "sphere," "justice," "church," "good," "corporeal," etc. "Scientific" is a specially good instance, and one in which much violence has been done to a long-suffering and much-abused term. Into these meanings the new-learner must become initiated, and we can no more save him that labor than we can save him the pains of acquiring New Church habits of thought. Qui e nunce nucleu sesse vult, frangat nucem.

     A notably unfortunate effort to dispense with the word "proprium" (omitting the usual indication of it in parentheses) occurs in No. 206. It is there shown hem: in every evil is concealed the acknowledgment of nature alone as deity, and it is said that nature itself is dead, and that "man's proprium is hell, and consequently the love of self (or of "one's own") is the devil."

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The translation, however, has it that "man's own is hell," which not only sounds peculiar but does not satisfy the requirements.

     Without multiplying instances we may mention the following where Swedenborg's terminology has been departed from without apparent good reason:

     ...Apparentia est qauod forma non aliter possit unum facere, quam per similitudines aequalitatis illorum quae forman constituunt (... the appearance is that the form can not make a one otherwise than through likenesses of equality of those things which constitute the form;") rendered as, - "... the appearance is that a form can make a one only through likenesses of uniformity in the things that make up the form." (n. 4.)

     Quod quo distinctius duo sunt, eo perfectius unum possint facere:...et quod indistinctuum sit confusum, ex quo omnis imperfectio formae resultat; ("that the more' distinctly they are two the more perfectly they make a one; and that what is indistinct is confused, from which all imperfection of form results.") Given thus: "that the more distinctly these [love and wisdom] are two, the more perfectly they can make a one,...while what is not distinct is mixed up, giving rise to every imperfection of form." Now confusus, etymologically, gives the image of a form the outlines of which are blurred, as from partial melting or "pouring together:" but "mixed up" involves other things. (Ibid.)

     Hoc itaque est continuum Divinae Providentiae; ("this therefore is the continuum of the Divine Providence"), - is given as "this therefore is the continual aim of the Divine Providence." Continuum is a difficult word to render, it is so universal in its scope; but "aim" is no better word with which to limit it than would be other and distinct words, as "desire," "effort," etc. Indeed, in No. 123 the translation supplies "effort" instead of "aim," to fill out the idea involved in continuum. (n. 67.)

     ...In omni progressione; rendered as - "in all development." (n. 56.)

     Dominus providet; "the Lord cares for": a similar but not identical idea. "Provides" should answer every need. (n. 70.)

     Affectio amoris naturalis; Affection from natural love. There is quite a difference between the affection of love and the affection from love. (n.74)

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     Scortatio; ("whoredom") , - "adulterous relations." in. 77.)

     Intendit; ("intends") - "has in mind." (n. 89.)

     Moralia rationis ("moral things of reason"), - "moral requirements of reason." (n. 199.)

     Omnes illi credunt immediatam misericordiam, et momentaneam salvationem; ("all these believe in immediate mercy and instantaneous salvation"); - "All of these believe in mercy apart from means," etc. "Immediate" would be correct and adequate.

     ...Imbuunt fugere mala; ("they imbue the shunning of evils"); - "they fall into the way of shunning evils." To imbue is to pervade thoroughly or tincture, as dye pervades a fabric. (n. 117.)

     Quod ipsas varietates attinet; ("As regards the varieties themselves"); - rendered - "As to the changes. (n. 190.) The distinction between variety and change is so evident as to need only mention.

     Anima et corpus in angelo et in homine, ac procedens vitae ab illis ("soul and body and the proceeding of life thence, in angel and man"); - "soul, body and the proceeding of life," etc. (n. 123.)

     Dominus ab aeterno, seu jehovah, in mundum venerit ac ibi induerit et susceperit Humanum in ultimis. Here the translation renders the familiar and distinctly New Church ultimis, or "ultimates," as "outmosts;" - the Lord "assumed Humanity in outmosts." Of course "ultimates" do involve "outmosts," but they also involve "lowests," "extremes," etc. Why discredit so useful a word as "ultimates?" especially where it is essential to a most vital doctrine.

     It is hard to conjecture where the translator found the definition, "treacherous forms," for priapi, as he renders it in No. 171. This is another Latin word we may conveniently adopt.

     A typographical error may be mentioned, on page 15 of the Latin, where "Proventia" occurs, for "Providentia,"(in the first part of No. 21).

     Another error, in the English, occurs at the foot of page 45, where the last line reads: "that reason comes from internal or higher freedom the more;" - where the words "the more" evidently should follow immediately after "from."

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     I might go on at great length citing how the translation throughout paraphrases, interpolates, and takes liberties generally with the text; but what has been done is sufficient to suggest to those who wish to have the Divine Truth in its own form, that the present translation is far from what they would call reliable; a depressing thing to contemplate in view of the great expenditure, the limited resources of the Church, and the crying need for a really satisfactory reproduction of Swedenborg in the vernacular. G. G. S.
SWEDENBORG'S SCIENTIFIC WORKS, AND THE WRITINGS* 1900

SWEDENBORG'S SCIENTIFIC WORKS, AND THE WRITINGS*       ALFRED ACTON       1900

*This paper constituted a response to a toast proposed at the Principia Club's celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday, January 29th, 1900.

     To understand the relation between Swedenborg's Scientific works and the Revelation to the New Church, we must understand the nature and course of Divine Revelation.

     Revelation may be defined as the speech of the Lord in the language of man, or, the setting forth of spiritual and divine truths in the words of men. Thus in all revelations we have two things, - that which is of the Lord and that which is from man; the soul of the revelation and its body. Observe that I say "from" man, not "of" man; for that which is from man does not disfigure or obscure the revelation, but it is taken from the man's mind and used as a covering, a body for the plain and full existence of Revelation.

     Thus all revelations, while being revelations of infinite truths, have been written or spoken by men and in words and with ideas comprehensible to men. Therefore the men through whom revelation has been made, had to have in their memories and minds vessels suited to receive the revelation; or they had to be completely furnished with the materials of that plane on which the revelation was to appear. Only thus can revelation appear. And this involves preparation of the revelator.

     This preparation has always been made. In most ancient times revelation was made through the old men, the patriarchs, - men who from their childhood had been taught concerning the Lord, and whose truths could be illustrated from heaven, so that they again could teach their children.

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     In the Ancient Church revelation was made through men who were prepared by the study of the science of correspondence. In the Jewish Church, where the revelation was a merely sensual one in which Divine Truth came into lowest possible ultimates, men were raised up who had been furnished with those ultimates - men who were well acquainted with the Hebrew tongue, men who knew the history and laws of the Israelites. We can well believe that Moses' life was guided by the Lord from his earliest infancy, that he might become a revelator; that for this reason he was taken by the daughter of Pharaoh and by her educated in the lore of the ancient Church, which must have included a knowledge of the Hebrew language by which the Lord was to speak. And so with the other writers of the Old Testament. All were prepared with that which was necessary for the revelation given through them.

     In the New Testament We also see this work of preparation. The revelation of that Testament is not a sensual one; the truth does not these rest of the forms of letters or the arrangement of words as in the Old Testament; but the revelation is one in which the Divine Truth the inspiration words, to which spiritual ideas correspond. And so the men who wrote this revelation were prepared by being taught such natural moral ideas. The writers of the Gospels were not at once able to do their work, to be the servants of the Lord the Revealer. They were prepared for it from their infancy. They were prepared by being kept in the expectation of the Messiah which the Jewish Church gave; they were prepared by hearing and believing the teachings of John the Baptist; and more than all, they were prepared by being constantly with our Lord who taught them, yea, and taught them, I doubt not, far more than is contained in the letter of the Gospels. Thus were they prepared to understand those natural moral truths which, in the Gospels, were inspired with the Divine Spirit, and became the vessels in which Divine Truth appeared.

     These Revelations could never have been given unless men had been prepared, as I have indicated, for there would have been no plane on which they could exist. And let me go further than this. These revelations can never be received by us, unless we also undergo similar preparation; just as no idea can be understood by unless we understand the medium by which those ideas come.

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Unless we are prepared, as were the ancients, by a knowledge of correspondences, the Ancient Word is a sealed book to us. Unless we know Hebrew and the history and laws of the Jews, the Old Testament is so far sealed to us. You may say that we have translations. True, but w, have those translations because men have studied Hebrew, have learned the laws of the Jews, and still further interpreted them to us.

     And that men may be thus prepared we have, not only the revelations themselves, but also collateral works which are to be studied and learned, that Divine Revelation may be more fully understood Thus we have many books of the Ancient Church, the writings of Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, and the book of Job. And, as the New Church grows, all these will enable us to more and more fully understand the truths of the Ancient Word. And so we have the non-canonical books of the Old Testament, which are a help to us in understanding the Hebrew, and in learning the laws and history of the Israelites. So also in the New Testament. The revelation there given cannot be understood unless we are furnished with the natural moral truths, by which it was made. And these truths we learn not only in the Gospels themselves, but we also given them in the writings of the Apostles, that our knowledge may be strengthened and furthered; by which we may learn the preparation of the writers of the New Testament, and by which we may ourselves be better prepared to enter into the understanding of those gospels.

     The revelation of the New Church in like manner required that the man through whom it was made, be prepared - prepared from his earliest infancy. And that preparation involved all previous preparations, because the revelation is the crown of all previous revelations Swedenborg was first prepared by the storing up of his mind with natural and moral truths; then by the study of Hebrew; then, when his eyes were opened, by a knowledge of the science of correspondences, and lastly by the Lord Himself who taught him celestial truth.

     And as in former revelations, so in this, in order that we may understand it, our mind must likewise be prepared. And again, as in other revelations so in this, we have collateral works by which that preparation may be more fully made. I say more fully, for the things by which Swedenborg was prepared and hence by which we are prepared, are contained not only in the collateral works referred tot but also in the revelation itself, as is the case with every revelation.

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When Swedenborg teaches us from the Lord, spiritual truth by natural rational ideas and with scientific illustrations, those ideas and illustrations were such as his mind had been furnished with, and we must understand them also if we would understand the revelation We must learn the language of rationality if we would read the revelation written in that language. And that we may better learn that language we have preserved to us those books which show how Swedenborg learned it; we have those scientific and semi-theological works in which are evidenced that Divine Guidance by which Swedenborg was pre pared from earliest infancy to become the Servant of the Lord.

     As Divine Revelation? As infallibly true? Assuredly not! They do not contain in themselves the standard of truth, - infallibility the very speech of God. They are the works of man, of human thought, of human discovery, of human reason; true, a reason guided and enlightened by the Lord, because Swedenborg was in the love of truth, but still a fallible human reason; true, a reason.

     The only standard by which these works can be judged, and their principles accepted or rejected, is contained in the Divine Revelation. It is true that that revelation comes to us through vessels formed partly by these very books, - that they come to us with the mark and sign of Divine Preparation. But this does not make them infallible; it does not make them a standard to themselves; it does not make everything in them necessarily true, a correspondent to spiritual truth. All that is said in them must be accepted by us as the sayings, the thoughts, the theories and the conclusions of a man, to, be believed only so far as they are in harmony with Divine Revelation and with a rational mind formed by that revelation; and the principles contained in them are to be taken as truths corresponding to spiritual truths only so far as we find that this is actually the case. The works are in themselves on the same plane as the works of other men.

     But when we examine the works of other men what do we find! Falsity after falsity, - falsities diametrically opposite to the truths of Revelation; while with Swedenborg's works we find running all through them a great chain of natural truths fully in harmony with revealed truth, and fit to serve as illustrators of that truth.

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He is often in obscurity as to higher things, he may at times have fallen into falses, but in the principles going through all his works, in the truths by which he investigated the whole of nature, in the conclusions at which he arrived - conclusions new, strange, ridiculous to the sensualist and the materialist - we see a harmony, a great, a notable harmony, with Divinely revealed truth.

     And the harmony is there because Swedenborg was divinely prepared to become that Servant by whom the crown of revelations was made - because his works have the mark and the signs of Divine preparation Nor can we be surprised at this harmony; for taking Swedenborg's own statement that he was prepared by the Lord from earliest infancy, we cannot suppose that the Lord prepared a man with natural principles, only that those principles may be rejected when the fruits of the preparation were to come forth. No! Swedenborg was guided to search and to find natural truths, that they might be used as fit vessels for the seeing and receiving of spiritual truth. And those studies of his in natural truths, are to be taken by us, as they were afterwards taken by him, as so many evidences of the Lord's wonderful guidance in preparing him to be a Revelator.

     To sum up: We take the statements of Swedenborg the scientist as we take the statements of other men; we examine them in the light of Divine Revelation; we find that they are true, and we acknowledge that they are true because Swedenborg was guided in the way of truth from his earliest infancy.

And well may we thank the Lord that He has preserved these works to us in which we will more and more see, that the truths there set forth not only agree with Revelation, but make revelation itself more clear to us - instruct us more fully in the language in which it is written, and enable us to enter more fully into it, as they enabled Swedenborg to receive and to give it. ALFRED ACTON.

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JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. III. 1900

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. III.              1900

     AFTER a brief period of rest Dr. Wilkinson resumed his literary labors in 1849, and now as the biographer of his great master, Swedenborg. Before this time there had appeared but one extended account of the life and work of Emanuel Swedenborg, - that of Nathaniel Hobart, of Boston, - an excellent work as a first attempt, and written in the spirit of a sincere believer in the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem. It is lacking, however, in an intelligent appreciation of Swedenborg as a scientist and philosopher, a pardonable fault, since the writer did not, and could not have, free access to the earlier works of the great Swede. Dr. Wilkinson was the first New Churchman who was able to supply this want, prepared as he had been by ten years of study, translating and editing. In his new work, Emanuel Swedenborg. A Biography, (London and Boston, 1849), he now gave the fruits of his investigations to the world. According to a later biographer of Swedenborg, the Janus-faced historian William White, this was "a work which, alike for its artistic excellence as a biography and the originality and poetic beauty of its thoughts, has no equal in the English language."

     It needs not to challenge this eulogy, to say - that the book still leaves much to be desired, especially from a theological point of view. In his anxiety to avoid the appearance of partisanship or sectarianism and thus to secure a more attentive audience in the outside world, Dr. Wilkinson in this work seems to descend somewhat from the loftier region of faith, assuming more the tone of a friendly but somewhat flippant and semi-sceptical man of the world than that of a devout New Churchman. This radical defect was remedied, long afterwards, in the second, enlarged and revised edition which was published in London, in 1886. The first edition can be recommended only as the best account of Swedenborg the scientist and philosopher, that had appeared up to that time.

     Though less known or appreciated in the New Church, his next work is of far greater merits than the biography of Swedenborg, which, as the author confesses, was written in too great haste.

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But in his volume on The Human Body and its Connexion with Man, (London, 1851), the Doctor gave forth the crowning work of his life. Strange as it may seem, this work was noticed in but one of the contemporary journals of the Church, the New Church Repository, of New York, where it was handled in a rather pedantic manner by the learned Professor Bush. It has been referred to, in later times, as "a prose-poem of singular beauty and power," but this characterization does justice only to the form of this master-piece of genius and true philosophic thought. The merits of the style are indeed such as almost to obscure the more internal and substantial value of the work itself, being perhaps too eloquent, too brilliant, playful and poetical for the profound and serious thoughts which the author sought to express. The work is essentially an epitome and popular adaptation of Swedenborg's works, the Economy, and the Animal Kingdom, inspired by these throughout, yet distinctly original in its application to all sorts of modern issues in the worlds of science and of social economy. Each of the seven chapters of the book is a complete and systematic treatise on the subjects of the Brain, the Lungs, the Organs of Assimilation, the Heart, the Skin, the Human Form, and Health. It would be impossible to particularize in this brief sketch, or to describe, as they deserve, the originality, the rich humour, the strong common sense, the philanthropic sympathy, the devout faith and the courageous spirit, which breathe from every page of this remarkable book. It truly teems with new ideas, luminous thoughts, and pregnant suggestions. We will simply have to content ourselves with recommending it to be read, as an introducer to the grand arcana of the human fabric.

     Nevertheless, to vouch for the correctness of everything which the Doctor puts forth in this volume, would be rather unsafe, for he says so many things. His sympathies, at this period, were too broad, and his imagination was too lively, to secure entire confidence in all his conclusions. His views on the phenomena of mesmerism and hypnotism, for instance, will have to be entirely rejected, as they were by the author himself in later years. They proved to him an ignis fatuus which led him for a time into the marshes and quicksands of spiritism. He fortunately regained his senses, after long years of spiritual prostration, and, emerged a chastened and humbled man, but wiser and safer than before.

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     In the year 1852 Dr. Wilkinson brought to a close his labors as translator of Swedenborg's scientific works, when his version of the volume on The Generative Organs appeared in London. Though published, nominally, by the "Swedenborg Association," it was printed at the sole expense of Joseph Senior, Esq., of Dalton, the Association at this time having become Virtually defunct, without leaving as much as an obituary behind it.

     This volume takes a place among the works of Swedenborg the scientist exactly corresponding to that of Conjugial Love among the Theological Writings of. Swedenborg the revelator. It fits the latter as the glove fits the hand, presenting the natural truth on this sublime subject, of which Conjugial Love reveals the spiritual counterpart. In this physiological work Swedenborg, in facts, comes marvellously near the genuine doctrine concerning the spiritual relations between man and woman, and restores the very expression "conjugial" from obsolete antiquity It is a pity that Dr. Wilkinson did not follow the author in the use of this term which so well expresses the exalted idea of "conjunction," but adopted instead the more common term "conjugal," which describes, etymologically, a marital "poking together" as of two beasts of burden.

     The translation as a whole is nevertheless an excellent one, and can be republished without much revision. Such republication is greatly needed, for the work is one that should be placed into the hands of every young man about to enter the married state. As expressed by the translator in his brief "advertisement:"

     "It is a delicate subject which the present treatise embraces, but it is one which cannot be unknown. When we are little boys and girls, our first queries about our whence are answered by the authoritative dogma of 'the silver spade:' we were dug up by that implement. By degrees the fact comes forth. The public, however, remains for ages in the silver-spade condition of mind with regard to the science of the fact; and the doctors foster it by telling us that the whole subject is a medical property. Swedenborg wants to tell us on the other hand all about these mysteries; and we suppose the time has come when we may begin to know. There is nothing wrong in the knowing: and though the passions may be stimulated in the first moments by such information, yet in the second instance they will be calmed by it; and ceasing to be inflamed by the additional goad of curiosity and imagination, they will cool down under the hydropathic influences of science. Well stated knowledge did never yet contribute to human inflammation."

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     Light alone can dispel the prevailing fearful ignorance on this holy subject. Light alone fan be victorious over the demons of lasciviousness who refrain not from invading even the marriage relation. Such light is given here, truth scientific, moral, pure and poetical, in striking contrast with the countless inane if not insane volumes which, under the cover of privacy, profess to instruct young men on a subject which has been kept away from them by parents and teachers alike. What a crime! to withhold this most important knowledge from the future progenitors of the race; to allow them to enter the nuptial chamber filled, only too probably, with vain and unholy phantasies - with scraps of knowledge picked up from among the filth of the streets or from the vendors of forbidden literature. "First states enter into all succeeding ones," and the ignorance or wrong knowledge of the newly married man can be dispelled only by years of sad experience, to the detriment, and often to the destruction, of true conjugial love.

     But as for those members of the New Church who as youths have studied this grand work of Swedenborg's, and who in their married life have experienced the blessings of the light therein bestowed, the present writer cannot adequately express the depth of obligation under which Dr. Wilkinson has placed them by his zeal and courage in bringing out this noble volume on The Generative Organs.

     This was the last of the series of Swedenborg's early treatises which were edited or translated by Dr. Wilkinson. The use, for the time being, came to a standstill. The "ocean" of natural truth, as contained in these works, had been discovered and to some limited extent navigated, but the continent beyond had not been reached. The scientific world kindly noticed and promptly forgot them. The New Church felt proud in their possession, but did not use them, and only half believed in their value. The explorers themselves, Dr. Wilkinson and his associates, discouraged, abandoned their researches. Decade after decade of silence and oblivion followed. The books "went out of the market" and soon could be obtained only at second hand. and at exorbitant prices. Still, the seed had been sown, and rested quietly and long in the bosom of the Church, until, towards the end of the century, tender blades of renewed interest began to manifest themselves.

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The tradition of the value of these works has survived through a series of teachers, and has increased in strength, until now the present generation demands the resurrection of the buried volumes.

     Of Dr. Wilkinson's next work, a treatise on War, Cholera, and the Ministry of Health, (London, 1854), we are not prepared to give any opinion. It is an impassioned, eloquent appeal "to Sir Benjamin Hall and the British people" in behalf of the adoption of Homoeopathy in the military hospitals and the pest houses.

     The Doctor's connection with the New Church, and his interest in its uses, had virtually ceased at this time. Spiritually he now entered upon a state of infestation and vastation, over which we would gladly draw the veil of silence, did historical truthfulness permit. The story of his troubles, of his captivity in the hands of the vile spirits whom he allowed to obsess and prostitute his noble mind, will certainly "point a moral," though it may not serve as an adornment to this tale.

     It would seem that the hells of the ancient magicians, - the perverted posterity of the Ancient Church, - had been permitted at this time to pour forth their demoniac inhabitants into the world of spirits, in order to work their will, for a period, upon the dwellers on the earth. The minds of men were suddenly caught in a flood of magical influences. "Modern Spiritism" introduced its ghastly presence by the "Rochester rappings" and kindred phenomena. Mesmerism, clairvoyance, table-rapping, mediumship, slate-writing, spirit-drawings, communication with the dead, - all this forbidden mummery became fashion able among the intellectual circles in the Christian world, especially in America and England. The members of the New Church looked on in amaze. To some it seemed that the days of the Golden Age had come back to the earth, a grand, sudden and universal descent of the New Jerusalem in the most celestial potency. Here were verifications of Swedenborg's own intromission into the spiritual world and of his revelations concerning the nature of that world! But others, those who looked upon the Writings of the New Church as a Divine Revelation and not as a spirit-communication, quickly realized the fearful danger threatening the New Church in this movement. The Lord Himself had fore-warned them against it, in His ancient as well as in His new revelation.

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The spiritists themselves helped to clear the atmosphere by their disorderly conduct, by the inanity, of their messages from the "Summer land" and by the clearly anti-christian and atheistic teachings of leading mediums, such as Andrew Jackson Davis. The flood seemed diverted into channels where it could no longer threaten the New Church.

     But the tail of the ancient Dragon was not yet cast down. There suddenly arose upon the horizon the seemingly gigantic figure of a pivotal man, a young Universalist preacher from New Orleans, Thomas Lake Harris by name, a man of extraordinary talents, eloquence, brilliancy, and magnetic power of persuasion. Fired by the love of dominion over the spirits of men, wrapped in stupendous self-conceit, and armed cop a pie with cunning, this man became the willing medium through whom the magical spirits now sought "to deceive, if possible, the very elect." Deeply versed in all the arts of Spiritism, he became acquainted, through some means or other, with the Writings of the New Church. As the cobra sips the dew of heaven and distils it into poison, so Harris absorbed the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, arrayed himself without in Heavenly light, and now began a comet-like wandering across the intellectual firmament of America and Europe, a glittering course of nearly fifty years, which has but lately ended in disgrace and nameless scandal on the Pacific coast.

     Appearing first in New York, Harris insinuated himself among the members of the New Church in that city as a receiver and Prophet of an advanced type. Announcing himself as a successor of Swedenborg, he came with offers of new revelations, the opening of the "celestial" degree, the unfolding of the "celestial" sense of the Word, the restoration of "internal respiration" and communion - not with mere spirits, but with guaranteed angels of light. Having attracted a number of devotees, after creating a vast amount of turmoil and trouble, he next flitted across the Atlantic, lectured to enormous audiences in London and other cities in England, had a phenomenal success wherever he appeared, attached men of intellect, position and wealth to his triumphant chariot, and so fascinated many of the most prominent members of the New Church that they lost the possession of their common sense, their reason and their faith.

     Among these hypnotized victims we find our beloved friend, Dr. Wilkinson, who, it would seem, must have been thus far rather the enthusiastic follower of Swedenborg the man, than a disciple of the Lord in His Second Coming.

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We are happy to be able to say that we possess but few data of his connection with Harris, but such as they are they exhibit him. at this period, a fullfledged spiritualist. Thus we find him, in the summer of 1855 on a visit to Dr. Kahl, at Lund, describing to him the communications which had lately been received, through an English medium, from the "Icelandic heaven" The Mala herself had told how her celebrated song, the Voluspa, "the Icelandic Word," had been given to her in ancient times through inspiration from the Lord. (See New Jerusalem Magazine, Boston, vol. 28, p 433.)

     We next find him as the misguided author of a pamphlet entitled The Homoepathic Principle applied to Insanity. A Proposal to treat Lunacy by Spiritualism. (London and Boston, 1857.) The public is assured, here, that "Spiritualism is one of the Lord's plants1857.) The public is assured, here, that "Spiritualism is one of the Lord's plants for curing insanity." In certain cases it has been known to produce insanity, but the fault has not been then with the spirits, but with the disordered organism of the medium. "Similia similibus curantur." Hence, introduce the practices of spirit-drawing, table-rapping, etc., into the madhouses, and these things will prove outlets for the spirits who have produced the insanity, and they will leave the patient whole and sound. We do not know if the proposed remedy was ever tried, but can imagine it would make a Bedlam worse confounded. At any rate, it does not appeal to us as sound Homoeopathy, the prescribed doses amounting to a raw tincture. The hair of a medium, highly potentized, might be more effective.

     A most painful task still remains: to notice, as briefly as possible, a volume of "poems," which Dr Wilkinson published in the same unhappy year, under the title of Improvizations from the Spirit. (London, Swedenborg Society [!], 1857.) The only redeeming feature about this small but direful volume of damnable doggerel, is, that it was not written by our poor friend, the Doctor, but professedly by spirits, - surely a horde of idiots, who had taken bodily possession of a fevered brain in order to pour out upon suffering humanity the most nauseating rhymed nonsense and profanity that ever was heard or seen.

     It makes us shudder to think that a man, professedly under the influence of such spirits, was appointed, in the same year, to revise Mr. Clowes' translation of the work on The Divine Providence.

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But the Swedenborg Society, at this period, had fallen into the hands of the spiritists. The ludicrous and blasphemous ravings of Harris were openly exposed for sale in the windows of the Society's Book Room and advertised in the organs of the Church, nay in the volumes of Swedenborg himself. The Committee was packed with Harrisites, the treasurer and the secretary were fanatical followers of the American medium, and the bold attempt was finally made, by means of bought proxies, to outvote the New Churchmen in the Society, and turn the organization, its funds and real-estate, into a distinctly spiritistic institution. In these scandalous proceedings Dr. Wilkinson, however, took no part, but withdrew from the body about the year 1860, before the final judgment came. How long the Doctor remained under the influence of Harris - to whom he was as a sort of "court-physician" - is uncertain, but we know that in 1868 his interest in the uses of the New Church had revived, and that by 1875, his mind had finally been set free from the clouds and meshes of spiritism. The record of his struggles for light and freedom has not been made known but his repentance was open and manly. Few have come out of Spiritism without lasting scars, but Dr. Wilkinson's later works bear no evidence of magical remains. The store of his exile among the swine and the husks is no reproach to him, for "Joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth more than over ninety and nine just persons that need no repentance."          (To be Continued.)
SWEDENBORG'S EARLIEST PUBLICATION 1900

SWEDENBORG'S EARLIEST PUBLICATION       ALFRED H. STROH       1900

     THE Year 1709 is an important one in the study of Swedenborg's life, for on the first of June of that year he graduated from the University of Upsala. On this occasion he read a thesis, in the large university hall named after Gustavus the Great; Magister Fabianus Toerner, the Royal and Ordinary Professor of Theoretical Philosophy, occupying the chair. This thesis Swedenborg (then "Swedberg") afterwards published, dedicating it to his father in words of the warmest affection.

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     The title-page of this the earliest of Swedenborg's publications reads in full as follows: "Q. B. V. Select Sentences of L. Annaeus Seneca and Pub. Syrus Mimus, perhaps also of others, with the annotations of Erasmus and the Greek version of Jos. Scaliger, which, with the consent of the illustrious philosophical faculty, and explained by notes, Emanuel Swedberg modestly submits to public examination under the jurisdiction of the most illustrious Mag. Fabianus Toerner, Royal and Ordinary Professor of Theoretical Philosophy. In the hall of Gustavus the Great. On the first day of June. MDCCIX. Upsala. The Wernerian Printing Office." Copies of this little work are now extremely rare. Of those that are extant one is preserved in the library of the Academy of the New Church. A reprint was made by Dr. Immanuel Tafel in 1841.

     Swedenborg at the time of his graduation was a little over twenty-one Years old. Excepting the first four years of his life he had lived in the picturesque old university town of Upsala. Here his father first occupied the chair of Theology and afterwards became "Rector" or Chancellor of the University. Thus the youth of Swedenborg was surrounded by a sphere of piety and learning. In his tenth letter to Dr. Beyer he speaks of his conversing, in childhood, with clergymen about faith and love; and we have evidence that his classical studies began at the age of twelve, for there is extant a Greek-Latin Lexicon which bears the signature "Emanuel Swedberg, 1700."

     In 1703 Swedenborg's father being appointed Bishop of Skara in Westgothland, Emanuel, now fifteen years old, remained at the university, to finish his education. He was left under the care of his brother-in-law, Eric Benzelius, librarian of the university, who afterwards became Bishop of Linkoping and Archbishop of Upsala, and who was Swedenborg's most intimate friend and like "a second father" to him. Of Swedenborg's life at the university we know very little and this makes his graduating thesis especially valuable, for it gives us indirect information about a very interesting period of his life.

     The thesis itself is a collection of about one hundred and seventy short sayings or "sentences." The author of these sentences was probably Publius, or rather Publilius, Syrus Mimus a mimic player and writer who flourished about 43 B. C., whose sayings were popularly ascribed to Seneca during the Middle Ages.

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In Swedenborg's edition the original sentences are on the left hand page; on the right hand page is the Greek Version of Joseph Scaliger, and below are Swedenborg's notes, in which he quotes what authorities - like Erasmus, Scaliger, and Gruterus - have written about the sentences; also adding his own views and making references to Scripture and to both classical and modern writers. The notes and references show that Swedenborg during his course at the university must have been an extensive reader and a very busy student. He shows an excellent knowledge of the Scriptures, of Grecian and Roman antiquities, and of a great number of the classical writers, continually quoting or referring to Cicero, Seneca, Ovid, Virgil, Terence, Lactantius and Sallust, beside a host of others. It is not difficult to see whence came the classical polish so noticeable in his later writings. He uses Creek with an astonishing facility, interspersing it throughout the body of the notes. In one case he uses Latin, Greek and Swedish words in the same sentence.

     The following quotations will give some idea of the quality of these notes. When speaking of the nearness of death the writer says: "I may add some common sayings which have arisen concerning death, which will have more charm if you express them in a lively manner, by gesture, lace and voice, than if you use only eloquence, as: that man is not distant from death by the breadth of a nail, by a foot, or by a step, I Sam. 20: 3; that it follows like a shadow; that it is a point; that its measure is that of the palm of the hand; that it is a race, a farce, a comedy; that we are brought to the extremity; that the play is finished.... The meaning therefore of Publius must be that mortals are equally distant from death, a goal that is never removed even if we are tormented and grow pale with fear on account of it. Suspended in a moment of fleeting time, if we think of the time that is past, that it is possessed by death, - if we think of that which is to pass, - we will confess that there is no difference between a short and a long time. Seneca, Quaest. Nat. 6:32."

     Here we see that as early as 1709 Swedenborg took a very interior view of the nature of time. In his note on a sentence similar to the golden rule, Swedenborg says:

     "The truth of this expression is confirmed by examples of parricides, of malicious men, etc.; as appears from history concerning the assassins of the Julian house, Galba, Gordian and Darius, few of whom died a natural death . . . the artists of death perish by their own art.

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Who, I ask, does not know of the foundation of justice and as it were the master-precept of law, 'that which you do not wish to have done to you, do not to another,' concerning which see Lact. 6: 3; it is also a maxim of divine law, Matt. 7:12; Grot. ib. Luke 6:31; Tob. 4: 16.... He prepares evid for himself, who prepares it for another."

     On the sentence "The injury of another should by no means give you joy," Swedenborg makes the following comments: "Joy at one's neighbor's ills the wiser among men have held in great detestation. Terent. And. 4: I, calls that kind of men the worst; and Naso in Trist. 5:8, says concerning the mocker who was drowned in the sea: 'Never,' I said, 'has there been a more righteous wave.' Even if such men escape human justice they will not escape that of God. Prov. 17:5."

     The above quotations are examples of the quality of Swedenborg's notes in the "Select Sentences." We see how his mind was formed by the truths of the Word and by that reflected light from the Ancient Word which is contained in the Classics. This little work thus furnishes the first link in that chain of evidence which proves how wonderfully Swedenborg was prepared from his childhood and youth to be the human instrument by which the Lord was to make His Second Coming.          ALFRED H. STROH.

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Editorial Department 1900

Editorial Department       Editor       1900

NOTES.

     PRESS Of Other matter seriously curtails our "Monthly Review" department in this number, as also the "Church News."

     NEXT month we propose to continue the publication of "Minor Works Swedenborg," with the first instalment of the important little treatise or "The Word" (De Verbo).

     As summer approaches, the thoughts of members of the General Church centre more strongly on the event of the year, - the General Assembly. This year the opportunity to secure special railroad rates, makes it advisable to hold the meeting at a time which will include the Nineteenth of June, the celebration of which by the General Church as a body, will he an unprecedented occurrence. The indications are that the great interest, pleasure and usefulness which have become so strongly characteristic of these occasions, will be fully sustained. For the special announcement readers are referred to our news columns, page 224.

     THE annual meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association is announced for April 19th and 20th. Further details are given in the Special Notice, on page 224. Not inappropriately comes the publication of the minutes of the first or "organization" meeting of this body in the January number of The New, Philosophy, just out. "Bulletin No. I of the Association constitutes the contents-matter of this number, which presents the New Philosophy in its new form as a handsome little magazine of 32 pages. It contains the papers read at the initial meeting; by Rev. Frank Sewall, on the Use to be Accomplished by the Association; by Professor Riborg Mann, on the Value of Swedenborg's Chemistry; by Rev. C. T. Odhner, on Swedenborg's Earliest Scientific Works, and, a List of Swedenborg's Scientific Writings, by Mr. John R. Swanton.

     THE following passage, of itself, sufficiently establishes it to be the teaching of the Writings that the Old Church does not, through being consummated, disappear as an external organization, but persists and becomes worse. "The common principles of faith and charity, represented by the sons of Jacob, become by perversion evils and falsities of that genus, when once the good and truth of the Church are extinguished: and then falsities and evils are super-added; for falsities and evils grow continually in the Church once perverted and extinct." (A. C. 4503.)

     This statement succinctly puts what is taught throughout the Writings; yet this is ignored by those who contend that the Old Church, having been consummated, is no more, and that there remain only the New Church and gentiles or gentile states.

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We can not explain this calm ignoring of the Doctrine; we can only wonder at it.

     THE ACQUISITION OF WEALTH AND THE GOLDEN RULE.

     IN his essay "Search for Contentment" Bolton Hall, while bringing out the truth that seeking selfish ends can never bring contentment, like most socialistic writers splits on the rock of human prudence, by reason of ignoring the Divine Providence. The basis of judgment is made to be, not the supremacy of the Lord's ends of use, - which He is omnipotent to carry out, - but the mere matter of man's needs, limitations, powers and rights. Thus we have given a certain amount of earthly property, and the problem is supposed to be to secure to each an equal share; and the task for justice is, to prevent any one from increasing his share and so lessening some one else's! It is all right to grow rich if it could be done without robbing others but - "unhappily all large and small fortunes are based on private monopolies."

     Now this a fair specimen of much of the logic that is brought to bear on economic and ethical questions by the "special student." One would suppose that the resources of the globe were just adequate to give each man a competence, equal division being made all round. And further, that the basis of determining what each should have, would be the mere question of his creature comfort. For if you introduce the idea that his requirements may possibly extend to include such things as will make him useful you open the door to an unequal division. For, the capitalist and promoter of great enterprises, if he would perform his use, must have more money than the shoemaker needs in performing his. But, according to the theory, he ought not to wish to have his neighbor "inferior in wealth, or opportunity or comfort." (Frank Parsons, on "The New Ideal," in the Topeka Daily Capital.)

     But when the New Church shall begin to develop an economy it will necessarily be from a new starting point, and that is, the true doctrine of Use: which doctrine can be derived from no other than the spiritual source of all truth, the Word now revealed in its true nature and essence. When it is seen that man in himself has interiorly considered, no "rights," but that all that he receives is a gratuity from the Lord, and that this is given him in accordance with the performance of use, and in proportion to the exaltation of the use; - when man shall cease to regard use as his own or as anything else than a Divine thing adjoined to him for the furtherance of Divine ends of use, according to order, and therefore, to that extent, for his own spiritual and also natural well-being, we shall hear no more talk about growing rich at the expense of others; - as if the Lord's hand were shortened that He could not furnish the means for whatever uses - even the most exalted and extended - may make part of his infinite workings with the sons of men. Nor will that man whose genius fits him for more than ordinary use to his fellow man, be deemed wanting in love to his neighbor though the needful means to performing that use include wealth or station or honor above the ordinary.

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     A correspondent of the Pathfinder recognizes part of the truth, thus: "What we need is justice and love, but justice first, which will secure to all equal opportunity to use the bounties of nature to which we are all heirs, and to give those of superior ability and industry their rightful share, and to those of more modest ability what is justly theirs."

     To deny that greed and self-gratification, do threaten the commonweal with portentous consequences, would be irrational, and blind to the signs of the times. To contend that none of modern socialistic or other curative schemes might perhaps operate, if carried out, to arrest the day of evil for a time, would be to ignore the past and its lessons of how Providence neutralizes one evil or disorder with another, and so uses instrumentalities that in more ideal conditions of the people would be inadmissible. But Newchurchmen ought to realize that the real solution of all deep-lying and far-reaching ills, can come from spiritual principles alone, rationally applied to things of the world and of human society there. Therefore we cannot afford to accept from any of the world's thinkers their theories and devices of political and social economy, as being generally and universally true.

"SHELDONISM."

     "SHELDONISM" is the term given by the Rev. S. S. Seward, in a recent communication to the New York Sun, - to a movement inaugurated by the Rev. C. M. Sheldon, looking toward reform of life, under life's varying conditions, according to the test: "What would Jesus do under like conditions?" Circumstances enabled Mr. Sheldon to give a practical demonstration of the idea broached in his widely-known work, In His Steps, when he undertook to edit The Topeka Daily Capital for one week, according to his conception of the highest type of Christian effort. Estimates of the result must vary widely according to the point of view. The edition of March 12th to 17th sold enormously, and was a "nine-days' wonder;" but it will probably not materially affect modern journalism.

     Such strength as this movement has, lies in its appeal to springs of affection and thought which are latent in every human heart, enabling men to perceive the great general truths, that living according to highest standards and in the renunciation of self, is the only truly human life. But these general truths are also obscure ones, and, unless true particulars are introduced, capable of covering any amount of false particulars. Unless the mind is turned away from one's own conceptions of the truly human to the objective, the One Only Standard, - that of the God-Man, Creator and Saviour of the race, - effort falls back upon self, its own strength and righteousness; fallacies born of ignorance and conceit intrude, and self-sacrifice takes the form of asceticism, which is after all only meritorious and not spiritual, because not following the Lord's leading, in the ways of spiritual use.

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     But Mr. Sheldon has no knowledge of the First Principle, the first step in such a cause. He knows not the Lord; because his theology does not. To him Jesus is not the Omnipotent God and Father of all; otherwise he would hardly have dared to propose to himself or to others, the question. What would the God of the universe do if He were in the place of a mere worm whose all of life is drawn from Him. He would have had some truer conception not only of man's limitations, as being a mere receptacle of life, but also of the scope of the regenerate life, of its interior temptations, prompting the heart to inward exaltation, pride of intelligence, self-leading, and self-righteousness, and other evils, which are indefinitely more dangerous foes to the ordinary orderly citizen than such gross, external ones as drunkenness, gambling, etc., - to fight which seems Mr. Sheldon's highest ideal of Christian duty. This reformer is himself an apt illustration of the trend of modern "religiosity" - a better word does not occur,--namely, to cover up with the show of outward godliness the loss of knowledge concerning God; to make the cry "Christianity," hide the absence of its essence. Mr. Seward meets the case well; pointing out the lack of the two essentials, looking to the Lord Himself, and acknowledging no other guide to doing His will than its revelation in the Word, he says.

     "Mr. Sheldon apparently does not accept either of these two requirements of a spiritual life. Although he occupies, I believe, an orthodox pulpit, he is in doctrine a Unitarian. I have read his book, 'In His Steps,' and although I find in it many references to an undefined power or influence that was felt at the mention of the name of Jesus, such as all religious people are in the habit of using, there is no clear or unmistakable statement of the necessity of any supernatural or Divine work in the soul, which Jesus and Jesus alone can do.

     "On the contrary, his constant teaching is that we must follow the example of Jesus; the great aim must be to discover what Jesus would do under any given circumstances and to do that. This is Unitarianism pure and simple. It is making Jesus a mere example, not a Divine Being come down on earth to do a supernatural work for men. Such teaching, from a so-called orthodox pulpit, received with toleration, or at least without protest, by so many so-called Christian people, affords most damning proof of the decadence of faith.

     "And this is not all. Mr. Sheldon and his followers not only fail to grasp the real mission of the incarnate Jehovah in the world, but they also give us no guide through the wilderness of this life, except our own conceptions of what Jesus would do ii He were living in our time. Jesus Himself had no such criterion of conduct. He came to do 'the will of the Father' which sent Him. That will was formulated for Him in the Ten Commandments, 'As I have kept My Father's Commandments,' He says. He came 'not to destroy the Law or the Prophets, but to fulfil them.' He did fulfil them by living them out infinitely on every plane of being from the highest to the lowest, and by meeting and overcoming all the enemies of mankind in doing so. It is in this sense that He is 'an example' unto us. By keeping the Commandments and overcoming all opposition in keeping them He took to Himself 'all power in heaven and on earth' and made it possible for us to keep them in His name and strength.

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In this way He wrought an actual and Divine salvation for us, made Himself an adequate object of faith and belief, and rendered it possible for us to follow His example by keeping His Commandments if we would. For this reason He said: 'If ye keep My Commandments, ye shall abide in My love; even as I have kept My Father's Commandments and abide in His love.' In this way the Lord Jesus Christ becomes a Divine and supernatural Redeemer and Saviour, and since the Ten Commandments are sufficient for all our wants, He also gave us an infallible 'lamp unto our feet and light unto our path.'

     "This, I submit, is very different from the sentimentalism of Mr. Sheldon. It points out to us a 'plain path' in the Commandments as they are explained and illustrated in the Bible, and affords us all the stimulus and confidence that we can possibly stand in need of in keeping them. Such a belief is adequate for the salvation of the world. Nothing else can do it. "S. S. SEWARD."
Monthly Review 1900

Monthly Review              1900

     THE April New Church Review, as usual. spreads a bountiful table. We have space only to mention the very interesting account, by Rev. James Hyde, of the "Muggletonians and the Document of 1729.)1 This remarkable foreshadowing of the New Church doctrine of the Lord, has been noticed in previous numbers of the Review.

     PUBLICATION Of the following work is announced: Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, illustrated By Dreams of Metaphysics, by Immanuel Kant. Translated by Emanuel F. Goerwitz, and edited with an Introduction and Notes, by Frank Sewall. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co., Lim. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1900.

     The announcement includes the following advertisement:

     "In this brilliant and witty little treatise from Kant's earlier period the author makes his contemporary, Swedenborg, the object of the shafts: of his satire aimed at metaphysics and speculative philosophy in general. That the "Dreams" has never before been published in English may be owing in part to the author's subsequent exclusion of it from the authorized edition of his works. Far from lacking in intrinsic interest and value the work is now seen, in the light of recent German criticism; to hold an important place in the genetic development of Kant's whole system, especially as exhibiting the influence of Swedenborg's doctrine of the 'Two Worlds - the subject chosen by Kant for his Inaugural Dissertation. This influence has been discussed at length by Professor Hans Vaihinger, of Halle, in the Kant-Commentarr, Vol. II., and in recent numbers of the Kalzt-Studien; by Professor Heinze, of Leipzig, in his 'Observations on Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics; in Abh. d. Sachs. Gesell. 3. Wissenchaften, Leipzig, 1894; also by Dr. Prel, in his edition of Kant's Lectures on Psychology, Leipzig; and in Robert Hear's Der Angebliche Mysticismus Kants, Brugg, 1895.

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The present editor gives a resume of these discussions in his introduction to the "Dreams" and accompanies the text with illustrative citations from Swedenborg.

     New-Church Messenger. March 14th.

     Are the Churches becoming Non-Spiritual? A Symposium. The first contribution to the discussion of this subject is by Rev. P. B. Cabell, who answers, that the Churches-understanding thereby the Jewish, Catholic and Protestant Churches - are not becoming less spiritual because, as he shows, the Writings plainly teach that the very lowest ebb of spirituality was reached centuries ago. He hopes, however, that the spiritual lifelessness is soon to give way to better things, although he offers no convincing reason why a process of deterioration which required ages fully to accomplish should require, to reverse the order, only a few years or decades.

     Rev. John Goddard finds a reply difficult to make, 1st, because his individual observation and experience are inadequate; 2d, because the Doctrines, while condemning the falsities of the old faith, state over and over that falsities do not condemn; and 3d, because it is not permitted us to judge of the interior characters of people. But he notes the strong tendency of the Churches today to take more interest, not in doctrines or the divine law, but in people and their trials and hardships, - to show "a respectful and interested attitude toward all appeals to a better life." But the true quality of this "good of life without doctrine" is strikingly suggested by ingenuous testimony to another tendency, viz., to "quiet unbelief." A Presbyterian elder is quoted, for instance, as saying: "I have wondered whether Frederick Harrison's idea of immortality, namely the immortal effect of our good deeds upon those who follow us, was not about all the immortality there is." The great development of secularism, is also noted, in Church methods and appeals, not excluding the New Church. Finally, - "What the prevailing state is, and what the outcome will be, is beyond my ken."     

     Rev. T. F. Wright is not pleased with the subject of discussion. Man is not allowed to judge; the attention of the people needs to be led outward rather than inward; and "in doing our great task we have not a moment to lose in merely matching opinions about other people." He is content, therefore, with saying that in Cambridge "a strong effort is making to lead all Churches to put forth the tender branch and leaf of the fig-tree." There, forty churches are saddled with a sense of responsibility, apparently, for the ninety thousand population, - over 2,000 apiece, - so that each Church has been asked to take in charge a proportion of the uncared-for ones, and "to extend Christian friendship to the people of its district, especially to those not connected with any Church He adds - "It has been my duty to meet with some of the Churches or their officers and indicate the work to be done." A "discreet committee" is appointed to study its district and find out the way to serve it.

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"All existing agencies of good are recognized and utilized and strengthened while some new ones are developed." "By some such way as this I look for the spiritual improvement of the Churches, or on the other hand, for their destruction as bearing nothing but leaves."

     Mr. Wright's statement excites in the mind a certain questioning impulse. Why characterize spiritual offices vaguely as "extending Christian friendship?" Is any committee, however discreet, entitled to go about compassing spiritual elevation for people who do not want it? Are the "existing agencies" churchly instrumentalities, according to what the Writings show "the Church" to be? Is there anything in either the giving or the receiving of these ministrations which involves a real uniting on the spiritual grounds of the two essentials of religion? That is, are those ministrations based on and directed to the establishing of the worship of the One Lord as He appears in His opened Word, and to the pointing men to the only source of truth on this subject, - the Writings of the New Church? If so, then it was a serious mistake not to make that feature clear beyond question.

     Rev. Oliver Dyer answers the question concerning the Churches' becoming non-spiritual with the flat statement that according to his observation they are; and he draws an unencouraging picture of the "pernicious sentimentalism and meretricious humanitarianism" which are making the churches of the day a reflection of the world and of nothing higher. Mr. Dyer's contribution would have been strengthened by showing that his observations were no more than confirmations of distinct Doctrine on the subject.

     Rev. Baman N. Stone, answers the question, by describing the changes observed in the religious state of his community, Fryeburg, Me., during a quarter century. His account is a repetition of similar experiences throughout New England, the vastation of which section is almost beyond belief; - chapels closed or attended by only a handful; pulpits secularized, Church and Bible supplanted on Sundays by idleness, newspaper reading or social visiting; - a dark but a familiar picture. (March 14th.)

     The Symposium is continued on March 21st, by the Rev. Lewis F. Hite, who opines that "never in the history of the world was there more spirituality in the Churches and in common life than in our day." Although it seems to him that "personal and corporate greed was never so insatiate, nor so hurtful to the public welfare as now; on the other hand, it is equally apparent that the forces of unselfish love were never so powerful nor so intelligent as they are at this moment." He states that early in the eighteenth century the struggle for knowledge and possessions began to be permeated by new ideas and purposes, which looked not to self but to giving, - distributing one's own for the common good. "If we bring to mind such phrases as the Fatherhood of God, and brotherhood of man, the common good, humanitarian interests, altruism, and if we pause to consider such facts as the rise of democracy, the growth of charitable institutions, reform of the penal code, the evangelistic movement and foreign missions, the softening of religious dogmas and sectarian animosities, the Salvation Army and work in the slums, the Parliament of Religions and the Peace Conference, we shall catch the spirit of this New Age."

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     "Swedenborg is the key which unlocks the meaning of all this. It is his doctrine of unselfish love, which, taken up by the modern world into its life, has wrought all these changes."

     To be sure, he states that altruistic claims are made for opposing principles; that the two greatest nations of Christendom are engaged in wars which stir their peoples to their moral and spiritual depth, for and against these wars, and he admits that the highest motives are claimed by both sides in these Issues; but in this he finds his solace, - that "neither greed, nor race feeling, nor argument, would stand, but for the support which the motives and purposes of unselfish love give to these movements;" - referring to the extension of the benefits of civilization and the real welfare of the peoples concerned.

     But with unsuspecting candor the writer proceeds to give away his argument by arraigning the insincerity that pervades modern life in a way that makes his lauded altruism topply on its feet. He says "By means of newspapers, books, and public addresses, the deliberate manufacture of public opinion in the interests of party, class and corporation, is pursued with unrelenting purpose and with a magnitude and force at once amazing and paralyzing... The result is, and this is the danger of it, that the truth is made inaccessible. The public mind, as a consequence, is a troubled sea of conflicting interests, opinions, misconceptions, and misrepresentations, in which the largest and most powerful interests can, by combination, make and control, for a time at least, the current of opinion and work their will."

     We could not have wished our point made stronger, namely, that the professions of altruistic and philanthropic motives which rouse in this writer so rosy a view and vision of the future, are but the manifestations - for great part - of a spirit which may be described as the quintessence of lying; falsehood reduced to a fine arts by unprecedented skill in perverting truth. The dawn of the new age was attended with greater natural light among men, to whom the principles of morality, ethics, altruism, and every form of natural good, became visible as never before. But though these natural goods, like natural freedom, are so necessary as a plane for the establishment of their spiritual and real counterparts that Providence, for their sake, has changed the face of the whole world and of history, - still, while they remain merely natural they are no more worth than the tyranny and bigotry of the Dark Ages that preceded them. Therefore, when a wicked and vastate world, with eyes new opened to see the natural powers of the truth (for truth alone has power), launched out into unprecedented enterprises of civilization and of natural development, improvement and apparent beneficences, it was not with heart made new, but with merely a new cloak for old, unregenerate loves of the world and of self. In common with a writer already cited, Mr. Hite thinks that the Churches, though feeling "a loss in the influence of their distinctive features," are consequently coming to lay more stress on the essentials of the Christian life."

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That is to say, doctrine is weakening, but life is improving! But what, then, O Hopeful Ones, is the need of a new revelation of doctrine, if the mere laying aside of certain false doctrinal forms is sufficient to lead to the higher life? Is there any real removal of falses except by the truth, acknowledged and made supreme in the life? Is there any other way to the Lord than by the Door of His providing?

     The New Christianity. A monthly paper published at Ithaca, N. Y., by the Rev. S. H. Spencer, who is also editor. Formerly edited by the Rev. B. F. Barrett, and advocate of the "broadest" kind of "Swedenborgianism." Its platform includes the application of "New Church principles to the solution of all great questions, ethical, therapeutical, economical, and political;....showing the vital relation of the New Jerusalem to human society;...proving the truth, heavenly origin and practicality of the New Church doctrines by ultimating them in discovered laws and systems of social life" (December, 1899). It claims to "represent the prophetic function" of the ministry (ibid) and the sense in which we art to take this may be gathered from the statement, - in the January number, - that "It is a great mistake to confine ones self during life to a single writer on theology or eschatology." Other minds and generation; are needed to develop further even the greatest system, and "possibly to remove the earlier crudities." "To have the religious and inmost life guided by a revelation as a finality, is to exclude from the view all but the one little shaft of heavenly light and quickening, from the lack of newness and breadth."

     The Neukirchenblatt reports that revision of the German translation of the Word is progressing slowly but steadily. The Rev. L. H. Tafel, who has undertaken the revision, is now assisted by Rev. Emanuel Goerwitz, and his father the Rev. Fedor Goerwitz.

     RECEIVED: Psychiasis; or, Healing Through the Soul. By Rev. C. H. Mann, Mass. New-Church Union. Boston, 1900, pp. 158. Cloth, 75c Paper, 35c.
INTERESTING LIFE STORY 1900

INTERESTING LIFE STORY              1900

     THOSE who are so constituted, mentally and spiritually, that they can receive the Divine Truth, will sometime be led to a knowledge of it. Those who desire spiritual light will not be left forever in darkness. The interior aspiration of the heart, which is an affection of truth from good shall in due time be perfectly satisfied. But as states of human minds are of endless variety, no two persons can ever have the same spiritual experiences, in the reception of the Heavenly Doctrines.

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And no one can receive these doctrines without first passing through states of preparation. The "ground" as to the mind must be prepared, before the "seed" of truth can be implanted, that it may grow and produce "fruit." This preparation, in the first place, is the removal of some of the grosser falses which have been derived from erroneous teaching in the old Church. Those who can be brought from darkness to light are led in wonderful ways to the gates of the New Jerusalem, in order that they may enter into the heavenly city, and enjoy the beauties and the glories within.

     More than sixty years ago, in the part of Ohio called the Western Reserve, there lived a young girl whose father was a Methodist preacher. She heard the name of Swedenborg mentioned in such a manner as to give her a favorable impression, and to cause a desire to know something about the man. Her father could give her no definite information, but did not speak unkindly of him. She grew up to womanhood and naturally became a member of the Church; but the teaching was not satisfying to her mind.

     Some thirty years ago, she was on one occasion in company with a New Church lady who mentioned Swedenborg With great eagerness she at once asked the lady whether she knew what sort of a writer Swedenborg was, and if so to tell her all about him. Reply was made that there was so much to tell; but a few points of doctrine were stated, and some reading matter was gladly furnished. She took up the study and was exceedingly delighted. for it was to her the dawning of a new spiritual day. Her husband was a Judge, and had also long been a devout Methodist. It was not long before he began to read with interest, and also received the Doctrines.

     In the spring of 1894, the writer of this found that now aged couple at their home in McConnelsville, Morgan county, Ohio, happy in the faith of the New Church. But just before my arrival there on my next tour, six months later, the venerable Judge passed into the spiritual world at the age of about eighty-eight years; having been active in the profession of the Law previous to his departure, and up to within two or three hours of that event.

     The lady above spoken of, now eighty-one, and a lady friend of the same place also quite advanced in years, were baptized by the writer on November 15, 1896. Many years before they had been desirous of being baptized into the New Church, but were told by a missionary who used to visit them, that their re-baptism was not necessary. Those two ladies are now members of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, having joined that body in November, 1899. And they regard it as a great and a happy privilege, to be members of the Lord's visible New Church in the world.                    JOHN E. BOWERS.

     WE have received notice of the demise of Mr. James Robert Dill, of Ross County, Ohio, under circumstances which though distressing and pathetic have their bright side, in the spirit of self-sacrifice they seem to evidence in him, a spirit which according to testimony of friends had been his in a marked degree. In caring for a rabid cow as an act of kindness, he was inoculated it would seem, inducing a mental and physical condition which brought about his death. This occurred March 15th. He was born in 1868 and baptized in early childhood into the New Church, of the external organization of which he became a professed member.

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Church News 1900

Church News       Various       1900

THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.

     Huntingdon Valley, Pa. - (Bryn Athyn.) Church activity, especially in the social line, has been somewhat checked by epidemic measles, "grip" and other ills; and we hear of similar experiences in our sister settlement, in Glenview. Even the doctrinal class attendance has shown the effects, and school work has been seriously interfered with.

     The ministrations of Rev. C. T. Odhner, and others, to the Scandinavians of this neighborhood, have recently borne fruit in the baptism of Messrs. Peter Ahlberg and Peter C. Larsen. This took place on Sunday, April 1st, Pastor Synnestvedt officiating.

     On Monday evening, April 2d, members of the Social and Civic Club discussed the subject of "Speculation: is it Legitimate?" Pastor Synnestvedt read from a daily paper an editorial on the methods of speculators, and how the "deals" in commodities mount up to many times the quantities actually in existence, a mere fictitious proceeding and merely a cloak for gambling pure and simple. But the question is, "May money be so invested and still perform a good use; is it permissible?"

     Mr. John Pitcairn was called upon, in this connection, to give the benefit of his experience and judgment in business matters. He quoted the Century Dictionary's definition of "speculation," as being "the investing of money at a risk of loss: on the chance of unusual gain: specifically buying or selling, not in the ordinary course of commerce for the continuous marketing of commodities. but to hold in expectation of selling at a profit upon a change in values or market rates." He described buying on "margins" - i. e. deposits made, to protect the agent or broker, in expectation of paying the bulk of the price out of profits expected to accrue by selling again at an advance. Other technicalities of the "exchanges" were explained. Mr. Pitcairn dwelt upon the distinction between legitimate buying of needed commodities in anticipation of an advance, as against buying with no object of performing a use, but only for profit. In the one case use is the end, and profit only secondarily; and in the other, it is reversed, use being wholly subservient. He said that speculation may be introduced into any enterprise, and testified to the demoralizing effect upon industry when making profit is put above use and absorbs the thought and energies that should be devoted to perfecting use. In general, he warned young men against the desire to get rich quick, - "get something for nothing." Even on prudential grounds such speculation is foolish, for against the men whose whole skill and training lies in manipulating the values involved. it is playing against loaded dice; the chances being perhaps one in a hundred.

     The general consensus seemed to be that it is mainly a question of motive, - whether that be charity or use, or not; and that the great importance of the thing is its effect upon character. Nothing is more generally demoralizing than to lose "use" as the pivot of one's aims and efforts.

     The Principia Club met on February 19th. In furtherance of a plan to take up Swedenborg's scientific and earlier works in chronological order, in order to gain familiarity with his scientific development. two papers were read; one by Mr. Alfred H. Stroh, on "Swedenborg's Earliest Publication." (Daedalus Hyperboreus) and one by Prof. E. S. Price. on "Swedenborg the Poet." These were much enjoyed, and request was made for their publication in New Church Life; this was arranged for.

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     Rev. G. G. Starkey, as a matter of privilege, secured attention as to a petition that he was about to send to Senator J. H. Gallinger, in favor of a proposed bill to limit and supervise the practice of Vivisection, in the District of Columbia; he stated that he would be pleased to receive names of any who cared to sign. The speaker said that the proposed bill gave every possible safeguard to legitimate investigation There are two sides to the practice of vivisection, even Swedenborg having made use of facts obtained in this way. But no excuse is conceivable for the widespread, reckless and useless infliction of horrible tortures that are perpetrated on brute creation by irresponsible and hardened dabblers and experimenters in science. This taste for playing upon the sensations of the lower animals has borne bitter fruit in the horror of the age, - Human Vivisection. In the interests of morality it is imperative that this brutalizing process be arrested and such experiments placed under responsible supervision.

     Other speakers followed in similar vein. and Dr. Farrington confirmed the alleged wide extent of the practice; but a proposition to endorse the bill by vote was negatived, owing to lack of time for members to form a rational judgment of the merits of the bill. The meeting adjourned.

     The Club held its next meeting on March 19th. After the regular business had been transacted the Rev. C. T. Odhner gave an interesting and instructive account of all of Swedenborg's works which are published in the Swedish language. He showed that these works contain the germs of man) of Swedenborg's philosophical doctrines which he afterwards more fully elaborated: and spoke of the desirability of having them made available to English readers.

     A communication from the Rev. Frank Sewall, the president of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, was also read and its contents, - its suggestions in regard to the Principia club sending a report to the annual meeting of the Scientific Association, - and as to the members contributing papers, were favorably considered.

     Philadelphia. - The annual meeting of the Philadelphia Society was held on Sunday, March 4th, about thirty-five members attending. Rev. Emil Cronlund, in a short report, noted the progress made during the year, as evidenced in the attendance on Sunday, the average having increased from 18 to 27, and the offerings being in proportion.

     The average attendance at the doctrinal classes has been fourteen. The Treasurer's report showed that financially the Society is in good condition, there being a small balance on hand. The Treasurer called attention to the tendency to leave the support of the Church uses to a few, and emphasized the importance of every one doing something, if the work is to continue successfully and grow.

     Glenview, Ill. - Owing to the prevalence of sickness here there is little of Church news to chronicle for the Life this month.

     LETTER FROM MR. BOWERS.

     Michigan. - New Church people have recently been visited at Jackson, Charlotte, Caledonia and Gorand Rapids. In each of these places there are one or more believers in the Heavenly Doctrines, who are pleased to see a missionary Some of them manifest an ardent affection for spiritual verities, and an intense interest in the things of the Church. The sublime truths of the New Revelation are to such persons the very "light of life." The internal of the light of life, is the fire of love, by which there is given strength from the Divine to endure even to the end. They who spiritually endure, realize in some measure, how great a deprivation it is not to enjoy association with those whose life's loves are similar to their own.

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Dark days may come, occasionally, and be succeeded by a kind of night; and then they that are becoming wise patiently await the dawning of the morning of a new state. Those who cannot have the privileges of the visible Church in this world, according to the desire of their hearts, will be prepared for the greater blessedness in the New Jerusalem above.

     At Gorand Rapids, a New Church lady related to me her experience, some years ago in the east, with so-called "Christian Science." She obtained a copy of the Text-book, for the purpose of investigating the strange modern persuasion at its source. The contents she found to be incoherencies throughout, - no rational explanation of anything, but a confusion of ideas everywhere. The most absurd, monstrous and insane assertions occur all through the book. The author makes the Lord Jesus Christ, the God of heaven, to be a mere man, calling Him "the human founder" of Christianity, and deifying herself. The book is an imposture on its very face, there being nothing of science in it or about it. and the tone of its teaching being contrary to that of the Sacred Scriptures. That was enough.

     The lady referred to decided to dispose of the copy of the volume to a certainty. Accordingly, one day when she was just in the act of going toward the stove to put it into the fire, an acquaintance stepped into the room, and seeing what she did, cried out: "What are you going to do? Here, give me that book! I want it!" The emphatic reply was: "No, you can not have it; I will burn it!" And straightway to the blaze it went.

     Our New Church friend came into the belief of the new doctrines, out of the old church, and, as the above incident shows, she is a woman of strong convictions and conscientiousness. She applied for membership in the "General Church of the New Jerusalem."

     On Sunday, March 18th, I preached in a school house, near Greenlake, sixteen miles south of Gorand Rapids. Including several children, 27 persons were present. JOHN E. BOWERS.

THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     Pennsylvania. - Rev. J. E. Smith has continued to visit the centres at Allentown, Chester, Montgomery's Ferry (where interest continues steadfast). Stormville and the eastern shore of Maryland. At Stormville the desire to form a society has been delayed through fear lest the "Chapel of the Divine Providence" (built as a thank-offering, for the use of any Church desiring it) - might not continue available. This fear seems groundless. The audiences here nearly fill the building. Audiences at lectures at Ben Venue, Hamilton and Little Germany, have overflowed the houses. Elliottsville nearby has sent an invitation to lecture.

     Chester has discontinued services but hopes to arrange for week night lectures.

     By arrangement with the Maryland Association one Sunday is given to work at Preston, Md., and vicinity, and at Richmond, Va.

     Rev. A. B. Dolly has continued effective work at Harrisburg and Lancaster, where he has received encouraging support. Swedenborg's Birthday was celebrated in the parlors of the Franltlin House, Lancaster. Mr. Dolly gave an account of Swedenborg's preparation for his work, and remarks were made by others.

     Maryland. The semi-annual conference of the Ministers of the Maryland Association was held in the church of the German Society, Baltimore, February 22d. Revs. Frank Sewall, of Washington; P. B. Cabell, F. E. Waelchli and G. L. Allbutt. were present, and several friends from the two Baltimore Societies. The topic: "How to Think of the Word" was introduced by Rev. Mr. Cabell. After dwelling on the wonderful adaptability of the written or printed Word as a means for fixing the Divine instruction which would otherwise be lost in air, and on the exalted character of even its literal contents, and the charm which never grows old, from the Divine presence in it, the paper bring; home the teaching of the Writings, that especially are we to think of the Word spiritually, that is, from its Divine life, or from the Lord who dwells in It, and only secondarily of its wonderful history as a book, of its singular power over minds, etc.

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     Mr. Allbutt read a paper on "The Relation of the Sacred Scripture to the Writings," his position being that whilst the Writings are to be regarded as a divine revelation, a body of doctrine drawn by the Lord from the Word to open up its meaning to us, the Sacred Scripture is to be regarded pre-eminently as the Word (T. C. R. 214), because it is written in such a way that Divine Truth on every plane closes into it. The Writings show how communication with Heaven may be obtained; the Sacred Scripture as the Word, in its rightful use, gives that communication.

     Both papers were fully discussed. Mr. Waelchli objecting to such wording as excludes the Writings from being the Word as to its spirit, or internal sense. The ladies of the German Society provided lunch; and in the evening a "most enjoyable tea-meeting was held, with toasts to George Washington and others to various institutions of the Church, with responses.

     At 7:30 a public missionary meeting in the auditorium listened to addresses by all the ministers on the subject of the Divine Providence.

     Illinois. - The Committee to which was referred the resignation of the pastor of the Chicago Society. the Rev. Lewis P. Mercer, - reported to the Society in terms glowing with appreciation of Mr. Mercer's twenty-three year's of activity in his present relations, his tact, sympathetic adjustment and the technical perfection of his deliverances, his ability as a doctrinal expositor, intuition of spiritual truth and rare faculty of expressing the same, added to which is a faithful persistence and conscientious performance of duty under conditions often most discouraging and in the face of indifference and defection." Recognizing that the change of relations contemplated does not involve a farewell to their friend and brother and his family they received his resignation as pastor, with gratitude to have been allowed so long to enjoy his ministry, and with the prayer for Providential long continuance of his life and powers.

     The Church of the Divine Humanity in Chicago reports satisfactory progress. Congregations have been good and all the interests of the Church well sustained. The pastor is slowly regaining health and vigor. Thursday evening lectures have been devoted to the study of the True Christian Religion. At the afternoon Children's Parties, through much-enjoyed songs and games, the children become better acquainted, and some are brought into the Sunday-school who have previously attended no other.

     At what is known as the Union Egypt Church two New Church families who attend, aided by the distribution of tracts by Mrs. Bassett, of Peoria, have introduced some knowledge of the doctrines, and the Illinois Association Missionary has officiated several times.

     Michigan. - The annual meeting of the Detroit Society took place on January 8th. The following paragraph in the Pastor's Report concerns the newly inaugurated evening services:

     "The evening services were at first designed to extend the knowledge of the heavenly doctrines to strangers, and for that purpose they were advertised in various ways; but as they failed to attract the attention of strangers, and as those of our own number who attended, evinced a great interest in the teaching presented, the services were continued in the Sunday-school room, where, instead of a sermon or lecture, the pastor gave instruction direct from the Writings, treating of the discrete degrees in the human mind.

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With the New Year the subjects of instruction will be the claims of the Writings, to be followed by the consideration of Spiritism, Mental Healing, and other subjects.

     Berlin, Canada. - The Neukirchenblatt announces the resignation of the Rev. L. H. Tafel from the Assistant Pastorate at Berlin, to take effect September rst. In the meantime he will be looking for some other field of usefulness.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY 1900

GENERAL ASSEMBLY              1900


SPECIAL NOTICES.
     The Fourth General Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, will be held at Bryn Athyn, near Huntingdon Valley, Pa., beginning on Sunday, June 17th, and closing on Thursday, June 21st, 1900.

     The Council of the Clergy will meet at Bryn Athyn on Tuesday, June 12th, continuing its sessions until Friday, June 15th, inclusive.

     The General Meeting of the Teachers' Institute will be held at Bryn Athyn, on Saturday, June 16th. A meeting of the Parents and Teachers will be held Saturday evening.
SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION 1900

SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION              1900

     The Third Annual Meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association will be held in New York, at the rooms of the American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society, 3 West Twenty-ninth Street, on Thursday and Friday, the 19th and 20th of April.

     The proceedings will include, hearing Reports of the Committees on Progress in Translation or Revision of the several Works to be Published, and on the Plans for Co-operation therein with the Swedenborg Society of London: and on the future publication of the Association's Proceedings.

     Also accounts will be presented of the studies pursued in the associated bodies, during the year, and of new publications of Swedenborg's scientific works.

     Essays will be read on topics relating to the Principia and other of Swedenborg's early works.

     Inquiries, or offers of papers, may be addressed to the Rev. Frank Sewall, Washington, D. C.

     Applications for Membership may be made to Mr. Edmond C. Brown, 132 Nassau Street, New York.
ADDRESS SUPPLIED 1900

ADDRESS SUPPLIED              1900

     IN response to a request we would state that the specific address of M. F. Hussenet, whose offer to furnish board for a few persons during the Exposition, we published last month, - is Sente des Chanioux, S. Cloud, near Paris, France.
DIVINE TRUTH IS THE WORD 1900

DIVINE TRUTH IS THE WORD       ANDREW CZERNY       1900


NEW CHURCH LIFE.

Vol. XX. MAY, 1900. No. 5
     THE Gospel of John opens with the words:

     "In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and God was the Word."

     By these words is not meant the Word in the Letter, for that was not with God, in the beginning, but the Divine Truth is meant, such as it is in the Lord. And the teaching is, that - "the Word is the Divine Truth, which in its Essence is the Infinite Existence from the Infinite Esse, and is the Lord Himself as to His Human. This is the very Itself [hoc Ipsum] from which Divine Truth is now proceeding and flowing into heaven, and through heaven into human minds" (A. C. 4687).

     Such is the Word as it is above the heavens. It is the source of all the light and life which fills the heavens. Being above the heavens means, above all finite apprehension; hence it cannot communicate itself to any one. But from this Infinite Existence proceeds Divine Truth immediately and mediately, into every plane of the created universe, spiritual and natural. Concerning the immediate influx we are taught, that Divine Truth thus inflowing - "cannot be heard by any one, not even by any angel. In order that it may be heard it must first become human, and it becomes human by passing through the heavens" (A. C. 6982). This form of the Divine Truth was represented by Moses, of whom it is said, that "he was not a man of words," which signifies that Divine Truth immediately proceeding from the Lord cannot be perceived.

     In order to accommodate the Divine Truth to the apprehension of angels and of men, the Lord created things successive, by which as media the Divine Truth might be communicated.

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But the first of these media is fuller of the Divine than that as yet it can be received by any finite being. On this account the Lord created another successive, by which the Divine Truth might in some part be receptible. These two successives are above the heavens, and form, as it were, radious belts around the Sun of heaven, which is the Lord. From these there is a continual succession of media, down to the very ultimates with man, and even into nature. By this chain of media all things are held in connection with the First Esse (A. C. 7270).

     This is very important teaching in connection with our subject. It not only explains how the Divine Truth, or the Word descends from the Lord, but teaches also, that it never appears unveiled to any finite being. From other passages we learn that both the mediate and immediate influx is into every plane of the created universe, but with this difference, that the former passes into the lower through all the intermediate degrees, while the latter proceeds directly from the Lord into each plane.

     We wish to call particular attention to the fact, that the Divine Truth, although flowing both mediately and immediately into every plane, does not reveal itself to any finite being, not even to the angels of the highest heaven. What men and angels see is not the Divine Truth, but some medium through which the Divine Truth comes to them. These media are appearances of truth; but they are generally called truths, and even "Divine" truths; not that they are Divine in themselves, but because the Divine is in them, and they serve a Divine use. Accordingly the term "Divine," when thus applied, is to be taken in a qualified sense. So likewise the term "Word," when it refers to these media; for strictly speaking the Divine Truth is the Word, and that is above all finite apprehension. That the Divine Truth does not appear to any man, nor even to any ange1, is taught in many places; as for instance in Arcana Coelestia, n. 7270, of which a condensed statement has been given; as also in passages like the following. We read:

     "To be sent from God" is to proceed from the Divine, and is also the Divine going forth from Him; for he who proceeds from the Divine, receives the Divine, and advances it further" (A. C. 6870). And especially the following:

     "That which proceeds from anything derives its essence from that from which it proceeds, and is clothed with such things as serve for communication, thus for use in a lower sphere" (A. C. 5689).

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     From these statements it is plain that the forms through which the Divine Truth manifests itself, are not Divine, but that the presence of the Divine in them gives them that appearance; and it is proper to call them so in that sense. Hence when we speak of the Word, (meaning the collection of books generally so called), as the Divine Truth, we speak according to appearances.

     The whole teaching on the subject amounts really to this; that the Divine Truth, or the Word in itself, surpasses all finite understanding; and that the difference between mediate and immediate influx is simply this, that the former reveals the presence and operation of the Divine Truth to such as are able to perceive it, and the latter does not. The Divine Truth is veiled on all planes, even on the highest, or celestial plane. It is veiled by a series of veils of different degrees of density. As one ascends into the heavens one veil after another is dropped, but there always remain those above each plane; for even above the highest heaven there are these radiant belts, which conceal and temper the Divine Truth before it inflows with the angels. Thus much on this point. Now a word about these forms or accommodations of the Divine Truth which are called the Word. The Writings treat in general of three forms, called respectively celestial, spiritual and natural, or as many as there are degrees of the human mind, and accommodated to their reception. But there may be, and no doubt are, an indefinite number of particular forms within these degrees. There are many provinces in the heavens, and in each of them innumerable societies; and the angels of one province differ greatly from those of another with respect to the degree of their intelligence and wisdom, hence as to their perception of the Divine Truth. In each society there is the Word in ultimate form; and that form may vary considerably in the different provinces of heaven. But however much the external forms may vary, there can only be one essence to them all. On our earth there have been several revelations, each differing from the rest; but each came as the Word of the Lord to the Church to which it was given. And if there had been a thousand revelations, the difference between them would simply have been as to form; for they would all have proceeded from the same Source, and would have had the same essence.

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Each one would have treated, in the supreme sense, of the Lord alone, and all would have been given for the one common end and object, namely to conjoin man with the Lord. Inmostly in each of them there would have been the Word, which in the beginning was with God, and which was God.

     The Oneness of the different dispensations on our earth, in respect to essence and purpose, is clearly taught in the Writings. It is there shown, that the internal teaching of the New Testament is the same as that of the Old Testament. It is also shown, that the Internal Sense of both Testaments teaches the Doctrines now revealed for the use of the New Church. Innumerable parallel passages from both Testaments are adduced to illustrate and confirm them - so many proofs of the fact that they are all one Word. Besides this, there is revealed to us this memorable fact, that the Ancient Word at first consisted merely of a collection of the perceptions of the men of the Most Ancient Church, formulated, of course, to suit the genius of the men of the Ancient Church. There is also in the Word a prophecy to the effect, that the Ancient Word is to be raised up again at the end of the Church. This prophecy is to be found in Luke xviii, 33, in the words:

     "And the third day He [i. e. the Son of Man] shall rise again." By the Son of Man is here meant the Word as it was understood in the Ancient Church, as the following passage teaches. We read:

     "Hence it is plain that Truth Divine was what was rejected by them, spitefully entreated, scourged and crucified. Whether we say Truth Divine or the Lord as to Truth Divine, it is the same thing, for the Lord is essential Truth, as He is the essential Word. The Lord's rising on the third day implies also, that Truth Divine, or the Word as to its Internal Sense, as it was understood by the Ancient Church, shall be raised again in the consummation of the age, which also is the third day. Wherefore it is said, that then shall appear the Son of Man, i. e. Truth Divine" (A. C. 2813). The consummation of the age signifies, of course, the end of the Christian Church.

     All this goes to show, that the Word is a Unit. The difference between the several dispensations is simply a difference as to form. The unwritten Word of the Most Ancient Church passed down to the Ancient Church, where it was reduced to writing; the latter again, as to its internal teaching, is contained in the Internal Sense of both Testaments of our Word.

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And the same Ancient Word was finally resuscitated in a form differing from all the rest.

     From all the teaching on this subject, we draw the following conclusions:

     1. Divine Truth is the Word on all planes.

     2. This Word surpasses all finite apprehension.

     3. The various finite forms in which the Divine Truth comes to angels and to men, are not the Word, but they are so many media through which the Word is present on the lower planes.

     4. These media are called the Word because the Divine is in them, and operates through them; and on that account it is proper to call them so singly, and collectively.

     5. No single one of these media ought to be called the Word to the exclusion of the rest, as they are all simply coverings and vehicles of the Divine Truth, and nothing more.
     ANDREW CZERNY.
LIVING BREAD 1900

LIVING BREAD       N. D. PENDLETON       1900

     WHEN those Jews who followed after Jesus saw His power of working miracles they began to speculate as to whether He were that Messiah who was to come and deliver them from bondage and set them above all peoples.

     When they saw His miracle of the leaves and fishes they cried, "This is of a truth that Prophet that should come into the world. For a time they were convinced, and fancied that their deliverance was at hand, and straightway willed that He should fulfill their ideal of the Messiah by becoming the King of the Jews.

     The Prophets of old spake of an eternal kingdom which He was to establish. But this they understood to mean an earthly kingdom; for the desires of their hearts were centered only upon earthly things.

     Their dream for generations had been of a Jewish kingdom which should exceed in power and affluence any that had been upon the earth, and that of a consequence all people would be inferior and tributary unto them. They nourished this vision in the midst of all their vicissitudes, even in captivity, and it became a means of holding them together, and preventing their absorption by other and more powerful peoples.

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When they were brought back from Babylon and re-established in Judea they regarded it as only a step towards the ultimate goal of universal dominion. This being their grand ambition they were ever on the lookout for the Messiah who was to bring about the realization of their dream.

     History tells of several different waves of wild enthusiasm which swept this people when they fancied they had found the Promised One. So, when they saw the wonders which Jesus did, many fancied that the time was at hand, and wished to make Him their King. But when He began to teach them principles of love and mercy, which told against their evil passions, - when He taught them only of a heavenly kingdom, they turned away from Him. For if a heavenly kingdom was meant by the words of the Prophets then they, for all these generations, had been following after a false light; in a word they had been deceived. It could not be. What cared they for a heavenly kingdom when they scarcely believed in a life after death? A people, - and especially such a people as the Jews, - does not readily give up cherished hopes and aspirations of long standing. We can therefore understand their disgust, when the Lord proclaimed Himself the "living bread which came down from heaven," the eating of which would grant eternal life; and why they called it "a hard saying." It was a "hard saying" indeed for them, for they saw in it nothing of a fulfillment of their cherished hopes; therefore - "from that time many of His disciples went back and walked no more with Him."

     The Lord knew the Jews, even to the secret wishes of their hearts. He knew that His words would work a judgment upon them. But He also knew that there was a remnant which would receive the idea of a heavenly kingdom. So, turning to the twelve who represented this remnant, and proving them, He said, "Will ye also go away?" "Simon Peter answered Him, Lord to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life." Thus they gave up the old Jewish conception, accepting instead the Christian.

     After this the Lord's relations with the twelve underwent a change. A new and more interior bond was established between them, based on a new and higher conception of His mission.

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Their eyes were more and more opened, and they saw that He was fulfilling the scripture, though not according to the common Jewish interpretation of it. Consequently, His intercourse with them became more open, increasingly so until the end. He told them many things of His heavenly kingdom, answering their questions, which at first were crude and worldly, for they could not at first do more than conceive of a worldly kingdom in the heavens. Yet that they should give up the thought of a Jewish kingdom was for them a great advance.

     As for the others, those who went back, and the rest of the Jew, - the hells flowing into their love of an earthly kingdom, through them essayed with inconceivable malice to frustrate the Divine work of salvation, by stimulating them to kill Him. Wherefore, after He had confessed Himself to be the "living bread," it was needful that He should remove Himself from the deadly sphere emanating from the hells. Hence it is said that "He walked in Galilee, for He would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill Him."

     The hells were clamorous for their own, - that is, the hereditary human; but the time was not yet come - though it must of necessity come - when they should receive their own and gain an apparent victory, by compassing His death: for it was in the power of the hells to destroy the bodily human, else there would have been no death on the cross. And as this bodily human was circumstanced much as another man, it was needful that He should from time to time remove Himself from danger.

     This open violence on the part of the hells came after He confessed Himself the "living bread," which teaching many of His disciples called a "hard saying." They were willing to follow Him so long as they regarded Him only as one of the great ones of Israel, and so long as His works served to magnify Israel. But that He should be the "bread of heaven" they, natural and sensual men as they were, could not but regard as profanely absurd. For it was nothing short of claiming to be the very God.

     An evil man can not see God; to such His faces are always hidden. The thought that Christ is God is regarded with strange aversion; an interior rage burns within at the mere suggestion. And were the thought free, the cry of "crucify Him" would rise to the lips.

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Such a disposition towards the Lord lies at the heart of all evil; for in the Lord it perceives its own destruction.

     The hells therefore now conspired with men to kill the Lord: they were fully persuaded of their ability against the mortal human. But they thought to destroy even the Lord. It is written "The word of Belial is poured out upon Him, and when He lieth down He shall not rise again." (Psalm xli.) Evil persuades itself that it is more powerful than good; and this arises from a still more hidden vanity or insanity, which is, that divinity lies within evil. This appears from the fact that the worst of devils claim to be gods. When the devil tempted Adam he said, "Ye shall be as god." So they thought that when the word of Belial was poured out upon Him, He could not rise again.

     The end drew rapidly near; the hells gained their apparent victory, but, in so doing, suffered absolute and final defeat. The Lord died on the cross; yet He rose again on the third day and ascended above the heaven, "from whence He illuminated the universe with the light of wisdom and inspired into it the power of love."

     When the Lord revealed Himself as the "living bread," and made plain His purpose of establishing a heavenly kingdom, the Jews rejected Him. They could not do otherwise. He was not the Messiah whom they expected and they called Him the "son of Joseph."

     History repeats itself. The end of the Christian Church presents a striking parallel in regard to the way in which the Second Coming was received. As the Jews interpreted ancient prophecy in favor of an earthly kingdom, so Christians have anticipated a second personal coming in the clouds of heaven. They moreover devised a doctrine of bodily resurrection, in order that they might consistently inhabit an actual new earth. Their ideal of the Holy City is little, if any, above the Jewish conception of an earthy kingdom. But this thought hardly needs amplification.

     In both cases these grossly materialistic interpretations of scripture have been insisted upon by bodily and worldly loves; and in both cases those who made them were doomed to disappointment. For neither in His first nor in His Second Coming did the Lord meet the expectations of men. Wherefore in His Second Coming He was treated in like manner as at the first. He came again as the "living bread" and men rejected Him, saying in effect, "This is a hard saying; who can believe it.

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     It is related that the angels once perceived a state of sadness in Swedenborg and on asking the cause received this answer: "These arcana revealed by the Lord at this day, although in excellence and dignity they surpass all knowledge hitherto divulged, still are regarded on earth as if no value." The angels, wondering at this, prayed the Lord that they might look down upon the earth. It was granted them and they saw mere darkness there. Then they were directed that the arcana which had been revealed should be written on a paper and let down to the earth. This was done. The paper was let down from heaven. While yet in the spiritual world it shone as a star, but when it descended into the natural world its light waned, and as it fell it darkened. It was let down into assemblies of learned men, both clerical and lay; from whom a murmur arose, and these words were heard, "What is this? Is it anything? What matters it whether we know these things or not'" And then it seemed as if some persons took the paper and folded it, and rolled and unrolled it with their fingers, and as if others tore it in pieces and wished to trample it under foot. But they were withheld by the Lord from this outrage; and the angels were directed to withdraw the paper and guard it.

     There was it shown to Swedenborg in what manner the "living bread" contained in his Writings would be received by the world.

     Only a very few were found to say, with Peter, "Lord thou hast the words of eternal life."

     Even with the remnant, which was slowly gathered together, much obscurity prevailed as to the nature of the new revelation, and after a space the obscurity seemed to increase.

     As many of the Jews were willing to follow Jesus so long as they regarded Him only as one of the great ones of Israel, even so many within the Crown of Churches were disposed to regard the revelation given that Church, not as a Divine Revelation, of absolute authority, but as the production of a superior illumination which was yet limited and fallible. And when the claim was put forth, that the Writings contain the very living bread of heaven, these latter regarded it as a hard saying.

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But in the mercy of the Lord there are an increasing number who are willing to say with Peter, "Thou hast the words of eternal life."

     When the church as a whole thus regards the new revelation, then will it draw to the full the breath of Divine inspiration. Then and not till then will it speak with the voice of authority when calling to the remnant. Another voice will not be heard.

     These successive historical parallels of the way in which the Lord has been received in the churches have been drawn only is evidence of that conflict which has always existed between the spiritual truths of revelation and the dictates of natural reason unenlightened. In every church and in every man this conflict is waged. To every one, at some time, under some appearance, the Lord comes, saying, - "I am the living bread." And it is a moment fraught with eternal consequences. The man is at the parting of the ways. However, his determination at the time is not a matter of chance, nor is it lightly made. His decision is based upon and influenced by all the events of his past life. His past states are so delicately adjusted that each has its due force and bearing. So that when he renders a judgment it is a just judgment of himself.

     So will it be with the church when the more interior judgments of the future come upon it. It will stand the test according to its faithfulness to the "living bread" contained in the Writings. Men have said, perhaps in desperation, "The New Church is a failure." But those who have seen the vision of God now revealed, - those who have seen that vision mirrored in the whole Sacred Scripture, can only say, "Lord whither shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life." N. D. PENDLETON.

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UNIVERSAL PRECEPT 1900

UNIVERSAL PRECEPT       Rev. J. E. BOWERS       1900

     "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, so do ye also to them; for this is the later and the prophets." - Matt. vii:12.

     This Divine Precept, enunciated by our Lord, is the Law, in the widest sense, in the universal form. The members of the whole human race, - both the evil and the good, who dwell in this world and in the other; the angels in the heavens, the men of the Church on earth, and also the wicked spirits who go far away from God and make their abode in the regions of darkness, - are accountable to this law. This universal law is formulated by, and according to, the Divine Wisdom, and therefore it exists in the nature of things, is perfectly just and merciful, and absolutely free of anything that is arbitrary, or adverse to the infinite Love of the Supreme Lawgiver. It is for this reason that this law is of universal application, and that no human being can, either as to the thoughts, words or acts of his life, with impunity evade this law; the consequences of its violation being always certain and inevitable.

     All the precepts of the Word of God, which are according to the laws of Divine order, and which are the laws of the Divine order itself, are expressed in a summary in the commandments of the decalogue. With the men of the Church in ancient times, before the Fall, these commandments were spontaneously observed as the very laws of human life, because they were in love to the Lord from an internal affection, and in love toward man from the heavenly desire for the happiness of others. Thus the law of the Lord was inscribed in their hearts; and in childlike simplicity of life, they delighted in the observance of that law, not being conscious of any other law than that of love.

     But ages after the Fall and the degeneracy of the race, when the men of the Church had departed from the laws of life and the heavenly order of the human mind had been perverted, when, in correspondence to their spiritual state, the sons of Israel were in the wilderness, the Divine law was given to the world in written precepts. In the most impressive manner, with sensible manifestations of the presence and power of Jehovah Himself, the Ten Commandments were promulgated from Mount Sinai.

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It was done in a miraculous manner. We read that Jehovah gave to Moses "two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." (Exod. xxxi: 18.) That the precepts of the Divine Law, which are also called "ten words," were written with the finger of God, means that they were given immediately from Jehovah Himself.

     In this age of scepticism a doubt may easily be injected into the minds of some persons, as to whether the words actually were written with the finger of God. But, considering the matter affirmatively, from the standpoint of an intelligent belief that whatever God does is done according to His Divine order, we say: The words certainly were written with the finger of God, in a miraculous manner, by such means as He in His Wisdom made use of for the purpose of doing it. The Lord always provides and employs means, by which He accomplishes His marvelous works. By the finger of God is also meant the Divine Omnipotence. The Lord, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe, is continually doing stupendous miracles; is continually doing myriads of things which to us are miraculous, because we cannot understand how they are done. It is said in the Word that the heavens are the work of His fingers; and also that the expanse showeth His handiwork. You examine with a microscope an animalcule so diminutive that to the naked eye it appears as a mere particle of some simple substance. You behold a living creature having an organism as complete and as perfect as one of the larger animals; and you say in truth that it is one of the wonderful works of the Hand of God. The least flower that grows in your garden, is produced by the operation of influx in nature, and the process is miraculous. No finite wisdom and skill could form such a thing as the bud or blossom, the leaf or fruit of any tree, or even as a blade of grass; and therefore you say that these things of perfection and of beauty are formed by the finger of God, by means of the substances in the earth, which are primarily, by creation, derived from God Himself.

     The ten commandments, then, were written upon the tables of stone in such a manner, and by such means, with the finger of God, as, according to the Divine order, were required and therefore had been provided. "The reason why those tables were of stone, and the words of the law were written on stone, was because stone signifies truth in ultimates, and Divine Truth in ultimates is the sense of the letter of the Word, in which is the internal sense" (A. C. 10376).

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There were two tables, because the covenant is between, and has reference to, two; namely, God and man. The man who keeps the Divine precepts is regenerated, and thereby is conjoined with the Lord. This is what is involved in the Lord's words: "Abide in me, and I in you.... He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing. (John xv:4, 5.)

     There is given in the Writings of the New Church an interesting point of information as to the form in which the ten commandments were written upon the two tables of stone. The common idea about it is that some of the commandments were written upon one table, and some upon the other. But it is stated that this idea is erroneous; and we are instructed that the writing was continued across the two tables, as if written upon one. The two tables were thus conjoined even as to the writing of the Divine precepts upon them in this form, because this meant the conjunction of the Lord with man.

     When we have faith in the Lord, and are in charity toward the neighbor; or, when we love spiritual truths, which are the truths of the Word, and the principles of goodness to which truths always lead the faithful; or, when we have learned to understand the genuine doctrine, now revealed to the men of the Church and come into the Christian life according to that heavenly doctrine; or, when we shun the evils which are forbidden in the commandments, and do so voluntarily and sincerely, because they are sins against God, then are we conjoined with the Lord. Then is the tabernacle of God with us; that is, the Lord is present with us in His Divine Human, in which we acknowledge Him as the only God of heaven and earth. Then is given unto us a new spirit of submission and devotion in all things to the will of our heavenly Father. Then the Lord comes to us and makes His abode with us; by His Holy Spirit He dwells with us and is in us, protecting us from the destroyer of souls and leading us ever onward in the pathway of life, more interiorly into those states of peace and blessedness, which can be derived from no other source than from the Giver of all good.

     The Lord has also formulated all the percepts contained in the whole Word, in another summary, namely, in the Two Great Commandments.

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In the first of these it is enjoined upon man that he is to love the Lord his God supremely; to love Him with the whole heart, and with the whole soul; and with the whole mind. The Lord says the second is like unto this: Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

     Then again, in His sublime discourse to the disciples on the mountain, the Divine Teacher concentrated all the commandments of the Word, which are the laws of life for the government of the whole human race, into one single precept, that which is written in our text, and which is generally called the Golden Rule. All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, so do ye also to them; for this is the law and the prophets.

     It is a well known and a lamentable fact that comparatively few of the men of our world at this day observe this universal precept of life. The love of self and the love of the things of the world, which are the very opposite of the loves enjoined in the two great commandments, of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor, generally prevail. Now is the Scripture fulfilled which treats of the consummation of the age, concerning which the Lord foretold that because iniquity should abound, the love of many would grow cold. Selfishness in a thousand forms; an externalism which regards an outward polish, and even an appearance of being religious, of the greatest importance, but is indifferent to internal and spiritual principles; a disregard for the rights of others, or for what is just and fair; the ambition to acquire and possess material wealth, with a profound ignorance of the nature of spiritual riches; living for this world alone, without giving any thought as to preparation for the real life, in the spiritual and eternal world into which all will soon enter: these are some of the characteristics of mankind in this our day.

     All those who are well disposed and who stop to consider, - even those who have a knowledge of the genuine truths of the Word, and are in the endeavor to lead a Christian life, - can recognize these evils and shortcomings in themselves. Not one of us is entirely free from them. Every one of us is subject to the imperfections and perversities of human nature. It is only by a slow and gradual process, by the persistent course of well doing and by continually looking to and trusting in the Lord for help, that evils can be eradicated from our hearts, and that we can come into an orderly and a heavenly state.

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As, on the part of man individually, regeneration is a slow and gradual process, so in it on the part of mankind collectively; and it will doubtless be thousands of years before the majority of the inhabitants of our world shall have made sufficient spiritual progress to keep the two great commandments of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor; or to observe and practice the one universal precept of life, enunciated by the Lord in the few simple words of the text, which is known as the Golden Rule.

     It is quite evident that if those who have occupied the position of preachers of the gospel during several centuries past, had taught according to the gospel, as given in the New Testament; if they had taught the people the necessity and importance of keeping the commandments of God, as given in the Word, instead of the doctrine of salvation by faith alone, the doctrine of substitution and vicarious atonement, as based on the erroneous idea of the tripersonality of God; if they had been good shepherds, according to the admonition to feed the lambs and to feed the sheep, - the world of mankind would be in a vastly different spiritual state from that in which it is at the present time. There is a marvelous power in the Divine Truth, with those who are in the true and living faith, to regenerate the individual and to elevate the race; and no one can form an adequate idea of how much better and happier the world would be, if the Divine Truth could have been taught and received, throughout the ages of the past.

     The old theology caused men to fear God, because it was imagined that He is a wrathful and a revengeful Being. But it is those who depart from God, because of an erroneous idea about Him, and by an evil life which is contrary to the Divine Law, who fear God and even hate Him. God is the Divine Love itself, and in the spiritual sense to fear God means to love Him.

     In the new and everlasting gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, there is given the Divine law of love. Love is the very life of man; and he that does not practically apply his religion, in the spirit of love to the Lord and love toward his fellow man, has no genuine religion. The Writings of the New Church give us the most comprehensive definition of religion that could be given, in these words: All religion has relation to life, and the life of religion is to do good. (Life, n. 1.) The one Precept, which involves all other precepts and commandments contained in the Word, is the law of heaven, where mutual love prevails.

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It is also the law in the Church, because the Church is the kingdom of heaven on the earth.

     The man who does to others as he would have others do to him, loves his neighbor as himself. For he makes it a principle of his religion to be kind, considerate and just in all the acts of his life, in all his dealings or relations with others. And therefore he does not permit himself to do anything to another, which he would not be perfectly willing to have another do to himself. No one can love his neighbor as himself, unless he is in good, by means of the reception of truth from the Word, which is spiritual truth, and unless he is in love from the Lord, to the Lord. An evil man internally hates his neighbor, although his outward demeanor toward him be that of apparent friendship. There must be, even on the part of selfish and evil men, an outward semblance of neighborliness, in order that there may be association between them. But in their dealings with each other those who are in the love of self are always watching for opportunities to get the advantage the one of the other. Each one has in view his own interests, without any sincere regard for the rights of the other; and it is only by great shrewdness that each can hold his own. This is the principle of self-love, which is the very opposite of the precept which requires us to love our neighbor as ourselves.

     The wicked, in this world, yea, even the evil spirits and devils in the hells, are held accountable to the Divine law, that as we would have others do to us, so likewise we are to do to them. The application of this law to the wicked consists in this, that it involves the law of retaliation. The effect of the observance of this law in heaven, and with the men who are really of the Church, is that they do good from a principle of good, and therefore receive from the Lord and through others good in return. But the effect of the violation of this law, which is the law of charity toward the neighbor, is that the evil, in doing evil from hatred and malice, receive from others evil in return.

     And good which is done in sincerity, and without the selfish idea of merit, has as a consequence its own reward. It is a heavenly reward, and consists simply in the delight and pleasure which one experiences in doing good from obedience to the law of charity, and thereby promoting the happiness of others. But, on the other hand, all evil that is done contrary to the law of charity, has, as a legitimate consequence, its own punishment. This is the law of retaliation.

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It is certain and inevitable, that the evil that is done from self-love or any wrong motive, will strike back upon the evil-doer himself, and will administer to him the just punishment which he deserves. And there is nothing arbitrary in this law of retribution. It is a law of the Divine order which in the very nature of things is forever in force; and without it the infernal spirits in the hells could not be controlled, the integrity of the heavens could not be conserved; yea, without the continual application of this law the Supreme Ruler could not preserve the human race and govern the universe.

     There is nothing arbitrary in the law of retaliation; because if men will cease to do evil and learn to do well, if men will do good from pure and unselfish motives, according to the law of life which is the law of charity, they will enjoy true liberty and rationality, they will be happy, and will not bring upon themselves punishments. The laws of Divine order are just to all.

     To the children of Israel was given the law of retaliation, because they were natural men, and destitute of charity, or any spiritual and heavenly love. With them it was an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; thus repaying an injury done to them with cruelty in turn. But to us in the new dispensation, - to us in the Church of the New Jerusalem, - is given the Christian law of brotherly love, the law of truth and justice, of kindness and mercy, together with most luminous and comprehensive interpretations of that Divine Law, as to all its practical details. And the reason why this law is thus given is because the members of this Church can become internal and spiritual men, if they will observe the Precept of all precepts, and permit themselves to be regenerated by the Lord.

     The commandments are the laws of order in heaven, and from heaven in the Church. The Church is the kingdom of God on the earth, and it comes down out of heaven from God. It is so described in the magnificent scene in the Apocalypse, in which John saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, by which is meant the Church as to its divine doctrine, and a heavenly life according to that doctrine. Those who learn the way of truly human life from the doctrine which the Lord has revealed for His Church, become enlightened Christians, and attain a state of intelligence and wisdom. All doctrine is given for the sake of life; that men may learn to delight in the law of the Lord, and be blessed for evermore.

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     In so far as men attain a state of intelligence and wisdom and there is a true Church, the kingdom of heaven is established on the earth. There is a true Church among men in so far as the Lord Jesus Christ is acknowledged as the Head of the Church, from Whom alone all things of the Church are derived. Without this acknowledgment there may indeed be great organizations and pretentious man-made institutions; but there can be no Church, truly such. "Except the Lord build the house, the builders thereof labor in vain," so far as the Church of the true and living God is concerned.

     It is to all the precepts of the Word, both in the Old Testament and the New, - the ten commandments, the two great commandments, and to these as concentrated in the one precept of life called the Golden Rule, - that the Lord has reference, when He says: "If ye love me, keep my commandments." (John xiv: 15.) And yet according to the old man-made scheme of salvation, which was devised ages since, it was not necessary for men to keep the commandments but only to have faith. This, however, was a striking example of the perverseness with which the Lord charged the Pharisees and scribes, namely, of making the Word of God of none effect, of ignoring and setting aside the Divine Law by the traditions of men delivered from time to time, in their departure from the doctrine of Divine Truth. For there have been Pharisees and scribes in more modern times also, and there are not a few of them in the world even at the present day. But the evil principle represented by them is to be eradicated from the minds of those who will be of the Church of the New Jerusalem. We are to cultivate the very opposite spirit, - that of a firm adherence to all that the Lord teaches in the Word, and in the heavenly doctrines contained in the revelation of the spiritual sense of the Word.

     The establishment of heaven on earth has begun anew, in that a new dispensation of Divine truth and love has been given among men. There is a new heaven, and also new earth. As to those who are really of the Church old things are passing away, and all things are becoming new, both as to their external conditions and their internal states of life. And all those who have a lively interest in things spiritual and heavenly; all those whose hearts are set on things which are above, and which come down through heaven from the Lord, - rejoice in the grand possibilities that are now vouchsafed to them, of making some progress in the study of the doctrine of the Church and in the application of that doctrine to the practical affairs of life.

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And there must be either progression or retrogression, because remaining at a standstill or in one fixed position, is as impossible to the spiritual state of the human mind, as it is to the physical condition of the earth. The Christian life is a journey, and he who walks in the path of life will make some progress, however slow it may be. - Amen.
JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. IV. 1900

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON. IV.              1900

     EMERSON, in his oft-quoted references to Dr. Wilkinson, speaks of the latter as "the annotator of Fourier." On the other hand Mr. James Speirs, in his interesting sketch of our author, in Morning Light for November 18th, 1899, denies any connection between the Doctor and Fourierism. Now, while there is no evidence that Dr. Wilkinson ever "annotated" any of the works of Charles Fourier, or wrote any special treatise on the peculiar system of the phalanges, yet it is certain that his impressionable mind, at one period of his life, was much attracted by the brilliant fallacies of the French sociologist. Thus, in a letter to the New Jerusalem Magazine, of Boston, in 1842, he draws attention to certain apparent parallelisms between Swedenborg and Fourier; and believes that the latter "must have been a student of Swedenborg's Writings, or have received, without perverting it, a large measure of influent truth" (N. J. M., vol. 15, p. 358). In another letter, in 1843, he describes Fourierism as valuable, in its speculative aspect on account of its application of the lams of Order, Series, and Groups, but does not consider it a safe guide in theology, nor in any higher than economic order, or natural association and science. The more internal or philosophical part of the system he distinctly rejects, together with Fourier's notions on the transmigration of souls, the transmutation of sex, the "conscious life" of planets, suns, and of the material universe. (Ibid, vol. 17, p. 155.) It would seem that Dr. Wilkinson, during the dark "middle ages" of his life, went even further in his acceptance of Fourier's vagaries, but how far we do not know.

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The editor of the Boston Magazine observes, in 1855: "We do not know whether Dr. Wilkinson regards himself now as a receiver of the doctrines taught by Swedenborg, or not; we have supposed that he had adopted very fully the views of Fourier, and consequently had left those of Swedenborg, as we regard the two as utterly irreconcilable and, indeed, antagonistic" (Ibid, vol. 28, p. 433).

     The system of Fourier does, indeed, possess a certain superficial similarity to some of the laws which govern the organization of the societies of heaven. There is an apparent recognition of the doctrines of use, of free determination, of association according to uses, of harmonious co-operation, etc., which would seem to afford a solution to many pressing social problems. Many other members of the New Church, beside Dr. Wilkinson, were fascinated by the theories of Fourier. Works were published, in America, to prove that his system would indeed establish the "New Earth" which is to descend out of the New Heaven, and the flourishing New Church society in Canton, Ill., went so far as to establish itself as a "phalanstery" or communistic institution on the plan of Fourier's, - with most disastrous results. The true inwardness of the system soon revealed itself. The "reforms of society," - purely artificial, proved worse than the old "forms," and the hideous though hidden skeleton, "free-love," when discovered, caused the system to be banished forever from the realms of the New Jerusalem. Thus also with Dr. Wilkinson; Fourierism, no less than Spiritualism, was at last found indigestible, and our friend finally emerged from it all, having sacrificed perhaps an offending right hand or eye, but free henceforth for the service of a single master, the Divine Truth, the Lord Alone in His Second Advent.

     The period of Dr. Wilkinson's gradual recovery is marked by an absence of activity in the fields of religion or philosophy, and by a strict devotion to the uses of his profession. During some ten years, from 1857 to 1867, there is an almost entire absence of data in his literary career, broken only by the appearance of a few short treatises on the subject of medicines and sanitation.

     The year 1868 marks the beginning of the second period of his activity in the uses of the New Church. Through his interest in Icelandic lore he had become at this time intimately associated with Mr. Jon A. Hjaltalin, then connected with the Icelandic department in the British Museum, and afterwards principal of the College in Reikiavik.

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From this association, Mr. Hjaltalin became deeply interested in the Doctrines of the New Church, and, with Dr. Wilkinson's assistance, performed the difficult task of translating the Divine Love and Wisdom into Icelandic. This volume, the first of Swedenborg's works to appear in the most ancient of living European tongues, was published at Copenhagen, 1868. Dr. Wilkinson, shortly afterwards, was elected a member of the Icelandic Society of Copenhagen. In the year 1865 he had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

     After a silence of many years he appeared, in 1876, as the author of another monumental work, On Human Science, Good and Evil, and its Works, and on Divine Revelation and its Works and Sciences. (Philadelphia. Lippincott. pp. 590.) Though less brilliant, perhaps, than the work on The Human Body and its Connection with. Man, it is more mature and safe, more distinctively of the New Church in its quality, and hence of more enduring value. It has been characterized by a competent judge, Dr. R. L. Tafel, as a work, "in which a merely sensual science is arraigned before the judgment-seat of God, and where its shortcomings and pretensions are mercilessly exposed." Nor is it of a merely negative and destructive character, but clearly and succinctly unfolds the principles upon which the future science of the New Church must be based. It is truly invaluable as a text book of principles and methods for the scholars of the Church. Not the falsities, only, of modern Science are here attacked, but especially its evils, as evidenced, for instance, in the cruelty and tyranny of vivisection, as practiced on animals and men, showing that such practices, in themselves evil and fallacious, can only result in a false science and the destruction of conscience in the community. Lack of space forbids our dwelling at any length on the merits of this great work. It contains, in short, - "a full and complete statement of the leading Doctrines of the New Church in their application to modern thought and their bearing upon the pursuits of science. All these topics are treated with a freshness, raciness and vigor that will quicken the thoughts even of the old students of the doctrines. For sharp distinction, clear statement, forcible utterance, and close reasoning, they are seldom equaled,... and through all there runs a loyalty to the truths of the New Church, that will be exceedingly grateful to the members of the Church, and excite the respect and admiration of all." (Rev. S. S. Seward in the New Jerusalem Magazine, 1877, P. 81.)

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     As might have been expected, the work on Human Science and Divine Revelation attracted but little attention in the learned world, but Dr. Wilkinson now descended into an arena where his voice was heard to more effect, enabling him to perform a most important use to his country and, indirectly, to oppressed humanity in general. He now arose as probably the most powerful champion in England against the legalized despotism of Compulsory Vaccination, directing against it, in the name of freedom, justice, true science and the public health, a series of Vaccination Tracts, fourteen in number, which were widely distributed and which powerfully contributed to the growth of a public sentiment, now victorious, against this malignant form of medical paternalism.
     (To be Concluded.)
END OF THE WORLD 1900

END OF THE WORLD       E. C       1900

     WHILE we are well assured that there will be no sudden destruction of the world, coinciding with a final judgment, we are not yet so certain that this particular globe on which we live will endure endlessly, never to wear out, or that the natural sun we behold above us will always shine as brightly as now, or be absolutely constant and permanent.

     The Lord alone is absolutely permanent and constant. Many things He has created as constants, relatively to less constant things, as times and seasons, heat and cold, gravity and extension, germination and heredity, etc., from the consideration of which many have been tempted to deny God, and ascribe a certain mysterious self-sustaining Power to nature, as is categorically asserted by Herbert Spencer and other evolutionists.

     But all these things of nature are temporal and perishable, while God alone endures, eternally and unchangeably, the same in leasts and in greatests. That the Lord is the One Only Constant, and that created things undergo perpetual change, is inferable from a certain general law or principle, found several times in the Writings, and nowhere closely limited by its context.

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     It appears in Arcana Coelestia, n. 726, where it is said: -

     "There is life only in those things which are of the Lord, as may appear to every one from this, that there is not any life in those things which not of eternal life, or which do not belong to eternal life: life which is not eternal, is not life, but in a little while perishes, nor can BEING (esse) be predicated of those things which cease to be, but of those which never cease to be; consequently to live and TO BE are only in those things which are of the Lord or Jehovah, because all BEING, and living in eternity, is His alone (Ipsius)."

     It next occurs in Arcana Coelestia, n. 1096, thus:

     "What Is, unless it be eternal? Every other BEING (esse) ceases to be."

     Again in Divine Providence, n. 59, We read:-

     "What is that which is not eternal' Is not the temporal relatively nothing, and does it not become nothing when it is ended? It is not so with what is eternal; that alone IS, for its BEING (esse) has no end."

     Once more: in the same work, n. 217 (e), the same law is enunciated thus:-

     "That which remains forever is in itself something perpetually, thus everything; and it also IS, for it does not cease to be."

     In the next number it is said:-

     "Temporal things are those which have no end and perish; while eternal things are those that have no end and do not perish. Any one can see that the two can be conjoined only through the Lord's infinite wisdom, and thus can be conjoined by the Lord, but not by man."

     In n. 219:-

     "Temporal things are all things therefrom that are proper to man. The things proper to nature are especially, spaces and time, both having limit and termination....Eternal things are all such as are proper to the Lord, and from Him are seemingly proper to man."

     Following numbers tell how the conjunction of temporal and eternal things is effected by the Lord, that is, through uses, by appearances and correspondences, and not at all by any interchange of essential properties.

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     The Spiritual Sun is eternal, because it is the proximate sphere of the Lord, and further -

     "Divine life is from within in the fire of the sun of the spiritual world, but from without in the fire of the sun of the natural world." (D. L. W. 157.)

     In every man there is an inmost degree, which animals have not, in which the Divine dwells, and from which angels can behold Him, as in the Spiritual Sun; from it also even the evil have endless existence, for it is of the Divine Providence that -

     "There shall be no person by whom, or no thing by which, some use is not accomplished." (D. P. 26.)

     The inmost souls of men, then, live to eternity because they live directly from God; but the bodies of men, both spiritual and natural, derive life indirectly, through the spiritual and natural atmospheres, by means of spiritual substances and natural matters; wherefore these bodies are continually changing.

     For when any energy or affection of love increases the bodily activity and natural heat of man, then just so many particles of his natural organism as are necessary to materialize that energy or heat, are used up, and must be carried off and replaced from without. This process ceases with the natural body when it dies, but is perpetual with the spiritual body: man's sense of personal identity, which he has been gifted with from the Lord, alone remaining unchanged.

     Towards the conjunction of the Creator with man - "the uses of all created things follow on in order;" and upon that conjunction - "both the connection of all things, and, if you are willing to acknowledge it, the conservation of all things, depend." (D. P. 3.)

     We see around us how the conservation of all natural things is accomplished, by a perpetuation of Uses, from the Divine, with a constant succession of ever-varying natural forms by which those Uses are made available.

     Now the sun and earth are both distinctly natural and material, (although some, by an ultra-metaphysical refinement of ideas, assert that the sun of the natural world is not material at all, and is thus really invisible, what we see being only a terrestrially developed representation of a distant mass of "essence" of fire!), and so, being natural and material, receiving their life "from without," they must have been formed by gradual and successive processes, as is outlined in Swedenborg's Principia, and must decay by the same limitations of force that cause the decay of all other natural forms.

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     That the New Church is to endure to eternity need not disturb this conclusion, for in Continuation concerning the Last Judgment, n. 76, we read:-

     "It was told me from heaven, that the truths now published in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, concerning the Word, and in the Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem, are being orally dictated by angelic spirits to the inhabitants of that continent (tellus)," [meaning Africa].

     Tell us, the Latin for a separate terrestrial globe, is here applied to a separate continent of this globe, but that the difficulty of transferring the New Church to another planet is no greater, we read in Spiritual Diary n. 4780:-

     "Hence it was evident that the heavenly doctrine should at East (demum) be propagated from those nations to spirits who are from various regions of this earth, and then to spirits of other earths" (tellus in both cases).

     Thus we see, that if this earth gradually ceases to be capable of supporting life, and the sun by contraction or otherwise grows slowly cooler, the New Church will not cease, but its angelic spirits will "at last" dictate its truths to the inhabitants of some other earth or earths, who will apply them to the life, and so act as the support and basis of their share of the spiritual world.

     In this way the particles of the "Maximus Home" or "Greatest Man," may change, but there will be no cessation of the Use and there will always be, as promised, "a visible heaven, and a habitable earth." E. C.
CORRIGENDA 1900

CORRIGENDA              1900

     BY a printer's error, in our April number, the last two lines of page 219 were transferred to the foot of page 218. - Editor.

     [This has been corrected in the electronic text.]

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MINOR WORKS BY SWEDENBORG 1900

MINOR WORKS BY SWEDENBORG              1900

[DE VERBO.]


CONCERNING THE
SACRED SCRIPTURE
OR THE
WORD OF THE LORD,
FROM EXPERIENCE
I.

THE SENSE OF THE LETTER OF THE WORD, IN WHICH IS THE SPIRITUAL SENSE, REPRESENTED.

     IT was given to see great purses, appearing like sacks, in which was hidden silver in great abundance; and, since these sacks were open, it seemed as if anyone might take from the silver stored in them, nay, steal from it, but near the sacks sat two angels who were guards. The place where the sacks were deposited appeared like a manger in a stable. In the next chamber were seen modest virgins together with a chaste wife, and near that chamber were two infants, and it was said that they were not to be played with in a childish manner, but wisely. Afterwards there appeared a harlot, and then a horse 1ying dead. It was then perceived that thus was represented the Sense of the Letter of the Word, in which is the Spiritual Sense.* The great purses filled with silver signified, cognitions of truth in great abundance therein. That they were open, and yet guarded by angels signified that every one may take thence cognitions of truth, but that one must take care lest one falsify its interior sense in which is nothing but verities. The manger in the stable where the sacks lap, signified spiritual instruction for the understanding. A manger signifies this, even the one wherein the Lord was laid when born; for a horse signifies the understanding: hence a manger signifies its nutrition. The modest virgins who were seen in the next chamber signified the truths of the Church, and the chaste wife signified the conjunction of truth and good which is everywhere in the Word. The infants signified the innocence of wisdom in the Word; they were angels from the third heaven who all appear like infants.

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The harlot, with the dead horse, signified the falsification of the Word by many at this day, whereby all understanding of truth is destroyed; harlot signifies falsification, and a death horse, no understanding of truth.**
     * [In the margin of the MSS.] "That the Sense of the Letter is the foundation of the wall of Jerusalem, and the twelve precious stones there; that these are the Urim and Thummim on the Ephod of Aaron."
     ** Compare True Christian Religion, n. 277.

THE WORD INTERIORLY IS LIVING.

     WHEN the Word is read by a man who believes it holy, then its natural sense becomes spiritual in the second heaven and celestial in the third; thus successively the natural is put off. This takes place because the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial correspond to one another, and the Word is written by nothing but correspondences. The natural sense of the Word is such as is found in the sense of the Letter, the all of which becomes in the heavens spiritual, and then celestial; and celestial; and when it becomes spiritual, then it lives there from the light of truth in the second heaven, and when it becomes celestial it lives from the flame of good in the third heaven. For the spiritual ideas with the angels of the second heaven partake of the light there, which in its essence is Divine Truth; but the celestial ideas with the angels of the third heaven partake of the flame of good, which in its essence is Divine Good. For in the second heaven there is shining white light, from which the angels there think. The thoughts of the angels differ altogether from the thoughts of men: they think by means of lights, shining-white or flamy, which are such that they cannot be described in natural language. From these things it is evident that the Word interiorly lives, thus that it is not dead but living with the man who, when he reads it, thinks holily of it. Moreover, everything of the Word is vivified by the Lord, for with the Lord it becomes life, as the Lord also says in John:

     "The words which I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life," (VI: 63).

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     The life which, by means of the Word, inflows from the Lord into the understanding, is the light of truth, and that which inflows into the will is the love of good. This love and this light conjointly make the life of heaven which among men is called eternal life. The Lord also teaches:

God was the Word; in Him was life, and the life was the light of men. (John 1, 4.)

III.

CONCERNING THE DIFFERENCE IN GENERAL BETWEEN THE NATURAL, THE SPIRITUAL AND THE CELESTIAL.

     There are three heavens, the lowest, the middle and the highest. They who are in the lowest heaven are natural, but their natural partakes either of the spiritual which is of the middle heaven, or of the celestial which is of the third heaven. They who are in the second heaven are spiritual, and they who are in the third heaven are celestial. There are also some who are intermediate, who are called spiritual-celestial: many of these are preachers in the highest heaven.

     [2]. The difference between the natural, the spiritual and the celestial is such that there is no ratio between them, wherefore the natural can not in any manner approach the spiritual by means of any approximation, nor the spiritual the natural; hence it is that the heavens are distinct. This has been granted me to know by much experience. I have very often been sent among the spiritual angels, and I then spoke with them spiritually, and what I spoke I then retained in the memory, but when I returned into the natural state in which is every man of the world, then I desired to bring forth this from the prior [spiritual] memory and to describe it, but I could not. It was impossible; words were not to be had, nor even ideas of thought by means of which to express it; the spiritual ideas of thought and the spiritual words were so remote from natural ideas of thought and words that they did not in the least approximate. What is wonderful, when I was in that heaven and spoke with the angels I then knew no otherwise than that I was speaking in the same way as when I speak with men; but afterwards it was found that the thoughts and expressions were so dissimilar, that they could not be approximated, consequently that there was no ratio.

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     [3]. There is similar difference between the spiritual and the celestial. I was told that there is a similar difference, and that it is such that there is no ratio or approximation. But since I could not be confirmed in this by my own experience unless I were altogether an angel of the middle heaven, it was granted to some angels of the middle heaven to be together with angels of the third heaven, and then to think there and to speak with them, and also to retain in memory the things which they had thought and spoken, and afterwards to return to their own heaven; and they told me thence that they were not able to express any idea or any word of the former state, and that this was impossible, and they finally said that there is no ratio, nor approximation.

     [4]. It has therefore been granted me sometimes to be among angels of the middle and of the highest heaven, and to hear them speak among themselves; I was then in an interior natural state removed from worldly and corporeal things, namely, in the first waking after sleep, and I have heard things ineffable and inexpressible, such as, we read, were heard by Paul. And when I was let into the perception and understanding of the things which these angels spoke, they were full of arcana respecting the Lord, redemption, regeneration, Providence and other such things; and afterwards it was given me to understand that I would not be able to utter and describe them by any spiritual and celestial word, but that still they could be described by words of natural language, even to a rational apprehension. It was said, moreover, that there are no Divine Arcana that may not be perceived and expressed also in a natural manner, although in a more general and imperfect way; and that they who from the affection of truth perceive these things naturally by their rational understanding, afterwards, when they become spirits, can both perceive and express these same things in a spiritual manner, and in a celestial manner when they become angels: but others cannot. For one divine verity, perceived and loved in a natural manner, is like a crystalline or porcelain vessel, which is afterwards filled with wine; and the quality of the wine such as was the affection of truth.

     [5]. That there is such a difference, which may be called unlimited, between the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial, may be evident from the difference between human and angelic thought, speech, operation, and writing: from these things, as from so many confirmations, the quality of the one and of the other will be manifest, and how the perfections of all things ascend and transcend from the world into heaven, and from one heaven into another.

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     [6]. As regards thoughts: all the thoughts of man, together with the single ideas of these thoughts, derive something from space, from time, from person, and from the material, such as appear in the natural light or in the light of the world. For nothing can be thought of without light, even as nothing can be seen without light; and natural light or the light of the world is dead, because it is from its sun, which is pure fire. Nevertheless the light of heaven inflows everywhere and constantly into that light, and vivifies it, and gives perception and understanding of a thing. The light of the world, alone, can not give anything perceptive and intellectual, nor present any natural or rational lumen, but the light of the world from the light of heaven does give and present these, because the light of heaven is from its sun, which is the Lord and thence life itself. The influx of the light of heaven into the light of the world is as the influx of cause into effect, the quality of which shall be told elsewhere. From these things it is evident of what quality is natural thought, or of what quality are the ideas of thought with men; namely, that they cohere inseparably with space and time, with the personal and the material, on account of which these thoughts or ideas of thought are exceedingly limited and terminated, and thus gross and to be called material. But the thoughts of the angels of the middle heaven are all without space, time, the personal and the material; wherefore they are unlimited and unbounded. The objects of their thoughts are, like the thoughts themselves, spiritual, wherefore they think of them spiritually and not naturally. But in regard to the angels of the highest heaven, they do not have thoughts, but they have perceptions of the things which they hear and see; in place of thoughts they have affections which are varied with them even as the thoughts are varied with the spiritual.

     [7]. As regards speech: the speech of men is such as are their ideas of thought, for the ideas of thought become words when they go forth into speech. The speech of men, therefore, in every word partakes of space, time, the personal and the material. But the speech of the angels of the middle heaven is also similar to their ideas of thought, for the words of their speech express them.

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The speech of the angels of the highest heaven, on the other hand, is altogether from the variation of the affections; but when they speak with the spiritual angels they speak as the latter do, but not thus when among themselves. Since such is the speech of angels, and such the speech of men, the difference between the two is so great that they have nothing in common. They differ to such a degree that a man can understand no word of an angel, nor an angel any word of a man. I have heard the speech of the angels and have retained the words [in memory] and I have afterwards examined whether these words coincided with any word of human speech or languages, and there was not one that did. This spiritual speech is one for all; it is implanted in every man, and he comes into it as soon as he becomes a spirit.

     As regards writing: this is similar to their speech. As to the letters, the writing of the spiritual angels is similar to the writing of men in the world, but each particular letter signifies a thing, so that if you were to see it in a natural state, you would say that they were mere letters. But the writing in the highest heaven is not similar to the writing of men as to the letters; they have letters drawn by various curvatures, not unlike the letters of the Hebrew language, but everywhere curved and with nothing merely linear in them. Every single letter involves a thing, of which they have perception from affection and not from thought. Hence it is that one who is natural comprehends nothing of spiritual writing, nor does one who is spiritual comprehend anything from natural writing; nor yet does one who is spiritual comprehend anything of celestial writing, nor one who is celestial, of spiritual writing, unless he be with one who is spiritual.

     [8]. Their operations, which are manifold, (for each one is in some work), are also similar; how the spiritual operate cannot be described to one that is natural; nor can it be described to one that is spiritual how the celestial operate; for their operations differ as much as do their thoughts, their speech, and their writing.

     [9]. From these things it is manifest what a difference there is between the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial, - that it is such that they altogether do not agree, except by correspondences. This also is the reason that men do not know that they are in consociation with spirits, and that spirits do not know that they are in consociation with men, when yet there is a perpetual consociation.

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For a man cannot live one minute unless, as to thoughts and affections, he be in the midst of spirits; nor can a spirit or an angel live a moment unless they be with men. The reason is that there is a perpetual conjunction from firsts to lasts; thus from the Lord to man, and the conjunction was made from creation by means of correspondences, and it inflows by angels and spirits. All the celestial inflows into the spiritual, and the spiritual into the natural, and it ceases in the ultimate thereof, which is the corporeal and material, and there it subsists. Without such an ultimate, into which the intermediates may inflow, there cannot be any subsistence, unless it were such as that of a house built in the air; wherefore the basis and foundation of the heavens is the human race.

     [10]. That there is such a difference between the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial, no angel knows; the reason is that an angel does not change his state, nor does he pass from a spiritual state into a natural one, so as to be able thereby to explore the differences. I have spoken with them on this subject, and they said that they did not know the differences. They believed that they thought, spoke, wrote, and operated in the same manner as in the world. But the difference was shown to them by this, that they changed states, and now thought in one state and now in another by turns; and similarly, that they spoke by turns in one state and in another; and further that they read their writings now in a spiritual state and now in a natural, and that they operate in like manner; and then they found that there is such a difference that it cannot be described. Concerning this thing it has been granted me to instruct the angels themselves, because it has been granted me to be in both worlds by turn, and from the one to explore the other; and they afterwards all confessed that it is thus.

     [11]. But the similitude of the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial states, consists in such things as are objects of sight, of taste, of smell and of hearing, and also of the sense of touch of various kinds. In their own sight they all appear as do men in the world; their garments thus appear; also houses, and likewise gardens or paradises, as well as fields, and seas (terra aquea), and moreover food and drink of various kinds, beside animals of the earth, fowls of the sky, and fishes in the waters, of various kinds, under various forms.

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Their speech is heard as in the world, also singing and the modulations of music. Taste is similar, and also odor; in a word, all the things which appear to and are perceived by any of the senses. But still these things are of a spiritual origin, and hence they think spiritually concerning them, and give them spiritual names. But all these things, also, such as appear and are perceived in the middle and the highest heaven, as to the excellence of forms and harmonies, and as to perfections which are supereminent and transcendent, cannot be described, except imperfectly, only as the most perfect things in the world, which yet are imperfect in respect to those things which are in heaven. (To be Continued.)
CONCERNING ODOURS.* 1900

CONCERNING ODOURS.*              1900

* From Tafel's Documents concerning Swedenborg, Vol. ii, page 769.

FROM SWEDENBORG'S UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT.

     THERE is not a single object in the mineral kingdom which does not give out an odour, and, indeed, in the form of an impalpable powder, by which seeds are impregnated. In the vegetable kingdom also there is not a single object which does not emit an odour. This odour consists of particles of a fatty and saline nature, which are given out at the same time with the watery exhalations. In the animal kingdom also there is not a single object which does not breathe out an odour. Concerning this see above.

     Odour or scent is nothing else than a sort of smoke, consisting of minutest substances separated from the various matters. This separation goes on continually, and the loss is made up by the addition of new particles. The particles which are thus cast off become the volatile aura [sphere] of their subject. This appears clearly from the magnet, and from dogs used in hunting, which pursue hares, stags, and game of different kinds by their smell.

     All those who are in hell turn their backs toward heaven, and cannot endure the least odour thence. If they feel the conjugial they become infuriated, and if they do not turn themselves away they fall into a swoon; likewise when they hear anything concerning the Lord. It is different with men in their externals, because there is a barrier between their externals and their internals.

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Editorial Department 1900

Editorial Department       Editor       1900

     NOTES.

     THE writer of the editorial reply which, in this number, accompanies the article "The End of the World," hopes soon to contribute another and longer paper on the same general subject.

     IT is always a pleasure to publish announcements of births; but we consider that the importance of these notices lies less in the item of news, - interesting as the event in itself is, - than in the record thus made. For this reason we would ask those sending such notices to see to it that the name of the child accompanies.

     OF grave concern to the organized New Church is the announcement of the death of the Rev. John Worcester, for many yea's General Pastor of the Massachusetts Association, and President of the General Convention We understand that April 30th was the date of his passing away, but particulars have not yet been received. The Messenger of May 23d, is to be made a memorial number.

     A NOTE in our March number advised those who contemplate binding their numbers of New Church Life for 1899, to wait a little while for the Nineteen Years' Index which is to appear: It has since been thought advisable, however, to publish this index In an octave volume, as being much more convenient and shelf-worthy than a tall thin volume, the size of which relegates it either to the lowest shelf or to a recumbent posture, in the book-case.

     ANNOUNCEMENT of the principal events connected with the coming General Assembly, and of arrangements by the Committee on Accommodations, is presented on the page just opposite the last page of the News Department. Last month this space was occupied, - as we omitted to point out, - with a list of Places of Worship connected with the General Church of the New Jerusalem. This list will be republished as often as practicable, and it is expected that it will prove of use, especially to travelers who may be in the vicinity of one of these centres at the time of services.

     BELIEVING that the Swedenborg Scientific Association has a work before it which concerns, more than many realize, the growth and increase of the New Church and its establishment in all departments of education and human life, - all of which according to the promise, are to be "made new," - we have given considerable of our space in this number to reporting the proceedings of that body at its recent annual meeting in New York.

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When our readers once grasp how much the objects of this organization are identified with interests of the New Church, and see how thus early in its history practical work has been inaugurated and is being pushed on to near completion; and moreover, since the reduction of annual fees makes membership feasible to many more than before, we trust that the roll of that body from now on will show a decided advance.

A NEW TRANSLATION OF SWEDENBORG'S POSTHUMOUS WORK "DE VERBO."

     IN the present issue we publish the first instalment of a new translation of Swedenborg's posthumous work on The Sacred Scripture, or the Word of the Lord, from Experience, which is more generally known in the Church under the briefer title De Verbo. This Latin designation has been prefixed to the present version, not only on account of its brevity, but also to distinguish it from the larger treatise, the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture. From a statement in Section VII, 8, - of this small but important work, it is evident that it was written about the year 1761, while the author was engaged in preparing for publication the "Four Doctrines," - The Lord, The Sacred Scripture, Life, and Faith. Much of the materials in this smaller work were afterwards incorporated by Swedenborg in his published Writings, but many of the teachings do not appear in the same form in any other work, and will be found of the greatest value in illumining and rounding out the general Doctrine.

     The original Manuscript of this work is contained in Codex 12 of Swedenborg's autographs in the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. In the same Codex are contained the manuscripts of the posthumous works, De Ultimo Judicio and De Mundo Spirituali. Owing partly to a mistake by the binder, but partly also to the peculiar arrangement of the author, the closing sections Of the work De Verbo are found interspersed among the contents of the work De Mundo Spirituali. As a result, the work has never yet appeared in a complete form, either in Latin or in English. August Johansen, who, in 1787, made a copy of the work under the direction of Augustus Nordenskjold, copied only the first nineteen consecutive sections, omitting Section 20: this, because the author had drawn a line through it, which, however, was his habit, when incorporating any part of his unpublished manuscripts with the works which he prepared for publication. From this incomplete copy the editors of the New Jerusalem Magazine in London prepared an English translation which appeared in instalments in that periodical, in 1790 and 1791, and this version subsequently reissued by Dr. George Bush, in New York, and Mr. I. N. Gregory, in Philadelphia.

     Dr. Immanuel Tafel seemed the loan of the original manuscript in 1854, and prepared from it a Latin edition, which he published as Part VII, section 2, of the Diarium Spirituale.

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It will be found in the fourth volume of the Diarium, immediately after the work De Ultimo Judicto, and occupies there pp 1-38 Dr. Im. Tafel here introduced section to among his critical notes on pp. 74-75, but did not discover the continuation of the work as scattered among the entries in the work De Mundo Spirituali.

     The Rev. T. B. Hayward, in 1863, prepared a complete English translation of this incomplete Latin edition of Dr. Tafel's, and published it in instalments in the New Jerusalem Magazine of Boston, (vol. XXXV: pp. 354, 391, 439, 494, 552, 583); but the version was never published in a
separate form.

     Finally, in 1869, when Dr. R. L Tafel supervised the photo lithographing of Swedenborg's Manuscripts, in Stockholm, he discovered the connection of the work De Verbo with certain sections on the same subject scattered, as mentioned, through the manuscript of De Mundo Spirituali, and he arranged the whole in consecutive order in the photo lithographed edition as Section IV, Vol. VIII (pp. 1 to 35). The numbers hitherto missing will be found in Dr. Im. Tafel's Latin edition of the works De Ultimo Judicio and De Mundo Spirituali, in the following order:

Section 21 on p. 104
Section 22 on p. 105
Section 23 on p. 109
Section 24 on p. 111.
Section 26 on p. 115.

     The above paragraphs were thus numbered by Swedenborg himself. Number 25 is still missing from the original manuscript.

     The present translation, which is the work of Prof. C. T. Odhner, has been made directly from the photo lithographed Manuscript, making it the first complete version of the work in the English language; certain errors occurring in Dr. Im. Tafel's Latin edition will be noted in an appendix. The subdivisions in the present translation are those adopted in the Rev. J F. Potts' Concordance.

     "THE END OF THE WORLD"

     UNDER the above title "E. C." in the present number of the Life endeavors to prove from the Writings, that the theory commonly accepted in the scientific world, that this and other earths will come to an end, is in agreement with the doctrines of the New Church. What first presents itself to the mind of the Newchurchman as a fatal objection to this position, is the teaching of the Writings that the New Church now being established will endure "to eternity." (Cor. 52, T. C. R. 788.) This teaching has been justly held by the common opinion of the Church to distinctly and indubitably involve the eternal duration of our earth. To meet this point, "E. C." maintains that the teaching referred to does not involve that the New Church will endure to eternity on this earth, but that when this earth ceases to exist the Church established thereon will be transferred to some other earth.

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And this operation will, we suppose, be repeated, as often as that earth on which for the time being the Church is, ceases to exist.

     While it is undoubtedly true that the teachings of the New Church will spread from this to other earths by means of spirits, as indeed it is now doing, it is difficult to understand how this can be the case with the ultimate Word, the possession of which is the foundation stone of the New Church. The teachings of the Word can be transferred, but manifestly not in the ultimate form in which we have them, both in the Word and in the Writings, confirmed by the history and science of the world, and providentially preserved to us in the form of writing. And yet it is from the possession of the Heavenly Truths in such forms, that the New Church derives its quality as the Crown of the Churches, and that by means of the men of the New Church, the inhabitants of the universe can be instructed concerning our Lord Jesus Christ. (S. D. 1531-1532.)

     But aside from this, "E. C." gives no reason satisfactory to the Newchurchman why, in any event, the Church must cease on this earth, - why it must be so limited in its extension as to make its transference from earth to earth a necessity. The sole reason which he advances, is that the sun and earth being finite and material, must therefore of necessity come to an end. Nowhere in the Writings do we find any such teaching. Although they often treat of the possibility of the destruction of an earth, yet no external necessity is ever assigned as the cause for such an eventuality. On the contrary, the sole cause given is, the complete separation, by wickedness, of the human race from the Lord, the Source of Life. Even in the one solitary passage which has been taken by some as teaching that this earth will come to an end, (we refer to Arcana Coelestia, No, 932), the sole cause given is the separation of man from heaven.     No Newchurchman can doubt for a moment but that there will be no such separation on this earth. The teaching is clear that the New Church will continually progress, and will never fall into night as other Churches have done. The prophecy concerning the New Church is "Behold the Tabernacle of God with men, and the nations which are saved shall walk in His light, and there shell be no night there. (Rev. xxi. 3, 24, 25: T. C. R. 790.)

     Since, therefore, the Church and the man of the Church will continually progress in the worship of the Lord, it follows that there can be no destruction of the world from the cause contemplated in the Writings, - that is, from any cause in man, - and thus if "E. C.'s" position be correct, the destruction of the earth will come as an undeserved check on the growth of the Church and thence of Heaven. In other words, the theory that the world because it is finite must be destroyed, involves to the Newchurchman that the human race, growing in knowledge and fear of the Lord, will be cut off, and the Crown of Churches he suddenly dissipated! And this, not from any internal cause or necessity, - for surely it is not necessary for the growth of a Church that the number of its lovers and supporters be decreased, - but from a cause merely external, from a supposed necessity that earths must be destroyed; a necessity which shall ruthlessly put an end to a Church the "Crown of the Churches," in which "there shall be no night;" a necessity which in its very nature involves the destruction of the End of Divine Love.

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     The destruction of the earth is assumed by "E. C." to be the inevitable result of the operation of the Laws of Order; but he fails to properly consider that the Laws of Order; are the laws of the Divine Love, and can never in the least degree militate against the Ends of that Love. The supreme End of Divine Love is that men shall be created and the Church be established among them, in order that heaven may be perpetually formed and perfected from them. This end is not effected by the destruction of an earth, for then, as the Writings teach us, "the Divine End would be finited by a certain number (L. J. 13); and therefore the Lord and His Laws of Order cannot contemplate such destruction. The Laws of Order, so far from preventing or obstructing or limiting the Ends of Divine Love, - so far from destroying a church in its glory whether on one earth or on many (there is no essential difference) are Laws for the furtherance and ultimation of Divine Love. They are laws of conservation and not of destruction; of perpetuation and not of extinction. Destruction and extinction can come only when these laws are so broken as to render destruction and extinction inevitable; and against this the Lord from His infinite wisdom ever provides. It is man who constantly endeavors to destroy; the Lord constantly upbuilds and conserves.                                                  

     The only possible cause of the destruction of the earth is the wickedness of the human race. And the Lord who came to save the human race, gives us the Divine assurance that the Salvation is accomplished, and that the Church now being established by Him is to grow in beauty and to become the Crown of all the Churches. A. A.


     TEACH, BUT DO NOT COMPEL.

     In some places in the Word, especially in the New Testament, the natural sense is so obvious, and so important, that we are apt to overlook the deeper meaning of the internal sense, which however is that which is especially for the New Church. A case in point is the injunction, in the sixth chapter of Luke, verse 35, to "Lend, hoping for nothing in return."

     In the internal sense these words signify that we are to impart the goods and truths of doctrine, but without any end of self or the world. Viewed in the light of the general doctrine of usury, we gather a very important lesson of spiritual charity, which fits well into its natural counterpart of disinterested generosity; namely, that, to those who open the way, we ought to teach freely the truths which form our own conscience, but never to try to impose our conscience upon them. One cannot promote the real welfare of his neighbor except by promoting his freedom; and to do this, it is necessary to recognize that when one has delivered a message at the neighbor's door, he must then wait for whatever the man may himself bring forth. We are too fond of trying to regulate our neighbor's judgment and conscience for him. Yet even the Lord Himself says, "Behold I stand at the door and knock.

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If anyone hear My voice, and open the door, I will enter in to him." To "open the door" is to do the things of worship and charity, and this each must do for himself, and according to his light. Thus everyone should be left free to exercise charity according to what appears to him to be charity, and not be unduly constrained in the matter even by those who may know better than he does. To prevent a simple man from doing this or that, because you see that it is not best in the long run, is injurious, unless you can get him to see it for himself.

     For example: we are taught that it does no harm to children and servants to help the beggars or others who seem to them to be really needy. This to them is to exercise charity toward the neighbor. Now if this is so, is it not injurious to prevent them from acting according to their good impulses, unless they are capable of seeing that the person is unworthy of their compassion? The harm of it is, that it leads them to violate what to them at the time, is charity. The case is the same as with the man who has imbued himself with a spurious conscience. You may see that his scruples are very foolish, but nevertheless it would be wrong to induce him to violate them. Rather teach him the truths, and let his conscience be rationally modified, - never violated. It is as wrong for him to violate his conscience, believing it to be a true one, as for you to violate yours.

     Persons do, indeed, often suffer in consequence of lacking discrimination in the exercise of charity, and so does the community, externally But meanwhile, if freedom be preserved, there is a compensating good, which may far outweigh the harm; for thus charity is nevertheless formed on the sensual plane, and we know that if it is not formed there first, thus according to the appearance, it comes to be omitted entirely. Influx, we are taught, is from inmosts to ultimates, and thence to intermediates. Hence the importance of establishing and preserving natural good and natural truths in the ultimate plane, in order that when regeneration begins there may be something there as a basis to work upon. The absence of natural good does not argue the presence of spiritual good, as some seem to suppose; for when ultimates are dispersed, interiors also are dissipated.

     By neglecting the ultimates of charity, and giving too little attention to the cultivation of its earlier stages, a top heavy civilization is erected, wherein there is too much head, and too little heart. Thus the highest state of intellectuality is wont to become the coldest, the most formal and exacting, the least forgiving, and least willing to put itself about. This will not do. We must have both the head and the heart cultivated; but neither at the expense of the other. As we progress into rationality, our chief concern is indeed to see that the head holds prudent and firm sway over our uncircumcised hearts; but through it all is the need of hastening slowly, lest we leave the little ones behind. We must bend and not break, - prune, and not destroy allowing even the tares to stand awhile beside the wheat.

     Charity must have room and exercise, too, upon all its planes, and this will be secured only by allowing each individual to exercise it as it appears to him, without too much fear of what others will think of it. In dealing with the well-disposed, it is also desirable, as far as possible, to so accommodate one's actions toward them, that charity may not only be within the acts, but may also in some measure appear in them.

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Justice itself in a community would not suffice to maintain order, if the people could not see that it was just. The reality ought never to be yielded for the sake of a mere appearance, and yet all truth is veiled with successive accommodations, which are appearances, but real appearances, being all in accord with its essence, and without which it could not reach men in their various planes. The ancients made a specialty of this subject, studying with much concern, just what constitutes charity toward the blind, the lame, and the halt, and so on,-that is, to those who are spiritually such. They classified them in this way, and prescribed accordingly. But in this faith-alone age, the tendency with intellectual communities seems to be to regard the obligation to exercise charity, or to manifest love to the neighbor, in direct ratio to his perfection, as estimated by ourselves; thus to the most perfect, most service, to the less perfect less, and with those whom we do not like, or who seem to us to have the most failings, have nothing whatever to do, but carefully lift the skirt, and pass by on the other side. But this is to exercise charity in inverse ratio to the need. Surely this cannot be what is meant when we are taught to discriminate in regard to the neighbor. The Writings do indeed teach, that every man is to be esteemed as neighbor according to his good; in other words, that the degrees of neighbor are according to use to the community; and to a man in a coldly intellectual state, this will suggest a critical weighing of each one's acquirements, and the doling out of estimation accordingly: "But if ye do good to them that do good to you, what regard have ye." How easy is it to pervert a truth, by looking at it from a wrong standpoint! But a man filled with zeal and with unselfish devotion to the good of the Church and of the community, views every person as a possibility of usefulness, and looks therefore not only at what he is, but also at what he may become, if encouraged and helped; thus he reaches after the best there is in each one, and usually finds more than others do. It is not for us to place limits upon the possibilities of others. In the Divine economy, this is left to each individual to work out for himself. God giveth not His Spirit by measure, - it is the man himself who places a limit by his reception. So should we do to our fellow creatures, standing ever ready to give them all which they can usefully receive, - to "lend, hoping for nothing in return." To teach when called upon, is every man's duty, but let him not take usury of his neighbor, to oppress him thereby. Of a stranger it was of old, lawful to take usury, for by a stranger in this connection is meant an evil man, whom it is necessary to bind by external considerations to keep the truth. But a well-disposed man, especially if he were needy, was assured the fullest immunity from such usurious burdens, whose creditor could not even enter his house to take his pledge, but must needs stand outside - "in the street," as the Hebrew has it, - and wait for the man to bring forth his pledge unto him. So, after we have loaned a man the doctrine of truth (which is the current coin of our realm), we must stand outside, and allow the poor man to bring forth his own response in his own time, and in his own way. (See A. C. 9213.) The teaching is in our hands, but the fruits thereof in the hands of the Lord. H. S.

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Monthly Review.

     New-Church Magazine. What the New Church Teaches. Rev. Jas. F. Buss. With the beginning of the year Mr. Buss resumed, in The New-Church Magazine the series of articles on what the New Church teaches, or rather, begins another series, which we take for granted will, like the first, ultimately be published in book form. The topic chosen is, "Light on the Other Life," and is treated in the author s genially argumentative, clear and logical manner, and equally enriched with illustration and confirmatory citation from the letter of the Word as was the former series. We consider Mr. Buss's work as adapted to an important field of usefulness, and shall recur to it more at length at another time.

     New-Church Messenger. (April 25th.) An Uprising Against the Creeds. An editorial, suggested by the revolt on the part of some ministers of the Presbyterian Church against the Westminster Confession of Faith. Following Drs. McGiffert and Hollis comes Dr. Parkhurst, in his Easter sermon, from which the Messenger quotes and analyzes with skill. Dr. Parkhurst "could get along with a Confession of Faith containing little but what Jesus said when He was trying (?) to make a Christian of Nicodemus: 'God so loved the world that He gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life.' But the Messenger shows that this will not be sufficient unless correctly understood. Shall it be understood to teach the vicarious atonement, tritheism, and salvation by faith alone?"

     It could hardly be expected we suppose, that the natural and unanswerable reply should have been entered here, that no passage of the letter of the Word can longer suffice of itself for a creed, because of the utter falsification of the Word and consequent destruction of its containing vessels of truth, - that is, the subversion of all true understanding of the Letter.

     The New Philosophy. Numbers One and Two (January and April) both appeared in April, containing Bulletins One and Two of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, which embody the transactions of that body for the years 1898 and 1899. Gotten up on similar lines to those of our chastely-garbed contemporary, the New Church Review, the New, Philosophy now exhibits an appropriate dignity and literary appearance.

     It is a satisfaction, even at this date, to have the transactions of the Association to refer to. We assume that suggestions and friendly criticism will be not out of order. In Number One the "Contents" on the cover ought to have indicated the position, in the magazine, of the Constitution of the body; which appears on pages 14 and 15. And it was supposed by some that the papers presented at the annual meetings, would, unless peculiarly unavailable, be published in the Bulletin.

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But in the first number; we notice omission of the really needed paper on "The Study of Swedenborg's Science: an Historical Sketch;" by Prof. Odhner; and of Mr. Swanton's paper on "Methods of Study in the New Dispensation." While a paper is inserted which was not a part of these transactions at all, but of the meeting a year later. A more serious loss to the record is the omission, from Bulletin Number Two, of the paper on "The Law of Evolution," by Rev. W. F. Pendleton; also a discourse on the question "Wherein do the Nebular Hypotheses of Kant, Laplace, and Swedenborg, differ?" read at last year's meeting. This is the more to be regretted since lack of space was evidently not the obstacle, for matter not really part of the record appears in Number Two. It would seem that members are entitled to these useful productions; and it is sincerely to be hoped that future contributors and investigators will not, on these occasions, be discouraged at the outset by an uncertainty or rather improbability of their efforts being given permanency except as they themselves may provide. It ought to be self evident that original work on these lines deserves and should have every encouragement.

     The New-Church Review. (April.) The Hypothesis of Evolution in the Light of the New Church; by Gilbert Hawkes. Part III. Concludes a notable effort to show the irreconcilableness of modern "Evolution" with New Church doctrine. In Part II the author was led into bolstering up a good cause with an untenable doctrinal interpretation of the Writings on the subject of the Most Ancient Church and of primitive man. Here, however, he returns to the rational aspect of the case, scrutinizing the data and explanations of Evolution and finding them wanting. Freely acknowledging appearances of truth in the arguments commonly advanced, he shows that they do not meet the difficulties nor explain the exceptions to the theory, - "exceptions" which certainly do not "Drove the rule." [The aphorism is, "Exceptions prove the rule in regard to the things not excepted;" but to a theory which from its very nature must be universal or nothing, real exceptions are fatal.] The paper contends that in Evolution not only is there a lack of consistency and reliability as to the manifestation of the evolutionary processes, - since many groups of organic beings show stationary tendencies, and there is a persistence of simple types which ought - according to the theory - to have developed into something higher, - but, "There is also the sudden appearance of new and distinct forms of life in geological formations, which, it is admitted, supports at first sight the belief in abrupt development." See Darwin's Origin of Species, p. 230; and where on another page he says that "geology does not reveal any finely graduated [i. e., continuous] chain." According to Mr. Hawkes the genealogical tree is so defective as to be worthless. For instance, different anthropoid apes in form resemble man each in different respects, so that there is no indication of progressive order or sequence of development: even Haeckel admits that no one of these apes is among the direct ancestors of man.

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Then the "law of heredity," or the transmission of instincts and the accumulated effects of experience, which plays so important a part in evolutionary science, - breaks down in the case of bees, wasps and ants, where workers, being sterile, can not possibly transmit their instincts; these nevertheless persisting in the species, without diminution. Again, the reason of man is shown to be not the mere development of instinct, since with all his advance in science and art man would find himself baffled did he attempt to construct a bee's cell or a wasp's nest. "The imperfection of man's nativity is his perfection; and the perfection of a beast's nativity is his imperfection."     (T. C. R. 48.)

     But the thing which for the Newchurchman ought to decide as to what relation Evolution holds to New Church philosophy, is, that it is inimical to a true theology; and Mr. Hawkes demonstrates, on this head, that the only consistent evolutionists are the atheistic propounders and leading exponents of the theory. He shows that they are entirely frank in the matter: "Darwinianism, in making the unqualified assertion that no theory other than that of descent has any standing among sensible men, of course rejects as absolutely worthless the theistic origin of the universe. Atheism displaces theism, and the denial of the existence of the Creator involves the denial of Christianity."

     Thus Haeckel finds in the supposed purposelessness of certain rudimentary or little-understood organs absolute proof of the non-existence of a Designer; and here Darwin might have been quoted, where he says: "There seems to be no more design in the variability of organic beings, and in the action of the natural selection, than in the course which the Wind blows:" what wonder that late in life he confessed, - "Thus disbelief has crept over me at a very slow rate, but was at last complete. The rate was so slow that I felt no distress." Distress? No, for the encroachments of atheism are like those of certain hideous diseases and poisons which seem to be numb sensation before they vitiate and destroy the living tissues. And Darwin's confession certainly does have the tragic, uncanny interest of a suicide's cold-blooded description of his experiences after taking a lethal dose.

     Spencer, too, who Mr. Hawkes says is generally if not always offensive when speaking of a sacred subject, links the fetishism of the African savages with the religion taught by the Jews, basing both on the theory of "ghosts!" Says Mr. Hawkes: "But as set forth in boastful terms by one of its champions who may be credited with unusual qualifications to estimate its influence, the advance which this grim theory has made in uprooting theism and Christianity would be appalling did we not know that the powers of darkness can never go forth to victory."

     Mr. Hawkes' articles will not convince the average scientist or scientific dilettante, but then they are not addressed to such, but to those New-churchmen who (unthinkingly we almost perforce, would conclude) have claimed to find in Evolution an extractable core of truth for the use of the New Church! To such he seeks to show that the theory to be anything must be consistent, and that the only men who make it so are its leading supporters and expounders from among the ranks of materialistic science, who scoff at the hybrid product a "theistic Evolution."

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We may appropriately conclude with one of the opening paragraphs of Mr. Hawkes' monograph:

     "While other great divisions of the Christian Church, in the protection of their own people, can meet the claims of evolution with simple denial only, or, at most, by disputing the data or their alleged implications, the New Church has a system of cosmogony, which, whether accepted as right or wrong, is as opposite to the theory of evolution as design from chance, as light from darkness."

     Western New-Church Bulletin. (April.) An Easter Greeting to the Members and Friends of the Michigan Association of the New Jerusalem. By Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, Presiding Minister of the Association. An exhortation to a practical appreciation of the meaning of Easter, as involving the establishment of the New Church in us, and the consequent need for our better knowledge of the means whereby the Lord's redemption may be made effective in us. Surely not less important and interesting than the events of the War for Natural Independence, ought to be the Lord's War of Liberation for the whole Human Race; yet the question is asked, Do our children know the latter as well as the former? Just here, the paper as worded, might lead some into the mistake of inculcating in children at too early an age the scientifics of the Glorification and of regeneration. On the other hand, the suggestion given as to the need of realizing the desperate state of mankind to which the Lord came, and the still-remaining desperate necessity for humble and actual repentance on the part of every member of the race, - is very timely in these days when New Church teaching is so often tinctured with the world's idea that goodness is inherent in human nature.

     This number of the Bulletin contains also the notable sermon preached by the Rev. L. P. Mercer, on "The Fruits of the Vineyard" (Isa. v. 3, 4), at the 1899 meeting of the Michigan Association, which made so powerful an impression, and is credited with the spiritual impetus which the Church in that section has experienced. We regret that space is lacking for a synopsis in our present number.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS 1900

RECENT PUBLICATIONS              1900

     THE Teachings of Swedenborg's Theological Works, on Anatomical and Physiological Subjects. By Rev. Samuel Howard Worcester, M. D. Published by The New Philosophy. Urbana, O. 1899, pp. 61; paper, 25 cents.

     This little work, which is published as "The New Philosophy Extra, No. I," is the result of careful study by the compiler, Dr. Worcester, growing out of two tentative papers originally presented before the ministers of the Massachusetts Association, in 1874 and in the following year; the object being to afford opportunity to judge of the agreement or non-agreement of Swedenborg's teachings on science, with not only those of Descartes, (in some measure his forerunner and teacher), but also those of modern acceptance.

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The value and convenience of such a work in the revision and development of Swedenborg's own theories in science, will hardly be questioned by any one at all in sympathy with the recent "renaissance" of Swedenborg's philosophy; while the zeal and scholarship of the compiler are guarantee that the work has been done conscientiously and well.

     In the order of presentation the first chapter is devoted to "General Principles," which refer mainly to the two great subdivisions of force, the active and the reactive. Then follow the subjects of the Brain; the Animal Spirit; The Voluntary and Involuntary Senses; the Brain the Organ of the Mind; The Heart and Lungs (the most abundantly treated), The Organs of the Senses; The Muscles - Action and Reaction; The Stomach; Various Organs and Viscera; Conception and Gestation; Evil the Origin of Disease; Swedenborg Enlightened from Heaven; Swedenborg's Teachings compared with Modern Science; and, Conclusions. A rich feast. It is to be wished that more careful proof-reading and creamier paper might have supplied a more thoroughly appropriate vehicle.

     We would quote at length, if space permitted, but the work itself is so small and inexpensive as to be easily accessible. One extract we make, as illustrating and contrasting the sound and wholesome attitude of a mind approaching investigation from Swedenborgian view-points, with the artificial, repugnant and largely illusive methods of materialistic experimenters.

     "Swedenborg attributes much to the cerebellum that certainly could never be detected by scientific investigation of the kind that is now most in vogue. By vivisections, practiced on pigeons, rabbits, cats and dogs, it can indeed be demonstrated that some things cannot be done by these animals when certain nerves have been divided, or when the cerebellum been extirpated; but this does not necessarily prove that the operations are impossible to animals that have been subjected to such mutilation, were performed by them in their state of integrity through the sole agency of the parts now severed. The use of the parts in the sound animal cannot be unmistakably demonstrated from the disability that follows the destruction or extirpation of the parts. And if it could, the demonstration could be carried from pigeon to man only so far as pigeon and man are alike" (p. 48).

     Books Received: Dreams of a Spirit-Seer; by Immanuel Kant. Translated by Emanuel F. Goerwitz and edited, with an introduction and notes, by Frank Sewall. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co., Lim. New York: the Macmillan Co. 1900, pp. 162.

     Light in the Clouds: Glimpses of the Inner Word; by Adolph Roeder. New York. New-Church Board of Publication. 1900, pp. 105.

     Heaven and Hell: from Things Heard and Seen: Emanuel Swedenborg. New York. American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society. 1900. Uniform with the recent edition of Divine Providence, and likewise translated by the Rev. J. C. Ager.

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Compiler of Annals of the New Church 1900

Compiler of Annals of the New Church              1900

     IN Order to afford the Compiler of Annals of the New Church a needed rest the May number will be issued with that of July.
SOME QUESTIONS IN GEOLOGY 1900

SOME QUESTIONS IN GEOLOGY       F. E. WAELCHLI       1900

To THE EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE: -

     Mr. Holman's article, "In the Beginning," which appeared in the February and March numbers of the Life, presents what seems to be the only theory which can harmonize the facts gathered by geologists with the teachings given in the Writings and in Swedenborg's Scientific Works. It is evident that the article is the result of careful study, and we can rest assured that Mr. Holman has given due attention to such passages in the Writings and in the Scientific Works as are apparently not in harmony with his conclusions. Two such passages are contained in "The Worship and Love of God," and I beg the privilege of herewith presenting them, in the hope that Mr. Holman will clear away the doubts which they awaken in my mind, and perhaps also in the minds of others, in regard to the new principles of geology which he presents.

     The article states that "though it is a fact that a carboniferous flora flourished in many parts of the earth, it does not at all follow that it was a universal flora at one time." In Chapter II of the Worship and Love of God we read that the earth in the beginning revolved around the sun in a much smaller orbit than at this day, whence there resulted an almost perpetual spring-time When the earth entered upon this spring she brought forth most beautiful flowers. As she advanced in her spring, shrubs and young plants sprang up in all directions, but the forest was at first lowly. Afterwards as the globe took a still wider circle of revolution, trees arose which unfolded their crowned heads in the air; this was also during that spring-time. Of the first state, which was that of flowers, it is said in number 19, that "even the northern regions themselves were luxuriant in flowers." Thus the flora was then universal at one time. The question arises whether such was also the case in the later periods of that spring-time of the earth. If so, then we might readily conclude that there was at that time a carboniferous flora, universal at one time, which has recorded its history in the rock-formations enduring to this day.

     Mr. Holman arrives at the conclusion that the scene of the creation of man was not in Palestine, but probably in the southern hemisphere near the equator on a continent now sunk beneath the Indian Ocean. This theory does not seem to harmonize with number 32 of the Worship and Love of God, where the scene of creation is described as follows:

      "There was a grove in the most temperate region of the orb, not under the meridian sun, but in a certain middle station, between the arctic pole of the zodiac and its greatest curvature from the equator, which was exposed to the rays of the summer sun, not falling directly from the zenith, nor too obliquely from the side, but where they held a kind of middle focus between their heat and cold, or highest ascent, and whence thus from a kind of centre of his annual rising and setting, the sun could temper the subject air with the mildest spring of all others."

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     The location here indicated was apparently in the northern hemisphere, and possibly in a latitude not far removed from that in which Palestine lies. Yours sincerely, F. E. WAELCHLI.
SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION 1900

SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION       G. G. S       1900

THIRD ANNUAL MEETING; HELD IN NEW YORK, APRIL 19TH AND 20TH, 1900.

     THE third annual meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association will go into history as (it is to be hoped) the smallest meeting of that body ever assembled. Nevertheless it was far from dull or discouraging. Its likely to facilitate progress along lines already established - these being modified only to improve - and the work now under way should, according to all probabilities, push on to completion with increased speed. As pointed out in the President's Address, the revision of the translation of the Principia, although interrupted last year by Dr. Mann's absence in Europe, will now be pushed to completion, after which the compact made by. Dr Mann with the Swedenborg Society, of London, will come into effect to secure publication probably at an early date. The transcription of the Lesser Principia being finished, will presumably be followed by translation and publication. Dr Wilkinson's translation of the Animal Kingdom having proved to the satisfaction of the Committee quite available with a moderate amount of revision, - an early production of this work may reasonably be looked for, to be followed by other of the physiological works. It may be noted here as the Committee's opinion, that Dr. Wilkinson's "Introduction" to the Animal Kingdom is really an introduction to the study of Swedenborg's science as a whole, and that as such its publication as a separate treatise is desirable.

     By the special efforts of the publishers the April number of The New Philosophy was on hand at this meeting, containing the transactions of the previous meeting.

     The attendance, though nominally sixteen, really showed only eleven names as attending the sessions and taking active part in the proceedings. The roll is as follows: Washington, D. C., Rev. F. Sewall, President. New York: Dr. John R. Swanton, Recording Secretary; Mr. G. V. Nash, and the Rev C. H. Mann; and also Rev. J. K Smyth and Mr. G. W. Colton. Chicago: Rev. L. P. Mercer. Huntingdon Valley: Revs. Alfred Acton, C. T. Odhner and G. G. Starkey; Messrs. C. Hj. Asplundh and R. W. Brown. Philadelphia: Dr. Harvey Farrington Riverdale: Mr. W. C. Childs.

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The rol1 exhibited also the names of two ladies, Mrs. Alice May, and Mrs. Walker.

     The step taken, of lowering the annual dues from two dollars to one, will probably commend itself to the Church, and will make it possible for many who were before unable, to now evince their practical interest in the purposes and work of the Association by adding their names to swell the roll of membership It is vain to hope for substantial and extensive development of any system of thought without a supporting public sentiment and sphere, in which as in a nourishing soil may spring up to life and fruitage a growth of independent work on special lines of study and investigation. In this connection it is a pleasure to record the communication sent by the Massachusetts Association, moved at its recent Spring Meeting, extending to the Scientific Association "cordial greeting" and the assurance of deep interest in the work of this organization. A Spirit appreciative of the importance of such interest on the part of Church bodies, was shown not only in the resolution of reciprocation which was moved in this connection, but in another motion. Providing for the sending of an annual message to the general bodies of the New Church, setting forth the aims and objects of the Association and giving an account of the work accomplished during the year. At the same time it was resolved to furnish the principal periodicals of the Church with an account of the transactions of the annual meeting.

     To recur to the President's Address, its review of the year's work included reference to the recent publication of the revised edition of The Soul, in which occurs, we are assured, many important improvements in the translation and in typographical correctness.

     The Address alludes to the report of the Committee appointed to confer with the Swedenborg Society relative to co-operation in publishing the scientific works, as already noted in Morning Light for June 24th, 1899. It appears that of the forthcoming edition of the Principia 1,000 copies are to be printed, one-half to be taken by the Scientific Association; for which collateral is delivered in the form of 300 subscriptions secured by the General Convention, the other 200 copies to be paid for as sold. The proposition to extend such an arrangement to cover all editions of the scientific works published by either body, was referred to the Board of Directors.

     Other results of the new activity in Swedenborg's science, - of which the Association may be Said to be a definite expression, - are, as noted in the Address, - the recently produced editions of On Tremulation, translated by Professor Odhner; The Motion and Position of the Planets, translated at the instance of Mr. L. P. Ford, of England;* The Teachings of Swedenborg's Theological Works on Anatomical and Physiological Subjects, compiled by the late Dr. S. H. Worcester; Rev. J. E. Bowers' Suns and Worlds of the Universe; and we include here, though introduced later, the mention of Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, translated by Rev. E. F. Goerwitz, and edited, with parallel citations from Swedenborg, by the Rev. Frank Sewall.

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The president subsequently explained that this work was designed to show how far Kant's ideas were derived from Swedenborg.
     * Published in Morning Light, Nov. 4th and 11th, and Dec. 2d, 1899.

     Another recent translation which may be mentioned in this connection, is that of Swedenborg's Ontology, which has recently been rendered into English afresh, by the Rev. Alfred Acton, on the basis of the Rev. P. B. Cabell's translation, now out of print. Mr. Acton later gave an account of his work and the methods employed, which included the careful verification of Swedenborg's References to Wolff and other philosophers, the quotations from whom have been in some cases enlarged by him, for illustration's sake. The Massachusetts New-Church Union is the publisher.

     The President also referred appreciatively to the transactions of the auxiliary bodies, the New Philosophy Club, of Chicago, Ill., and the Principia Club of Philadelphia. He dwelt also upon the importance of having an official Bulletin, which should appear regularly and contain the transactions of the body. He suggested this as a method by which some of the scientific works might be published in serial instalments, and thus be reprinted inexpensively.

     In conclusion the Address characterized the present time as peculiarly opportune for the presentation of Swedenborg's philosophy to the world, in view of the answers it furnishes to many of the problems now awakening in the learned world, - for instance, the demand for a doctrine of the aura; and in confirmation of this, reference was made to the modern adoption of terms, many of them identical to those of the new philosophy.

     While looking forward to the full report of the meeting's proceedings, to be published, together with the papers read, in the Bulletin of the Association, we may meanwhile present the following items of interest:

     A communication from the Rev. E. S. Price was read, sending best wishes and volunteering his services in the proposed translation of the scientific works, but willing cheerfully to defer to the efforts of any "better workman" who might be available. This offer was received with a motion of appreciation.

     A communication from Mr. Whitehead, relative to the proposed transfer of the New Philosophy to the Association, was referred to the Board of Directors.

     The report of the Committee on Scientific Statements in the Writings was accepted, as likewise the resignation of the Chairman, the Rev. Adolph Roeder, and the committee was discharged, with thanks.

     The Committee on Publishing a volume of Plates referred to in the Scientific Works, and illustrative of them, Rev. E. J. E. Schreck Chairman -, reported having made a list of such plates, and taken measurements, at the cost of much pains; and that the estimated cost was too great to make it available to entertain the original project at present, although it would be very useful to publish some of the more important ones. The Committee was discharged, with thanks.

     The Principia Club, of Philadelphia, reported a useful year, and many interesting discussions, especial attention having been given to the consideration of the First Natural Point.

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     The New Philosophy Club, of Chicago, reported having had few regular meetings, owing to circumstances, but that some studies had been prosecuted and some useful papers produced.

     A resolution was passed disfavoring the employment of interpretative prefaces in reprinting the scientific works, on the ground that the works should stand alone, with simple historical prefaces, and that comment and interpretation should appear wholly apart from Swedenborg's texts. Mr. Reginald Brown, B. A., B. Th., made a statement as to individual: studies prosecuted by himself in the last six months, during which time he had transcribed and translated certain fragments in the Photo lithographed MSS, which supply important missing links in the development of Swedenborg's philosophy in his own mind, and contribute to the understanding of his system. Mr. Brown read from one of these fragments written by Swedenborg after comparing his own doctrine of the Natural Point with that of Christian Wolff. Rev. L. P. Mercer made remarks testifying to his high appreciation of such studies as Mr. Brown's, and of the value of such centres of study as that of Huntingdon Valley, with which Mr. Brown is connected. His motion that Mr. Brown be requested to furnish his paper to the Association as a communication, to be included among its papers and reports, was unanimously carried. The President also, added remarks of encomium, mentioning that he had been preparing a paper on Swedenborg's relation to Descartes and Leibnitz, also Wolff.

     Rev. Alfred Acton read a paper containing "Some Suggestions for the Better Carrying on of the Uses of the S. S. A.," in which he maintained it to be a mistake to delegate the work of translating and revising, to committees, for in this case the interest and sense of responsibility is divided and weakened. In each case, he thought, one man should do the work, subject to approval by a competent committee. The paper was referred to the Board of Directors.

     The Board in its report made a communication, which was adopted, that, as a measure to clear the way for more compact and effective organization of the executive part of the Association, - after the forthcoming election of officers all committees now standing be considered discharged; but this for the foregoing reasons, and with no reflection upon the present committees or their work.

     Other recommendations of the Board, were, the lowering of the annual dues, as before stated; the reduction of the number of members of the Board from twelve to seven, and the merging of the offices of Corresponding and Recording Secretaries. The latter was adopted, but the former after active discussion, was finally abandoned for the present at least; for although it was recognized that a smaller executive body is apt to be more effective, yet it was felt that to constitute the Board only of men who are now active would give it too local and not representative a character, in view of the accessions that may be expected from various sections of the Church.

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     Discussion of the vexed question as to who are properly members led to the adoption of a motion that any one who after two years, and after due notice, neglects to pay his dues, be considered to have resigned.

     Prior to the election of officers both Secretaries resigned, - Dr Mann by statement, - for reasons involving, preoccupation and a feeling that some of the ministers, being better known in the Church, could effect more in the positions.

     The President also stated his desire to withdraw from the office, for the reasons that 1. He thought it best to dissociate the ecclesiastical phase of the body from its official personnel; 2. that rotation in office is desirable in such a body; and, 3. that he felt that his views did not, in some rather important particulars, coincide with some of the members as to the policy of the body, - this however being a subordinate consideration and involving nothing of discord. But as these reasons were supported by no one else, and as there was evidently a strong desire for Mr. Sewall to retain the office, he accepted the result of the ballot, which was emphatically in his favor. Other officers were: Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, Secretary; Mr. C. H. Asplundh, Treasurer; and Directors, - Messrs. L. P. Mercer, John Whitehead, Harvey Farrington, John R. Swanton, C. T. Odhner, Alfred Acton, C. R. Mann, E. A. Whiston, and W. L. Gladish.

     It may be interjected here that during the meeting the names of Dr. E. A. Whitson and Mr. W. C. Childs were added to the roll as members.

     Information was informally given by the Rev. C. H. Mann, that there was little hope of favorable action by the Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society in the matter of translating the Adversaria.

     Inquiry was made, but without result, as to when the long promised third volume of The Brain, is to be brought out by the London Swedenborg Society.

     Mr. Brown gave a synopsis of Miss Lillian Beekman's recent work along the lines of spectrum analysis in the light of Swedenborg's principles. This was very suggestive but too condensed to permit of more than a very general grasp of the matter. Great hopes are entertained, however, that the present line of investigation is destined to establish a connection between Swedenborg's system and the best results of modern investigations.

     Mr. Swanton announced the preparation of a card catalogue of statements in the Writings bearing on philology and - if I mistake not - allied ethnological themes, these being especially in Mr. Swanton's department.

     The passing away of Dr. T. J. G. Wilkinson, and his memorable contributions to the cause of Swedenborg's science, were recognized, by the appointment of a committee of one to draft a memorial resolution similar to that passed last fall by the Principia Club, and since published in The New Philosophy and New Church Life.

     A paper by Professor Odhner set forth in strong light the need for a full bibliography of the Scientific Works, in order to know all the available material out of which the new philosophy is to be constructed. Professor Odhner's offer to prepare such a work, which he volunteered would not conflict nor run in parallel lines with that undertaken by the Rev. James Hyde, under the auspices of the Swedenborg Society, - was received with pleasure and referred to the Board of Directors.

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     The Association listened to the formal papers on the program (except one or two that did not materialize) on the evening of the first day, meeting publicly, at the invitation of the Rev. J. K. Smyth, at the building of the New York Society, on 35th Street. The attendance was about twenty, rather less than might have been hoped, in so large a centre as New York.

     The following is a synopsis:

     1. The Study of Swedenborg's Philosophy, by Rev. L. F. Hite; read by Mr. Sewall; in which the writer dwells upon the importance of the philosophy as the means and form in which Swedenborg was able to receive and transmit the truths of theology, and also as the means whereby the New Church will be enabled to enter into the real light and illustration of these truths which we have held thus far, in large measure, dogmatically, thinking from terms rather than from ideas.

     2. Swedenborg and Kant on the Nebular Hypothesis; by Dr. Riborg Mann, read by Mr. Mercer: consisting for the most part of a "review of the Principia," quoted from the Acta Eruditorum, of 1737 as bearing upon the question whether Kant, - who had possibly seen this review but not" (probably) the work itself, - could have derived therefrom the fundamental idea of his Theory of the Heavens. Dr Mann concludes that it is impossible to positively answer the question, and that "even Kant couldn't."

     3. Studies in the Principia; by Dr. John R. Swanton, who exhibited diagrams illustrative of the creative processes described in the Principia, accompanied by explanations based upon studies prosecuted, during the past year by himself in conjunction with Mr. George V. Nash. In conclusion he stated it as his opinion that the Natural Point is identical with the substance of the spiritual sun.

     4. The First Natural Point; in which the author, Mr. Reginald Brown, took opposite ground from Mr. Swanton, and from that involved in the papers of Messrs. Hite and Whitehead in the December New Philosophy, - maintaining that the Natural Point is not identical with the substance of the spiritual sun, but that it is distinctly natural, being nevertheless the first and most fit receptacle of the activity of the spiritual.

     5. Swedenborg and Tremulations; by the Rev. Samuel Beswick; read by Rev. George G. Starkey; a short but very satisfactory vindication of Swedenborg's Undulatory or Tremulatory theory, in general, and in particular, of his statement that the tremulations of the solar substance are instantaneous; for though his critic - Mr. Goyder, in Morning Light - is right of course in his statement of the established fact that light, or the tremulations of the ether, do require the appreciable time of several minutes to pass from sun to earth, yet it is not, as Mr. Beswick points out, the ether but the aura, of which Swedenborg makes the statement criticized, the tremulations of which involve the force of gravity, and are practically instantaneous, - that is wholly inappreciable as to time consumed in transmission. G. G. S.

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Church News 1900

Church News       Various       1900

     Huntingdon Valley ("Bryn Athyn".) - The "clouds" of sickness having been gradually lifted, on April 17th a long spell of social inactivity was broken by a gathering at the Club House, which was largely attended. Musical and literary diversions varied a long program of dancing. To cite one feature: each guest was given an opportunity to exercise poetic talent by composing a stanza, which was to rhyme, and the aggregate product was read aloud by a "committee" of two; some proving bright, others absurd and some "so bad as to be good."

     During the absence of the pastor in Chicago, Bishop Pendleton has conducted the doctrinal class, the subject chosen for April 20th was the text: "I go a fishing, or evangelization; and that for April 27th was "Doubt." Etymologically, to "doubt" is "to have or hold as two," to halt between two opinions, or "at the fork in the roads." This state of suspense is trying, but how common the state is the dictionary shows by the abundance of synonyms of doubt. The very position of man between the two worlds, heaven and hell, is as it were a state of doubt. The whole question of salvation may be said to be in doubt; for man himself is in doubt as to the outcome. But Judgment finally comes and puts an end to the state of doubt.

     Spirits who are in the faith of charity do not reason about truths but confirm them. What they do not clearly comprehend they lay aside, nor ever suffer such a thing to lead them into doubt. Whatever is in the Lord's truth they confirm, not from a blind faith but from the light of truth in the mind. When anything in the truth is not comprehended they lay it aside and wait. In too labored an effort to understand truth that is not clear there is something of the natural man. Thus the subject of doubt involves also that of the "affirmative;" and they are commonly treated together in the Writings. The foundations of the affirmative are laid in childhood, taking the form of the affirmative attitude toward parents, and afterward toward the Lord. But those who will not become spiritual men gradually admit doubts and finally deny. The affirmative is "the beginning of regeneration," arising from good within.

     This good cannot flow into a state of doubt, still less into the negative. But still, with any man doubts and sometimes even negatives are excited by spirits adjoined to him; yet in proportion as affection prevails he is led to the affirmative and confirmed in truths by those very doubts. Thus doubts are made to serve use, for they conduce to freedom of choice.

     One point emphasized in the lesson was, the importance of an early grounding in "Authority," the authority of the truth, which means, of the Writings. This is the basis of the affirmative state, which as said before, is the beginning of regeneration. (A. 3913.) We regret lack of space to present the lesson more in detail.

     On April 23d was held the Principia Club meeting, which had been postponed a week to allow of devoting the evening to listening to an account of the Swedenborg Scientific Association which met in New York. April 19th and 20th. One of those who had attended the meetings read and commented from notes taken, supplemented by remarks from others who also had been there. This society always shows great interest in Swedenborg's science and the attendance was good.

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Among those present was Mr. John Ruby, of Houston, Texas, who, falling in with some of our members in New York, be heard for the first time of the existence of the colony, and of the presence among us of several of his childhood acquaintances.

     On April 26th the settlement was favored by d visit from the Rev. L. P. Mercer, General Pastor of the Illinois Association and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Swedenborg Scientific Association.

     Philadelphia. - On Sunday, April 15th, Mr. William Bruce Reid was baptized into the New Church, during our service, and subsequently was received as member of the society. Another addition to the membership is Miss Maud Semple, who has recently come to Philadelphia.

     On Thursday, April 26th, a pleasant social evening was spent at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Leander D. Good; vocal and instrumental selections being features of the entertainment

     Brooklyn. - Services in this city will be held on May 27th, (the last of this season), at the residence of Mrs. Bernard Peters. No 83 Lee Avenue.

     Parkdale, - On Easter Sunday the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered, sixteen persons participating. On the Sunday following Rev. E. J. Stebbing conducted service, in the absence of Pastor Hyatt, who was in Berlin.

     We have had several social events since last writing. On March 30 our young people entertained the Society with play, entitled "An Old Maid's Wooing," which was much enjoyed. The same performance was repeated at a social on the following Tuesday evening. The school children have also recently given the Trial Scene from the Merchant of Venice, which was so creditably performed by them about a year ago. The scenery was very fine and the parts well sustained. This is the second entertainment provided by our school children this year, the other being the little play "The Ruggleses in Society," which was presented early in January, and caused lots of fun. The anniversary of the birthday of two of our young ladies on the 26th inst. afforded a good excuse for another social; unfortunately there was not a very full attendance owing to sickness in several families, but those present managed to have a real good time, dancing and games being the order of the evening. Charles Brown.

     Berlin, Canada, - At a meeting of the Carmel Church, held April 23d, the unanimous choice of the society fell on the Rev. Fred E. Waelchli, now of Baltimore, Md.

Letter from Mr. Bowers.

     Indiana - Sunday, April 1, was spent with the New Church people at Kokomo. On the morning of that day a meeting was held at the pleasant home of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. W. Defenbaugh. The attendance was small, but as all present were worshipers of the Lord, there was a harmonious sphere, and the sermon was much appreciated.

     Mr. and Mrs. Schlatter, the "healers," who were so favorably mentioned in the Messenger some time since, had been in Kokomo, and a few days previous to my visit made a big sensation in that city.

     [Mr. Bowers explains that Schlatter unmasked himself, became intoxicated, and indulged in violent and horrible blasphemies when put under restraint. - ED.]

     He is evidently the subject of certain evil spirits who, as we are taught, understand and practice magical arts, which are contrary to Divine order, and therefore diabolical. It is asserted that some people are actually healed by these jugglers. Yes, that may be; but is it right? The magicians of Egypt were able to do some of the same miracles as Moses did, by their enchantments; that is, by magic in connection with evil spirits.

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     Those who are wise from receiving Divine doctrine, as given in the Writings, will heed the Lord's warning to be not deceived. For they know that these modern healings, which are in many cases done by magic, are also referred to when the Lord says: "There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if possible, they shall deceive the very elect" (Matth. xxiv: 24).

     Ohio. - New Church people have been visited, and sermons and lectures have been delivered, in quite a number of places in the southern counties of this State. But I regret that neither time or space permit me to relate several interesting incidents which have occurred. New Church Life, in its new form, and with its excellent contents each month, is exceedingly gratifying to all who read it. J. E. BOWERS.

THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     Massachusetts, - At the monthly meeting of the New Church, Woman's Alliance, March 12th, Mrs. Waterhouse read a paper on "Education of Young Girls for Use," which was discussed.

     New York, - Arrangements have been completed for conducting a summer school for the study of Swedenborg, at a point between the villages of Marlborough and Milton, on the west side of the Hudson, about sixty-four miles above New York City. The general subject for the season of 1900 will be, "Man; the Word; the World." Two weeks will be devoted to the presentation and discussion of each subdivision. A lecture will be delivered each morning for five school days of the week, to be followed by questions and answers. At 5 o'clock each afternoon sub-topics will be considered, related to the general topic. Rev. C. H. Mann will handle the subject "Man," beginning July 9th. Rev. Adolph Roeder will conduct the study of "the Word," beginning July 23d. Mr. A. J. Auchterlonie, with whom will be associated the Rev. John A. Kayes and Mr. L. E. Wilmarth, will have charge of the subject "the Word," beginning August 6th. Circulars may be obtained from Rev. Adolph Roeder, 80 Cleveland Street, Orange, N. J.

     Brooklyn, N. Y. - Rev. William H. Diehl celebrated his sixty seventh birthday, recently, by presenting to his congregation as a token of his love, a deed to the church property, valued at $10,000. He bought the property seventeen years ago, turned a dwelling into a church, and has preached there since without a salary. In the early day; of the society he paid the church expenses out of his own pocket. He refuses to talk about the gift or the reasons for it. He accumulated a fortune in a manufacturing business. The Messenger takes the foregoing statements from the Brooklyn Eagle.

     THE GENERAL CONVENTION.

     Ohio, - The General Convention meets this year in Cincinnati, on May 26th, etc.

     Tennessee. - Under the active leadership of Pastor McSlarrow the little society of Covington is creating more interest among the people of the surrounding country than ever before. The Sunday-school is well attended. There is preaching morning and evening, where good congregations, composed of all the denominations, listen closely to practical exposition of Scriptural teaching. The Tipton County Democrat is quoted to say: "The people are finding out that the New Church is not mysticism, but plain, practical Christianity, having for its motto the self-evident truism that: 'All religion relates to life, and the life of religion is to do good.'"

     Missouri, - Rev. L. P. Mercer, General Pastor, recently visited St. Louis, and gave an address on "The Order of Worship," on February 14th, presenting reasons for proceeding according to the order used in the larger societies of the Association.

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On the next evening he preached, on the words of the Lord, "I am come that they might have life, and more abundantly." He portrayed the larger world into which the man of today has entered, and showed how the Lord in His second coming has provided for the spiritual needs of the rational man in the revelation of the internal sense of the Word.

     Toronto, Canada, - The long-cherished desire of the Toronto Society to own a modern church edifice is in fair way of being gratified. The old church and site have been sold, and a new site bought, having a frontage of 132 feet, on College Street, by a depth of 110 feet. Part of the lot not needed will be sold at once, which is expected to realize $2,000 toward the new building.

     England. - Unintentionally we have omitted to note the visit of Prof. Scocia to England last fall.

     At a meeting at Camden Road Church, London, on November 15th, he spoke of his labors in Italy for the last thirty years, translating Swedenborg and publishing monthly periodical, and a series of monthly pamphlets, which have been distributed throughout Italy, and show an increasing circulation. Over 400 copies of Italian translations of the Writings have been distributed to public libraries, and many given to Catholic priests, and many sold. In Italy the readers and admirers of Swedenborg number over 100.

     Prof. Scocia also visited Manchester and Accrington.

     Sweden. - The grant of the Board of Missions of the General Convention in America to the work of Rev. C. J. N. Manby, has materially advanced the cause of the Church in Sweden.

     Denmark. - Rev. S. C. Bronniche has returned to Copenhagen and is conducting public worship. He is also publishing the Aurora, as previously noted.

     New activity has been evidenced in this country, in the formation of a Swedenborg Association (Swedenborg Foreningen), which was effected in August of last year. At a meeting held on February 11th Mr. Bronniche submitted a proposition to form a complete organization, which was unanimously adopted. The purpose of this association is, the spreading of New Church literature by publishing Danish translations of Swedenborg's theological works, tracts, periodicals, and similar materials. This use it proposes to carry out by a committee chosen by the members, to consist-of chairman, secretary and treasurer.
FREE TRACTS 1900

FREE TRACTS              1900

     I will send free to any one as many New Church tracts as desired for distribution.

     Address, "Printer," 1454 Highland Street, Columbus, Ohio.
GEOLOGY IN A NEW LIGHT 1900

GEOLOGY IN A NEW LIGHT       GEORGE E. HOLMAN       1900


NEW CHURCH LIFE.

Vol. XX.          JUNE, 1900.           No. 6.
     ON some previous occasions I have endeavored to show that the interpretations of geological phenomena which find universal acceptance at the present day are based merely on appearances, and are entirely antagonistic to some of the cardinal principles of revealed truth.

     In the Writings of the Church we have the first principles of a true system of geology. Those Writings contain a history of the spiritual causes which operate all those phenomena embraced by the science, and a knowledge of correspondences should enable us to perceive the natural effects or outbirths of those causes in their true order, the labours of geologists furnishing us to a great extent with the means of verifying our deductions.

     In the present article I propose, as a recapitulation and to some extent as a continuation of previous papers, to present briefly what I conceive to have been the true order of geological events, as deduced from the application of spiritual truths to observed facts.

     The earliest condition of the globe is a subject belonging rather to astronomy than to geology, and possibly the nearest approach to an accurate description of the astronomical processes involved is to be found in Swedenborg's Principia. But, whether this be so or not, it is of the first importance to bear in mind that all solar activities and planetary motions are as much correspondences, that is to say, the effects of spiritual forces, as any mundane phenomena.

     We must picture our globe, when it was as yet uninhabited by even the humblest of creatures, to be entirely covered by a shallow ocean.

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There was at first no dry land. In due course, dry land appeared, and we will assume that its first appearance took place in the region of the equator. This is so because dry land corresponds to the human mind, and the first mind was (in spiritual language) born in the East, and the tropical region of the earth corresponds to the spiritual east because it is in the plane of the sun.(1) Apart from astronomical causes, - such as the rapid revolution of the earth, or its nearness to the sun, - the restriction of the dry land to the equatorial zone would be the most conducive to a high and equable temperature over all the globe, and therefore the most conducive to the creation of vegetable and animal life.(2)
     (1) In Swedenborg's Lesser Principia, No. 112 (See translation in New Philosophy of March, 1899), the same conclusion (but on other grounds) is expressed in the following words: "In the beginning of creation the pressure was far greater round the equator than at the present day, and the water consequently betook itself to the poles, where it was deeper at that time."
     (2) See the maps in Principles of Geology, in illustration of Sir Charles Lyell's explanation of a glacial period.

     This earliest continent was the main scene of the creation of living beings, and, although we are not here concerned with the exact particulars of that process, it may be remarked that there is good warrant for assuming the magnificent and philosophical conception of creation in Swedenborg's Worship and Love of God to be in its main outlines correct. Most certainly the modern theory that the process was one of transmutation of species, - caused by a life and death struggle through millions of yea's-most certainly is that theory incompatible with the teachings of revelation. Highly organized animals were created "in the beginning" (T. C. R. 78.) Man too was created at a period prior to the formation of some of the earliest fossiliferous strata now accessible to geologists. We know this from such facts as the existence, in paleozoic strata of Europe, of spiders, scorpions and cockroaches. The occurrence of these evil creatures at such early periods is as certain evidence of man's existence at that time as would be the occurrence, in the same strata, of chipped hints or other work of his hands. (D. L. W. 336.)

     But we are dealing now with a time when as yet no evil had tainted the earth's pristine purity.

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     The first land was gradually covered by vegetable forms; at first by lowly plants, the offspring of the marriage of most ultimate spiritual activities with purely mineral and crystalline forms. Each advance in complexity of organism was the result of an increasingly closer marriage between the spiritual and the natural worlds, and every offspring of that marriage, by its own life and death, paved the way for a further advance. For the use of each form created was, gradually and in orderly sequence, to present, for the service of inflowing spiritual activities, the various natural forces imprisoned in the mineral substances, belonging to the earth but derived originally from the sun.

     The animal creation in like manner proceeded according to order, as described in the first chapter of Genesis, from lowest to highest, including animal man; for man when first created was like an animal (A. C. 286), that is to say, he was a purely natural man, but celestial-natural.

     The order of regeneration symbolically described in the first chapter of Genesis is the order of creation everywhere, whether in the creation of the universe, of a world, or of an individual. We are taught in the Arcana Coelestia that the regeneration of a man is pictured in the creation of a world. We are also taught that "there is a complete likeness between the reformation of man and formation in the womb" (D. W. IV, in A. E.), and that "the formation of the embryo is, an image of creation" (D. W. II, 2, in A. E.).

     The creation of the world, so far as at present described, has been comparatively rapid, like the rapid changes in embryonic development; but, as the embryo has no conscious life of its own, but owes its soul to its father and its body to its mother, so up to the stage of the world's development we have thus far been considering, all the forms produced have owed their existence to the action of the universal heaven upon universal natural laws; but there has been no life on the spiritual plane properly belonging to this world.

     The opening of the spiritual plane to the first race of mankind was like a new birth. The newly-born spiritual man then took possession of his own world in the same manner as the newly-born infant takes conscious possession of its own body. From this time the kingdoms of nature not only gave body to the activities of the Gorand Man in the aggregate, but they also bodied forth the peculiar characteristics of the man of this world.

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He thereupon began to imprint his individuality upon the earth according to the law of correspondences.(3)
     (3) For the peculiar characteristics of the man of this world, see Earths in the Universe, No. 122.

     With this great change in man there arose a corresponding change in the configuration of the land and water of the globe, because motions of the earth's crust correspond to changes in the state of man. (A. C. 3355.) Swedenborg relates that at the time of the Last Judgment in the spiritual world, some of the lands, valleys and mountains there underwent some remarkable changes, and the amount of change in the state of the church there was evident from the extent and character of the earth's motions, that is, the motions of the crust of the earth in the spiritual world. (A. E. 400.)

     These recent changes described by Swedenborg are not reflected on the material earth because their influence is at present almost entirely counteracted by other influences in the spiritual world. Because of these counteracting influences, the earth now only responds to spiritual changes of an enduring nature, in the same way that the bones of the adult skull do not record transient emotions acting on the interiors of the brain, or the beginnings of changes of mind, but only changes which have endured and are accomplished.

     In the earliest times the spiritual forces acting in the world were not so heterogeneous as afterwards. They did not clash in their operations in ultimates; and the natural world, therefore, was then easily seen to be subservient to the same laws as the spiritual world, although on a lower plane. There are indeed no other laws but spiritual laws; but the fact that in the natural world spiritual effects are fixed renders it possible for things to be in proximity which in the spiritual world are widely sundered. This proximity, in space, of contrary natures, hides the action of the law of correspondences, while at the same time it increases the fixity and reactionary value of the material world.

     When the first race of men, from being natural, became spiritual, a corresponding change took place in the configuration of the land and water of the globe. An upheaval of new land took place on which were created forms representative of the newly born spiritual man; and with this upheaval, the elevation of the first land ceased.

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     Now from the first appearance of dry land, a conflict had been taking place between the fluids of the earth, air and water, and the solid ground; but during elevation the land gained as much or more than was lost through the denuding action of the fluids. As soon, however, as elevation ceased, the land was gradually eaten away and the waste of the land was deposited on the bed of the ocean. This was the first aqueous or stratified deposit which could contain terrestrial remains.

     While the destruction of the earliest land was going on, the secondly upheaved land (still in the tropical regions) was giving birth to forms correspondential to the then state of the spiritual world, - which world would contain of course not only the newly-born spiritual man, but natural man. Many of the forms created on this second land would therefore be very similar to those of the first land, but, although there would be a resemblance throughout, the species would be somewhat different from the first immature forms. The law which permits the destruction of the earliest organic forms is exactly the same as that which causes the metamorphoses of plants, animals and man by removing embryonic organs - the expressions of immature states - and substituting newer forms.

     These changes in the first geography of the globe were no doubt accompanied by migrations of mankind into those conditions which were most congenial to their minds.

     If the elevation of the human mind from natural to spiritual produced physical changes on the earth, much more did the elevation from spiritual to celestial; for upon the opening of the higher degree, man would operate more interiorly and therefore more powerfully. This will be obvious to all students of the Writings; but I cannot too strongly emphasize the geological importance of the fact that during the period of the celestial church the power of the spiritual world over nature by correspondence was far in excess of what it had been before or has ever been since.

     The opening of the celestial degree caused a further upheaval of dry land from beneath the ocean, as a fit plane for the reception of types corresponding to the celestial nature. This upheaval was of greater extent than previous upheavals, and rendered most of the previous lands stationary, or caused them to subside.

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     There were now deposited on the ocean floor immediately surrounding the countries of which we have spoken strata formed from the waste of the land. As the old countries subsided, the sea round them grew deeper in consequence, and the deposits formed in the neighborhood of the first shores were at length overlain by the chalky deposits of mid ocean.

     The celestial country, being continually elevated, grew in expanse and extended even beyond the tropics; and as the primeval crust was lifted up there were also lifted up some of those deposits formed from the waste of the first lands. In some cases (as in Canaan) these uplifted deposits had been covered to a considerable depth by the continual raining down of microscopical marine shells, forming a bed of chalk.(4)
     (4) That Canaan was inhabited in Most Ancient times, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 567. Canaan is almost entirely chalk, but towards the South there rises, from underneath the chalk, sandstones containing traces of land plants. These plants may therefore truly be said to be "pre-Adamic."

     It is to be understood that, with the exception of such outlying portions as Canaan, the celestial country (which now covered a large area) did not occupy the site of any of the existing continents. The northern hemisphere, now covered by great continents, was then quite open ocean, the dry land being massed on the equator.

     It is necessary here to draw attention to the correspondence of this celestial country with the celestial quarter in the spiritual world. In Most Ancient times the land of the spiritual world may be said to have been in the East, for the ruling love was love to the Lord; to the South there was in the spiritual world a lesser manifestation of life; in the North were mere ultimates.

     In the natural world this correspondence was fully exemplified, for in those early times spiritual laws (for reasons stated above) were more obviously operative; but that part of the natural world which spiritually is called the East, is the Tropics (the home of the sun). In Apocalypse Explained n. 21 we are taught that in the present day angels Perceive the East when Africa is mentioned; they understand the South when Asia is mentioned, and by Europe they understand the North. Of course the present continents have but very little resemblance to the continents of the Most Ancient Epoch, but we are justified in assuming that the Celestial country was in the tropics; and we will assume, for the sake of illustration, that it was in the vicinity of Africa, chiefly in that part of the world now occupied by the Indian Ocean; and that it was mainly a tableland of greater elevation than any now existing.

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     The elevation of the celestial country continued until the time described in the second chapter of Genesis, when the Most Ancient people inclined to proprium. The elevating force was then gradually checked.

     The check received in one part of the globe directed the upheaving force to other districts. What districts these were is not now perhaps exactly ascertainable, but we will suppose that their were in Asia and Northern Europe. In these quarters, then, which previously had been entirely open ocean, there now began to appear lands which were soon covered by vegetation, but by vegetation of the lowest grade only, because the influx from the spiritual South was feeble and from the spiritual North scarcely anything. From the waste of these lands were formed the lowest strata with which geologists are acquainted. We will assume that, at this time were formed the Cambrian deposits of Europe, in which were embedded the molluscs and trilobites of the European Ocean; but in Asia (because there was a fuller influx from the spiritual South) a higher grade of creatures existed. The Asiatic Ocean might contain fishes in addition to invertebrates. The Europe and Asia of this period would be represented by archipelagos of low elevation, well separated by the ocean from the tropical continent. (Man, therefore, was confined to the tropical continent.

     Further depressions of the celestial country resulted in corresponding upheavings of the more ultimate countries, and as the spiritual world, or rather that plane of it immediately bearing on nature - the world of spirits, - receded from the celestial state, creative forces flowed in more from the spiritual South and North.

     It is to be observed that each change in the configuration of land and water effected a change in oceanic and aerial currents, and in the climates of the various regions; and because the climatic and other conditions distinguished the globe into regions of different character, and especially because the spiritual influx was strongest from the spiritual quarter which contained the ruling love of the age, the bio-geographical regions were of various grades.

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Thus when the region of Europe (which received its influx from the spiritual North) was inhabited by creatures of Carboniferous character, Asia (which received the fuller influx from the spiritual South) was possibly in its Triassic or Jurassic stages, while the celestial country contained animals and vegetables of the highest orders, and also man.

     If, for the sake of illustration, we assume that the spiritual declension removed the ruling love from the East, through the South to the North and West, we shall see that there was, as it were, a wave of life gradually flowing over the natural globe in a definite direction, so that any particular district would be visited by successive waves of animal and vegetable life, each wave being of higher character than the previous one.

     The character of each wave of life would be recorded by the geological action which is always going on, and we should therefore have, in each locality, a series of strata of which the lowest and earliest deposit would contain the simplest forms and the highest and most recent strata the more complex forms.

     Professor Heilprin, in criticizing Huxley's suggestion of the synchronism, in different regions, of different geological stages, says that if two adjacent regions could possess, - one, say a Devonian character and the other a Carboniferous character, - the Carboniferous land might sink beneath the sea, and there might then be deposited on it strata of the lower or Devonian character. He goes on to say that the fact that in nature a stratum of lower character is never deposited over one containing higher types is a complete answer to Huxley's suggestion, unless it can be shown that there is any rule according to which the lower types should always disappear first. This, however, the New Church can show, for, when it is known that geographical districts correspond to different states of mind in the spiritual world, and that subsidences and elevations of those districts correspond to subsidences and elevations of spiritual states, it is then easy to see that the most immature states will be the first to subside.

     The orderly piling up of strata throughout the present continental areas is, then, explained by the recession of the ruling love of the Most Ancient Enoch, from the spiritual East, through the South and North to the West, causing the present geographical districts to receive in succession, at first, influx from ultimates only, and gradually, - as the ruling love described its journey through the quarters, - a fuller and fuller influx.

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     Moreover, as the earliest beginning of the present continents was the result of the depression of the Celestial Continent, we ought not to be surprised to find evil animals in the very lowest strata of Europe and Asia. With the first decline of the Most Ancient people, evil was in the ultimate districts, in the most ultimate forms only, such as insects, but as the evil influx became stronger, it would become embodied in higher and higher forms.

     The subsidence of the Celestial was necessarily an extremely slow process, for the first peoples had no inherited tendencies to evil. The subsidence of the Most Ancient continent, therefore, lasted for perhaps millions of years. As it subsided the present continental areas were upheaved, - but throughout the general elevation of the present land areas there were innumerable local subsidences and upheavals, varying the physical features of the globe from age to age, all typifying the various subsidences and upheavals of states of mind in the spiritual world.

     The Most Ancient Race of mankind at length became extinct, and the Celestial Continent ultimately sank beneath the ocean, with the exception of a northerly portion, which included Canaan, inhabited by the remnant of the Antediluvians which was saved. This remnant was the nucleus from which sprang all future races, and Canaan is therefore spoken of as the "Middle of the Globe." (Coronis, 52). The Celestial Continent, like the Celestial mind, has continued submerged to the present day.

     The Spiritual Race, which spread over many countries of the globe, attained its perfection in Asia, which continent was greatly upheaved synchronously with the final submergence of the Celestial Continent. Traces of outlying fringes of the Spiritual Race found in Tertiary deposits of Europe, but the European geological formations prior to the Tertiaries are a record of the fall of the Most Ancient people, the hideous reptiles and dragons of the Secondary rocks being representations of the monstrous lusts and insanities of the Antediluvians.(5)
     (5) It will be seen that the "Age of Reptiles" in Europe ought to contain a fuller representation of evil than the reptile age of Asia, because that of Europe was later in time and therefore nearer the consummation of the Most Ancient Era. With a knowledge of animal physiognomy, such considerations would greatly help the determination of the respective ages of equivalent deposits.

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     The same principles which apply to the Celestial geological record apply to the Spiritual, but the Spiritual causes being less interior than the Celestial, the effects will not be so great. Moreover the cycle described by the rise and fall of the Spiritual Church started in Asia and was otherwise somewhat different from that of the Celestial on account of the Spiritual quarters being different. (See A. E. 422a.) In the Ultimate or Natural Epoch the power of the spiritual world over nature has even less effect.

     The record of the descent of man (which, when judged from appearances only, is always interpreted as, and looks so very like the ascent of man) is contained not only in geological strata, but also in the first few chapters of Genesis. The correlation of the two records offers a wide field of labour for future geologists.

     In conclusion, I would remark that, in mentioning such places as Asia, Europe and Indian Ocean, I do not wish to be taken too literally. They are mentioned mainly for the purpose of presenting a mental diagram in illustration of the principles involved.     GEORGE E. HOLMAN.
JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON 1900

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON       C. T. ODHNER       1900

     (CONCLUDED.)

     THE last twenty years of Dr. Wilkinson's life were devoted almost exclusively to the distinctive literary work of the New Church. The praise of the world and its glory, the foreign ideals and deities which formerly had infested his mind, - all these seemed now to have lost their charms, and though his heart was beating as warmly as ever for the external reformation and spiritual elevation of the race, he had come to realize that there is nothing to hope from the world, from the old Christian Church as such; but that the only practical and possible path to individual and racial salvation lies in the conscious reception of the Doctrines of the New Church. These Doctrines were henceforth his only light, and he no longer looked upon Swedenborg as the discoverer of these truths, as a sort of "spiritual Columbus," but beyond the human instrument the features of the Divine Master appeared to him in ever clearer and more glorious light.

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As he said to a friend, towards the end of his life, "If I had my literary life to begin again, I would not argue about the Doctrines of the New Church at all. I would simply say: these things are Divine truths."

     And this is exactly what he did say in all his later works. As the truth became more and more a part of his very life he became less and less argumentative and more calmly assertive, not of his own opinions, but of the actual truth of the Heavenly Doctrines. In these his mind henceforth found a sabbath-rest, and his life seems to have flowed on to the end in the joyous tranquillity of innocent wisdom.

     This peacefulness of mind and singleness of purpose resulted in still greater activity for the cause which he loved, nearly every year being marked by the appearance of one or more volumes from his pen, or by valuable and inspiring articles in the journals of the Church, especially in the Intellectual Repository and its successor, The New Church Magazine. Among his contributions to this latter journal, we would call attention, particularly, to his eloquent appeal for the reproduction of the manuscript of Swedenborg's Spiritual Diary (N. C. Mag., 1886, p. 506), an appeal which reawakened the New Church to its duty in preserving all of Swedenborg's remaining manuscripts. His interesting review of the Life of Jesper Swedberg, by Professor Tottie, of Upsala (Ibid. 1889, p. 49), is also worthy of special mention among his many other articles.

     Having returned to all his premiers amours, he now began again to take an active interest in the important work of the Swedenborg Society, and in 1882 became a member of the governing "Committee," on which occasion he delivered a very interesting and valuable address on Swedenborg's Doctrines and the Translations of His Works (afterwards printed separately as a pamphlet).

     This was followed, in 1883, by a new version of Swedenborg's work on The Divine Love and Wisdom, the joint production of Dr. R. L. Tafel and Dr. Wilkinson. The latter, however, was dissatisfied with the character of this collaboration, and therefore, two years later, brought out a version of his own which differs quite radically from the edition of 1883; it is more literal, perhaps, but rather less readable and intelligible.

     During the same year, 1885, Dr. Wilkinson published two other volumes, the first a new edition of his Biography of Swedenborg, thoroughly revised, enlarged, and much improved, and the other a big book of nearly five hundred pages, entitled The Greater Origins and Issues of Life and Death.

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     In attempting any sort of a brief review of this, or any other of the subsequent works of Dr. Wilkinson, we cannot refrain from expressing our sympathy with the cry of despair which has been wrung from all his past reviewers. While his tender heart embraced all classes and conditions of men and beasts, his own prospective reviewers seem to have been alone excluded from his compassion. His books are, one and all, most difficult to describe, and still more difficult to criticize. They deal with so many different subjects, in so transcendental a style, and with such a sublime disregard of method and arrangement, that the unfortunate reviewer is lost in bewilderment as to the leading and differentiating theme of each book and as to the exact meaning of some of the more profound sentences.

     Thus, in the Greater Issues, the author deals with nearly every subject under the sun, in rapid and seemingly disconnected succession, yet always disarming the critic by the self-evident value of his multitudinous suggestions, applications, and interpretations. His mind is like the beam of a revolving search-light, which brilliantly illumines most distant darknesses, yet the next moment it may be gone, to reappear miles away. This peculiarity must serve as the excuse for our conscious vagueness in the account of his later works.

     Dr. Wilkinson's next work, on Revelation, Mythology, Correspondence (London, 1887), is a series of notes, rather than an elaborate work, but is of especial value as a first attempt to bring the whole subject of Mythology under the light of the New Church. Many extracts from the Writings of Swedenborg on the subject of the legends and fables of the Ancients, are here brought together, accompanied with suggestive thoughts and tentative interpretations. But the greatest value of the book lies, perhaps, in the author's searching criticism of the prevailing materialistic method of interpreting the faiths of the ancient world.

     The same subject is continued, but more definitely, in the next work, Oannes according to Berosus. A study in the Church of the Ancients. (London, 1888.) This is probably the masterpiece among Dr. Wilkinson's later writings, and is a truly valuable attempt to apply the science of correspondences to the systematic interpretation of one of the legends from the Ancient Church.

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The theme is the grand story of creation which has been preserved in the fragments from Berosus, the Chaldean priest, and which has been filled out, corrected, and corroborated by the newly opened literature of ancient Babylonia. The Doctor proceeds to unfold the inner sense of the myth, discovering in it an account of the establishment of the Ancient Church. In his application he makes a mistake, we think, for the legend appears to us to describe, instead, the establishment of the Church of the Golden Age, the Most Ancient or Adamic dispensation; but in his treatment and method he is nevertheless most interesting and suggestive, opening up on every side magnificent vistas into the long-closed mysteries of hoary antiquity.

     Ever busy and versatile, he soon afterwards appeared with a volume on a totally different subject, entitled The Soul is form, and doth the Body make, being chapters in psychology, and dealing particularly with the correspondence and connection of the heart and the lungs with the will and understanding of man (London, 1890). In his usual rambling style, burdened with a multitude of strange words and expressions, yet always fascinating and suggestive, the writer seeks to call popular attention to the merits of Swedenborg's physiological and psychological works. Of special value is his treatment of the bronchial arteries and tubes, and the coronary arteries of the heart, as illustrating, correspondentially, the subjection of the human will under the purifying control of the rational understanding.

     Still another field of thought is touched upon in the text work The African and the True Christian Religion his Magna Charta a study in the Writings of Swedenborg (London, 1892), where the author collects together, and makes a brave attempt at digesting, the many passages in the Writings which treat of the African race, its celestial characteristics, and its future position in the Church of the New Jerusalem. The subject of slavery is dealt with at some length, and Dr. Wilkinson shows, incidentally, that the great Anti-slavery movement in Great Britain owed its origin directly and distinctly to the agitation of Nordenskjold and Wadstrom, the Swedish New Churchmen. The volume is dedicated to Dr. E. W. Blyden, the Liberian minister to England, and followed as a sequel to Dr. Blyden's work on Christianity, Islam, and The Negro Race.

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Some of Dr. Wilkinson's theories in this book are problematical to say the least; as for instance his sanguine hopes of the American negro, as the future New Church missionary to Africa. The Writings of Swedenborg distinctly encourage the belief that the conversion of Africa will result, not from evangelization from without, but from an intrinsic development among the negroes in their own continent.

     In Epidemic Man and his Visitations (London, 1893), the author strikes another telling blow at the modern scientific iniquities of inoculation and pest-houses. The "Epidemic Man" is a representative personification of contagious diseases in general and of cholera and "la grippe" in particular. Many other subjects, rather foreign to the issue, are treated of, and the Doctor goes quite out of his way in order to attack the United States and their institutions, which he does with unnecessary bitterness.

     The New Jerusalem and the Old Jerusalem (London, 1899), consists to a great extent of extracts from the Writings, on the subject of the "place and service of the Jewish Church among the eons of Revelations." It is very loosely constructed, somewhat difficult to comprehend, and is, in our opinion, the least interesting of the Doctor's many writings.

     The Combats and Victories of Jesus Christ (London, 1895) is a distinctly theological work, dealing with the most sublime of all doctrines: the Glorification of the Human which the Lord assumed in the world, the nature of the maternal heredity, the mysteries of Divine Accommodation, the character of the temptation-combats, and the results of the victories of the God-man. Dr. Wilkinson's theology may not be considered most definite or systematic, but it is made living, attractive, and instructive by the childlike reverence and the intense affection which shine through it. In the face of this devotion, certain theological blemishes fade into insignificance, and the critic himself is apt to forget his disagreeable renal functions.

     But few other works remain to be noticed. In the bright little tract, Swedenborg among the Doctors. A letter to Robert T. Cooper, M. D. (London, 1895), Dr. Wilkinson appears again, and now for the last time, in his ancient armour as the champion of Swedenborg's Science and Philosophy, and this in spite of his introductory declaration, "Now, I do not accept Swedenborg as, in any sense, 'a scientist.'"

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In interesting and delightful style, the author then proceeds to differentiate between the actual "scientist," whose one end and aim is the science itself, and Swedenborg, whose single aim was Truth. A summary of the Doctrines of the New Church is then presented in their relation to the whole subject of physiological and medical science, and the Doctor ends by beseeching his brother Homeopathist to read the theological Writings of Swedenborg before the anatomical ones, - a word of true wisdom, from one well qualified to speak.

     When Dr. Wilkinson next appears in literature, it is in the character of a teacher of political ethics. Addressing himself to the great unheeding world in a book with the peculiar title, The Affections of Armed Powers: a Plea for a School of Little Nations, (London, 1897), he brings the light of the New Revelation to bear upon the modern issues of international politics, suggesting especially the introduction of the idea of conscience into the game of the Great Powers. It is to England, especially, that the author looks for a regeneration of politics, and to the New Church for the regeneration of England.

     In The Book of the Edda called Voluspa (London, 1897), our "grand old man" returns to one of the most favored themes of his earlier years, the magnificent mythology of ancient Scandinavia, which seems to have preserved the leading features of pre-historic theology longer and in greater purity than any other of the ancient mythologies. Dr. Wilkinson's poetic mind kindles at the thought of Swedenborg, the Northman, having been the instrument of revealing the key which is to open the ancient temple in which his ancestors worshiped. This key, the science of correspondences, our friend now applies to the noblest of the Icelandic legends, the Voluspa, or prophetic song of Vala, the seeress; and then proceeds to interpret this ancient document, line for line, and word for word, just as Swedenborg interpreted Genesis or Exodus. He thus shows that the song, in its "internal sense," treats prophetically of the fall of the Christian Church, the Last Judgment, and the final establishment of a New Heaven and a New Earth.

     While we are thoroughly convinced that the wonderful story of the Ragnarok, or the "Twilight of the Gods," bears within it this meaning, and cannot possibly mean anything else, yet Dr. Wilkinson's imagination certainly runs away with his judgment when claims for the Voluspa a verbal Divine inspiration, a position as actually an integral portion of the Ancient Word.

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On the contrary, it dates distinctly from a time when the Ancient Church had become perverted into polytheism, and it cannot have been anything more than a legend, a remarkably clear reflection from the Ancient Word itself. Nevertheless, the author's interpretation of Scandinavian Mythology in general, and of the Vala's song in particular, is nothing less than sublime.

     We need to exercise the same caution, and are forced to admit the same feeling of admiration, when reading the very last of Dr. Wilkinson's works, Isis and Osiris in the Book of Respirations (London, 1899). The central and the grandest theme of Egyptian Mythology, the story of Osiris, is here interpreted as a prophetic hymn of the Ancient Word, describing in its internal sense, the Advent of the Lord to the world, His natural development, spiritual combats, and final Glorification. While hesitating before accepting the Osiris legend as word for word a part of the Ancient Revelation, and while doubting the absolute accuracy of the interpretation as long as we cannot be certain of the integrity or inspiration of the text, the impression remains that the interpretation is substantially correct, and that Dr. Wilkinson's parting words to his grateful readers are in themselves a prophecy of the glorious things from the Church of the Ancients, to which the Church of the New Jerusalem some day will fall the heir.

     In closing we quote from Mr. James Speirs' account of Dr. Wilkinson in Morning Light:

     "Dr: Wilkinson's last work had been completely passed through the press, and was in the bookbinder's hands, before his death.... He had expressed the hope to a friend that he might live to complete it. The maxim 'man is immortal until his work be done' was quoted to him. But he gave a quaint turn to it by replying, 'No, man is mortal until then; it is then that he becomes immortal.'

     "His illness was very short, only lasting for a day and a half. And up to that time his intellect was as keen, and his memory apparently as perfect as they had ever been; nor had his interest in public affairs, such as the present political outlook, in any degree abated. He passed away on October 18th, 1899, at the ripe age of eighty-seven years."

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     Our brief sketch calls for no final panegyrics. As a man we knew but little of Dr. Wilkinson. His writings speak for themselves. What the judgment of the future will be, we cannot tell, but the mark which he has made upon the collective thought of the New Church will not soon be effaced. To the coming generation, at least, as to the present one, his works will continue to be an education, his intelligence and love an inspiration.     C. T. ODHNER.
CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE OR THE WORD OF THE LORD, FROM EXPERIENCE 1900

CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE OR THE WORD OF THE LORD, FROM EXPERIENCE              1900

IV.

THAT THE WORD IS HOLY EVEN AS TO THE SYLLABLES AND TITTLES.

     [1]. Once there was sent to me from heaven a little paper traced in Hebrew letters, but written as was the manner among the most ancients with whom those letters, which at this day are as to some part rectilinear, were at that time curved, with little horns verging upwards. An angel who was with me said that he knew complete meanings from the letters themselves: that every letter had its own meaning, and that the angels knew it from the curvatures of the itself in each letter, beside the thing which is known from the letter itself separately. He then explained to me what they signified: what [Aleph] [A] and what; [Heth] [H] signified, both separately and conjointly; and he showed that the [Heth] which is in the name [heth wah heth yod] (Jehovah), and which was added to the names of Abraham and Sarah, signifies the infinite and the eternal; and thus the Word is so written that there are many passages in which, from the letters themselves, the signification stands forth to the angels of the third heaven, when these places are read in the Hebrew text by a Jew or a Christian. For the angels of the third heaven possess the Word written in such letters, and they read it according to the letters.

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They said that in the sense which is thus extracted from the letters the Word treats of the Lord Alone. The reason for this is that the curvatures in the letters derive their origin from the flux of Heaven in which the angels of the third heaven are, above all the rest; hence those angels are skilled in that writing from what is implanted in them, because they are in the order of Heaven and live altogether according to it.

     [2]. They also explained in my presence the sense of the Word in Psalm xxxii: 2, from the letters or syllables alone, and they said that the sense of these things is, in a summary, that the Lord is merciful even to those who do evil. They added that the vowels are there for the sake of the sound, which corresponds to the affection, and that they could not utter the vowels i and e, but instead of i they said y or eu, and instead of e they said eu; and that among them the vowels a, o, and u are in use because these give a full sound, while i and e give a close sound. They said also that they do not pronounce any consonants roughly, [aspirated], but smoothly, and that the aspirated letters, such as [dalath] [D] , and [quoph] [Q],* with the rest, do not signify anything to them unless they pronounce them with a smooth sound: this, also, is the reason why many aspirated letters in the Hebrew have a point within, to signify that they should be pronounced with a smooth sound. They added further that aspiration in the letters is in use in the spiritual heaven, for the reason that in that heaven the angels are in truths, and by means of truths, in understanding; but in the celestial heaven all are in the good of love and thence in wisdom; and truth admits what is rough [or aspirated], but good does not. Hence it may be seen what is meant where the Lord says, that not a jot, a tittle, or little horn shall perish from the Law (Matth. v:18; Luke xvi: 17), and from this it is evident, also, that it was from the Divine Providence of the Lord, that all the letters of the Word in the Hebrew text were counted by the Masorites.
     * [Thus in the MSS. It is probably a slip of the pen for [Kaph] (Kaph). - Tr.]

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V.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD AND ITS NATURAL SENSE.

     [1]. I have spoken at times with spirits who did not care to know anything about the spiritual sense of the Word, saying that its natural sense is the only sense of the Word, and that this is holy because it is from God; and they asserted that ii the spiritual sense were to be accepted, the Word in the Letter would come to nothing. There were many who insisted upon this, but they were answered from Heaven, that the Word without the Spiritual Sense within it would not be Divine; but because the spiritual sense is its soul, it is thence Divine, nay, living, for without it the Letter would be as it were dead. The very holiness of the Word consists in this. The Word may thus be compared to the Divine Man who is the Lord, in whom there is not only the Divine natural, but also the Divine spiritual and the Divine celestial; it is on this account the Lord calls Himself the Word. And the angels added that the very holiness of the Word is in the sense of the Letter, and that this is holy above the other senses, which are internal, because it is the complex and container of the rest, and is a body living from the soul. Thus the Word in the Sense of the Letter, or in the man, is in its fulness and also in its power; and by means of it man is in conjunction with the Heavens, which, without the Sense of the Letter, would be separated from man. Who does not know and acknowledge that the Word in its bosom is spiritual? But the repository where that spiritual is stored up has hitherto lain concealed.

     [2]. But inasmuch as the spirits, who were standing up for the sense of the Letter alone, were not willing to be convinced by these reasons, the angels brought forward innumerable passages from the natural sense which could never be comprehended without the spiritual sense. As, for instance, in the Prophets, where mere names are massed together: where many kinds of animals are mentioned such as lions, bears, oxen, bullocks, dogs, foxes, owls, ojim, dragons, etc., as also mountains and forests, besides many other things which would have no meaning without the spiritual sense. What, for instance, should be understood by the dragon who is described as red, having seven heads, and upon the heads seven diadems, and who by his tail tore down the third part of the stars of Heaven and who sought to devour the child which the woman was about to bring forth; and that two wings of a great eagle were given to the woman, that she might fly into the desert where the dragon cast after her water as a river out of his mouth.

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Again, without the spiritual sense it could not be known what should be understood by the two beasts of the dragon: the one ascending out of the sea, like unto a leopard, with feet as of a bear, and mouth as of a lion, and the other beast ascending from the earth, of which it is spoken in the Apocalypse, xii and xiii. Again, what could be meant in the sixth chapter of the Apocalypse, by the horses which went forth when the Lamb opened the seals of the Book: first a white horse, afterwards a red one, then a black, and finally a pale horse; besides all the other things in that book? What, further, should be understood in Zechariah by the four horns and the four artificers (Chapter II); by the candlestick, and the two olive trees by it (Chapter IV); by the mountains before which were horses, red, black, white, and grizzled, (Chapter VI). Or, again, in Daniel viii, by the ram and the he-goat, and by their horns with which they fought against one another: and by the four beasts ascending from the sea (Chapter VII), beside similar things elsewhere in great abundance. In order that the spirits might be still further convinced, the angels adduced those things which the Lord spake to His disciples in Matthew xxiv, respecting the Consummation of the Age and respecting His Advent, which could not be understood by any one without the spiritual sense.

     [3]. That the spiritual sense is in all and single things of the Word was also confirmed by certain things spoken by the Lord, which, unless they were understood spiritually, could not be comprehended: as that no one was to be allowed to call his father on any one teacher or master, because One is their Father, Teacher, and Master (Matthew xxiii:7-10); that they were not to judge, lest they be judged, (Matthew vii: 1, 2); that husband and wife are not two but one flesh, (Matthew xix: 5, 6), - when nevertheless in the natural sense they are not one flesh; nor is it forbidden to judge respecting a companion and a neighbor as to their natural life, for this is necessary in a community but it is forbidden to judge of him as to his spiritual life, for this is known to the Lord alone. Moreover, the Lord did not forbid any one to call his father, father, or his teacher, teacher, or his master, master, in the natural sense, but it is forbidden to do so in a spiritual sense; for in this sense there is only one Father, Teacher, and Master.

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Thus in all other cases.

     [4]. From these things the spirits became convinced that there is a spiritual sense within the natural sense of the Word, but that still the very holiness of the Word is in the Sense of its Letter, because all the interior senses of the Word are in it in their fulness. In addition to this, it was confirmed that all the things which teach the way to salvation, thus life and faith, stand forth quite clearly in the Sense of the Letter; also, that everything of the Doctrine of the Church is to be drawn from the Sense of the Letter of the Word, and is to be confirmed by it, and not by the pure spiritual sense, for by this sense alone there is not given conjunction with Heaven and by Heaven with the Lord, but by the Sense of the Letter. For the Divine influx of the Lord by means of the Word is from the firsts through the ultimates.

     (To be Continued.)
THOUGHTS OF MATERIALISTS RESPECTING GOD.* 1900

THOUGHTS OF MATERIALISTS RESPECTING GOD.*              1900

     * From Document 302 of Tafel's Documents Concerning Swedenborg, (Vol. II); which document consists of fragmentary "Additions to The True Christian Religion," left by Swedenborg in the ship in which he made his last journey from Stockholm to Amsterdam.

FROM SWEDENBORG'S UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT.

     Those who are continually in a material idea, - like the learned who are in the mere rudiments of philosophy, and think that they are wise if they acknowledge God, - adore the mere phase that there is a God. But if they are told that God is Man, and that the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is that Man, they do not acknowledge it; because their thought respecting Him is material, and not at the same time spiritual; wherefore they also separate His Divine Essence from His Humanity, and declare that there is a mystical conjunction between them.

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Editorial Department 1900

Editorial Department       Editor       1900

     THE Editor of The New Philosophy asks that we insert his explanation why not all the papers read at the annual meetings of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, were published in the Philosophy; viz., that not all were sent to him; and that those which were sent were published. Also that some of the papers were omitted from the April number from lack of space. Of course in our May "Monthly Review" we were not trying to locate responsibility but to indicate what we considered a useful policy.

     OUTSPOKENNESS is often practiced under the guise of frankness, without deserving that name. "Plain speaking" may be made a stalking-horse from behind which to shoot an envenomed dart. To speak one's mind is commendable only when the mind is animated by charity, and by a wholesome fear of doing injustice in any way, even by mistake. Thus the most direct speakers of all are the celestial angels, who, from ends of pure love, say "Yea, yea; nay, nay." Without assuming anything celestial we may very profitably strive to follow their example and to grasp and adopt their ends.

     THE COMING ASSEMBLY.

     Readers of the Life will receive this number just before the opening of the Fourth General Assembly, the program of which occasion appears on our last page. The prospects are bright for a full and useful meeting. Each Assembly, it has been noted, has had an individuality of its own: because each year sees a change not only in location and external conditions of the meeting, but also in the state and needs of the Church, and in the questions that thence arise. For these reasons, anything like monotonous similarity seems unlikely to occur. Last year there was an interest due to the contrast presented by the numbers and resources of the entertaining society as compared with their efforts and remarkable success. This year interest attaches to the fact that special railroad fares offer unusual opportunities for distant members to visit the center and see the equipment and environment amid which the educational and other general uses are carried on; and this, added to the circumstance that those attending will share in the first general celebration of JUNE NINETEENTH, - the Church's best-loved festival, - promises to bring the attendance up to high-water mark.

     As to questions and issues before us, it might be said that the most engrossing ones have been settled; yet one - that of the Lay House - contains great possibilities in the way of divergence of view and consequent debate.

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The discussion is all the more likely to be enjoyable owing to the absence of any very acute necessity for action, since a practicable modus vivendi is already in force, removing that tension of urgency which sometimes leaves a loophole for the intrusion, into debate, of natural feeling and thus of extraneous issues and elements of dissonance.

     The Orphanage for the General Church, which at last year's general meeting had not been thought of, will come before the body this year as a use already inaugurated and organized. The offertory of Sunday's worship, will be devoted to this use, and its importance will undoubtedly be fittingly set forth in the general meeting. There is no fear of non-recognition of the claims which the helpless have upon us, - children, the care of whom our Heavenly Father has associated with the holiest of human relations, and with life's most sacred obligations. And not more to the emotions does this use appeal, than to the judgment; for it goes without saying that self-preservation dictates saving to the Church her full membership, present and potential. Indeed the Orphanage may be said to be only a natural sequel to the School, the use around which the General Church has been formed.

     As to the Program, those who realize most keenly the need for thorough, natural understanding and cooperation between teacher and parent, and the many things that seem to conspire against the attainment of these, will appreciate the making of the Parents' and Teachers' Meeting safe from mischance such as defeated it last year, by appointing "Educational Day" before instead of after the Assembly.

     The feature of opening the Assembly by a day of Worship is one the desirability of which has been recognized before, and circumstances seemed to point conclusively to its being the very best arrangement for this occasion. Those who experienced the powerful sphere of last year's Sunday service will look forward to the occasion as a privilege. The effect will be strengthened and brought home by the opportunity afforded of coming together after the service, in a common meal, at which the relaxation that normally follows worship will naturally take a form stimulative of charity and mutual good feeling. It may be mentioned that this year the dinners will be given somewhat more attention with regard to stimulating and feeding thought, under the guidance of one well-versed in the Toastmaster's duties.

     The hour is set for the service rather early, (10:30 A M.), in order to allow time for dinner and some little rest, before the administration of the Holy Supper in the afternoon.

     The Sacred Concert in the evening is regarded by all who have any love for music, especially the music that is vital with spiritual meaning and affection, as one of the treats connected with the Assemblies. It is a happy thought to combine the better-prepared efforts of the semi-chorus with the spontaneous singing of the whole audience in the selections suitable for them. The increasing instrumental resources of the General Church is a cause for sincere congratulation, and incidentally we may look for some enjoyable specialties in the program, such as the 18th Psalm.

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     Monday morning, being taken up by the General Council, will afford opportunities to the members in general for social intercourse, which will unquestionably be improved to the full; a very good preparation for the assembling at noon to listen to the Annual Address of the Bishop.

     After the midday collation follow the Reports, the reading of which is not likely to occasion any diminution in the attendance or interest, if we may judge at all by last year.

     A Social Reception will be held in the evening, and may be expected to resemble its predecessors in enjoyableness.

     On Tuesday, the "Nineteenth," we are to have the novel experience of seeing nearly the whole Church Joining in a celebration of the Day which represents the Divine bestowal of all that makes life to the Newchurchman more than dear, that is, - real. A realization of what this celebration involves, is coming to be seen to be so serious, so impressive and even solemn a matter, that we may venture this much in way of forecast, - that it will be less than on some former occasions, given over to sheer enjoyment and exultation in our common boon of brotherhood, and more touched with a sense of the responsibilities entailed, and the contrast which is presented by our natural tendencies and difficulties as compared with the ideal Church life which the New Jerusalem offers within her gates of pearl. The feature of a sermon introduced in the services of this day and the two following, will contribute to make the opportunities of this Assembly, in the way of spiritual feeding, beyond the ordinary. Mr. Bostock preaches on Tuesday morning.

     Then will follow the Banquet; and we can rest safe that the speeches, - relieved too by that blessed ally, Song - will be of a kind to heighten and not burden the assimilative processes, mental and physical.

     If the Lawn Party in the evening be only vouchsafed fair weather we know what beauties maybe looked for, and what social enjoyments, and the lofty trees and flowering wealth of "Cairnwood"

     Wednesday, opening with services, and a sermon by Mr. Hyatt, - offers the first full day of Assembly business, - relieved of course by the collations; and the Men's Meeting in the evening offers an opportunity for such counsel, instruction and support as can be found in the New Church alone, and which in itself is worth the trouble and expense of coming to the Assembly. The ladies will doubtless, as last year, find ways to fill up their evening with eminent satisfaction to themselves.

     Thursday also is to be a full Assembly day, not forgetting the sermon by Mr. Waelchli, in the morning, and the afternoon will see the closing of the Assembly. On the day following, however, the Ministers will as usual hold a final meeting.


     PRESENT NEEDS:

     It has been said that our Church has been built up around the School Use, and to some extent at least this is true. But now that this use has been placed by endowment upon a secure footing it may be asked whether we have not reached a stage from which, as a church, our development should be along distinctly ecclesiastical and parochial lines; - whether it may not be time for greater education of the adult.

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May not we, who have never had the advantage of the consistent New Church education we seek for our children, be in even greater need than they? education, that is, in the duties and opportunities of Church membership and fellowship, and in the life of a true and wholesome piety? Without criticism of past work and methods, but indeed with full recognition of what they have done for us, we may still safely hold that it were a vain ideal of New Church education which did not look first of all to the Home, as the source from which must spring the life of Church and School, and as the haven to which must return the harvest at last, whence again, from a fuller life, may go forth the beginnings of new homes, new elements out of which the Church is built. The home must be the nursery of the Church, where is drawn the first breaths of that atmosphere of loyalty and love for the Church and her uses, for her harmony and her growth, which is needed from the very start in order to neutralize the virulence of the miasma of selfishness in which the race is submerged. If we would inculcate in our children a prime regard to things of religion and neighborly love, of social and family life consecrated to the Lord, we must hunger and thirst for these things ourselves, and to that end must strive in every way to make good the deficiencies of our early circumstances. For most of us will confess that both natural tendencies and early training have conspired to form within us stubborn habits of selfish, unsocial, uncharitable thoughts, affection and conduct, which will not yield up their inrooted life except to such training as is afforded in no other way than by Church life and pastoral leading.

     A feature of Church life that seems worth considering may not be amiss here. We have alluded to the need that exists for a fuller life of piety. An important feature of this is the need for a fuller sphere of worship. The adult state of Church membership would advantage, we think, by more of this than we have at present, and the lack is one that could hardly be supplied so long as the School held the preponderance it has held in the past. The School has had to have first thought and provision, and at this day not one of our larger societies has a building set apart to exclusively Church purposes, - uses this day not one peculiar to adult members. Indeed for years the worship at the centre, in Philadelphia, was not only conducted in the school-hall, but was distinctly stated to be an adjunct to the school, at which the adult congregation were recognized to be only visitors. And those privileges were then not small ones; only that we hold, without fear of challenge, that this was not a condition to be perpetuated as an ideal one, and we would add that to buildings dedicated to school purposes will inevitably attach associations and suggestions of the world such as more or less tend to distract from worshipful states. A true Church spirit ever seeks to ultimate itself in piety, but the full ultimation of this is possible only where the worship can be performed in complete withdrawal from the weekday sphere, in restful communion with the Lord, in a House dedicated to His worship. Here the mental attitude of all, especially perhaps the young, will be different from that toward any temporary place of worship.

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The world we have ever with us; it is a very serious matter that we have no place of occasional refuge from its imperious demands, where might cluster none but holy associations, to the exaltation of reverence and piety, and to the consequent refreshing of the spirit, in young and old. True, Church buildings cost money, and our uses are many and funds few; and yet did all fully appreciate the importance of such sanctuaries it may be questioned whether a way might not be found to set aside a little more to the fuller service of the Lord which would be involved in such a spirit of self-denial. It is noteworthy, that Building Funds, if they were only affectionately nurtured and regularly added to, would like other funds show a surprising capacity for growth.

     So much for suggestions which, though they may find no special place for expression at the Assembly, may not be inappropriate to have in mind at this season of quickening interest in all that concerns the Church.
CIRCULAR issued by the Swedenborg Scientific Association 1900

CIRCULAR issued by the Swedenborg Scientific Association              1900

     A CIRCULAR issued by the Swedenborg Scientific Association, setting forth the claims of Swedenborg's science and philosophy, and the aims of the Association in connection therewith, together with an invitation to join the body and become subscribers to The New Philosophy, the prospective organ of the body, - was distributed at the recent Convention.

     A QUERY.

     THE heading to number 446 of the True Christian Religion, in the original, is as follows: -

     Quod Amicitia amoris ligata cum homine, qualiscumque est quod spiritum, post mortem detrimentosa sit.

     The Latin of this passage seems to be quite clear and without idiomatic difficulties, and might be rendered as follows:

     "The friendship of love contracted with a man, of whatsoever quality he is as to his spirit, is detrimental after death:"

     The question arises in the writer's mind, Is this the generally accepted understanding in the Church, of this passage? Does not the above rendering preclude the friendship of love entirely for the New Churchman, unless he be willing that it shall be detrimental after death?

     The writer feels certain that this interpretation is not universally accepted, for we find the following rendering of the Latin quoted above: -

     "That the friendship of love, attached to a person irrespective of what he is as to his spirit is detrimental after death."

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     This rendering of course means by implication, that the friendship of love is allowable, if regard is taken of the quality of the man as to his spirit; but then the question arises, does the Latin or the doctrine admit of this rendering? Does not qualiscumque est quod spiritum, - "of whatsoever quality he is as to his spirit," - mean, no matter of what quality he is, as to his spirit?


     A MISSIONARY FIELD AMONG ICELANDERS.

     DURING the recent meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, in New York, the writer was favored by Mr. G. Woolworth Colton, Business Manager of the New-Church Board of publication, with an account of some of his interesting experiences and opportunities for introducing the Writings to inquirers. Naturally too, he comes to hear of Newchurchmen in unsuspected quarters of the globe, and of fields which though necessarily neglected now will sooner or later be cultivated by the New Church in its enjoined use of proclaiming the Gospel of the Second Coming to all the world. With a keen sense of the possibilities involved, and with an eye single to the fulfillment of our high mission, Mr. Colton quietly goes on culling his data, and as occasion serves he calls them to the attention of those interested Hence we are able to furnish the following letter which contains what I venture to say will be news to many of New Church Life's readers.

     Brandon, Manitoba, N. W. T., Feb. 28, 1900.

     Dear Sir: - I have seen in the New Church Messenger the publication of the Icelandic translation of Um Hina Nyu Jerusalem og hennar Himnesku Kenningu, og Kenning hinnar Nyu Jerusalem um Kaerleikann.

     "I have translated your advertisement and sent it to Heimskringla, our most popular weekly newspaper in Winnipeg. A year ago I did translate the little treatise "Why I am a New Churchman," and I entitled it, Nykyrkjumadurinn," (it means the New Churchman) and he is just now to come into circulation. He is to be a 'forerunner' for the 'Heavenly Doctrines.'

     "My countrymen numbers here in Manitoba and the North West Territory, about 14,000. In the city of Winnipeg there are over 3,000, and in north Dakota and Minnesota more than 3,000. So you have an immense field to look at, besides my native land. I will name you some of the Icelandic booksellers....

     "I enclose here $1.00. Please send me some copies of the translations. I have orders for several copies, and here are some receivers of the heavenly doctrines, but secretly; and quote the price. We number here in Brandon about 100. Brandon has a population of over 6,000 souls." Yours sincerely,

     Since writing the foregoing another letter to Mr. Colton has been furnished by him, in which the writer acknowledges the receipt of replies and books, of the latter of which he had sold some and given some away, and says - "many of the readers love these writings and Doctrines."

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There seem to be about seven in Brandon who have become interested through the Divine Love and Wisdom, which, as already noted, has been translated into Icelandic. The letter contains the names and addresses of eight Lutheran priests of the writer's nationality, and Mr. Colton has sent to them New Church material. Reference is made, also, to five Icelandic students of the "Gustavus Adolphus College," St. Peter, Minn. It may be mentioned in this connection that Mr. Colton systematically takes every opportunity and means for reaching the students of theological institutions, and in a number of cases has met with friendliest treatment and actual cooperation from the college faculties of the same.      G. G. S.

THE NEW CHURCH IN JAMAICA.

     EARLY in last March the following interesting letter from a young lady in Jamaica found its way into the hands of Mr. G. Woolworth Colton, Business Manager for the New-Church Board of publication, and owing to the courtesy of that gentleman we are able to lay the substance of it, and its sequel, before readers of the Life. The writer had been reading Dr. Ellis's work, Scepticism and Divine Revelation, and on impulse wrote to the author, in ignorance of his recent death.

     "Dear Sir: - Some time ago book of yours entitled "Address to the Clergy, Scepticism and Divine Revelation" was sent to my father by a society in America. We girls are Swedenborgians and we read the book with such delight that our father gave it to us. You will be sorry to hear that there are only five members of the New Church in this island. Three are in our family. The other two we have never met. We are deeply interested in everything relating to the New Church, and feel toward all its members as if they were old friends. We belong to the New Jerusalem Church at Devonshire St. Islington, London. We heard of it through a friend and went there one Sunday evening out of curiosity, and we were so delighted with the truths we heard that we attended regularly every Sunday evening, only missing one or two through illness. You wouldn't believe how kind the members at Islington were to us. They treated us like friends, and even lent us some of Swedenborg's books out of their Church library.

     "Now that we are at home we miss the New Church very much, there being nothing of the kind out here. We have the True Christian Religion, Heaven and Hell, Divine Providence, Reasons for Believing in Swedenborg, Doctrine of Life, Divine Word Opened, Noble's Appeal, Earths in the Universe, and your book! Quite a feast! We are continually reading them over and over, and the more we read the more we see in them. I see in Morning Light that there is a new book out, called Isis and Osiris in the Book of Respirations, by J. J. G. Wilkinson. I wonder whether this is the same man who wrote Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, or whether it is his son.

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     "Since reading the New Church books I am more deeply interested in mythology than ever, as I now fully realize that these ancient writings that is moral, mystic and symbolic has an intense fascination. How foolish it is of many Christians to regard the ancient inhabitants of the earth as heathens, hopelessly lost, when in their mythologies are to be found goods and truths that we might do well to learn!

     "We are only just writing you this letter out of fellow feeling. We know that your time is valuable. If you are busy don't trouble to answer this. Wishing you all the blessings on your work, I remain," - etc.

     Mr. Colton, whose zeal in spreading the truth knows no flagging, wrote such a letter as promptly brought the following reply, from which we omit such parts as are personal and therefore possibly would be unwelcome to the writer to see in print:

     "Dear Mr. Colton: Many thanks for your kind, friendly letter.... People out here are inclined to look upon the New Church Doctrine as heresies. They really cannot exercise their rational faculties where Religion is concerned. They will argue about their doctrines and contradict themselves a dozen times in less than five minutes. Their ideas of the resurrection and their hereafter are like a tattered old garment that will not hang together. It tears by its own weight. There is an American Society that calls itself the New Jerusalem, but they are not Swedenborgians. They have the audacity to say that Swedenborg was possessed with a devil. They have an agent out here who goes about selling books called Millennial Down. Five volumes have come out already. They are written by a man called Russell, and judging by the rapidity with which they come out we may expect 50 more volumes. In these books they profess to explain a spiritual sense to the Bible. They deliberately take some of Swedenborg's ideas and mix them up with their own self-derived intelligence. They try to prove that the angels are a different race of beings from us, and Heaven is intended for them; that the human soul is not immortal, and Hell is simply annihilation. They say that after the resurrection the wicked people are to be utterly annihilated and the good are to reign with Christ on earth. In other words they cut off from the human race all fear of Hell and all hope of Heaven. How can any one who disbelieves the immortality of the soul have any religion at all?

     "Their idea of future happiness is Dominion. They say that they are to rule with Christ at His Coming, and they prophesy that the Millennium will commence in five years time. Strange to say, all the religious people out here are simply infatuated with those books. They gulp them down and ask for more. They don't seem to see any inconsistency in them whatever. Some of my family are continually reading and quoting from them, but the bare mention of them makes my sisters and myself sick! People out here don't stop to consider that all the Millennial rubbish they are reading is merely a plausible concoction from Mr. Russell's own brain; whereas Swedenborg is really inspired. He did not write from himself but from God!"

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LATIN-ENGLISH EDITION OF THE "DIVINE PROVIDENCE" 1900

LATIN-ENGLISH EDITION OF THE "DIVINE PROVIDENCE"       Glendower C. Ottley       1900

To THE EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE.

Dear Sir:

     As I have been looking forward with keen interest to the publication of the Latin-English edition of the Divine Providence, I was naturally very pleased to find myself confronted with it when it issued from the press a few months ago. My copy of this work came to hand just before your able and temperate review of this edition appeared in the April Life. On examining this translation in a general way, I fell, by chance, on one passage which contained so gross a mistranslation of the Latin, that my suspicions were aroused as to the possibility of other passages being equally mutilated and therefore emptied of their true meaning. A careful perusal of the Life's review has now convinced me that I was quite right in my first impression, disagreeable as it was; - for, as I have intimated, I had been disposed for many years, to welcome with open arms the edition under notice. You say truly that the "task of the translator is to reproduce the form of revelation, not to teach or interpret, these belonging to another function in the Church." But how does the present translation fulfill this expectation?

     Mr. Ager tells us in his "Translator's Note" that it has been his "aim" to depart "from too close an adherence to cognate words and to the Latin order of words and phrases." And with what result? An obscuration (as you have shown) of the sense of numerous passages is exactly what might have been expected. Dr. Wilkinson, who was one of the most successful translators of Swedenborg's works, says: "As one who has some experience in translating Swedenborg, I can aver that at first for a length of time I had the feeling that it would be easy and right to popularize him somewhat, and to melt down his proprium and his scientifics, his goods and truths and uses, and many other of his terms. I tried my hand and failed. I found that none but Ulysses could bend the bow of Ulysses; that Swedenborg in Latin must be Swedenborg in English; and so at last I came close to his terms, and as far as I could, got into their marrow; and then I did not want to melt them down, but felt sure then, as I feel now, that they are a genuine coinage which the reader when he learns it will never wish to see defaced in any the least lineament, lest a value which is priceless be lost or altered thereby. I learned, in short, that the terms are from the rational mind of the New Dispensation, and that it is not lawful to break or vary the coins of that kingdom into any other forms." (See, Address delivered at the 72d Anniversary of the Swedenborg Society, British and Foreign, June 20, 1882).

     But it is not simply by setting aside such reasons for a genuine - because chiefly literal - translation, that Mr. Ager has rendered the present work practically useless for the purposes of the student of the Heavenly Doctrines.

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He has given himself such latitude that he actually translates one Latin word, in particular, noscere (to know), in a way that no good Dictionary or Grammar will countenance.

     You have shown in connection with two successive paragraphs - 11 and 12 - where the word notum occurs, that, by rendering it "acknowledged" instead of "known" - its most general and obvious meaning as is shown by its adoption in nearly all the translations of the Divine Providence, English and American; hitherto published - Mr. Ager has virtually forced Swedenborg to flatly contradict himself! For in Arcana Coelestia n. 3399 he Says: "In the last time of the Church they [of the old] cannot acknowledge truth, because then there reigns universally with them unbelief concerning the Lord, the life after death, and the internal man."

     Mr. Ager, however, as you point out, makes the members of the old Church "acknowledge" that which he is expressly told they "cannot acknowledge" on account of the "unbelief which then reigns universally" concerning God, the Word or the internal man - an "unbelief" which consequently leads the vast majority of those who live at such a period of spiritual desolation to have no faith whatever in those spiritual or philosophic truths which have no lodgment in the mind apart from such a belief. I wish to show, with your permission, that by such a mistranslation of notum, Mr. Ager has in another important passage in the same work, equally misrepresented Swedenborg.

     In No. 150 he says: "It is known in the learned world that there is an influx of the spiritual into the natural, and not the reverse." In the edition under notice this is rendered: "It is acknowledged in the learned world," etc.!

     "What "learned" person of our day - what scientist, above all, - would fail to smile if he came across such a passage? For is it not notorious that all belief in spiritual influx,-which is the same as influx of the spiritual into the natural, - has been entirely superseded at this day by "physical" influx? which, as Dr. Wilkinson truly says, "implies that primordial matter, the mystical body of matter, has in it or behind it a push that works it upward, and that at certain stages of the forcing it becomes protoplasm, the weird caldron of nature, and by further injections and exjections. it fights its way until it becomes vegetable, animal, and man; the earliest and silliest of the latter species being the inventors of God, whom their gifted descendants again resolve into protoplasm Swedenborg differs from this." (See Human Science and Divine Revelation, p. 179).

     And so he does. But if he "differs" it is clear that the "learned" do not and "cannot acknowledge," that there is "an influx of the spiritual into the natural," although such a doctrine, may, historically speaking, have been "known" to them, like so many doctrines which modern science has consigned to the limbo of exploded superstitions!

     In view, therefore, of such errors and other short comings you have so appropriately dwelt upon, it is to be hoped that the principle adopted in this translation of the Divine Providence will be departed from, or we may safely look upon the work about to be done as doomed.

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No true New Churchman would care to buy and read a translation which he knew was open to grave objections on the score of looseness, inaccuracy and a practical disregard of those "terms" which as Dr. Wilkinson so forcibly says, "are from the rational mint of the New Dispensation and which it is not lawful to break or vary" in order to suit the tastes of those who have not sufficient affection for spiritual truth to take the necessary trouble to grasp their meaning, their significance, or philosophical scope.

St. Servan, France, 10th May, 1900.     Yours faithfully, Glendower C. Ottley.
DIVINE TRUTH IS VISIBLE: A REPLY TO MR. CZERNY 1900

DIVINE TRUTH IS VISIBLE: A REPLY TO MR. CZERNY       ALFRED ACTON       1900

TO THE EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE:

     IN an article entitled "The Divine Truth is the Word," which appeared in the May issue of the "Life," Mr. Czerny appears to teach that the Divine Truth cannot be seen by angels or men, but that in descending it takes on media, and that these media alone are seen. Thus he says, "The Divine Truth...does not reveal itself to any finite being, not even to the angels of the highest heaven. What men and angels see is not the Divine Truth, but some medium through which the Divine Truth comes to them" (p. 226). And in summing up he says, "1. Divine Truth is the Word on all planes. 2. This Word surpasses all finite apprehension," - i. e. Divine Truth on all planes surpasses all finite apprehension. And yet in the same paper he says, "The Divine Truth or the Word descends from the Lord;" (p. 226); and, "The Divine Truth manifests itself" (p. 227).

     There is here an evident conflict; for if "what angels and men see is not the Divine Truth," how can it be said that the Divine Truth descends and manifests itself, i. e. makes itself seen. Moreover the question at once arises as to what it is that is seen by angels and men. If it is not Divine Truth, then it is human, and if it is human it ceases to be the Word, the presence of the Lord with His creatures. If this idea be logically followed out it will be seen to involve that the Lord as the Divine Truth is unapproachable - can never be seen by man, still less be immediately present with him; that He operates indeed with man by means of finite forms, but that nothing but the forms are seen by man. Mr. Czerny of course believes no such thing, and he would without doubt explain his words as meaning that the Divine Truth cannot be seen such as it is in itself; for he himself says that "the Divine Truth manifests itself." But what will be the effect on the devout Newchurchman who, when reading the Word in the belief that the Lord is therein immediately present with him, is told that all he sees is not the Divine Truth, that is, the Lord, but only some medium by which the Divine Truth descends; and that even should he ascend to the highest heaven, he would still see only a medium? Will it not, in his mind, tend to remove the Lord from the revealed Word, or at any rate, to produce confusion of thought so that he will know not how to think of the Word as the Lord's Presence?

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In the revealed Word the Lord is present on earth and in heaven, and it is of the most vital importance that there should be no obscurity on this point. It is the central truth on which the New Church is founded.

     When he shows that the Divine Truth such as it is in itself is above the comprehension of finite beings, Mr. Czerny has treated only one phase of his subject. And in emphasizing this without an equal emphasis of the other phase of the subject, namely that the Divine Truth has descended and revealed itself, there is the very real danger that the reader will lose sight of that great and central truth, that it is the Lord Himself who is revealed as the Word.

     I am not aware of any teaching in the Writings to the effect that "the Divine Truth does not reveal itself to any finite being," or that it cannot be seen by the finite. Wherever there is a suggestion of such a teaching, it will be found that the words "Divine Truth" are qualified either actually or by the context. What is taught is that the Divine Truth as it is with the Lord, or, as it is put in the passage referred to by Mr. Czerny, the Divine Truth immediately (i. e. without means) proceeding from the Lord, is above all finite comprehension. (A. C. 7270.) But there is a distinction between this and the Divine Truth Proceeding, which latter is ordinarily understood in the Writings by the Divine Truth, a distinction which is overlooked in the article under consideration. Both are the Divine Truth, but the one is the Divine Truth itself which is one with the Divine Love itself, the infinite and uncreate form of that Love; the other is the Divine Truth proceeding, and presented or set forth to view in and as forms which correspond to itself. The one is the Divine Truth as it is with the Lord, and which is the very inmost of the Word; the other is that same Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord and present with angels and men. But because it proceeds from God it is none the less the Divine Truth, the form of the Divine Love. That which proceeds does not thereby lose or change its quality. The Divine as it is in itself, or Jehovah, cannot be seen, but surely no one will deny that it was the Divine which was made manifest in our Lord Jesus Christ when he came on earth. The light of the sun, as it is in itself, whether in this world or in the other, is above the sight of finite beings, but the light which we see is nevertheless the light of the sun. So man's soul as it is in itself cannot be seen, even by the man himself, yet it is certainly the soul of man that is made manifest in the body.

     That which proceeds by media is merely extended, or Presented to sight on the plane of the medium. It does not become invisible by reason of the media or veilings, for in that case it cannot be said to proceed; but it appears or comes to view in the veilings. Thus we are taught that angels and men do not see the Divine Truth Itself but only the appearances of that Truth, by which is meant the Divine Truth appearing. Angels and men do not see the Divine Truth such as it is in itself, but they do see the Divine Truth appearing to them, and the appearance is a real appearance, and not a fictitious or vicarious one. It cannot be said that only the medium of the appearance is seen, for then it would be not the Divine Truth but only the medium that appears.

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And yet this is what is implied when it is said that "what angels and men see is not the Divine
Truth, but some medium through which the Divine Truth comes to them." Of what use is a medium except to set forth to view that which proceeds through it! If the medium alone is seen, how can it be said to be the medium of something else? Nothing can be seen or apprehended by finite beings without a medium or vessel in which it may be contained, but that is not saying that it is only the medium or vessel that is seen. Far from it. Though the Divine appeared in a human body before the eyes of the disciples, it was not only the body that they saw, but in that body the Divine itself was revealed to them and spake to them the words of eternal life. The light of the sun can be seen by us only by medium of the ether, but it cannot be said that we see only the ether. We see the light of the sun shining through the ether. Through eyes adapted to the aura we should see that same light more clearly; through eyes adapted to the air, more obscurely. But in none of these cases can it be rightly said that what we see is not the light but only the medium by which the light inflows. And in heaven the light is the Divine Truth, and the atmospheres are the media by which that truth is accommodated to the angels. In its essence the Light of Heaven is the Divine Truth itself; seen by the angels, it is the Divine Truth proceeding. And so in the case of man; we see not only the body - the medium - but we see the soul in the body.

     The media by which the Divine Truth proceeds are said by Mr. Czerny to be finite forms. This is, of course, true when we regard them as they are in themselves. But it appears to me that Mr. Czerny, in his desire to show that these forms are not the Divine Truth itself, has omitted to sufficiently emphasize the truth that they are infilled with the Divine Truth itself, or to point out that they are the form of that Truth, in and as which that Truth is actually present with angels and men. It is true that he states "that they may be called Divine Truth," "because the Divine is in them," and that "the presence of the Divine in them gives them that appearance," but his paper as a whole tends to obscure this, since he apparently teaches that the Divine Truth is invisible and that only these finite media are seen by angels or men. Especially is this the case when he says that these media "are not the Word," but "simply coverings and vehicles of the Divine Truth, and nothing more." I am not disputing the truth of these statements, but unless further explained they will, I fear obscure the glorious truth now revealed to the New Church, that in and as the Word, the Lord appears in His own Divine Form.

     The Divine Truth proceeding takes from the mind of man various media - words, images, ideas, - on the plane in which it is to appear. In the Old Testament these media are the sensual ideas and images even to the very forms of letters, taken from the Jewish mind. In the New Testament they are the spiritual-natural ideas implanted in the minds of the disciples by our Lord Himself. And in the Writings they are the rational ideas stored up in the mind of Swedenborg. In all these cases the media thus taken for the setting forth of Divine Truth, existed before the revelation was written. They existed in human minds as merely human forms.

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But when revelation was effected by means of them these forms became arranged, even as to their least particulars, by the infilling Divine. They were as it were moulded so as to correspond universally and particularly with the Divine Truth itself; and thus they became the body, the face, the appearance of the Lord,, through which and in which, to those who would receive, the Divine itself shone forth. From being merely human forms of truth, they became Divine Forms; not Divine regarded in themselves, but Divine regarded as to that which is in them and infills them. This can be best illustrated by a reference to the human body. We call that body human and living, and yet, regarded in itself, it is dead, a mere congeries of natural substances. These substances, however, are moulded by the soul into perfect correspondence with itself, so that the human or the soul is in every least part of them. It would not be correct to say that we have a dead body, or a body that is not human. Regarded from its form, that is to say, from its formator the soul, the body is human and it is living. In like manner the form of the Word of God is the living body of the Divine Truth, a body which shall never die.

     All revelation is made in Divine Forms, forms perfectly corresponding to the Divine Truth revealed. So true is this, that there cannot be two different revelations on the same plane, any more than a man can have two bodies. When a revelation is made the whole of the Divine Truth is contained in it, and since this appears in a perfectly corresponding form, it has appeared in the one only form in which it can appear on that plane. There have been several revelations, as Mr. Czerny truly says, revelations of the same Divine Truth differing only as to form. But we must of course keep in mind, that difference in the form of revelation involves difference in the appearance of the Divine Truth. Thus though the Old Testament and the Writings are forms of the same inmost Divine Truth, the one is the appearance of that Truth such as it is with the sensual man, the other is its appearance such as it is in heaven.

     Following Mr. Czerny's example, I would sum up, thus:

     1. The Divine Truth itself, or the Word in the beginning, is above the comprehension of finite beings.

     2. This Divine Truth descended, and in Divinely accommodated forms became present, set forth to view, with angels and with men.

     3. These forms are also the Word, because they are infilled with the Divine and are the living Body of the Divine Truth.

     4. When these forms are separated from the Divine within them, then, with him who separates, they become merely human, and cease to be the Word of God.

     The whole subject becomes clear if we consider the doctrine that the Lord is the Divine Truth or Word, and that He, invisible in Himself, descended in order that He might become visible. It is He who is seen in the Word, and not merely some covering or veil. He is seen through the veil, and He is thus immediately present with men on earth and angels in heaven.     ALFRED ACTON.

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BISHOP PENDLETON ON "THE WRITINGS AS THE WORD." 1900

BISHOP PENDLETON ON "THE WRITINGS AS THE WORD."       THOMAS CHILD       1900

TO THE EDITOR OF NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     Dear Sir: In presuming to send you some comments on Bishop Pendleton's article in New Church Life for March, I am not unmindful of the fact that there is more to follow. I desire therefore strictly to limit myself to the consideration of what has been said.

     1. In the first place, the Bishop assumes throughout the point to be proved. If the Writings are the Word, and the Word as it is in heaven; and if we are to take the assertion for proof, then no matter how sweetly reasonable one may try to make the assumption, we have ended the question before enquiry has begun, and writing on the subject is useless except for believers. For this reason the Bishop's article has not helped me forward one step. But on the other hand, -

     2. The article contradicts itself. On the third page the Bishop lays down the law that "What is spiritual and Divine cannot appear on the plane of nature, or before the natural senses, Except in and by those things which represent and correspond."

     Now such a manner of appearing is, of course, true of the Word, but it is not, as the Bishop admits, true of the Writings. He says, "For the New Church the Word as it is in heaven descends into the world, but it no longer veils itself in representatives, in correspondences; it clothes itself in human language, indeed, but in the language of science and philosophy," etc. "And in this descent the Angelic Word lays itself bare, presents itself to be seen and heard by such men in the world as have eyes to see and ears to hear." Yet we are told that "what is spiritual and Divine cannot appear on the plane of nature except by those things which represent and correspond!" A conclusive proof this, I take it, and from the Bishop's own mouth, that the Writings are not the Word. Nay, we must even go further; for if things spiritual and Divine cannot appear except in correspondences, it follows according to the Bishop, that the Writings, which do not so appear, are neither spiritual nor Divine! Nor will it do to say that the Bishop intends a distinction between appearing "on the plane of nature" and "before men;" or the like: the wording excludes any such interpretation, for it explicitly tells us that "what is Divine cannot appear before the senses" of men except by correspondence, yet that "the Word as it is in heaven" (surely "what is spiritual and Divine!"), "presents itself to be seen and heard by those who have eyes to see and ears to hear; - appears, in short, as the Writings in the world, where we were told it could not appear at all except by correspondences. No, the Bishop was simply aiming at something else for the moment, and did not observe the other edge of the tool with which he was working, and the damage it might do.

     3. The principle on which the Bishop bases his assumption, that the Writings are the Word, is as follows: - "It is a spiritual law that what is from a thing is that thing itself;" meaning by "from" what is "continuously and immediately from," and not what is "contiguously and mediately."

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"It is under this law," he says, "that the Writings are the Lord, and so are the Word."

     Passing by the accuracy of the statement of the law, for the moment, we here ask the Bishop for his proof that the Writings come under it, and are answered by two points: first, "That they are a revelation given immediately from the Lord, and not through the media of correspondences and representatives." These are to me surprising statements, and Heaven and Hell, No. 1, to which he refers us, bears out neither. Accuracy ought to reign supreme in the teaching of such a doctrine as the writer unfolds, but I do not find it so.

     (a). Heaven and Hell No. 1 does not contain the phrase "revelation immediately from the Lord," nor do the Writings anywhere, so far as I know.

     (b). The phrase which occurs in Heaven and Hell No. 1, is, "Such an immediate revelation appears today. And the reference of this immediate revelation? Not at all to any "revelation immediately from the Lord," but to the results of the direct open vision of the Seer, Swedenborg, into the spiritual world, and the immediate revelation thence of the things seen and heard by him. And the context! That shows that it was because the Lord was at that time opening the internal sense of the Word that such immediate open vision was possible; that is, this "immediate revelation" was made precisely through "the media of the correspondences and representatives" of the Word, which the Bishop so flatly declares were not used as media. The whole tenour of the Writings, moreover, and Swedenborg's specific statement that it was while he was reading the Word that he was enlightened, show us the same fact. Not only, therefore, is this "immediately from the Lord" a phrase fabricated for a clear purpose and to convey an unjustifiable meaning from Heaven and Hell No. 1, but the "immediate revelation" was conveyed directly from the facts to Swedenborg's own eyes and ears (under the guidance of the Lord, of course), and given through the Word and the media of correspondences and representatives, without which what he saw would have been unintelligible to him.

     Thus the Writings are not the "immediate revelation" here spoken of; and while they are a revelation, they are such directly from the facts - of the Word and of the spiritual world - and only mediately from the Lord through them, and therefore not "continuous" from Him. In short, there is no such position in the Writings as that they were produced from the Lord directly, alone, and independently of media, even the noted Coronis passage using the guarding, defining phrase, "from the Word and inspiration; and to assert them as given "not through the media of correspondences and representatives," is, to me a declaration manifestly contrary to the fact. Of course, their form was not that of representatives, etc., merely because they were not the Word; but the subject of form is beside the question at issue.

     But the second supposed proof is even worse than the first. It is that "the doctrinals of the New Church are truths continuous from the Lord (T. C. 508)." If Heaven and Hell No. I does not contain the accredited "immediately from the Lord," what shall we say of this "continuous from the Lord" as upheld by True Christian Religion No. 508? I do not think that strong words would be out of place in reference to such garbling of the Writings; but I come to the point, and pass comment by.

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     No such idea as the Bishop would here insinuate exists in T. C. R. 508, though that is the passage he means. He would have us, under the head of his "spiritual law," believe (as it was necessary to his point we should) that the Writings are "continuous from the Lord," and therefore are "the Lord and the Word." Again I pass by the, to me, blasphemous utterance that the Writings are the Lord, and come to the supposed proof of their continuity from Him. Does, then, this passage say that the Writings are "continuous from the Lord?" That is what it should say to be of any use to the position, but it does not say so, nor anything like it; observe how the Bishop evades that conclusion. What he now affirms instead, is, "that the doctrinals of the Church are truths continuous from the Lord." But is even this statement contained in the passage' It is not. What the passage asserts is the very different idea (which any one could at once receive) that the doctrinals of the Church "are continuous truths" - truths linked together in a chain - not continuous from the Lord - "revealed by the Lord THROUGH the Word!"

     After this what is to be said? Here is our position affirmed by the Bishop's own quotation; but what about the morale of such treatment of the truth! One can imagine a plea, bad as it is, for that "immediately from the Lord;" but what plea could justify this deliberate perversion of a positive statement? The doctrinals of the Church are not said to be "continuous from the Lord," but "continuous truths revealed by the Lord;" was the Bishop ignorant of the difference? I only wish it could be thought.

     Putting together, then, the true ideas of the supposed proof of the continuity of the Writings from the Lord, we reach the conclusion that an immediate revelation of heaven and hell and the life after death, is now made (for that is the meaning of H. H. 1, which I regret to say the Bishop perverts into meaning the Writings as immediately from the Lord), and that the doctrines of the Church are continuous truths revealed by the Lord through the Word - a position which I gladly accept, but something very different from what the Bishop professes to find in the passages quoted - the continuity of the Writings from the Lord.

     Let us now take up the question of the principle upon which the idea of the Writings as the Word is justified: that what is from a thing is that thing itself. I suppose that the efflux from the minds of spirits and angels in the other life would be accepted as an instance of "what is from a thing continuously and immediately." The question then arises, "Is that efflux, by which the details of scenic representations in the other life are produced, the same thing as the mind from which that efflux emanates. To say that the efflux, though mental, is the mind, is surely absurd; yet that case seems to satisfy the requirements of the Bishop's definition. I think that he will have to revise the statement of his principle, for, as it stands it is simply not true. I would suggest to him that the truer statement would run that what is from a thing continuously and immediately is of a like essential substance and nature with that from which it comes.

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     But when did the Writings, whether as printed matter or as rational ideas, become of like substance and nature of substance with the Lord? When and where, or how! It seems to me that the less said about such an outrage upon reason and Divine Truth, the better.

     4. The Bishop admits "that the Writings are not the Word in its entirety and fulness;" but his minimizing the difficulty, though acute, is hardly wise: people will not be so put off. For why should not one reasonably say, How can the Writings be the Word if they are not the Word? And certainly if they are not all the Word that question is not without reason. Either they are the Word or they are not. To be the Word in any real sense, they must be the whole Word, or we juggle with terms: to say that something may be Something else yet not be the whole of that thing - that the Writings may be the Lord and yet not the Lord in His entirety, - that a chapter of a book is the book, - that a sentence from a language is that language, - that a part of a man is the man, - that every revelation is the Word - is to ensure the balance of reason on the side of those who repudiate such quibbling. It is true that if we saw a man's foot protruding through an opening we might say "There is a man coming;" but that is not because we could or do call the foot the man, but because we know or believe that a man in his entirety is there; and the foot is not the man any more than the Writings are the Word, even if the whole Word were behind them: as it is the man alone that is the man so it is the Word alone that is the Word, and no part of either can ever stand for the whole, except in appearance, and only then so far as that whole is there, though not in them; thus, as I said, as the foot is not the man, so neither are the Writings the Word, even if the whole Word were behind and involved in them, much less if the Writings be only an exposition of the Word. The Bishop ought to be above using terms in a non-natural sense.

     Yet the real source of this felt need for playing with counters, lies deeper, - it lies in a confusion of two things that are perfectly distinct, viz., truth, and the Word. Truth is not the Word, though the Word is or involves every Divine truth. If, in preaching I utter truths, should I be entitled to call those truths the Word? From the Word, or in exposition of it, certainly; but the Word? No. Thus it is not either truth in special, or in a generalized sense, nor any number of truths (even a whole series of true Writings) that constitute the Word; but the Word is "all Divine truth," as the Writings themselves declare. To introduce a system of nomenclature such as the Bishop here allows himself, would be to end all distinctions, on which thinking rests, in limitless confusion.

     5. We come now to the "remarkable paradox" which the Bishop finds in the Church, - "that the Writings are a revelation from the Lord, but that they are not the Word; as if," says he, "there could be a revelation from the Lord that is not His Word!" Here is the confusion that was incipient, now become full blown. "If it [revelation] is not the Word," he adds, "it is not Divine Truth." There you have it - the true remarkable paradox, which the Bishop might have found at home. I should have said that the answer here, like the position of those who are credited with the "remarkable paradox," was very simple, viz., that a revelation from the Lord need not be all of His Word, but only, and inevitably a revelation from it - a portion of it revealed for a specific purpose.

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"Then," says the Bishop, "if this revelation is not the Word it is not Divine Truth!" "O yes, my dear fellow," I answer (if such terms be not irreverent, though not so intended), "try to keep a clear mind: the revelation is certainly Divine Truth, because it is part of it; but what you mean, or logically should mean, is just the reverse of what you say, viz., not that if it be not the Word it is not Divine Truth, but if it is not Divine Truth it is not, - i. e., no part or exposition of - the Word; and therein, had you said it, we should have been agreed; but please to keep the horse before the cart, or, in other words, not to invert your thinking from its right side up. The greater, you will agree, includes the less: now it is the Word that is the universal here, of which Divine truths are the constituents or particulars, and therefore, though it might be perfectly true that if a statement is not a Divine truth it is certainly no part of the Word, it is equally true that the statement need not be the Word per se, and yet be Divine truth, or a particular or exposition of that universal Word which 'all truth' is. Your trouble lies in reasoning as if in matters revealed Divine Truth were the greater and the Word the less; think it over; and I leave you to your reflections."

     6. The last point to which I come is one I regret to have to make, but there is no help for it; and after the Bishop's abuse of passages, especially of one, for the assistance of his position, I have the less hesitation. The point is that he seems to me deliberately to underestimate the Word in order to exalt the Writings. He minimizes the Word by denying to it the full embodiment of the Lord, making it a mere series of local Words to separate peoples, to be yet supplemented from Tartary, and backing up his denial by the passage from John about the world not containing the books that might be written. To me, at least, the Word is nothing if not the perfect and absolute correspondential embodiment of the Lord, of whose inner value and meaning as such the Writings are but the faintest indication. But undue exaltation of their own specialty is always the voice of a sect.

     To conclude. The paper here criticised has, to me, the inevitable marks of the mind that tries to generalize opposites into a consistent whole, and while fence-riding, to harmonize irreconcilable parties and divergent opinions. It is subtle, even in its assumed quietude and endeavor to forestall objections by admitting them. For this reason it is truly dangerous because, as I see it, treacherous to the truth. The worst feature of all is the form this last assumes in the perversion of passages to eke out ideas - a proceeding seemingly irreconcilable with other than deliberate intent. It may be that I am all wrong somehow, and in some - at present-unthinkable way. If so, I humbly request to be set right - if it be possible. At least, I am loyal to the Word, to the Writings, and to reasoned perceptions of truth: such an one should not be quite hopeless or irreclaimable from error. Which of us, then, the Bishop or I, has his head upper most, standing firmly on his feet!
     THOMAS CHILD.

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BISHOP PENDLETON ON "THE WRITINGS AS THE WORD." REPLY 1900

BISHOP PENDLETON ON "THE WRITINGS AS THE WORD." REPLY              1900

     THERE seems to be in the foregoing communication a two-fold purpose. First, to cast reproach upon the truth that the Writings are the Lord in His Second Coming; second, to impugn the honesty of the writer of the article in the March Life, and bring him into discredit as a teacher of theology, and thereby throw discredit upon the truth of which he is a representative. The latter expedient is one not uncommon in the political and civic arena, but it is out of place in the New Church. Even where the honesty and integrity of a teacher of truth is not to be trusted, the method that would make use of this to bring the truth itself into disrepute, is certainly not to be commended; for the truth is true whatever may be the frailty of the exponent, and will stand long after the exponent and the assailant have passed away from the memory of man.

     Some apology is due for giving a place in the columns of the Life to an article of this character, but it is printed in the interest of free speech, and in order that the readers of the Life may see the manner and method of argument used against the most vital and fundamental of all the truths of the Church.

     Let it be remarked further that this answer is not written with any hope of convincing those who, like the author of the communication, have assumed a negative attitude. The truth is not fob those who deny, but for those who are ready to affirm, and who may be as yet in doubt; it is for those who do not know, but who are willing to learn. With those who deny that the Writings are the Lord in His Second Coming, and proceed to confirm themselves in such denial, there can be no common point or ground of meeting from which to view the truth; and to attempt to argue or reason with them is like casting water upon the sand, or feathers against a wall.

      The truth is for those who are affirmative, who are in the affirmation that has its ground in charity; but in the article under consideration, we are able to see neither affirmation nor charity. We can only hope that there is in the writer himself what does not appear in his article. He indeed requests "to be set right," but he adds the significant words "if it be possible." We would say that it does not appear to be possible, - at any rate, under existing conditions. A change of state must come, and come by something that is very much like repentance; for with one who is not "quite hopeless or irreclaimable from error," and who is "loyal to the Word, the Writings, and to reasoned perceptions of truth," surely it is to be expected that a grievous repentance will sometime follow, where the declaration that the Writings are the Lord, can be characterized as "blasphemy."

     But let us proceed to the matter. In section 1 of the communication, the complaint is made, that the truth that the Writings are the Word is not treated as a debatable question, and the writer seems very much to desire that it be so treated. We are not surprised that he should so desire, for this would be to bring the question into doubt; and with this most essential truth in doubt there would be great rejoicing, but not in heaven.

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It would appear that the writer of the communication wishes us to admit his own doubt, preparatory to accepting his own negation.

     It is not treated as a debatable question because it is the truth, and the truth is not a subject of debate, but of instruction. We are therefore quite disposed to agree with the author of the article that "writing on the subject is useless, except for believers," though we would include in the scope of the word "believers," those who are in a state of ignorance, or of doubt that is affirmative. With the ignorance or doubt that is negative we have nothing to do.

     The truth that the Writings are the Word is not "assumed." but taught and proclaimed because it is true, and seen to be true. It shines in the Writings on every page.

     In section 2 there is an effort to establish a contradiction in our first article, on the subject under consideration. We are inclined to take it for granted that what was said was not misunderstood by the readers of the Life; but in view of the possibility of such misunderstanding, we shall endeavor to place the subject in clearer light.

     The Lord in His first Coming appeared upon the plane of nature. He appeared as a Man before the eves of men in the world. His first Coming was also His Coming as the Word (John i, 1-14). Viewed in the abstract, the Word in the literal sense is the first Coming of the Lord, and the literal sense is made up of things in and from the sphere of nature, which correspond and represent. The Lord's first Coming, then, is in the sphere of nature; but not so His second Coming. The second Coming is to the spiritual sight of man. To read the letter of the Word is to see the Lord in His first Coming, establishing a natural historical faith, a faith that has its basis largely in miracles which impress the senses, by a revelation of the Divine Power in the sphere of nature. But to read the Writings is to see the Lord in His second Coming, that is, to read them with spiritual sight or insight; it is to see the Lord, not on the plane of nature, not with the sensual sight. But with the rational or spiritual sight. What is spiritual and Divine cannot appear in nature except by a clothing from nature, or by those things which correspond, but they can appear to men of spiritual discernment, whose thought is elevated above time and space. Man while in the world is indeed on the plane of nature, but his thought can be elevated above that plane into heavenly light, and see spiritual and Divine truth. It is only by such elevation of the thought that the spiritual truth of the Writings is seen, and the Lord is seen in them. Those who cannot see the Lord Himself in them, - their thought is still in nature, under the influence of time and space; they think in the letter and from the letter, not in the spirit from the spirit. The Divine Truth of the Writings does not appear before the senses of men, and they who are capable of seeing only what is manifest to the senses, when they read the Writings neither see the Lord nor anything spiritual in them. Such blindness is indeed to be lamented, but no human power can remove it.

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     In section 3 the writer of the communication, denies that the Writings are the "immediate revelation" spoken of in Heaven and Hell No. 1; but says that "immediate open vision" is what is meant, - "the open vision of the Seer, Swedenborg, into the spiritual world, and the 'immediate revelation' thence of the things seen and heard by him." Sow since it is said in the same sentence (in H. H. 1) where immediate revelation is spoken of, that "this [immediate revelation] is what is meant by the Coming of the Lord," we should infer that the writer regards the thing; seen and heard by Swedenborg in open vision, and described by him, as the Coming of the Lord: and since the Coming of the Lord is the same thing as the Lord Himself Coming, one might therefore infer that the writer holds that at least a part of the Writings are the Coming of the Lord, or the Lord in His Coming one might even infer that he believes that all the Writings are the Lord in His Coming, since he would have it appear that the things seen and heard by Swedenborg in the spiritual world are the only things that have been revealed. According to him, the revelation of the internal sense of the Word was something separate and independent of the work of Swedenborg, for it was from the fact that "the Lord was at that the opening the internal sense of the Word, that such immediate open vision was possible." The revelation of the internal sense of the Word was therefore no part of the mission of Swedenborg; the Lord Himself was doing it, which made open vision possible, and the "immediate revelation....is what is meant by the Coming of the Lord;" and one might at once begin to have a hope that the writer after all does really believe that the Writings are the Lord, but such a hope vanishes when the rest of his article is read.

     Let us now see what is really taught in Heaven and Hell No. 1. The teaching in the number that bears directly upon the subject is as follows:

     "By the Coming of the Lord in the clouds of heaven, with power and glory, is signified His presence in the Word, and revelation; by clouds is signified the sense of the letter of the Word: and by the glory, the internal sense of the Word; by angels with a trumpet and a great voice, is signified heaven whence is Divine Truth. Hence it may appear, that by those words of the Lord is meant, that in the and of the Church, when there is no longer love, and hence no faith, the Lord is to open the Word as to its internal sense and to reveal the arcana of heaven. The arcana which are revealed in what now follows, are concerning heaven and hell, and at the same time, the life of man after death."

     Then, after speaking of the ignorance and denial which exist at the present day, and lest such denial should infest and corrupt all, he adds, "It has been given me to be together with angels, and to speak with them as man with man, and also to see the things which are in the heavens, and in the hells, and this during thirteen years; and now to describe them from things seen and heard, hoping that thus ignorance may be enlightened and incredulity dissipated. That at this day such immediate revelation exists, is because this is what is meant by the Coming of the Lord."

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     The number therefore substantially teaches that, the Second Coming of the Lord is, in general, His presence in the Word and revelation; that the presence and revelation is both in the literal sense and in the internal sense; that the Divine truth revealed is from heaven; that the Lord Himself opens the Word as to its internal sense and reveals the arcana of heaven; that those arcana are concerning heaven and hell, and the life after death, and are revealed in the work which follows, namely, Heaven and Hell; that the arcana of heaven are the things heard and seen and there described; and finally, that this presence of the Lord in the Word and revelation of Divine Truth from heaven, - this opening of the internal sense of the Word and revelation of the arcana of heaven, - all these together, are called an immediate revelation, and are what are meant by the Coming of the Lord.

     In short, two things, - together with a third, mentioned elsewhere in the Writings, - constitute the Coming of the Lord, namely, the revelation of the internal sense of the Word, the revelation of the arcana of heaven, and the revelation of the genuine doctrine of truth. These three things being
interiorly one thing, are the Lord in His Coming, and constitute what we call the Writings. We do therefore declare that the Writings are the Lord, and into this declaration we shall not admit a doubt as to its truth, by treating it as a thing to be "proved."

     And now about the continuity of this revelation, under the teaching that what is continuous from the Lord is the Lord. Those who wish to pursue this subject will find the teaching, that what proceeds from the Lord is the Lord, in the following numbers: Arcana Coelestia, n. 7200, 8864, 9405, 9407, 9503, 9682; Doctrine of the Lord 2; Apocalypse Explained, n. 25, 941; and the distinction between proceeding and creating is set forth in Divine Providence, n. 219. The latter point is an important one in this connection. What our critic says on this subject is unworthy of further notice; we merely call attention to the fact that he is denying a plain teaching of the Writings.

     The writer finds grievous fault with the use made of the teaching in True Christian Religion, n. 508. He wishes the number to say in so many words that the Writings are continuous from the Lord. He is not satisfied with the statement that "the doctrinals of the New Church are truths continuous from the Lord." It would be natural to conclude that one who is fond of "logic" would be able to detect a syllogism here, since the Writings are usually supposed to be "the doctrinals of the New Church," and might at least be allowed to take their place as a minor premise. If the Writings are not the doctrinals of the New Church which are truths continuous from the Lord, we shall probably have to depend upon New Church preachers to dig these doctrinals out of the letter of the Word, with the aid of a few hints about correspondence thrown out by that great Spiritist, Emanuel Swedenborg, in his "results of direct open vision." Heaven have mercy!

     Our critic is also displeased with the translation of the passage. The translators of the True Christian Religion, have rendered the phrase in question variously. One translation has "truths continuous from the Lord;" another, "continuous truths from the Lord;" and others, "a chain of truths from the Lord."

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The word "chain" does not occur in the original, and can scarcely be considered a translation of continuos, but rather a, interpretation by the translator, which we shall not here find fault with. The translation "truths continuous" was adopted because it brings out more fully the meaning; but we cannot seriously object to "continuous truths" since it is literal, and means the same thing. Continuous truths from the Lord are truths that are continuous from Him, and no "juggling with terms" can make it otherwise; no more than any juggling with truths can persuade the rational mind that the Writings are not truths proceeding continuously from the Lord.

     When a man reads the Writings, and from a spirit of affirmation is elevated into their spiritual light, he is receiving revelation, not through the media of correspondences and representatives in the letter of the Word, but he is lifted above the letter into the spirit of truth, into the heavenly light in which the angels are; and he is then receiving truths which are continuous from the Lord; truths which are continuous with each other; truths which are to him an immediate revelation; truths which are the Coming of the Lord and are the Lord Himself; and he realizes that the Lord in the Writings speaks as never man spake.

     It will be seen from the article, on this subject, in the April Life, that the letter of the Word, with its correspondences and representatives, is, by reaction, the universal ultimate medium of all revelation, even to all in all earths in both worlds; and it is also for all on this earth a medium of introduction to the internal sense, without which there is no entrance into that sense; but when man is elevated into the heavenly light of the internal sense, the letter is no longer a medium with him - except most universally as said above, - but the internal sense is then its own medium, or the truths of that sense.

     The letter of the Word was also the medium by which Swedenborg was introduced to the internal sense, but when he entered into the internal sense he did not look back to the letter and write from the letter, but he looked up to the Lord, and wrote from Him, because he was now nearer to Him, even in the sphere of the celestial heaven itself, in which sphere only he could receive immediate revelation. In this sphere the literal sense disappears, and the angels know nothing of it. But Swedenborg, being still in the world as to the body, could descend into the literal sense and use it for the sake of confirmation. He did not otherwise descend, however, into the sphere of the literal sense, when he was giving expression to the truths of the internal sense; he did not use the language of correspondence and representation, but taught spiritual truths in a rational manner. Hence it was said in the March Life, that the Writings are given "not mediately by correspondences and representatives, as in previous revelations, but immediately to the rational mind or understanding of man, without the veilings of the letter." There is no necessity for misunderstanding this.

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     It is clear, therefore, what is meant by the teaching, "That the Second Advent of the Lord is effected by means of a man, before whom the Lord has manifested Himself in Person, and Whom He has filled with His Spirit, to teach the doctrines of the New Church, through the Word from Him." (T. C. R. 779.) And also in the same number, "I have not received anything which pertains to the doctrine of that Church from any angel; but from the Lord alone while I read the Word."

     Our assailant speaks in section 4 about what he calls an admission "that the Writings are not the Word in its entirety and fulness," - and shows a kind of misunderstanding that one hesitates to characterize as it deserves. This we shall leave the reader to do for himself according to his own genius and manner of expression.

     In regard to the imaginary distinction between truth and the Word, we have this to say: - Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord is what is called the Word. In the literal sense this Divine Truth is clothed and covered in representative type and figure; but in the Writings it is laid bare or uncovered, and thus applies itself to the human understanding that is affirmative and receptive. The Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, that is clothed and covered in the letter, is the same Divine Truth that is uncovered and laid bare in the Writings, and this Divine Truth is the Word which is from God and is God.

     There is not a truth of the Word, that may not be called the Word; for interiorly viewed, every truth is infinite, and thus involves the whole infinity of truth. The appearance of limitation is with the man who sees the truth, but is not in the truth itself. In other words, the Lord Himself is in every truth of His Word, and thus each truth is the Lord Himself appearing as the Word. Will a man rise up and dare to say, that when a truth from the Lord appears to any one in its own spiritual and Divine light, that such a truth is not then and there the very Word of God, proceeding out of the mouth of God Himself?

     This is even true of what is taught by a minister of the Church with this important qualification, namely, that the teaching of the priest is not immediately from God, but mediately from Him, that is, through angels and spirits. There exists with the priest, therefore, the liability to error, for he may speak from false or hypocritical spirits; but there is no liability to error in immediate revelation.

     The difficulty with this whole adverse or negative position is, that it starts from the false premise that the Word, in order to be the Word, must be in the form of correspondences and representatives; when the truth is, the Word is not the Word until these correspondences and representatives are removed and disappear. This is taught throughout the Writings, and is involved in the very meaning and use of the words, correspondence and representation. It is not the thing which corresponds, or the thing which represents, that is the Word; but that to which it corresponds, and that which is represented; and that thing is the Divine Word or Divine Truth in heaven, from which the Writings are derived continuously to men who are spiritually receptive. "For the letter killeth but the spirit giveth life."

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     We might go on to speak of a number of things criticizable in the article before us; as for instance where the writer speaks of "a part of Divine Truth," a phrase that could have its rise only in a thought that is a thought from time and space; a thought that does not know what the Divine Truth really is. But let us pause for awhile. W. F. P.
REV. JOHN WORCESTER 1900

REV. JOHN WORCESTER              1900

     THE New Church Messenger for May 2d publishes a portrait and sketch of the Rev. John Worcester, whose passing away on May 2d was mentioned in our May number.* To this sketch we are indebted for the following details:
     (April 30th was erroneously given as the date of death.)

     Mr. Worcester was born in Boston, 1834, his father being the Rev. Thomas Worcester, for fifty years minister to the Boston Society. He finished his education in the Lawrence Scientific School, now part of Harvard University, giving especial attention to physiology and related subjects. There being no theological school in those days his studies were guided by his father, and in Hebrew he was his own teacher. He has always been an industrious reader, and found recreation in solid works of science and history. The country and nature have always had a charm for him, and for years the White Mountains became his regular summer home.

     On June, in 1857. Mr. Worcester was married, his wife's maiden name being Elizabeth C. Pomeroy, and of their four children two are living.

     In 1857 began also his work as minister to the society in Newtonville, which he continued to serve until the last.

     He was among the first to undertake the systematic study of correspondences, and some of his studies in this line have been printed in the little volumes on Correspondences of the Bible; Animals and Plants, and on Physiological Correspondences. A book of lessons from the Psalms was published earlier. Other books have been; a small volume of Lectures on the Doctrines of the New Church, one of Letters from Palestine, a course of Lectures on Genesis and Exodus, and a study of Matthew's Gospel. A similar work on Luke's Gospel was also undertaken. Mr. Worcester has contributed much time to the translation of the Writings, for the Rotch editions.

     At one time Mr. Worcester had charge of the New Church School in Waltham, and for many years he was connected with the New-Church Theological School, as instructor in the spiritual interpretation of the Scriptures, and in Theology, and from 1881 to 1894 he was President of the School.

     In 1891 the choice of the Massachusetts Association fell upon him for General Pastor, and has remained there until his recent retirement, the Rev. James Reed being his successor.

     In 1884 he was elected Vice President of the General Convention, succeeding the Rev. Chauncey Giles as President, in 1894. He was considered an exceptionally able presiding officer.

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     Mr. Worcester occupied a theological position differing from that of the General Church of the New Jerusalem on many points, but there can be no question that for the greater part of his ministerial life he was the leader of the Church in Convention, and one of the most striking and best loved personalities in the ranks of the New Church. It is too soon to attempt, from our standpoint, an estimate of his character and work.
INTERLUDE 1900

INTERLUDE       LILLIAN WHITING       1900

Each day is so full of you, darling,
That I cannot realize
You are gone from this world of turmoil
To the peace of paradise.
For, ever, from morn till the nightfall,
Some hint of your presence I know -
Some gleam of a vanishing vision
Half caught in the sunset glow.

Each day is so full of you, darling,
That I call this a blessed time -
An interlude, full of its sweetness,
Illumined by many a sign
That those who have passed through death's portals
Are still very near to us here -
That spirit to spirit responsive
Makes all the great meanings grow clear.
Each day is so full of you, darling,
That I walk in a blissful surprise,
Finding thus every thought so companioned;
And my prayers for high purposes rise
To plead for divine benediction -
For energy, courage and power,
To live the high life of the spirit,
To stamp with fulfilment each hour.
Each day is so full of you, darling,
That I cannot know grief or regret

In this interlude - full of its beauty,
Its promise, its solace, - and yet,
Ah, love, my supreme consolation
Is a dream that will some day come true,
That lends all its cheer to the present -
The dream of reunion with you.
          LILLIAN WHITING, in Munsey's Magazine.

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Literary Notes 1900

Literary Notes              1900

     IN reply to inquiries it is proper to state that the Rev. Emil Cronlund is not the author of the article signed "E. C." in the May Life.

     THE sentence which in the May Life, on page 231, was left unfinished by reason of a line failing to print, should read: "Yet that they should give up the thought of a Jewish kingdom was for them a great advance."

     [This has been corrected in the electronic text.]

     ATTENTION has been called to two typographical errors in the New York edition of the Arcana Coelestia which readers may care to note. In No. 7601, page 464, six lines from the bottom, "infests" should be "invests." And in No. 9709, third line, page 422, "internal life" should be, "eternal life."

     NEW CHURCH PUBLICATIONS IN 1899.

     "The literature of the Church has received the following additions during the year [1899]: The Suns and Worlds of the Universe. Outlines of Astronomy according to the Philosophy of Emanuel Swedenborg. By Rev. J. E. Bowers; The Light that is Darkness. A Novel. By George Trobridge; Songs of the New Age. By H. D.; Episodes in the Life of an Isolated Receiver. Letters addressed to a New Church family in England. By Mile. Kaffery; Isis and Osiris in the Book of Respirations. By Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson; God Winning Us. By Rev. C. Lathbury; Swedenborg and Modern Thought. By George Trobridge; The Bible: Is it the Word of God The Bennett Lectures for 1898; and Swedenborg on Tremulation: Translated by Rev. C. T. Odhner." - Morning Light.

     The Pathfinder. (April 28th.) Religions Philadelphia. "A religious census of the people of Philadelphia has been conducted by the people of that city representatives of which co-operated in a systematic house-to-house canvass. The object being announced in the daily papers, the enumerators were generally received with courtesy and only one house out of every 72 refused to give the information desired. Out of about 240,999 reports of families averaging four, all but 19,332 are reported as associated by preference with some evangelical Christian body, Catholic or Protestant. In only 22 cases were families reported as atheists or agnostics. The census was interesting as showing at least one instance in which Catholics and Protestants freely co-operated."

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     "THE SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS."

     THE question has been asked, what is the historical origin or basis of the striking but unusual image which is presented in the sublime passage in Malachi, "Unto you that fear My name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, with healing in His wings." While we cannot reply, dogmatically, we think the answer is contained in the well-known representation of Asshur, the national deity of the ancient Assyrians, as here reproduced.

     [Symbol: a man holding a bow superimposed on a circular emblem with feathers coming out to the sides.]

     Similar representations in Egypt, Babylonia, and elsewhere, tend to show that it was common in the Ancient Church to represent the Divine by a human figure within a winged circle. In the image reproduced above, the flamy rays surrounding the Man indicate the sun of the spiritual world, within which the Divine Human appears. The bow which He holds in the hand suggests the Doctrine, that is, the Word immediately proceeding from the Lord. The horned cap represents the Divine Omnipotence. The outstretched wings bring to mind the universal sphere of heat and light, of love and wisdom, from the Spiritual Sun, and also the protection of the Divine Providence. It seems probable that this natural image existed in the mind of the prophet from the remains of Correspondences in the East, and was adopted as a vessel fit for the Divine purpose of Revelation.     C. T. O.

     IGNORANCE OF THE BIBLE.

     Professor Thwing's article in the May Century, on "Ignorance of the Bible," in which he cites evidence of remarkable benightedness among a class of young people of whom better things would be expected, strongly confirms the gloomy view many at the present day hold, that the Bible is being lost to the race. Despite the activity and output of Bible Societies, the Bible as the Word of God is being displaced by the Bible as a work of literature, a rule of moral conduct, (and one which many think needs "expurgation"); and it is the vaunt of "liberal" sects that the Book is being stripped of the halo that has surrounded it, and being made to stand the test of analysis and criticism, like "any other" product of human intelligence.

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But that day in which these exulters shall see their boast realized will witness the disintegration of the Christian churches. It is only so long as they subserve a use by preserving the "foundations" that the Christian Churches can retain their cohesiveness.

     The use which reverence for the letter of the Word performs in the implantation of remains, seems to be glimpsed in an editorial in The Evening Post, of New York, from which a correspondent quotes as follows:

     "Five years ago, in commenting on Professor Thwing's former inquiry, we pointed out that the most lamentable loss of the present generation is just the unreasoning, half-superstitious delight of the child in the wonderful stories and soaring imagery, which, 'trailing clouds of glory,' surround the book in the man's mind with a magical glamour. A study of it begun in maturity, no matter how sympathetic, can never send out such deep roots of affection and veneration. . . But the way to its treasures lies, like the way into the kingdom of God, not through any pride or satisfaction of the intellect, but through the simplicity and absorbed delight of the little child."
RECENT PUBLICATIONS 1900

RECENT PUBLICATIONS              1900

     PSALMODY FOR THE NEW CHURCH, Vol. ii. Publication of the "Academy Church-Music" has now been resumed, and the Academy Book Room has just issued fascicles 1, 2 and 3, pages 1 to 42, comprising Psalms Fifty-one to Fifty-five. The price is one cent a page, which is one-half what was charged before, but the present price does not include as before the promise of a bound copy at the completion of the work. Former subscribers will receive a circular giving more particulars. We hope soon to publish musical comments on these latest contributions from Mr. Whittington's gifted pen.

     BOOKS RECEIVED: Summaries of the internal Sense of the Prophetical Books, the Psalms of David and the Historical Parts of the Word; a posthumous work of Emanuel Swedenborg, Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ. [Translated by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck] New York. American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society. 1900. Pp. 168 (including indexes, etc., 311) Cloth, 75c, including postage.

     LATIN-ENGLISH EDITION Of the same, $1.00; postage, 20c.

     Phases of the Church Universal. By A. L. Kip. Knickerbocker Press. New York. pp 117.
DATE OF RAILROAD TICKETS: A CORRECTION 1900

DATE OF RAILROAD TICKETS: A CORRECTION              1900

     The first date on which tickets may be bought at the reduced rates obtaining during the Republican Convention in Philadelphia, is ON and not as previously stated, after June 15th.

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Church News 1900

Church News       Various       1900

THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.

     Huntingdon Valley. - (Bryn Athyn) Pa. The last report omitted to state that early in April Bishop Pendleton made a visit to the circles in Erie and Renovo, where he administered the Holy Supper, members from North Bend and Williamsport attending. The latter places also received social visits from him.

     On May 10th he left Bryn Athyn for a trip to Middleport and Greenford, his visit at the former being described in another column. At both centres his coming was greatly appreciated, and at both he administered the Holy Supper.

     THE various notes of preparation for the Assembly, which have been sounded from time to time, are fast gathering into the harmony of a rapid march. The choir is working overtime; the orchestra is tuning up; committees are meeting with great frequency, and their members wear an absorbed air which must make their business associates think they have got the base-ball or golf fever. What the ladies and milliners are doing in preparation for the big reception, is not given out for common mortals to know, but glimpses are caught of stuff whose shimmerings suggest to Principia Club members the tremulatory theory.

     ON May 6th a reception was given at Bishop Pendleton's to Miss Maud and Mr. Carl Semple, of Middleport.

     On May 11th Mr. Synnestvedt occupied the usual hour for doctrinal class with an interesting account of the Church centres visited during his recent trip in the west. He left here April 19th; attended his sister's wedding in Chicago, (April 28th), and on his return visited Middleport, O., where he preached on May 6th and performed the rite of baptism. He paid Pittsburg a flying visit, arriving home on May 8th.

     The past year has brought more visitors to the settlement than any previous, especially in the way of ministers. The latest of these was the Rev. James Hyde, Pastor of the Argyle Square Society, and compiler of the Swedenborg Society's projected Bibliography of Swedenborg's Works, and author of several New Church works. He spent from Tuesday, May 15th, till the evening of the following Friday, at Bryn Athyn, examining the contents of the Academy library. He was a guest at Cairnwood, where on Friday his wife joined him, and both attended the Friday evening Supper and Class: or rather the time of the Class was given up to hearing from Mr. Hyde, - at Pastor Synnestvedt's invitation, - an account of the Argyle Square Society, and the way it spends Sunday. Argyle Square's claim was emphasized to being the oldest New Church Society in the world, and it was stated that Rev. Manoah Sibley, and not James Hindmarsh, was its first minister. During the life of the Society, over a century, it has had only four ministers, in unbroken succession, but Mt. Hyde mentioned that the record of the Boston Society is in its way even more remarkable, having had only two ministers since its founding, - a period of nearly eighty years.

     The Argyle Square Society has morning and evening services, and Sunday-school twice a day, a Sunday-school Teachers' meeting, a five-o'clock Tea, and a Conversation Class, on doctrinal subjects, - a very full day. Mr. Hyde said, however, that he was apt to be in better trim at the end than at the beginning of the day.

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On the first Sunday in the month the Holy Supper is administered, morning and evening, to accommodate a larger number of members. The regular partaking of the sacrament is a condition requisite for membership. At the ordinary morning service the attendance is about 200. The Sunday-school attendance is over 100, being mostly of children from the neighborhood, most of the members living so far from the Church that their children attend other Sunday-schools. So the Sunday-school is a distinctly missionary use.

     Mrs. Hyde was welcomed as a dear friend of the late Mrs. Hibbard, and many regrets were expressed that the visitors' engagements necessitated their taking an early train; but they left with cordial invitations to make us soon another and longer visit.

     Principia Club. - The postponed monthly meeting of the Principia Club was held on the 28th of May, Vice President Synnestvedt in the chair.

     Mr. R. W. Brown lectured upon the Lesser Principia and its relation to the larger Principia, and showed the development of that theory, which seems to have begun from the idea that the particles of the elements must be round. This appears first in 1717 and was more fully developed in 1718, as may be seen from Part III of Miscellaneous Observations, printed that year.

     Mr. Brown pointed out the error made by Dr. Tafel in the Documents, where he states that the Lesser Principia gives the analytical deductions leading up to the synthetical reasoning of the greater Principia. The Lesser Principia also is written in synthetical style.

     Another error was made in the Documents: the Principles of Chemistry are said to refer to the Lesser Principia, but the references do not at all agree.

     Mr. Brown concluded by giving an outline of the differences between the theories of the two "Principias."

     Middleport, Ohio. - The Bishop arrived Saturday, May 12th. At the morning service he preached from Matt. xxiii:25, 26, on cleansing the inside of the cup and platter. In the afternoon he officiated at the rite of Confession of Faith for two young women, and administered the Holy Supper to about twenty-five persons. In the evening the society assembled at one of the homes. The Bishop expounded the internal sense of the last two verses in the Old Testament, teaching of the preparation which John made for "the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord, and of the effect of the Lord's baptism by John." During the following days the Bishop went about among the people, carrying to them the messages of the Church as the Church gave them to him in the graces and powers of the Episcopal office. At the farewell meeting on Wednesday evening he taught of the development of our body of the Church from its early days up to the present time. From that general subject to the discussion of certain phases of relationship and comparison between priest and layman, was an easy transition, which all recognized to be valuable and timely. The people, earnestly desire the Bishop to visit them annually and regret more and more that their return for these greater blessings of the Church must be so slight. R. H. K.

     Berlin. - In a former communication I omitted to mention an enjoyable social which was given to the school children by Mrs. Rudolf Roschman.

     Mr. and Mrs. Schierholtz recently entertained the Society at their home, and part of the program consisted of reproductions of songs, recitations, instrumental music, etc., by means of the Gramophone. Later, refreshments were provided and a very pleasant evening spent.

     The school celebrated the Queen's birthday as usual, with a holiday and a picnic in the School grounds. Races, fireworks, etc., were also natural accompaniments. The Society almost en masse, joined in the festivities and made the occasion a very pleasant one. The school will close on the 8th of June this year owing to the early meeting of the Assembly. E. J. S.

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LETTER FROM MR. BOWERS.

     West Virginia. - Missionary visits have recently been made in several places in this State on the Ohio river. On Sunday morning, May 6, a congregation of twenty-five listened attentively to a sermon in the school house, near Welcome post office, Marshall county. Two ladies were the only New Church persons present. On Monday evening, May 7, a service was held in the school house near the home of Mr. Quincy Cresap and family, in the same county but seven miles farther up the river and twenty miles below Wheeling. About sixty people came the largest attendance we ever had at that place. The rite of Confirmation was performed, which was something new to the people respecting the New Church. Miss Hannah O. Cresap, having been baptized into the name of the Lord in childhood, desired to be confirmed in the Faith, in order to take her stand in the community as a member of the New Church. She also applied for membership in "The General Church of the New Jerusalem."

     In the city of Wheeling, our venerable friend, Mortimer Pollock, Esq., and his wife, and two aunts of the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, were visited. Mr. Pollock, in his boyhood, for some time attended school taught by that zealous pioneer worker in the Church, the Rev. David Powell. And ever since my acquaintance with him, made more than twenty years ago, Mr. Pollock has shown evidences of early, thorough New Church teaching.

     On Tuesday evening, May 15, a meeting was held in a school house, near the home of Mr. James M. Cresap and family, in Brooke County, about nine miles up the river from Wheeling. Some twenty were present, 211 but two or three being young people; and I was told that very few were members of any of the sects. It was also remarked that the preaching was of an essentially different character, from that usually heard in that locality.

     On Sunday, May 13, the members and friends of the Church from Wheeling, and from Bellaire and Bridgeport. Ohio, met to the number of twelve at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. W. Yost, in Bellaire. A sermon was delivered, and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered. On Saturday, May 19, I had the pleasure to meet and visit with Bishop Pendleton, at the homes of our friends, the Renkenbergers, near Columbiana, O. The next day the Bishop preached a powerful sermon and administered the Holy Supper, at Greenford, O. JOHN E. BOWERS.

     Liverpool - The little circle in Liverpool which meets for worship in Fairfield had a new and most enjoyable experience on Thursday afternoon, April 26th. For the first time since they had left the Conference a marriage was celebrated in their midst.

     The civil ceremony had taken place in the morning, and shortly after 2 o'clock the ecclesiastical marriage took place. The bridegroom was Mr. William Cooley Jubb, of York, and the bride Miss Nellie Shaw, of Liverpool, daughter of Mr. Richard Shaw, (at whose house worship is held for the Liverpool circle every Sunday), and grand-daughter of the Rev. William Cull, who for some years was the Minister of the Liverpool Society of the New Church.

     The room in which the marriage took place was beautifully decorated with lovely flowers, red and white being the predominating colors, and roses and lilies the chief flowers.

     The Rev. R. J. Tilson officiated and the service was as follows: -

     Opening of the Word, followed by the Lord's Prayer, and a prayer written for the occasion.

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Sentences from the Philadelphia Liturgy, after which C. L. 71 (in part) and 72; and Psalms cxxvii, and cxxviii, were read.

     Then addressing the bridegroom and bride the Pastor said: -

     "Beloved, the Lord is with His New Church, as Its Divine Bridegroom and Head. He has revealed joys from Heaven concerning Conjugial Love, its orderly progression, and its ineffable delights. Rejoice, then, that He has promised in His latest Revelation of Truth, that, in the Church of the New Jerusalem, as the Crown of all Churches. 'Conjugial Love, as it was with the Ancients, will be raised up again by the Lord, after His Coming, because this love is from the Lord alone, and is with those who from Himself, by the Word, become Spiritual.'" (C. L 81.)

     To this the bridegroom and bride responded by reading in unison I Kings viii., 57 and 58.

     The question and replies provided for in the Liturgy pp. 168 and 169 were then asked and received.

     After the ring had been given and received the bridegroom presented the bride with a lovely necklet of pearls, upon the clasp of which was engraved the reference A. R. 916, and whilst the bridegroom put the necklet upon his bride, the Pastor read the words "Pearls....signify the knowledges of truth and good. The one pearl of great price is the acknowledgment and knowledge of the Lord." (A. R. 916.) The bridegroom also gave a massive bracelet of gold, with a pendant heart, to his bride, and upon the golden heart was engraved the reference C. L. 216. During the time the bracelet was being put on the Pastor read the words. "Those who are in love truly conjugial, in marriage regard what is eternal." (C. L. 216.)

     The bride then gave to the bridegroom a pair of golden sleeve-links, and whilst the present was being given the words were read, "Conjugial love in its essence is nothing else, than that two will to be one, that is. that they will that two lives become one life." (C. L 215.)

     The pair were now declared to be husband and wife, and the Lord's benediction was pronounced upon them.

     The congregation in unison then uttered the benediction "The Lord bless you."

     Hymn 273 in the Conference Hymn Book was then sung, and the general blessing given.

     At the close of the service, on behalf of the members of the Liverpool Circle and as a token of loving esteem, the Pastor presented Mrs. Jubb with a copy of "The Word" handsomely bound in morocco.

     A reception followed, during which heartfelt congratulations and fervent wishes were freely uttered, and about 4:30 Mr. and Mrs. Jubb left to spend part of their honeymoon in the ancient and picturesque city of Chester.

THE CHURCH AT LARGE.

     Massachusetts. - Funeral services for the Rev. John Worcester were held Saturday afternoon, (May 5th), from the chapel of the New Church in Newtonville. Prominent New Church clergymen attended from all over the State. Representatives were present from the Massachusetts Association, the Theological School, and other organizations. The Rev. James Reed, a lifelong friend of Mr. Worcester, whose father he succeeded as pastor of the Boston Society, conducted the simple services, delivering a touching address upon the life of the deceased. There was no singing; favorite selections of Mr. Worcester being played on the organ. Burial was in Mt. Peak Cemetery, Waltham.

     Michigan, - At one of the recent Wednesday evening suppers in the Detroit Society the Confirmation Class presented Pastor Schreck with an affectionate letter expressive of their appreciation for the instruction and care received, accompanying the letter with useful present. They are also preparing to commemorate their confirmation by planting a vine to train up against the church. The Wednesday classes have been reorganized, to admit of a "post-graduate" course for those who are confirmed, and also for the establishment of a new Confirmation Class. The number of Wednesday pupils is steadily growing.

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DATE OF RAILROAD TICKETS 1900

DATE OF RAILROAD TICKETS              1900

     The first date on which tickets may be purchased at reduced rates is, June 15th; ("after" was an error).
PROGRAM OF THE FOURTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 1900

PROGRAM OF THE FOURTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY       C. Th. ODHNER       1900

Tuesday, June 12, to Friday, June 15th: Meetings, Council of the Clergy.

Saturday, June 16.
10 A. M. Teachers' Institute Meets.

8 P. M. Public meeting of Teachers and Parents, to confer on Educational Subjects.

Sunday, June 17.
10:30 A. M. Worship of the General Assembly; sermon by Bishop Pendleton, on "Conjunction with the Lord." The offertory will be devoted to the uses of the Orphanage of the General Church.

Collation.

4 P. M. Administration of the Holy Supper.

Collation.

8 P. M. Sacred Concert.

Monday, June 18.
9 A. M. Meeting of the General Council.

12 M. Opening of the General Assembly; Annual address by the Bishop.

Collation.

Business Session; reading of reports, etc.

Collation.

8 P. M. Social reception.

Tuesday, June 19. Celebration of the "Nineteenth of June."

10:30 A. M. Religious services; sermon by Rev. E. C. Bostock.

Banquet; with short addresses from various speakers.

8 P. M. Lawn-party, at Cairnwood.

Wednesday, June 20.
10 A. M. Introductory services; sermon by Rev. E. S. Hyatt; followed by Business Session.

Collation.

Business Session.

Collation.

8 P. M. Meeting of men.

Thursday, June 21.

10 A. M. Introductory services; Sermon by Rev. F. E. Waelchli, followed by Business Session.

Collation.

Business Session; closing of the Assembly.

Collation.

C. Th. ODHNER, Secretary, Gen. Church, N. J.

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Title Unspecified 1900

Title Unspecified              1900


NEW CHURCH LIFE.

Vol. XX.
JULY-AUGUST, 1900     No. 7-8.
CONJUNCTION WITH THE LORD 1900

CONJUNCTION WITH THE LORD        PENDLETON       1900

     If ye abide in Me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you (John xv, 7).

     Lessons: John xv; Apocalypse Revealed, n. 951.

     THE Coming of the Lord into the world had for its end the conjunction of men with God and of God with men, through the Human which He took upon Himself and glorified. The Lord provided also by His coming, and by the glorification of His Human, the means to conjunction with Him, which are the truths of His Word; by these truths man may be introduced as to his spirit into heaven, there to dwell in the Lord and the Lord in Him forever; and in this state of dwelling in God, and God in him, which state is called heaven, man receives all that his heart desires; all that he asks is given, all that he seeks is granted unto him.

     Conjunction with God, which is reciprocal, is the subject of the fifteenth chapter of John; it is thus the subject of the seventh verse, with this in addition, that conjunction is by truths, and that in conjunction with God man has all that he wishes; and it therefore follows that he is happy to eternity, "if ye abide in Me, and my words abide in yes, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you."

     It is a constant teaching of the Heavenly Doctrine, that love is conjunction; or we may reverse the order, and say that conjunction is love, for the one is nothing without the other. A distinction can indeed be made in the thought between love and conjunction: still the one does not exist without the other; for love is to love another outside of one's self, which involves conjunction with him; and so love is conjunction, and without conjunction it is nothing, that is, cannot exist, or ceases to exist.

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Nor is conjunction anything without love, for it cannot be where love is not; where love is not there is hatred or aversion, and consequently disjunction. Love is conjunction, hatred is disjunction. In heaven love is the all in all; heaven therefore is conjunction with God. In hell hatred is the all in all; hell is therefore disjunction with God. There is no love in hell, and thus there is in hell no conjunction with God nor with the neighbor.

     Love going forth and returning, love given and reciprocated, love acting and reacting, is what is called conjunction. It is the activity of love exciting reception, reciprocity and reaction in another. Without this there is no bond to hold human society together, in the spiritual world or in the natural, except the bond of fear. Fear produces an appearance of union, an appearance of holding together; but it is not an eternal but a temporary bond, a bond that is sure to be broken at one time or another; for it is not a bond that reaches into the inmost of one's life, merely dwelling in the circumference.

     It is well known that all conjunction in nature is by the action and reaction of its forces. The forces of nature are in their origin fire, are the fire of the sun in successive degrees of descent and accommodation. The terrestrial fire which we see is manifestly the effect or result of conjunction; in fact it is the conjunction of an active and a reactive. Nor is there any conjunction in nature where cold reigns, as in winter; but when the cold departs, and warmth returns, as in spring, conjunction exists everywhere in nature, and from conjunction, use.

     Spiritually, fire is love, and this law in nature is but the representation of the law of the spiritual world, and from the spiritual world in the human mind, the law that love is conjunction; where this is, there is the warmth of eternal spring; where this is not, or where hatred is, there is the cold of eternal death.

     Love must act and then react in order to be love, in order to be conjunction. Without this it does not exist, or rather is not present, does not appear, withdraws itself. This is true of all love, it is true of the Divine Love itself. Where the Divine Love is not received, where it does not react, it ceases to act in that sphere, it withdraws itself, and there is no conjunction, no fruits, no uses; as with the fire of the sun in winter.

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     The Divine Love acts, and the Divine Love reacts; the Divine Love acting is the Divine Good, the Divine Love reacting is the Divine Truth; or the Divine Love acting appears as good, and the Divine Love reacting appears as truth. The Divine action is from the Lord, and is the Lord alone; the Divine Reaction is with angels and men, by the truth with them, - is the truth with them, appearing as their own - the Divine Reaction appearing as their own action, the Divine Truth appearing as their own truth. By the Divine Action, or good, the Lord is in the angels; by the Divine Reaction, or truth, the angels are in the Lord. By the Divine Action and the Divine Reaction there is conjunction, and a third is produced, and this third is use, and use is heaven.

     Thus it is that we come back to the truth that heaven is conjunction with the Lord, for this is the same as to say that heaven is use, since use is the product of conjunction; even as the Lord says in the fifth verse of this chapter: "He that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing." By this it is shown that only in conjunction with the Lord can men do uses; or what is the same, only in heaven, or in the state which makes heaven, are uses done. "For without Me ye can do nothing." Without conjunction with the Lord man acts from himself, and he cannot do uses from himself, except in the outward appearance. Hence it is necessary that all that which is of self, namely, evil, must be removed before the genuine uses of charity can be done. The Lord teaches this in the second verse of the chapter in these words: "Every branch that beareth fruit, He pruneth it, that it may bring forth more fruit."

     Love, wisdom, and use are the heavenly trine or trinity. Love acts, wisdom reacts, and the resultant is use. Love, wisdom, and use are the Divine Image in heaven, and this Divine Image is impressed upon man, and upon universal nature. In man the soul acts, the body reacts, and the product of their conjunction is the motion of the body, or the uses that are performed by the body. In nature the tire of the sun acts, the ultimates of nature react, and the results are the uses of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. Universally, the spirit world acts, the natural reacts, and the resultant is man and his activities in the world. These three are everywhere and in everything; first, there is action, then there is reaction; by action and reaction there is equilibrium and in equilibrium, activity, motion, use.

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The Divine Image, the Image of the Creator, - Love, Wisdom, and use, - is thus impressed upon all created things.

     As has been shown, the Lord acts and the angels react. The Divine action is the influx of good. This Divine Action, or the Divine Good inflowing, is not perceived, does not become conscious to man, until it reacts; but it is perceived in its reaction. The reaction of good is truth; that is to say, good goes forth, or proceeds, or descends to ultimates and there reacts and returns; this reaction or return of good is what is called truth. It reacts and continues to react; it returns to meet good which still acts and continues to act; in this action and reaction there is conjunction, which is the conjunction or marriage of good and truth. This is the heaven in which man is conjoined with the Lord. All conjunction, therefore, is by action and reaction, - the action of good and the reaction of good as truth, - and all use is the product of that conjunction.

     It follows from the things which have been said, that heaven is not heaven from anything of the angels, but all that which makes heaven is of the Lord alone. Action is Divine, reaction is also Divine, or what is the same, good is Divine, truth also is Divine, and their product or use is also Divine. But in the Divine Reaction or Divine Truth, man co-operates with, the Lord, or with the action of good; the reaction or the truth appears to be his, and the uses resulting appear to be done from himself. The Divine Action does not appear to angels or to men; but the Divine Reaction appears, and it even appears to be man's own, but woe unto him who is deceived by the appearance and ascribes to himself the action that is of the Lord alone.

     Why does the Lord grant unto man that the Divine Reaction should appear unto him, and that it should appear to be his own? It is that he may appear to live from himself, that he may enjoy the sense and consciousness of liberty, and be thereby made happy to eternity; for there is no happiness without liberty, and there is no liberty unless man appear to live from himself.

     All conjunction is of the Lord; the Lord conjoins man with Himself; but it appears as if man conjoined himself with the Lord; it appears as if man acts and the Lord reacts, and the natural man finally confirms himself in this appearance, - finally persuades himself that he acts, and that others merely react, and that even the reaction in them is his, and if it is not, he wills it to be so; he believes that he is conjoined only with himself, thus that he is a god.

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In the other world all such gods are devils.

     Man can never learn the real truth from the appearance, and he would never know it except from Revelation; it is only by Revelation that he is able to pierce the veil of appearances, especially the appearance that he lives from himself. It is most essential that he learn this truth, and learning, acknowledge it from the heart.

     The appearance is necessary in order that a reciprocal be established; for there is no union without a mutual reciprocity, which is expressed in the letter of the Word by the term covenant, and by various words in common use, such as league, treaty, contract. The essential of reciprocity or the covenant is freedom - no force, - no compulsion, - freedom even to reject; there is no freedom unless there be freedom to reject; unless man were free to reject what the Lord has to give, he would not have freedom. In this is exhibited the origin of evil.

     The covenant between the Lord and man is this; on the one part the Lord acts, flows in with good or love, giving at the same time the power to react; on the other, angels and men receive the Lord, or His love, in wisdom or truth from Him, and react by the truth; but in this reaction on the part of man is the freedom to react against the Divine Action rather than with it, and the product of it is disjunction with God and eternal death. Reaction against is hell, reaction with is heaven, in which is conjunction, eternal life.

     Heaven is not heaven nor the Church the Church, from the Divine Action alone, nor from the Divine Reaction alone; but from the two together, in what is called conjunction. The reaction of man and in man, of that which is from the Lord, is the conjunction with Him that makes heaven; but the reaction of man and in man from that which is his own, - his self love, - is disjunction and is what makes hell. This reaction is that which destroys the Church, and would destroy heaven ii it were possible. Reaction against heaven is reaction with hell. When the Church reacts with the Divine then the Church is established, and the Church is then heaven upon the earth; and there is effected what is called in the Heavenly Doctrine the Marriage of the Lord and the Church; from which marriage is the marriage of good and truth with angels and men; and finally, the marriage of conjugial love.

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But when the Church reacts against the Divine, the Church is destroyed, or destroys itself. Heaven is conjunction with the Lord, and heaven is according to conjunction with the Lord. The Lord indeed inflows, or the Divine Action is the same with every man, but conjunction is not the same, because reception is not the same, reaction is not the same. Conjunction is not according to action, but according to reaction; for action accommodates itself to reaction, otherwise there could be no reaction. Heaven is according to the degree and fulness of the reaction with man. No one therefore has the same heaven as another.

     In general there are three heavens, and innumerable societies in each, in order that there may be accommodation to every state of reception and reaction from first to last. The third heaven is the heaven nearest the Lord, and it is nearest the Lord because of the greater fulness of reception and reaction with the angels of that heaven. They are more closely conjoined with the Lord than others. The Lord is more in them because they are more in the Lord. The Lord is indeed in all the heavens, in every society, in every angel, according to reception, even to the circumferences or ultimates thereof; but the celestial angels are more in the Lord than others and hence receive a greater measure of His Love.

     The angels of the highest heaven receive the Divine in the fullest measure, because with them is the fullest measure of reaction. This brings into view the law of Divine Providence, that the more nearly man is conjoined with the Lord the more distinctly it appears to him that he is his own, but the more evidently be observes that he is the Lord's. (D. P. 42.) In other words, the closer and more intimate the conjunction with the Lord the greater is the sense of liberty, because the stronger is the appearance that man lives from himself. It is indeed a most wonderful thing, - this law of Spiritual life - that the more closely man is conjoined with the Lord, the more strongly does it appear that he lives from himself. It is because the more closely he is conjoined with God, the more he is in the image of God. God lives from Himself, - He alone; and because God lives from Himself, man lives as from himself; this is the Divine Image with him, the more complete the more fully it is received.

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This appearance, that man lives from himself, is stronger with the celestial angels than with others; but at the same time their perception is far greater than that of others, that they do not live from themselves but from God. The human itself with man consists in these two - the appearance that man lives from himself, and the acknowledgment that he lives from God; and the human exists according to these two.

     If a man, under the persuasion that he lives and acts from himself, should endeavor to remove evil, he does nothing except in the outward appearance, for evil cannot remove itself; evil may cover itself, or hide itself for a time from the outward view, but it cannot put itself away as a sin against God. If a man, under the persuasion that he lives from himself, endeavors to do uses, he does nothing except in the outward appearance, for evil cannot do good or use. Evil may clothe itself in the form of good or use, but there is inwardly no love of use, no love of God from whom all use is. "Without Me ye cart do nothing." In the belief or persuasion that he lives from himself he cannot be led out of evil into good, because he reacts against the good which inflows from God, and to do this is to do evil, - to do this is to die.

     All action or motion, whether in nature or in spirit, is from that which is prior or superior to that which is acted upon, and which reacts. So man in shunning evil must act from that which is prior, superior, above himself, that is, from heaven, and the Lord. Otherwise it would be as if a machine should endeavor to move itself, independent of the force which is prior to it, and which acts upon it and moves it. "A man can do nothing, except it be given him from heaven;" "Without Me ye can do nothing."

     It appears as if man can of himself remove evil, because he can see evil and condemn it. But this is to see and condemn evil in others, not in himself, except exteriorly. The most natural man can see evil in others, and condemn it with great severity, because he sees an injury to himself or his self love in it; and he can see and confess evil exteriorly in himself, when it is condemned by others; but this seeing is from others, not from himself. Interiorly in himself he does not see and acknowledge evil, does not confess it before God, and so it cannot be removed. The Lord is not present in his interior life; the Divine Love, while it still acts into him, is not received by him; and, what is more, he reacts against it with all his might and power.

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But when he acknowledges the Divine Action, and that all reaction which is of himself is from the action of hell, and thus that of himself he is nothing but evil, - then heaven is opened, the Lord enters, withdraws him from his evils, prepares him for conjunction with Himself, and for the uses of eternal life.

     We now come to the consideration of the truth that in the state of conjunction with the Lord man has all that he desires. "If ye abide in Me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you."

     The condition in which man has or receives all that he asks for, all that he wishes, all that he desires, is, that God be in him, and he in God. It is not sufficient that God be in him; for God is in every man, in the evil and in the good, in the angels of heaven, and in the devils of hell, in every man that has ever been born. But though God be in the evil, the evil are not in Him; only the good are in God; for man is not in God unless he lives according to Divine Order. Living according to Divine Order is what is meant by abiding or dwelling in His words. Man abides or dwells in the words of the Lord, or the Lord's words abide in him, when he receives the truths of His Word into his understanding, acknowledges them in his heart, and ever shapes his thought and conduct according to them. Thus abiding in the Lord, he is in eternal conjunction with Him; he is an angel of heaven; he has all that he wills or desires.

     The wish to have all that one desires is implanted in the heart of man, and this is one among the evidences that there is or will be a condition or state in which he will receive all that he desires; for to receive all that one desires is to be happy, it is to be free; and not only is it implanted in the human heart, but every man strives for it with all his might and soul, has it ever in view in all his thought and undertakings. The desire for power and riches has this in it. It is symbolized in fable and story; the heroes and heroines of mythology and fairyland often have imparted to them the ability to obtain what they wish by a miraculous exercise of power. This is another evidence that there is such a condition of human life wherein everything is granted as soon as it is asked; and revelation informs us that the idea of such a state, implanted in the human mind, for which every man longs and strives, and which is the burden of song and story in every age and land, - is not a mere vision or dream, not a mere thing of the imagination, a mere phantasy, but a reality - in heaven.

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The angels have all that they desire; they are therefore free and happy. This we learn from the text as explained in the Writings, and it is the result of conjunction with God. "If ye abide in Me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

     The same truth is taught elsewhere in the Gospels; as in the following passages: "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you." (Matt. VII, 7); "Whatsoever ye shall ask in thy name, that will I do. (John XIV, 13); "Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, He will give it you;" (John XVI, 23); "Jesus said, If ye have faith and doubt not, ye shall not only do this to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say to this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea, it shall be done. Yea, all things whatsoever ye shall ask, believing, ye shall receive." (Matt. XXI, 21, 22.)

     And in the Heavenly Doctrines we are taught that the angels "do not desire anything except from the Lord; and whatever they desire and ask from the Lord, that is done. Such power do the angels in heaven have, that if they only desire, they obtain. But still they do not desire anything but what is for use; and this they desire as of themselves, but still from the Lord." (A. R. 951.) And further that "it is impossible for the angels of heaven to desire, and consequently to ask anything but that which is given them from the Lord to ask; and if they should, they could not possibly have any faith that they should receive it." (A. E. 815.)

     The teaching then is, that what a man asks, not from himself but from the Lord, is granted. The Lord knoweth what we have need of, and we ourselves do not know; the Lord knoweth this before we ask, and is ready and willing to give all that we need. Still, the Lord wills that man should first ask, to the end that it may be "as of himself," and so be appropriated to him as his own. (A. R. 376.) The Lord inspires the asking, and what to ask; the very asking itself is from the Lord, and when this is from the Lord what is asked is granted. The Lord gives to the open and affirmative mind a perception of need, that is, a perception of use, and inspires a desire for it, and then he gives the thing itself. It is all from the Lord.

     Regeneration is nothing else than a regeneration of the desires of man, in which his state is by degrees completely changed.

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Before regeneration he is inspired by evil spirits what to desire, what to ask. Think of a man being inspired by hell what to ask of the Lord! Yet this is the general state of the worship of a consummated Church; it is the state of the natural man with every one before regeneration. This state must be wholly changed, so that a man may be transferred from his association with evil spirits and introduced into the company of the angels, in whose company he may be inspired by the Lord as to what he may ask of the Lord, may be inspired to ask that which is good for the neighbor and for the Lord's kingdom, rather than for that which will not bring good.

     The asking that is inspired by evil spirits is not granted, for it is like the asking of a thief who begs alms that he may receive the means of doing injury to the neighbor. All that they desire cannot be granted, for this, in the end, would be the destruction of human society and the human race itself. Hence the supreme necessity of the regeneration of the desires, so that man may come into what is called in the Doctrine, the faith of charity, or faith from the Lord. We read that "those who are in the faith of charity, or faith from the Lord, ask for nothing but what conduces to the Lord's kingdom, and their own salvation. Other things they do not desire; for they say in their hearts, why should we ask for anything that is not of such use?" (A. E. 815.) Also, "that they who ask from the faith of charity do not ask from themselves but from the Lord; for whatever any one asks from the Lord and not from himself, he receives." (A. E. 411.)

     This faith of charity is what is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew XVIII, 19, 20. "If two of you shall agree on earth as touching anything that ye shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them."

     These words taken together with the text, exhibit the state of a true Church, the state in which the Church must be in order that it may be spiritually blessed by the Lord. It is important to know and understand this, for without the blessing of the Lord upon our work as a Church all that we say and do are but as "sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal," or as the fabled apples, beautiful to sight, but which turn to ashes upon the lips.

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     The Lord in His Second Coming, the Lord as He manifests Himself in His glorified Human, as He reveals Himself in His open Word as the Word, - must be seen and acknowledged from the heart. This is to love the Lord, and is what is meant by abiding or dwelling in Him; for to love any one is to dwell with him in spirit, and he who loves the Lord as He reveals Himself in the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, dwells with Him. All those who are truly of the New Church thus dwell with the Lord, abide with Him as the angels of heaven do. Then it follows as a necessary consequence, that His words abide in us, that the truths of the revelation now given continually abide or dwell in the Church, incorporated in every particular of its thought and life, govern in all its councils, and in all its works. Then the Church will receive all that it desires, all that which will make it more and more a Church. The Lord will inspire what to ask and desire, and in the very asking will give what is asked. "Ye shall ask what ye will and it shall be done unto you."

     But it is further shown that in order that the Church may receive what it desires there must not only be a spiritual conjunction with the Lord, but there must be a spiritual consociation with the neighbor; that is, there must be both love to the Lord and love to the neighbor in the Church; the Lord must abide in the Church and the Church in the Lord, and the men of the Church must spiritually abide with one another. For unless a man abide with his neighbor, he will not continue to abide with his God: though he must first abide with his God before he can spiritually abide with his neighbor. When there is this two-fold abiding, then the Lord will bless the Church with spiritual prosperity, will grant the Church all that it asks, all that it desires. For "if two of you shall agree on earth as touching anything that they shall ask it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them."

     When the Church is in the state here described its desires will be all spiritual, because inspired by the Lord, and it will receive all that it desires. But it is ever to be remembered that evil spirits inspire into their willing instruments a desire for the same things in general that the good desire. The angels desire, and good men desire, the spiritual growth and prosperity of the Church; this desire is inspired by the Lord, and the very presence and appearing of that desire in the good is the beginning of its realization and fulfillment, is a sign that the Lord is already giving it, that He is giving it even before it is asked, and inspires the asking that He may give the fulfillment.

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     When the Church is merely natural, when natural men rule in it, when it is dominated by natural and worldly ideas, there is also a desire for spiritual growth and prosperity, insinuated by evil spirits - not for a real spiritual growth indeed, but for the outward form and appearance of it. Men are inspired by evil spirits to ask the Lord that He will bless the Church with all things that are the instrumentalities of spiritual life; but the secret purpose is to use these instrumentalities as a means to power, dominion, and wealth, rather than to the true upbuilding of the Church in the saving of human souls. It is essential and vital therefore that desire be from heaven and not from hell - of the Lord, and not of the devil.

     Now what of this Church, which we call the General Church of the New Jerusalem, which is now in its infancy? What have we to ask of the Lord? Will this Church become a true spiritual church of the Lord, a veritable heaven upon the earth, in which souls will be ever prepared for the heaven of angels, in which its members will grow in intelligence and wisdom, ever do the works of repentance, ever advance in the path of regeneration? Or will it remain natural, presenting a field for the selfish ambition of men, for the display of human self conceit, where suspicion, distrust, and jealousy will darken the spiritual sky, destroying the bond of love which joins man to God, and consociates him with the neighbor? Will the children of the members of this Church remain in the Church in adult life, becoming spiritual men and women, more intelligent and wiser than we, doing more for the Church than we are able to do, because of greater spiritual perception and knowledge? Or will they grow up and go out into the world, with no love of the Church in their heart, no knowledge of it in their understanding, scarcely a vestige of its surpassing beauty and glory left in their memory, all drowned in an absorbing love of the world, greater than that of their fathers?

     Shall conjugial love increase with the members of this Church, the love by which heaven is opened, and hell is closed, which contains in its bosom all the possibilities of heaven, the very foundation itself upon which heaven and the Church rest, which makes regeneration possible, which brings to man intelligence and wisdom?

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Or shall this love decrease and be destroyed with us and with our children, making of the Church a howling wilderness, where satyrs and priapi dwell, and birds of night seek their prey? Are those and other spiritual blessings to be vouchsafed to this Church, or are we to be visited by the blight and the curse; so that although the outward form may be prosperous, the inward form is dead?

     The Church is in jeopardy, it is in danger, it is balanced as it were between heaven and hell, and may turn to the one or the other. Will it turn upward or downward? Will it turn upward and become an ever increasing blessing to us and to our children even to the remotest posterity? Or will it turn downward and become a curse to all within the sphere of its activity?

     Let us ask the Lord to grant the blessing and avert the curse, to implant in our hearts a love of the Church; to give us power and inclination to repent of our sins and to keep His commandments; to cause us to grow in spiritual intelligence and wisdom; to grant that our children may grow up with a heart inclined to the Church, and in adult life that they may enter interiorly into the things of spiritual life, and prosper in them; that the Church may grow with all spiritual growth, and increase with all spiritual increase, until from being the smallest of all seeds it may become a great tree spreading out among the nations, filling the earth with the blessings of its fruitage. All these things the Lord will give us for the asking, if there be in us a heart-acknowledgment of Him, if there be in us the faith of charity, if there be in us a will of good, a sincere desire for the Lord's kingdom first, and for ourselves last: If these things be in us there will be no limitation upon the things that we may desire, ask for, and receive. Even as the Lord says in the prophet, "Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house, and prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out